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Kelly Laxgang

Reflection: Day 1 Overall, todays lesson went very well. Todays part of the lesson included introducing the text and the strategy, so the students were only required to listen to me explain the strategy and then model the strategy. Then, students had an opportunity to practice the strategy with each other and me. I pulled my 2 students out of their Flex class, which is usually unstructured, so I was anticipating some silliness from the students that I picked. However, both students surprised me by being very attentive and engaged with the lesson. They participated fully and did not cause any behavioral problems, despite what I had expected. The lesson itself went well because the pacing that I planned for was very accurate and I had time to teach what I needed to teach within the time constraints that I had. As I delivered the lesson, the students were actively engaged and willing to participate, which contributed to the pace and success of the lesson. During the lesson, I noticed that Student A was much more willing to participate than Student B. Student A participated by volunteering to read, at which time I noticed that he paces himself well, but often does not recognize how to pronounce internal vowels. He also skipped words frequently, which disallowed him to read fluently. With regards to this strategy, I noticed that Student A was a very fast and anxious thinker. When asking about the important information in a text, he would often answer quickly and with scattered thoughts. He always pulled out the most important information, but often added extra details, that were not necessarily capturing the main point. Student B participated much less than Student A because he did not volunteer to answer read passages. However, Student B was willing to participate in answering questions about the main point of the chapter and about background knowledge. I did not have the opportunity to make observations about his individual reading ability, but I did notice that he was very observant when pulling out important information. When Student A was reading, Student B was

Kelly Laxgang

following along in his book and listening intently. It was clear that he was listening because when asked to pull out the important information, he was able to find the main argument of the text and make an argument for why it was the main point. As I was teaching, I noticed that I try to pace myself appropriately, but I often speed through the lesson to be sure that I make it through the entire lesson. I notice this in other lessons I teach as well. I also noticed that I give lots of praise to my students, but it is usually to thank students for volunteering and is not necessarily specific feedback. I also noticed that the range of scaffolding that I did in this lesson was very narrow. I found that I had a good idea of where these students were academically, which impacted my questioning and the way I phrased questions. If I were to change one thing about teaching this lesson, I would be sure to utilize more of the Blooms Taxonomy questioning words so that I scaffolded my questioning better. I would also focus on asking a variety of questions. This is something that I will do differently in tomorrows lesson.

Kelly Laxgang

Reflection: Day 2 Overall, part 2 of the lesson went well. Again, I was very surprised that the students were engaged in a more structured lesson, when usually their Flex class is unstructured. Both students were actively engaged in listening and reading, as well as discussing the important information. Their good behavior contributed to the overall effectiveness of Day 2. However, Day 1 went slightly better than Day 2 with regards to pacing because Day 2 had a limited amount of time. I think the lesson was planned well in the sense that the standards, objectives, and assessment were aligned. The standard that I chose was relevant to what the students should be able to do in seventh grade: pulling important information out of the text. Then, I designed the objectives to state how the students were to demonstrate their understanding of the standard. After choosing the standard and objectives, I designed the assessment (summary sentences) to be the product of the objectives in order to prove that students understand the standard and meet the objective. Both of the students were able to successfully comprehend the text and then pull out important information, although these students were successful to different degrees. Based on this activity, I learned that Student A is very detail-oriented and focuses on several different aspects of his reading, which tends to impede his ability to form a concise thought. For example, when asked what the most important details about the Middle Passage paragraph was, he would include many details including that the Middle Passage took Africans to America for slavery, millions of Africans were affected, millions of Africans died, and that the conditions of the Middle Passage were horrendous. I also noticed that his reading ability is not as fluent as expected, which did not seem to prohibit him from pulling out the ideas from the text, but seemed to frustrate him because he was unsure of which vowel sound (short or long) to use. If I were to work with Student A again, I would focus on this strategy again because he would benefit by mastering this strategy. To reteach the strategy, I would begin by re-explaining

