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LSM 3261 Life Form and Function

Review and Revision i d ii

Lecture 7

Lecture 7 Topics
M d l guiding philosophy Modules idi hil h Module assessment Continual assessment Semestral examination Format Instructions Types of questions Short questions Structured questions Essay questions Examination technique St d i tips Studying ti

Modules Guiding Philosophy


Facilitating y g your learning g of content Training you to think Preparing you for the examination Making you realize: You are responsible for your ibl f own studies; your actions or i ti have inaction h consequences

Facilitating Your Learning of Content 1


E Encouraging you to learn f yourself i t l for lf
Reading assignments for each lecture Google doc questions Research material on dual brain psychology

Information you need as


Honours or graduate student Employee
Biology teacher AVA NParks PUB NEA etc officer AVA, NParks, PUB, NEA, etc. Etc.

Parent Etc Etc.

To learn from
Textbooks, especially main textbook Lecture notes Practical schedules Field trips p
Frequent reminders to read textbook and lecture notes

Mastery of information expected and evaluated with


CA assignments, semestral examination (online MCQs for self-evaluation)

Facilitating Your Learning of Content 2


Knowing your learning style enables you to be more efficient in learning (Tutorial Assignment 1) Class performance:
Generally higher y g scores on Visual learning abilities (Visual/verbal and visual/non-verbal) visual/non verbal) Lower on Auditory learning abilities Wide range of scores for Kinesthetic g learning abilities and to a lesser extent Auditory learning abilities

Class performance 2: Verbal and Nonverbal Visual g learning abilites weakly correlated to each other (Spearmans =+0.286) Few are Auditory y learners. Auditory scores are not correlated to other learning capabilities. Some are Kinesthetic learners. Kinesthetic y scores are weakly correlated to Visual/Non-verbal abilities (Spearmans =+0.236)

Training You to Think 1


Questions during lectures Concepts and approaches to learning (Digressions during lectures)
Concept of the continuum Artificial classification Comparison tables C i t bl Personal responsibility for your own motivation (CA Exercise 1) Reliability of information (fallibility of human knowledge) Using analogies i l i Alternative classifications (using different criteria) Having specimens to study (Lecture 4; laboratory and field trip practicals) Identification with limited data Types of information and their reliability Etc.

Google Doc questions CA Exercise essay question Questioning by lecturer and TAs during lectures and practicals Training you to listen carefully: this lecture

Training You to Think 2


Cognitive (thinking) skills ( l (Blooms Classification) in descending order of difficulty (complexity)
Creating (creating something new by putting parts of different ideas together to make a whole) Evaluating (judgment using criteria) Analyzing (breaking down information into its parts) Applying (using learned concepts to solve problems; using material in new situations) Understanding (Understanding but not being g( g g able to relate information to anything else) Remembering (Recall without understanding)

Skills to be tested or examined for in LSM 3261

Open book exam questions test for application and higher cognitive skills

Preparing You for the Exam


This lectures contents E Examination technique tutorial i IVLE i ti t h i t t i l in workbin (more about this later)

Your Responsibility
Only you are responsible for the consequences of your actions or inaction Only you determine your success in life Ensure that you do all the assignments and online supplementary MCQ exercises conscientiously See me for help

Module Assessment
Information in IVLE Website O Open book continual assessment (40%) b k ti l t
Tan (20%) Sivasothi (20%)

Open book semestral examination (60%) Open-book


MCQs (Tan 30%) Short/structured questions (Sivasothi 20%) Essay question (Sivasothi 10%) yq ( ) All questions compulsory Choice within essay questions (1 out of 2)

Semestral Examination
Format Instructions T Types of questions f i

Semestral Examination Format


Question and answer book (combined into one) o Unlike conventional exams with separate question paper and answer books that need to be tied up at the end of the paper o Convenient for you and invigilators NO PAST YEAR QUESTION PAPERS AVAILABLE IN RED-SPOT SECTION OF MEDICAL/SCIENCE LIBRARY o Examples in supplementary MCQs for lectures p pp y o Examples in this lecture

