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What is Fire Triangle?
• In order to understand how fire or ignition hazard occurs, you first need to know a little bit about fire. • In order to have a fire, there must be three elements: Fuel -- something (gas, vapors or powdered form) which will burn Heat – ignition energy, thermal or electrical, enough to make the fuel burn Oxidizer – generally air or oxygen Usually these three elements are expressed as a triangle, called The Fire Triangle. All three elements must be present at the same time to have a fire. Fire will burn until one or more of the elements is removed and then will go out. From a chemical point of view, oxidation, fire, combustion and explosion are all exothermic reactions with different reaction speeds. For such reaction to take place it is essential that these three components, in due proportions, be present simultaneously. All the protection methodologies are trying to eliminate one or more of the triangle components to reduce the risk of ignition an explosion to an acceptable level.
A Hazardous Location is considered to be an area, which contains a fire or explosion hazard due to the presence of flammable gases, vapors, liquids, combustible dust, or ignitable fibers. Such areas are commonplace in industries which manufacturer, store, and distribute fuels, chemicals, gases, grain, and other volatile materials. To reduce the risk of explosion in these locations, government, industry, and professional organizations have
and if it occurs it will only exist for a short time.joined together to develop standards for classifying hazardous locations and techniques which may be applied to prevent them Classifying Hazardous Areas Classifications inside North America Classes Class I Class II Class III Flammable gases or vapors are present in the air in quantities sufficient to produce explosive or ignitable mixtures. Ignitable fibers or flying are present.) Divisions Division 1 Division 2 Groups Group A Group B Group C Group D Group E Group F Group G The substance referred to by class is present during normal conditions. The substance referred to by class is present only in abnormal conditions. Area in which an explosive gas-air mixture is likely to occur in normal operation. Combustible or conductive dusts are present. such as a container failure or system breakdown. Area in which an explosive gas-air mixture is not likely to occur. Acetylene Hydrogen (or gases of equivalent hazard) Ethylene (or gases of equivalent hazard) Gasoline (or gases of equivalent hazard) Metal Dust Coal Dust Grain Dust Classification Inside Europe Zones Zone 0 Zone 1 Zone 2 Groups Area in which an explosive gas-air mixture is continuously present or present for long periods. but not likely to be in suspension in sufficient quantities to produce ignitable mixtures. Combustible or conductive dusts are present. (Group classifications are not applied to this class. .
This group most closely matches the North American Group D. Group B Class I. Group C Class I.Group I Group IIA For application in below ground installations (mines) where methane (firedamp) and coal dust may be present. T4 have subdivisions as noted in the next slide. Group E Class II. Group A Class I. Group G Class III >20 >20 >60 >180 More easily ignited Ignition Energy ( µ Joules) Surface Temperature Classification An apparatus directly located in HAZARDOUS LOCATION must be also classified for maximum surface temperature that can be generated by the instrument either in normal functioning or fault condition. This group most closely matches the North American Groups A and B. Group D Class II. the reference temperature considered must be specified on the instrument. The minimum ignition temperature of an air-gas mixture is defined as the temperature at which the dangerous mixture ignites without electrical energy being supplied. European standard EN 50. For application in above ground installation where hazards due to propane may exist. The maximum surface temperature must be lower than the minimum ignition temperature of the gas present. T3. This group most closely matches the North American Group C. Group F Class II.014 requires that the maximum surface temperature be subdivided into 6 classes from T1 to T6 assuming a reference ambient temperature of 40 degC (104 degF). In the USA and Canada. For application in above ground installations where hazards due to hydrogen or acetylene may exist. . For application in above ground installations where hazards due to ethylene may exist. surface temperature classification is similar to the European one except Classes T2. In case this is different. Group IIB Group IIC Gas grouping in Europe and North America Hazard Categories Methane Acetylene Hydrogen Ethylene Propane Metal dust Coal dust Grain dust Fibers Europe Group I (mines) Group II C Group II C Group II B Group II A North America Unclassified Class I.
T5. calculated or measured in the worst condition.014 standard requires a safety margin or surface temperature of 5 deg C (9 deg F) for classes T3.SURF. For example.Each gas is associated with a temperature class based on it’s ignition temperature. Surface Temperature Classification EUROPE T1 T2 NORTH AMERICA T1 T2 T2A T2B T2C T2D T3 T3A T3B T3C T4 T4A T5 T6 MAX.SURF. hydrogen has a minimum ignition energy of 20 µ J and an ignition temperature of 560 deg C (1040 deg F) while acetaldehyde has an ignition energy of > 180 µ J and an ignition temperature of 140 deg C (284 deg F).TEMP. an electrical apparatus designed to work with a maximum ambient temperature of 70 deg C (158 deg F). and T6 while the margin is 10 deg C (18 deg F) for classes T1 and T2. T4. It is important to note that there is no correlation. Maximum surface temperature. For example. between ignition energy and ignition temperature. for a certain mixture. must not have a temperature rise greater than 10 deg C (18 deg F) to be classified as T6. is not to be confused with the maximum working temperature of the apparatus. TMP.(ºF) 842 572 536 500 446 419 392 356 329 320 275 248 212 185 T3 T4 T5 T6 Summary of Area Classification . All the protection methods against explosion or fire dangers require temperature classification in relation to any surface that can come in contact with a potentially explosive atmosphere. an apparatus classified as T5 can be used with all gases having an ignition temperature >100 deg C. For example. even in the worst condition of the expected temperature range. It is evident that an apparatus classified for a temperature class can be used in the presence of all the gases with an ignition temperature higher than the temperature class of the instrument. In fact. the EN 50.(ºC) 450 300 280 260 230 215 200 180 165 160 135 120 100 85 MAX.
S. output II = Group C = Gas group . C.S. B.S.Flammable Flammable materials present materials present continuously intermittently IEC – CENELEC EUROPE NORTH AMERICA Zone 0 (zone 20 – dusts) Zone 1 ( zone 21 – dusts) Flammable material present abnormally Zone 2 (zone 22 – dusts) Division 1 Division 2 Ex Markings US (NEC 500) Explosion proof with I. Groups A.S. D. C. Outputs. Division 1. Outputs = Method of protection (optional except for I. and T5 where: Explosion proof with I. Class I. D = Permitted gas groups T5 = Temperature class (T5 & T6 optional) CENELEC EEx d [ia] IIC T5 Where: EEx = European standard d = Method of protection [ia] = I.) Class I = Permitted class Division 1 = Permitted division (optional except for Division 2) Groups A.
AEx d [ia] IIC T5 Where: Class I = Permitted class Zone 1 = Permitted zone A = American national standard Ex = Explosion protected d = Method of protection [ia] = I.S.S. output II = Group C = Gas group T5 = Temperature class . Zone 1. output II = Group C = Gas group T5 = Temperature class US (NEC 505) Class I.T5 = Temperature class International Electromechanical Commission Ex d [ia] IIC T5 Where: Ex = Explosion protected d = Method of protection [ia] = I.
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