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the strategy and then include slow, guided practice during reading and analyzing the information. I would use a graphic organizer that would show a continuum of the most important main ideas to the least important details, so that the student could visualize how the details fit together. With this student, I differentiated instruction by helping him to understand words in the text as well as to allow him to talk out his summary sentence. His IEP is related to writing and reading, so I accommodated his need for more speaking roles within this activity. Student B summarized the text very well, which surprised me because I am unsure of the extent to which he engages in instruction. In this case, he was engaged with the text and listened well enough to make sense of the meaning and then write about it. When asked what the main idea of the Middle Passage was, he answered that the main idea of the paragraph that the Middle Passage took Africans to American for trade into slavery, which was very similar to what I would have said. During the reading, I was surprised that he was able to pull out the meaning of the text so well because I was unsure of his reading level (he is a new student in the school) and ability to focus. For Student B, I would practice this strategy once or twice more, so that I would know that the ability to use this strategy was solidified. I have concerns that he does not remember content-based material (this is an observation that I have made in other content areas, as well), which is why I think this student would benefit from practicing the strategy more than once and utilizing it while reading. This student did not have any accommodation with regards to an IEP, so I did not make special accommodations for him. However, I did change the pace of the lesson by allowing him to read to himself while the other student was still working on the first sentence.

Kelly Laxgang

Reflection Paper As I was creating this lesson plan, I realized how much work it really is to put together a meaningful lesson that meets content standards, engages students, and accommodates for all students involved. When creating this lesson plan, thinking about what topic to teach and how to logistically organize the lesson accounted for the majority of the time that I spent on the lesson. I really feel like lessons should be thoughtfully planned and that it is the students right to have a teacher who carefully plans for their needs, which is why I spent so much time thinking prior to writing my ideas down. Specifically related to teaching small groups, I think that planning is easier because there are fewer needs to accommodate for. When planning for less people, its easier to individualize the lesson and pick out the most important information that is relevant to the students that are being taught. When I teach small groups in the future, I will remember that it is important to know who you are teaching prior to creating the lesson. As I was writing this lesson, I did not prepare it for specific students (although I did have an idea of who I would teach). If I had known exactly who I was teaching the lesson to, I may have had more specific ideas for how to approach the lesson and accommodate for the students. During this lesson, I found two different aspects of the lesson really challenging: organizing the lesson logically, and pacing myself during the teaching of the lesson. I found organizing the lesson really challenging because I had not practiced creating a lesson that was so in-depth. I thought that this template was very thorough and required a lot of organization and was not the lesson plan format that I am used to. Including the before, during, and after part of the lesson while being sure to include the teaching/modeling/practicing format was challenging to organize over multiple days, but once I figured out how to organize all parts, writing the lesson was really easy and made much more sense. I anticipate that future writings of this type of

Kelly Laxgang

lesson will be easier because I have more experience with writing this lesson. The second challenge I faced during the lesson was the pacing, particularly during the second day. Pacing is something that challenges me in all lessons because I do not yet have a good grasp of how long it takes students to complete certain tasks. During the second day, it took my students longer than anticipated to recall what they learned the previous day and then write their own sentences. Because time was limited on day 2, I think that the end of the lesson (the part where students had the opportunity to write summary sentences on their own) suffered because students jotted down their sentences but we did not have much time to discuss the sentences. I hope to work on pacing within all of my future lessons so that I have a better grasps on time management within lessons. I felt that explaining the strategy to the students came easy to me. I thought that I did a good (though not perfect) job at describing the process of the strategy and then modeling the strategy for the students. I believe that I did well on teaching this part of the lesson because the students seemed to understand what they were expected to do and they did not have many questions regarding the process of writing summary sentences. Even without questions, they were able to write their own summary sentences without issue or confusion. In addition, I think that this part of the lesson came easy because I spent so much time thinking, writing, rethinking, and rehearsing the lesson. My preparation and thoughtfulness contributed to the effectiveness of this lesson and my ability to explain the material thoroughly. This skill has been developed a lot through this past semester. I havent always possessed the skill of explaining clearly, and by no means am I an expert. I think I have made great strides in managing the explanation parts of my lesson, but I also wish to improve on this aspect of my teaching. Despite feeling accomplished in this lesson and others that I have taught this semester, I recognize that I am still in the learning process and no aspect of teaching is necessarily intrinsic yet.