Semestral Examination Instructions 1


This examination question and answer book contains XX (digit) questions and comprises YY (digit) printed pages including this page. O l one side of the paper is printed. Only id f th i i t d Check by counting questions and printed pages in case of printing and binding errors! Printing only on one side of the sheet of paper Please answer ALL QUESTIONS. Q Note that there is no choice except within the essay questions Please write all your answers into this examination question and y q answer booklet, and Form CC1 (for the MCQs). Answers written anywhere else will not be marked. N conventional answer books will be issued to you No ti l b k ill b i dt Rough working or essay planning can done on the blank pages at the back of each printed page

Semestral Examination Instructions 2


If there is insufficient space to write your answer, please use the blank back pages but indicate the number of the question. p g q The mark or marks allotted to each question is/are indicated after the question. The marks for this examination question and answer booklet totals sixty (60). This is an OPEN BOOK examination. You can bring in anything except those items prohibited by the NUS Registrars Office You have limited space so bring only essentials (more later) Write only your matriculation no. here:___________________

Types of Question
MCQs (mine) Short/structured questions (Sivasothi) Essay question (Sivasothi)

Multiple-Choice Questions (MCQs)


Testing for:
Higher cognitive skills
Application Analysis

Smaller snippets of information

Syllabus: Expect more or less even coverage of all major topics (Lectures 1 to 6) Fill into Form CC1
Five alternatives: A, B, C, D, or E 1 i 5 chance of correct answer in h f No mark deduction for wrong answers

Short, Structured or Essay Questions


To be covered by Mr. N. Sivasothi Mr N

MCQ Examples
Only small selection of examples shown here y More examples (online supplementary MCQs) to be provided to you over the next weeks of this module
Good pedagogical practice: Material best retained if:
Learnt over the whole semester Regularly tested Feedback given or self-evaluation conducted regularly

Reminder: Only you are responsible for the consequences of your actions or inaction

MCQ Example 1
Roots typically contain storage parenchyma cells, because they usually grow underground, so are protected from predation most of the time. For stems of monocots, what is the status of storage parenchyma cells? A. Always absent B. B Always present C. Typically absent D. Typically present yp yp E. None of the above options A to D.

MCQ Example 2
A fruit-bearing pineapple plant consists of a single stem axis. At the base there is a rosette of spirally arranged leaves, then a spirall lea es mostly bare stalk that bears the inflorescence with some leaves, which in turn has at its tip, a small rosette of leaves. The apical meristem undergoes the following sequence of changes in the kinds of structures it produces by the time the plant reaches this state: A. A B. C. D. E. Reproductive, reproductive Reproductive reproductive, vegetative Vegetative, reproductive, reproductive Vegetative, reproductive, vegetative Vegetative, vegetative, reproductive Vegetative, vegetative, vegetative

MCQ Example 3
A tourist observed that a worker at a Singapore coffee shop restaurant was conscientiously peeling off the greenish skin i i l li ff h i h ki from the petioles of the leaves of the sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). batatas) He asked the worker why she was doing this and she this, answered that if she did not peel off the skin, the petioles would be too tough to eat when stir-fried. Name three tissues g that would be most likely to be found in the greenish skin that is peeled off? A. B. B C. D. E. Epidermis, chlorenchyma, parenchyma Epidermis, chlorenchyma Epidermis chlorenchyma, sclerenchyma Epidermis, collenchyma, chlorenchyma Epidermis, collenchyma, phloem p y p Epidermis, sclerenchyma, parenchyma

MCQ Example 4
Refer to the document LSM3261 Lecture 7 MCQ Photographs to answer this question. Specimen Y is the transverse section (TS) of part of the section of an angiosperm organ. What is this? A. B. C. D. E. E Eudicot leaf Eudicot root Eudicot stem Monocot root Monocot stem

MCQ Example 5
Refer to Specimen Z in the document LSM3261 Lecture 7 MCQ Photographs to answer this question. What is the Photographs question thickness of the organ pictured along the line X-Y if the scale bar represents 200 m? p A. B. B C. D. D E. 400 m 500 m 600 m 700 m 800 m a y Answer = (200 b a) m x

