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Community Medicine : Last Moment Revision

Health Health is state of complete physical and mental well being not merely an absence of disease or infirmity. Determinants of health o o o o o o Heredity Environment Life-style Socioeconomic Health and family welfare Other factors like health related systems ( eg: food and agriculture, education, industry, social welfare, rural development )

Indicators of health Characteristics Valid Reliable Sensitive Specific Indicators may be classified as 1. Mortality indicators a) Crude death rate: The number of deaths per 1000 population per year in given community b) Expectation of life: Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years that will be lived by those born alive into a population if the current-age specific mortality persists. c) Infant mortality rate: Ratio of deaths under 1 year of age in a given year to the total number of live births in the same year. d) Child mortality rate: Number of deaths at ages 1-4 years in a given year per 1000 children in that age group at the mid point of the year concerned.

e) Under-5 proportionate mortality rate: Proportion of total deaths occurring in the under 5 age group. f) Maternal (puerperal) mortality rate: g) Disease specific mortality h) Proportional mortality rateMorbidity indicators They are i) Incidence and prevalence j) Notification rates k) Attendance rates at out patient departments, health centres, etc l) Admission readmission and discharge rates m) Duration of stay in hospital n) Spells of sickness of absence from work or school 2. Disability rates a) Event type indicators (i) Number of days of restricted activity (ii) Bed disability days (iii) Work loss days (or school loss days) with in a special period b) Person type indicators (i) Limitation of mobility (ii) Limitation of activity

Sullivans index: This index (expectation of life free of disability) is computed by subtracting from the life expectancy the probable duration of bed disability and inability to perform major activities.

3. Nutritional status indicators a) Anthropometric measurements of pre school children b) Heights (and some weights) of school children at school entry

c) Prevalence of low birth weight (less than 2.5 kg) 4. Health care delivery indicators a) Doctor population ratio b) Doctor-nurse ratio c) Population-bed ratio d) Population per health/subcentre e) Population per traditional birth attendant 5. Utilization rates 6. Indicators of social mental health 7. Environmental indicators 8. Socio-economic indicators 9. Health policy indicators 10. Indicators of quality of life 11. Other indicators VECTOR BORNE DISEASE CONTROL PROGRAMME 1. National Anti-Malaria Programme National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) was launched in India in April 1953. it was in operation for 5 years( 1953-58). National Malaria Eradication Progamme (NMEP) launched in 1958. New approach to malaria control was approved by WHO in 1978, ie. Implementation of malaria control in the context of the primary health care strategy. An Enhanced Malaria Control Project with world bank support launched on 30th September 1997. In 1999, the government of India decided to drop the term National Malaria Eradication Progamme and renamed it National anti-malaria programme

2. National Filaria Control Programme National Filaria Control Programme (NFCP) has been in operation since 1955.

3. Kala-Azar Control Programme Centrally sponsored programme was lunched in 4. Japanese Encephalitis Control 5. Dengue Fever Control

QUESTION In demographic cycle stage/stages in which population remains stationary a) first b) fourth c) both a & b d) none

FERTILITY The actual bearing of children Reproductive period of women 15-45 years-a period of 30 years Factors affecting fertility

1. Age at marriage 2. Duration of married life 3. Spacing of children 4. Education 5. Economic status 6. Caste and religion 7. Nutrition 8. Family planning

9. Other factors like place of women in the society, value of children in the society, widow remarriage, breast feeding, customs and believes, industrialization and urbanization, better health conditions, housing, opportunities fro women and local community involvement.

Fertility related statistics Number of live birth in the year X1000 1. Birth rate Estimated mid-year population 2. General fertility rate 3. General marital fertility rate 4. Age specific fertility rate 5. Age specific marital fertility rate 6. Total fertility rate 7. Total marital fertility rate 8. Net reproduction rate 9. Cild women ratio

10. Pregnancy rate 11. Abortion rate 12. Abortion ratio 13. Marriage rate


There is no internationally accepted definition for the term "occupational disease" However, occupational diseases are usually defined as diseases arising out of or in the course of employment. For convenience, they may be grouped as under: I. Diseases due to physical agents: (1) Heat Heat hyperpyrexia, heat exhaustion, heat syncope, heat cramps,burns and local effects such as prickly heat. (2) Cold Trench foot, frostbite, chilblains (3) Light Occupational cataract, miner's nystagmus (4) Pressure Caisson disease, air embolism, blast (explosion)

(5) Noise Occupational deafness (6) Radiation Cancer, leukaemia, aplastic anaemia, pancytopenia (7) Mechanical factors Injuries, accidents. (8) Electricity Burns II. Diseases due to chemical agents: (1)Gases: C02, CO, HCN, CS2, NH3, N2, H2S, HCI, SO2 - these cause gas poisoning. (2)Dusts (Pneumoconiosis) : (i) Inorganic Dusts : (a) Coal dust .. Ahthracosis (b) Silica .. Silicosis (c) Asbestos .. Asbestosis, cancer lung (d) Iron .. Siderosis (ii) Organic (vegetable) Dusts : (a) Cane fibre .. Bagassosis (b) Cotton dust .. Byssinosis (c) Tobacco .. Tobacossis (d) Hay or grain dust .. Farmers'lung

(3) Metals and their compounds: Toxic hazards from lead, mercury, cadmium, manganese, beryllium, arsenic, chromium etc. (4) Chemicals : Acids, alkalies, pesticides (5) Solvents : Carbon bisulphide, benzene, trichloroethylene, chloroform, etc. III. Diseases due to biological agents: Brucellosis, leptospirosis, anthrax, actinomycosis, hydatidosis, psittacosis, tetanus, encephalitis, fungal infections, etc. IV. Occupational cancers: Cancer of skin, lungs, bladder V..Occupational dermatosis:

Dermatitis, eczema VI..Diseases of psychological origin: Industrial neurosis, hypertension, peptic ulcer, etc.