Kelly Laxgang

One of the greatest lessons about literacy that I learned while doing this project is that I cannot expect my students to understand certain aspects of literacy (or any subject) even if they are at an age where the majority of students have already mastered that skill. For example, Student A did was not able to predict the vowel sounds that belonged in words beginning with a consonant and would often choose the wrong vowel sound. This is something that I would expect a seventh grader to know how to do. Although I know that my students are all going to be at different levels, I am still uncertain of what to expect out of different grade levels, which accounts for much of my surprise with that students can and cannot do. This lesson also taught me to be confident. As a student teacher, Ive never felt like I was impacting students so much as I did during this lesson. Throughout the lessons that I have taught over the course of this semester, I never felt like I was impacting students on an individual level because I was co-teaching or teaching in a large group and didnt necessarily have the time to talk one-on-one with students. Based on this experience, I learned more about my power as a teacher and the ability I have to impact students learning and subsequently, their lives. Because Ive recognized this power, I am more conscious of how confident and thorough I need to be when making instructional decisions. I also found that it takes a long time to plan a meaningful and engaging lesson. This worries me because I recognize that my first few years of teaching will be occupied by much of this type of planning because I will not have already had many lessons planned out. Based on this experience I have created the following SMART goal:

Kelly Laxgang

Goal: By the end of student teaching (May 2012), I will have created a folder of at least 10 lesson plans which include written annotations about the lessons activity (pros/cons), time frame, and possible modifications.

Action Plan: Discuss with co-op and other teacher mentors about possible activities and the length of time that is required for each type of activity. Research articles that relate to the developmental stages of children to gain a better understanding of ability levels at different ages. Find examples of lessons (in books, online, etc.) that would benefit my students and make modifications as necessary. Collaborate with other teachers about their ideas for lessons and modifications. Ask for co-op and administrators to observe me teaching a lesson and ask for constructive criticism and suggestions about my lessons and instructional methods.

Kelly Laxgang

Appendix Lesson Plan:

Small Group Reading Lesson Plan Grade Level: ____7_______ Number of Students: _______2-3 students______ Students Linguistic Backgrounds: _______English-Speakers______ Instructional Location: ______7th Grade Hallway Table___________ Length of Instruction: __ Two 15-20 minute periods_________ Standard(s) Addressed Common Core: RH.6-8.2. Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions. WIDA:

Content Objectives -what Students will be able to decide which facts are most important in a paragraph. Students will be able to use summarizing sentences to describe the important information in a text. Title: America: History of Our Nation Author: James Davidson & Michael Stoff Publisher: Pearson Prentice Hall Date: 2007 Theme(s) Strategy Focus -Atlantic Slave Trade Finding Important (how/why slaves were Information brought to America) -Slavery in the Colonies Creating gist statement Summarizing

Language Objectives how to get there Students will orally discuss which parts of the text are most important with a partner. Students will orally defend their reasoning for choosing the main idea. Genre: American History Textbook Text Structure: Chapters based on time period and subject; headings, subheadings Level: 7th grade textbook Vocabulary Assessment What words will be focused on: Students will write summary Before: sentences about Slavery, Atlantic Ocean the reading. During: Maximum, Triangular Trade, Racism, slave codes, revolt After:

Kelly Laxgang Triangular Trade, slavery

Materials -Textbook -Summary prompts -Pen(cil) -Whiteboards/markers

Comprehensible Input -Explicitly teach vocabulary terms that they will encounter -Show map

Modifications/Differentiation -Adjust speed of reading -Use maps/pictures (primary sources) frequently

Cultural Relevance -Slavery relates to racism, which is an important issue for a diverse school like Edison.