Examination Technique
Do the MCQ exercise uploaded into the Examination Guide Folder of the Workbin of the IVLE website Please follow the good advice provided therein B i a mechanical pencil, pencil eraser, Bring h i l il il ruler and calculator in case there are scale drawings t b made d i to be d DO NOT START WRITING until you are told to do so

Studying Tips
Forget what you know about good study habits. New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/07/health/views/07mind.html

Instead of studying in one location, alternating between two d f d i i l i l i b locations improves retention because of associations being studied and the background sensations Studying distinct but related skills or concepts in one sitting improves retention and understanding p g Learning in all four styles can improve retention and understanding C Cramming the brain with facts is only good for short-term i h b i ihf i l df h retention; regular study spaced out over time is much better, probably because the brain has to relearn some of what is has absorbed before when it forgets, i.e., forgetting is the friend of learning g Self-testing at regular intervals improves retention

Helping Yourself
Please see me if you need help but dont do this at the last minute

Some Questions Answered in this Module


1. What is the 1 Wh t i th real reward th t awaits martyrs i the l d that it t in th Islamic heaven? (revealed in Lecture 5)
German li i t Christoph L G linguist Ch i t h Luxenberg claims that the b l i th t th Koran has been mistranslated, based on the belief that it g y g g was originally in a language closer to Aramaic than Arabic Analysing the paradise passage in Aramaic, the 72 houris ( i i ) h i (virgins) promised to martyrs, translates into i dt t t l t i t white raisins or juicy fruits Further evidence: In Islamic tradition gardens replicate heaven Reference: Gollner, A.L., 2008. The Fruit Hunters. Scribner, New York. P. 13. http://books.google.com.sg/books?id=DcTjeqzaZP UC&printsec frontcover&dq %22fruit+hunters%2 UC&printsec=frontcover&dq=%22fruit+hunters%2 2&cd=1#v=onepage&q=heaven&f=false

Some Questions Answered in this Module


2. Why 2 Wh cant trees grow taller than they h ll h h have b been recorded? (about 130 m)
a. Pull of gravity and the friction between the water and the vessels through which it flows mean that water cannot be dragged any higher than 122130 m 122 130 b. Reference: Koch et al. 2003. The limits to tree height. Nature, 428: 851 854 851-854 c. Observations corroborate this:
Sequoia sempervirens (coastal redwood; Hyperion; USA): 115. 6 m q p ( ; yp ; ) Sequoia sempervirens (coastal redwood; Stratospheric Giant); USA): 113.1 m Eucalyptus regnans (blue gum; Australia): 143, 107 m Sequoiadendron giganteum ( lli S i d d i (wellingtonia; USA) 96 m i USA): Araucaria hunsteinii (klinki pine; New Guinea): 89 m oompassia (tua a g; Saba ): Koompassia excelsa (tualang; Sabah): 87 m Sindora wallichii (sepetir daun tebal; Changi tree; Singapore): 76.2 m

Some Questions Answered in this Module


3. Can 3 C you enlarge your brain by simple actions l b i b i l i that anyone can do? (revealed in Tutorial Assignment 2) A i
Yes, by meditation Lazar et al. (2005) indicated that increased cortical thickness in the brain is associated with practising insight or mindfulness meditation regularly. This can regularly apparently even counteract old-age thinning of the cortex of the brain. Reference: Lazar, S.W., C.E. Kerr, R.H. Wasserman, J.R. Gray, D.N. Greve, M.T. Treadway, M. McGarvey, B.T. Quinn, J.A. Dusek, H. Benson, S.L. Rauch, C.I. Moore and B. Fischl, 2005. Meditation experience is associated with increased cortical thickness. ith thickness NeuroReport 16(17): 18931897.