Day 1: Before Reading: Introduce lesson/set purpose: Say, We are going to preview a lesson that will be given next week on slavery by reading a couple of paragraphs from our textbook. The purpose of this lesson is to learn how to pull out the important information in the text. The objectives are to be able to pull the most important information out of a text in order to write a summarizing sentence. This lesson will provide you with important skills that you can use for any lesson or reading, not just this lesson on slavery. Activate Prior Knowledge: Say, We have already learned a little bit about slavery. Weve learned that the first slaves came to America to work on large farm in1619. Slaves came from Western Africa and were mainly used in the Southern Colonies. We are going to be learning a little bit about how slaves got from West Africa to the colonies, so keep in mind that slavery is the result of what we are going to learn about today. Predict what the text will be about: Say, Look at the headings and subheadings on page 113 in the textbook. We are only going to focus on the first paragraph today, so focus on the first part of the text. If I wanted to know what a text was about, I might look at the headings and subheadings of a text. The labels in this text are Atlantic Slave Trade. Now, I know that the paragraph is about the Atlantic Slave Tradebut what does that mean? I might not know what the Atlantic Slave Trade is so I might break the heading down into words that I know. I know that Atlantic means the ocean to the East of the United States. I know what slavery means because we learned it in class already. And I know what trade means to exchange goods. So, then I predict that the Atlantic Slave Trade might be about trading slave after bringing them across America. Now Ive made my prediction about what I might read about, so now the next step is to think about words I might not know and then read. Vocabulary: Say, We already talked about what slavery is and when and where it began.Next, ask, Where is the Atlantic Ocean is located (on the West or East coast)? They should also be able to answer this question. If they cannot, refer them to page A-8 and A-9 (world map). Students should locate (as a group) where the Atlantic Ocean is. Ask, can you find Europe and Africa on the map? These locations will be important when we talk about Triangular Trade. Introduce Strategy: Say, We are going to work on pulling out important information so that we can write summary

Kelly Laxgang sentences. Summary sentences are a strategy that we can use to write information about a text and quickly refer back to if we need to remember what the text was about. Summary sentences are another note-taking strategy that is a bit different than the C-notes you are used to. These sentences should be thorough and in a language that you can understand so that if you look back at your notes, you can remember what you read about. This can help you take notes when you read from a textbook or any other book that you are taking notes on. Show them some examples of the strategy: Definition: A _______ is a kind of __________ that Compare and Contrast: ___x_____ and ___y___ are similar in that they both , but ___x___ ., while ___y____ . Sequence: ________ begins with ., continues with, and ends with Problem/Solution: __________ wanted, but, so Cause/Effect: ______ happened because

Say, We are going to model this strategy and I am going to do the first couple of examples with you, so dont worry about writing the sentences yet. You should be thinking about what the most important information is in the text that we read, even though you dont have to write the summary sentences by yourself yet. Questions: Ask, Do you have any questions? Is there anything you are confused about? I expect that they will have questions about what they should be doing. If these questions exist, repeat directions as needed. During Reading (Engaging in meaning making and strategy/skill practice) Reading: Say, Remember to be thinking about the most important information in the text as we read. Say, Turn to page 113 if youre not already there. Remember what we talked about with the headings and what I predicted the text would be about. The paragraph should address what the Atlantic Slave Trade is about because the heading tells us that the paragraph is going to be about the Atlantic Slave Trade. I will begin reading now. Please follow along in your text. Some scholars estimate that more than 10 million enslaved Africans were transported to the Americas between the 1500s and the 1800s. The Spanish and Portuguese brought the first Africans to the Americas. The British, Dutch, and French also entered the slave trade. In time, English colonists especially from New England were actively shipping enslaved Africans across the Atlantic. Slave traders set up posts along the West African coast. Africans who lived along the coast made raids into the interior, seeking captives to sell to the Europeans. Bound at the leg and neck captives were forced to march as far as 300 miles to the coast. Half of these captives died along the way. Modeling Strategy Say, I predicted that this text would be about the Atlantic Slave Trade. Was the paragraph about the Atlantic Slave Trade? Students should agree that the paragraph was about the slave trade. Say, Now, Im going to think about the information and what I predicted the text would be

Kelly Laxgang about. Was it about the Atlantic Slave Trade? Yes. So now I have to decide what the paragraph was telling me. We looked at the sentence stems so Im going to go back to the sentence stems and decide which is most appropriate. Im going to think about: was the reading telling me a definition for Atlantic Slave Trade? Was it giving me a sequence of events for the slave trade? Im going to think about all of the options and then decide. I think it was giving me a definition, so Im going to use the first sentence stem, which is (______ is a that). Our next job is to decide what the slave trade was, so Im going to think about that. The text was saying that the Atlantic Slave Trade was a means of transporting Africans to America in order to sell them for free labor. So Im going to write the summary sentence. We want to put in the term that we are defining Atlantic Slave Trade and then set up the summary sentence, so I would write: The Atlantic Slave Trade was a(n) Then I decide on a word (noun) that tells us what the slave trade was. For example, was it a ship? Was it a trading post? Was it a route from Africa to the Americas? Im going to decide what it actually was. I think it was a sea-route, so Im going to put that into my sentence: The Atlantic Slave Trade was an Atlantic Ocean sea-route that Now we have the first part of our summary sentence. Now we have to give more information about the slave trade. This is where we would include details about what happened during the Atlantic Slave Trade. We might write: The Atlantic Slave Trade was an Atlantic Ocean sea-route that brought enslaved Africans from Africa to the West Indies and the colonies between the 1500s and 1800s. Ask, Do you agree that this sentence tells us about the Atlantic Slave Trade? Do you think the summary sentence we wrote gives an accurate depiction of the paragraphs and the information? Allow for responses. Tell student, Im finished writing the sentence, so Im going to ask myself: if I were to look back on this in my notes in a week, would I remember what I read about or what the Atlantic Slave Trade was? I think I would, so I know I wrote a successful summary sentence. When you are finished writing your summary sentences on your own today and tomorrow, I want you to ask yourself this same question. After Reading (Clarifying key concepts, extending ideas, Review and Assessment) Extending: Ask, Do you have any questions about the paragraph or the summary sentence that we created? Answer any questions that the students have. If there is time for a second example, or if the students request another example, move on to the next paragraph, read it, and write another summary sentence. (There likely will not be enough time to do another example, but another will be given on day 2. If students are confused about why we chose the main idea, refer to the heading and why that is an important indicator of what the paragraph will be about. Ask, The heading tells us what the paragraph is going to be about, so our summary sentence should be related to the heading. Does our summary sentence have something to do with the heading? The student should answer yes. If they have any further questions, allow them time to discuss what they are confused about. Lastly, refer to the right margin, which has a small sentence that explains what they main idea of the paragraph is. Say, In the right margin, we see a little blurb that tells us what the main idea of

Kelly Laxgang the paragraph is. This is a good resource to use if you are confused about what information is important. Closing: Say, There is nothing that you need to complete before we meet tomorrow, but we are going to be working on this strategy tomorrow and you should think about any questions or confusions that you have about the text or this strategy, so that you can ask tomorrow. Day 1 Part 2 OR Day 2 Part 1 (depending on time): Before Reading: Activate Prior Knowledge: Ask, is someone willing to volunteer to describe what we did yesterday? What do you remember about the strategy we practiced? After student has time to respond, ask, Does anyone have anything to add about what we learned yesterday? Allow time for responses, if necessary. Ask, Do you have any questions about the strategy or text? Allow time to ask questions. Address any questions by asking other students to clarify the confusion if they can. Remind students of the types of summary sentences. Definition: A _______ is a kind of __________ that Compare and Contrast: ___x_____ and ___y___ are similar in that they both , but ___x___ ., while ___y____ . Sequence: ________ begins with ., continues with, and ends with Problem/Solution: __________ wanted, but, so Cause/Effect: ______ happened because Predict: Refer students to page 115. Ask, What is the blue subheading at the top of the page? (Triangular Trade). What do you think you are going to learn about? They should say that they are going to learn about the Triangle Trade. Ask, What do you think you might find out about the Triangular Trade? Students may respond with: -What is the Triangular trade? -Where did the Triangle Trade take place? -What was the purpose of Triangle Trade? -Who was involved with Triangle Trade? Good. Lets read and find out about the Triangular Trade. During Reading (Engaging in meaning making and strategy/skill practice) Reading: Is someone willing to volunteer to read under Triangular Trade? Thank you (student) for volunteering, please start reading. By about 1700 slave traders in the British colonies had developed a regular routine, known as the triangular trade. The triangular trade was a three-way trade between the colonies, the islands of the Caribbean, and Africa.