Some Questions Answered in this Module


4. Is leaf 4 I a l f more efficient than a photovoltaic cell at ffi i h h l i ll capturing solar energy?
No, unfortunately not. Energy losses in photosynthesis as sunlight falls on a leaf t l f at 25C = 95% so only 5% efficiency (R f 95%, l ffi i (Reference: Hall, D.O. & K.K. Rao, 1999. Photosynthesis, 6th Edition. P 4 Edition P. 4. Photovoltaic cells have efficiency of about 10.5 to 26.1% (Reference: Green et al., 2009. Solar cell ( , efficiency tables, version 33. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, 17: 8594.) or even about 40% (h // l (http://solarsystems.com.au/) /)

Some Questions Answered in this Module


5. What i h l 5 Wh is the largest seed in the world? (R di h ld? (Revealed l d in Lecture 5 and to be seen in Practical 3)
The seed of Lodoicea maldavica (double coconut) Each up to 50 cm long

Some Questions Answered in this Module


6. What i th l 6 Wh t is the largest fruit in the world? ( t f it i th ld? (revealed l d in Lecture 5)
Pumpkin The largest pumpkin for 2010 weighed 821.2 kg (1,810.5 (1 810 5 pounds). It was grown by Chris Stevens of New d) b Ch i St fN Richmond, Wisconsin, USA

Some Questions Answered in this Module


7. What is h 7 Wh i the secret to h happiness? ( i ? (revealed in Tutorial l di T i l assignment 2)
H Happiness = N t suffering (as defined here; other definitions i Not ff i ( d fi d h th d fi iti abound of course) Practice mindfulness meditation to be happy Mindfulness = Being completely in touch with and aware of the present moment, as well as taking a non-evaluative and nonjudgmental approach to your inner experience Practicing mindfulness skills
Awareness = Foc sing on one thing at a time (opposite of m ltitasking); Focusing multitasking); being aware of surroundings or thoughts and feelings Non-judgmental observation = No values placed on observations or experience (neither good nor bad) i ( ih d b d ) Being in the present moment = Not thinking of past (rumination) or future (worry) Open mindedness: Being open to new possibilities with no preconceptions

Some Questions Answered in this Module


7. What is h 7 Wh i the secret to h happiness? ( i ? (revealed in l di Tutorial assignment 2) (continued)
Mindfulness meditation = Meditation that develops mindfulness P ti i mindfulness meditation achieves these t Practicing i df l dit ti hi th two major outcomes:
Hlzel et al. (2011) reported that a form of mindfulness al meditation is associated with changes in gray matter concentration in brain regions involved in learning and memory processes, emotion regulation, self-referential processes regulation self referential processing, and perspective taking. (Reference: Hlzel, B.K., J. Carmody, M. Vangel, C. Congleton, S.M. Yerramsetti, T. Gard and S W L d S.W. Lazar, 2011. Mi df l 2011 Mindfulness practice leads to increases in ti l d t i i regional brain gray matter density. Psychiatry ResearchNeuroimaging, 191(1): 3643.) Mindfulness skills incorporate or are associated with many of the desirable qualities and practices for a balanced, happy life

Some Questions Answered in this Module


7. What is h 7 Wh i the secret to h happiness? ( i ? (revealed in l di Tutorial assignment 2) (continued)
As an exercise determine what qualities that are an outcome of mindfulness skills beyond these examples
Awareness e g being attentive (hence respectful) to others, not Awareness, e.g., others accident-prone; not making careless mistakes; not missing deadlines by accident Non-judgmental observation, e.g., not judging (hence not prone to over-admiration or blind condemnation), more prone to forgive, less prone to jump to wrong conclusions, less prone to stress p j p g p Being in the moment, e.g., not day-dreaming, not regretting, not worrying, doing things well; job satisfaction; less prone to stress Open mindedness e g not bigoted or prejudiced (non-racist, Open-mindedness, e.g., (non racist non-agist, non-sexist, non-xenophobic, etc.)

Clarification on the Gynoecium


The gynoecium of a flower can consist of: One carpel (monocarpous), consisting of: Stigma style, and ovary Stigma, style Stigma and ovary Ovary y 2 carpels Separate or free carpels = apocarpous gynoecium Each of the free carpels can consist of: Stigma, style, and ovary Stigma and ovary Ovary Fused carpels = syncarpous gynoecium (carpels joined p y p gy ( p j together; with histological continuity) Stigma, style, and ovary Stigma and ovary 1 stigmas, 1 styles, and 1 ovary