Kelly Laxgang On the first leg of the three-leg voyage, ships from New England carried fish, lumber, and other goods to the Caribbean islands, or West Indies. There Yankee traders bought sugar and molasses, a dark syrup made from sugar cane. The ships then sailed back to New England, where colonists used the molasses and sugar to make rum. One the second leg, ships carried rum, guns, and other goods from New England to West Africa There, merchants traded the goods for enslaved Africans. On the final leg, ships carried their human cargo to the West Indies for sale. With the profits from selling enslaved Africans, traders bought more molasses. Man New England merchants grew wealthy from the triangular trade. In doing so, they often disobeyed the Navigation Acts, which required them to buy only from English colonies. Because demand for molasses was so high, traders also made purchases from the West Indies. They then smuggled their cargoes into New England. Thank you for reading for us. Take a minute to think about the main idea of the paragraph. (Allow think time). What do you think the main idea of the text was? Allow students to respond with what they think is the main idea. Ask, why do you think that was the main idea? Or what strategy did you use to find the main idea? Allow students to respond. Students should say that they read the title or connected all of the material into 1 idea. Praise students for volunteering answers. Synthesize the responses of the students into 1 main idea about Triangular Trade. Ask, What type of summary sentence would you use for this passage? Allow for student responses. Ask, why do you think that would be a good summary sentence type? Allow for responses. Students should say that the sequence type of summary sentence would be appropriate for this paragraph. Say, We are going to use the sequence summary sentence. Take a minute to think about what steps were involved in Triangular Trade. (Allow think time). Now, lets write a summary sentence together. Can somebody start the sentence? Allow student to respond. Student should say something like: Triangular Trade begins with Okay, good. What did Triangular Trade begin with? Allow students to respond. Student should say: Triangular Trade begins with bringing manufactured goods from Britain to Africa Great. What comes next in the sequence of triangular trade? Allow for responses. If students dont remember, they should be looking back into their text: Triangular Trade begins with bringing manufactured goods from Britain to Africa to trade for slaves, then the slaves are brought from Africa to the Americas Great job at explaining the steps of the Triangular Trade. Lets fill in the last step of the trading route. Can someone volunteer to write the last step of the sequence?: Triangular Trade begins with bringing manufactured goods from Britain to Africa to trade for slaves, then the slaves are brought from Africa to the Americas to trade for raw materials which are then brought back to Britain.

Kelly Laxgang

Awesome. Does everyone agree that this is the sequence of the Triangle Trade? Students should agree. Ask, Does anyone have anything to add to our summary sentence? Allow for responses. Ask, Before we move on to writing our own sentences, do you have any questions about the text or this strategy? Allow for questions if there are any and respond to questions. Day 2 Part 2 Predict: Refer students to page 113. Ask, What is the blue subheading at the bottom of the page? (Middle Passage). What do you think you are going to learn about? They should say that they are going to learn about the Middle Passage. Ask, What do you think you might find out about the Middle Passage? Students should respond with: -What is the Middle Passage? -Where was the Middle Passage? -Why did the Middle Passage exist? Good. Lets read and find out about the Middle Passage. Read the paragraphs between the subheading Middle Passage and Triangular Trade. Allow students time to read. When students are finished reading, say, Now see if you can pull out the important information. If you need to write down notes, please do so. Once you are finished thinking about the important information, decide which type of summary sentence you will use and write it down. Release students to write a summary sentence. After Reading (Clarifying key concepts, extending ideas, Review and Assessment) Extending Ask, is anyone willing to share their summary sentence? All students should volunteer to talk about what they wrote. Students should be able to explain their sentence and why they chose the information and summary sentence that they did. Debrief the sentences by talking about similarities and differences between the students summary sentences. Ask, Did the sentences match what you thought you would learn about Triangular Trade? Will this sentence make sense to you if you looked back at it in the future? Say, this strategy will continue to help throughout all types of reading. These sentences should be thorough enough so that you could go back to the sentence in the future and remember what the main idea of the text was about. Does anyone have any questions about the strategy or the text? Answer all questions.

Kelly Laxgang My Notes on Procedure:

Kelly Laxgang My Notes on Day 1:

Kelly Laxgang My Notes from during the lesson:

Kelly Laxgang Summary Sentence Examples: