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inspired to be
for those inspired by green, written by the experts in green
M o re s c o p e f o r i n n ova t i o n
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DEAR INSPIRED READERS,
As we approach the end of 2011, we reflect on one of the busiest and most rewarding years for us in the Green Building industry. We must thank the readers, contributors and sponsors of our initiative who have made it possible for us to bring out our magazine every quarter and inspire us to venture into new and more innovative ways of spreading awareness and knowledge on the latest Green Building projects, rating systems, technologies and materials & products. India is one of the leaders in the Green Building initiative and it has happened due to all our hard-work and passion for the environment and desire to improve our lives.
INSPIRED TO BE GREEN:
The Inspired to be Green magazine reached new heights with the publication of Volume 8, 9 and 10 over the last year and cap off the year with Volume 11. The magazine featured leading professionals in the industry, LEED & GRIHA projects and the latest and greatest technology in the field of Green. Articles included subjects relating to architecture, construction, landscape, MEP, commissioning and what to look forward to in the future of Green. The magazine was featured and distributed at IGBC Congress in New Delhi and Innovations in Green Buildings – “The GRIHA Approach” at Bangalore. Inspired to be Green also launched our new website, with easier access to information. All our magazines from Volume 1 to 10 are available for free download. Also the new “Green Building Directory” will assist our readers to find all materials, systems and services needed to build a green building. In every category you will find the green building product manufacturers and through the enquiry form you can easily get more details.
ZERO ENERGY INITIATIVE:
Inspired to Green was proud to launch the Zero Energy Space, which showcased the latest Green Building materials and technologies to be the first fully air conditioned portable space which was 100% run on solar energy with battery back up to make it truly Off Grid. The Zero Energy Space was on display at IGBC Congress Chennai 2010, ACETECH Mumbai & ACETECH New Delhi and finally at Build ARCH at Bangalore in February 2011. At Plugged 11.0 this year’s awards conference for the Austrian appliance industry, which specifically honors new products or services that are useful to consumers and at the same time represent a significant step forward ecologically and in terms of energy efficiency. From a wide field of proposals including energy efficient home appliances, network stand-by devices and smart metering applications, three finalists were selected by the readers of Futurezone, an Austrian technology title. The final three were Isabelle Hasleder for her Zero Energy Space concept house, a learning game from the Viennese company Ovos and the Reegle website. At the awards gala on 10th November, an expert jury named Hasleder the winner for Zero Energy Space. A truly international achievement! The Zero Energy Space was also a finalist & nominee in Emerson Cup “Special Applications” category at IGBC Congress 2011. We would like to sign off 2011 with our Volume 11 and wish you a happy holiday and New Year 2012. Please enjoy our new magazine and implement Green in all your offices, homes and make Green a way of life… We have one planet and all of us are responsible to keep her safe and sustainable for ourselves and future generations… Stay Inspired & Green Regards
Green Building Congress 2011 Evokes Overwhelming Response
Archumen & Bending Moment India’s Biggest Quizzes on architecture and civil engineering
Innovations in Green Buildings : The GRIHA Approach - Conference by TERI & MNRE
International Benchmarking Study Green Building Resources Guide
Active And Passive Ventilation Strategies for a High Performance Building Design
Built Environment and Community Health Is your neighborhood Walkers Paradise.
The Success of IGBC Green Homes
• • • • • •
All About LEED Credentials by Mr Bazeeth Ahamed
IAPMO – India, IPA and IGBC Sign Green Building (MoU) - Pg 12 The EMERSON Cup, India & Middle East - Pg16 E’BLOCKS A Green Building Material - Pg19 Green Product: High S.R.I Tile from AB Ceramics - Pg 28 Energy from Algae - Pg 35 An outlook of the various types of lighting - Pg 40
We are happy to receive your queries, comments and contribution 130, Old Mahabalipuram Road, Shollinganallur, Chennai - 600119. Ph : +91 98432 68083 email@example.com www.inspiredgreen.in
M E M B E R
Confederation of Indian Industry
Evokes Overwhelming Response
Indian Green Building Council (IGBC) of the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII), with the support of all the stakeholders, organised the 9th edition of Green Building Congress 2011 on 20-22 October 2011 at Pragati Maidan, New Delhi. Green Building Congress- flagship event on Green Buildings in India is held in different cities every year with an aim to educate, inform, network and unite all the stakeholders to spearhead the green building movement in India. Green Building Congress 2011 Focused on: • Architectural perspectives in green buildings • National & International experiences in green building concepts • Green Building Movement – Global & National trends • Case studies on green buildings – National & International • Green building rating systems • Green building materials, equipments & technologies • Public Policies International Conference (20-21 October 2011) Dr Farooq Abdullah, Hon’ble Minister of New & Renewable Energy, Government of India, was the Chief Guest at the inaugural session of Green Building Congress 2011. Seen from L-R: Dr Prem C Jain, Chairman, IGBC & Chairman, Green Building Congress 2011, Mr Mark M MacCracken, Chairman, U.S. Green Building Council & CEO, CALMAC Mfg, Dr Farooq Abdullah, Hon’ble Minister of New & Renewable Energy, Government of India, Mr Jamshyd N Godrej, Past President, CII & Chairman, CII – Godrej GBC, Mr Chandrajit Banerjee, Director General, CII and Ar Sharukh Mistry, Chairman, IGBC – Bangalore Chapter at the launch of LEED 2011 for India – Core & Shell Green Building Rating System. International Exhibition Dr Farooq Abdullah, Hon’ble Union Minister for the New and Renewable Energy also inaugurated the 3-day international exhibition, where over 120 stalls showcased latest and emerging green building products and technologies. The international exhibition attracted over 5,000 visitors. Launch of LEED 2011 for India – Core & Shell Dr Farooq Abdullah launched LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) 2011 for India – Core & Shell Green Building Rating System. The new rating comes into effect immediately, aiming to ensure enhanced energy efficiency and sustainable buildings.
Dr Farooq Abdullah, Hon’ble Minister of New & Renewable Energy, Government of India addressing the delegates at the inaugural session of Green Building Congress 2011 on 20 October 2011 at New Delhi. Inaugurating the International Conference on 20 October 2011, Dr Farooq Abdullah called on the delegates to work together and develop new technologies and materials at lower prices so that green homes become accessible for the common man.
Dr Farooq Abdullah, Hon’ble Minister of New & Renewable Energy, Government of India inaugurating the three-day International exhibition on Green Building Products and technologies on 20 October 2011
Awards Dr Farooq Abdullah presented awards to the winners of Green-I Contest and IGBC Green Design Architectural Award. Green I –Contest Green-I Contest for school students aims to create awareness and encourage students to think about conservation and sustainability measures that can be incorporated within their school / community for a better tomorrow. The contest topic for the year was “By the year 2030, you need to make your school one of the premier institutions in India that is not only green & sustainable through its campuses & activities but also a leading school in imparting environmental education to students.” Students of Sardar Patel Vidayalaya, New Delhi were awarded with the first prize and were presented INR. 7.5 lakhs to implement the idea in their school.
Dr Ajay Mathur, Director General, Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) addressing at the IGBC – Award Distribution Function 21 October 2011, Special Session The second day was marked by a special session with Mr Tejendra Khanna, Hon’ble Lt. Governor of Delhi.
Students of Sardar Patel Vidayalaya, New Delhi receiving the Green-I Contest Award from Dr Farooq Abdullah, Hon’ble Minister of New & Renewable Energy, Government of India. IGBC Green Design Architectural Competition IGBC Green Design Architectural competition was organised for architectural students across the country aiming at imbibing principles, information &knowledge that would pave way for a greener tomorrow. Students of SPA, New Delhi received the Award.
Mr Tejendra Khanna, Hon’ble Lt. Governor of Delhi addressing the delegates at the special session on 21 October 2011 at Green Building Congress 2011. Mr Tejendra Khanna called on IGBC and all stakeholders to also focus on ways and means of retrofitting the many existing buildings. Mr Tejendra Khanna added that there was tremendous work to be done in this area and any little bit would be an improvement. 22 October 2011, Conference on Green Homes and Green Cities The final day of Green Building Congress 2011 was designed exclusively for Conference on Green Homes and Green Cities. The Conference Focused on: • Architects perspectives • Case studies • Landscaping • Water saving ideas • Energy saving ideas • Affordable housing • Green Materials Dr Kath Williams, Past President, World Green Building Council & Principal & LEED Fellow Kath Williams + Associates addressing the delegates at the inaugural session of Conference on Green Homes & Green Cities.
Ms Minakshi Mohanta and Mr Amit Joseph Kurien, students of SPA, New Delhi receiving the first prize of IGBC Green Design competition Award from from Dr Farooq Abdullah, Hon’ble Minister of New & Renewable Energy, Government of India. Awards to Rated Green Buildings On 20 October 2011, Dr Ajay Mathur, Director General, Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) presented 75 projects with Green Building Rating.
Inspired to be GREEN I Volume 11 I
Mr Koh Lin Ji, Director–International Development, BCA, Singapore sharing Singapore Green Policies and Experiences at the inaugural session of Conference on Green Homes & Green Cities. IGBC inks Three Memorandum of Understandings Dr Farooq Abdullah presented awards to the winners of Green-I Contest and IGBC Green Design Architectural Award. Green I –Contest On 21 October 2011, IGBC inked MoU’s with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on cooperative efforts for promoting Green Campuses including Next Generation Low Energy Neighborhood Development.
Exchange of MoU between Prof Michail Kagioglou, University of Salford, UK and Dr Prem C Jain, IGBC on 22 October 2011. Green Building Mission As part of Green Building Mission, green building visits was organised on 19 October 2011 to Green Boulevard and Bayer Material Science. Participants were escorted on the building tour and were briefed on the eco friendly and sustainable features of the buildings.
Green Building Mission at Green Boulevard
Exchange of MoU between Dr Prem C Jain, IGBC and Dr Thomas Zacharia, Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the presence of Mr Tejendra Khanna, Hon’ble Lt. Governor of Delhi on 21 October 2011. IGBC inked the second MoU with Indian Plumbing Association (IPA) & International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials (IAPMO) to jointly work in the areas of codes, certifications and audits related to plumbing industry. Green Building Mission at Bayer Material Science Event Highlights • Over 1,600 national and international delegates. • Over 5,000 visitors to the exhibition on green building products and technologies. • International participation from United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Switzerland, China, Singapore, and Bangladesh. • Introduced Conference on Green Cities. • Exclusive conference on Green Homes. • MoU’s inked with ORNL, University of Salford, UK, Indian Plumbing Association (IPA) & International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials (IAPMO). • Over 120 stalls displayed their green products and technologies. • Awards presented to winners of Green-I Contest and IGBC Green Design Architectural Award. • 75 projects awarded with Green Building Rating. • Over 160 participants for the training programme and workshop.
Exchange of MoU between Mr C S Gupta, Indian Plumbing Association, Ms Megan Lehtonen, IAPMO Plumbing Codes and Standards India Pvt Ltd and Mr S Raghupathy, IGBC in the presence of Mr Tejendra Khanna, Hon’ble Lt. Governor of Delhi on 21 October 2011. On 22 October 2011, another MoU was inked with University of Salford, UK. Under this Partnership, both the institutions will seek to encourage direct contact and cooperation between their faculty and administrative staff, including those of relevant internet schools and the Universities’ Research Institutes.
Sustainability in Design & Construction India:
Foundations for Growth Green Buildings - Tool to enhance asset value and improve the bottom line
To support the government and the green building initiatives taken by various local and international bodies, niSpana brings to you its 3rd Annual Sustainability in Design & Construction India Summit on 19th & 20th January 2012. The 2012 edition will highlight new policies and trends in urban planning and sustainable design with a focus on the future of green construction in India. This summit will bring together India's leading construction and infrastructure companies, contractors, developers, architects, consultants, technology providers, urban planners, regulatory authorities and government agencies. The event will serve as a platform for exchanging ideas, learn about new technologies and showcase new projects in the field of sustainable design and construction.
3rd Annual SICI
19th & 20th January 2012 Chennai, India
OUR PRESTIGIOUS SPEAKER PANEL
Karan Grover - Karan Grover & Associates, India, Principal Dr B Bandyopadhyay - Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Government of India, Advisor Rajendra Jagdale - Science and Technology Park (promoted by DST, Govt. of India) Director General & CEO M Selvarasu - LEAD Consultancy & Engineering Services (India) Pvt Ltd, Director Mili Majumdar - TERI: The Energy and Resources Institute, Associate Director, Sustainable Building Science Tapan Majumdar - ITC, Central Projects Organization, Divisional Manager Dhruv Futnani - Green by Dhruv Futnani, Managing Director C.G Krishnana - LEAD Consultancy & Engineering Services, Director
The 2012 advisory council will aid in the quest for providing high quality education on the most significant topics to ever impact the Design & Construction industry Karan Grover - Principal, Karan Grover & Associates, India M Selvarasu - LEAD Consultancy & Engineering Services (India) Pvt Ltd, Director Dhruv Futnani - B- Green by Dhruv Futnani, Chennai, Managing Director
FIND YOUR REASONS TO ATTEND
Discover how to achieve best practice when developing highquality, cost-effective projects by increasing the building’s overall energy efficiency and ROI Hear from solution providers on integrating sustainable state-ofthe-art technologies and solutions to ensure stakeholder expectations are met Network with key figures & government representatives responsible for sustainable design and construction across the Indian region Understanding prime factors to get investors attention to
invest in new sustainability project
Rohan Parikh - Infosys Technologies Limited, Head Green Initiatives/ Infrastructure Sanjay Seth - Bureau of Energy Efficiency, Govt. of India, Energy Economist for Buildings Rajan Venkateswaran - L&T, Chief Architect, ECC Division Sharuk Mistry - Mistry Architects, Architect
Learn from real life case studies to overcome the challenges faced when starting sustainability projects
And much more…
Who Should Attend
• Architects • Green Building Facilitators • Builders/ Developers • HVAC Consultants • Corporate Representatives • Landscape Consultants • Contractors
• Lighting Consultants • Educational Institutions • Plumbing Consultants • Consultants and Consulting Engineers • Interior Designers • Energy Modellers • Project Management
• Electrical Consultants • Government Officials • Town planners • Ministry of Urban Development • Municipal Corporation • Green Building facilitators • Policy-makers in Urban Planning
Publication & Media Partners:
niSpana Innovative Platforms Pvt Ltd # 262 / 263, Cliff Rock, 18th E Main, HAL 2nd Stage, Indiranagar, Bangalore – 560 008. India,
| Phone: +91 80 42131651 |Email: firstname.lastname@example.org | www.nispana.com/sici2012
Archumen 1112 Champions - Arnav Garde and Ashwin Joshi with Bending Moment 1112 Champions Sanchit Chitre and Shashad Gujaran.
Archumen and Bending Moment
Bengaluru October 2011:
rchumen and Bending Moment, events organized by Ethos in association with ROCA, Akzo Nobel, TATA TISCON, Bell Ceramics Limited, Grundfos Pumps and InterfaceFlor – returned to Bengaluru once again after a gap of four years with The Grand Finale of Archumen and. Bending Moment 1112 that are touted as India’s Biggest Quizzes on architecture and civil engineering respectively. The event was held at the Apex Block Auditorium of MSRIT Bengaluru on the 31st of October 2011. It was held as a part of the Golden Jubilee Celebrations of MSRIT. The event was also supported by Young Architects Committee of The Indian Institute of Architects. The participation in the event crossed all expectations of even Ethos, the organization that conceptualizes and executes the event. There were close to 140 two-member teams for Archumen while Bending Moment saw around 250 teams participating! The 800 seater auditorium was tightly packed for the preliminary round. Keen and
spontaneous enthusiasm of the students to participate in this fun-filled event seems to increase with every year. The level of quizzing and the curiosity for information on our built environment also seems to be on the rise owing to these quizzing events that have grown to be extremely popular with the quizzing community. The Grand Finale was preceded by The Western Interface in Pune, The Eastern Interface in Kolkata, The Northern Interface in New Delhi and The Southern Interface in Bengaluru. The Southern Interface was held immediately before The Grand Finale on the same day and saw teams from Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu – from Mysore, Tumkur, Bijapur, Raichur, Gulbarga, Chennai, Coimbatore, Madurai, Trichy, Calicut, Kuttipuram, Mallapuram, Hyderabad, Vijayawada, Guntur to name a few. The Southern Interface was followed by The Grand Finale which saw everyone sitting on the edge since the battle was between the best eight teams in India for each of the quizzes picked out of around 800 teams!
Quiz in progress
The Grand Finale
The National Finalists - Dayanand Sagar School of Architecture Bengaluru, PDA Gulbarga from the South; SPA Delhi, Sushant School of Architecture Gurgaon from the North; IIT Kharagpur, Jadavpur University from the East and PVPCOA Pune, PICA Panvel from the West. National Champions – Arnav Garde and Ashwin Joshi from PVPCOA Pune. First runners-up - Shashank P.S. and Ashiq Patra of Dayanand Sagar School of Architecture Bengaluru. Second runners-up – Nistha Mehra and Avisek Das from Jadavpur University. Bending Moment 1112 The National Finalists – MIT Manipal, SLN College Raichur from the South; BIET Jhansi and IIT Delhi from the North; MSIT Kolkata, Jadavpur University from the East and GEC Aurangabad, AISSMS Pune from the West. National Champions – Shashad Gujaran and Sanchit Chitre from MIT Manipal. First runners-up – Manoj Shingote and Iqbal Qazi of GEC Aurangabad. Second runners-up – Anurag and Md.Jasimuddin from Jadavpur University.
The National Champions received a cheque of Rs.25000, the runners-up Rs.15000 and the second runners-up Rs.10000 along with trophies and certificates. The winners of the Regional Interfaces received Rs.5000/-, the runners-up Rs.3000/- and the second runners-up Rs.2000/-. The quiz master Giri “Pickbrain” Balasubramaniam well-known in the quizzing fraternity amongst the students was the quiz host. The event was supported by ROCA, Akzo Nobel, TATA TISCON, Bell Ceramics Limited, Grundfos Pumps and InterfaceFlor.
Arnav Garde and Ashwin Joshi with The Archumen 1112 Championship Trophy
Sanchit and Shashad from MIT Manipal receiving The Bending Moment 1112 Championship Trophy from Ar.Sathya Prakash Varanasi & Dr.Rajanandam
Arnav Garde and Ashwin Joshi receiving The Archumen 1112 Championship Trophy from Ar.Kiran Venkatesh and Prof.Harimurthy
Sanchit and Shashad from MIT Manipal receiving The Bending Moment 1112 Championship Trophy from Ar.Sathya Prakash Varanasi & Dr.Rajanandam
Ethos, founded by Gita Balakrishnan – a Kolkata-based architect, is an organisation that has been building awareness on our built environment among the students of architecture and civil engineering from colleges all over India. More details: www.ethosindia.in or email email@example.com Contact: Gita @ 09831175272
InnovatIons In GREEn BuIldInGs “thE GRIha appRoach”
by Asahi Glass, IBM, United Technologies Corporation, Armstrong Design, Berger Paints, L&T ECC, MNRE, Bangalore Electricity Supply Company (BESCOM), Karnataka Renewable Energy Development Ltd. (KREDL), Housing and Urban Development Corporation ltd (HUDCO). The event was held at Hotel Royal Orchid and hosted over 250 delegates across the industry including architects, developers, consultants, and academicians. It was a unique opportunity for these professionals to come together and engage in lively discussions on topics related to green buildings. GRIHA National Conference is held every year in New Delhi and is attended by the professionals from different disciplines like architecture, engineering, construction companies, financing institutes etc. This year for the first time a Regional Conference was organized in the city of Bangalore. TERI’s Southern Regional Centre in Bangalore took this vital step to spread awareness and create a movement on green buildings. The event focused on recent issues related to the GRIHA rating system. The Objectives Of The Conference Were To: • Create a common platform for the major stake holders of the industry. • Demonstrate the advantages of an integrated design process and its impacts on building construction and operation. • Illustrate the financial impacts and business strategies by adopting energy efficiency in building design. • Develop the awareness on impact of government initiatives on achieving resource efficiency across various sectors. • Showcase advantages of using low-energy materials and low-cost construction strategies for construction of green buildings. The event included talks by eminent personalities such as Dr. R K Pachauri, Director General-TERI & Chairman IPCC; Shri S.V Ranganath, Chief Secretary-Government of Karnataka; Dr A Ramachandran, Chairman-TERI, Dr. Michelle D Addington, Professor, Yale School of Architecture; Smt. Shamim Banu, Additional Chief Secretary, Department of Energy-GoK; Ar Krishna Rao Jaisim, Principal Architect, Jaisim Fountainhead and Chaiman, Indian Institute of Architects, Bangalore, Ms. Mili Majumdar, Director, Sustainable Habitat division, TERI, Mr. Pronab Dasgupta, Distinguished Fellow and Director, TERI and Ms. Minni Sastry, Area Convener, Center for Research on Sustainable Building Science , TERI.
GRIHA which has been developed bySystem EnergyGreen is India’s National Rating for buildings, The and
Resources Institute (TERI) and endorsed by the Ministry of New & Renewable Energy (MNRE). It was developed as an indigenous building rating system particularly designed to address the climatic requirements in the country, and it promotes the use of traditional architectural techniques and is synchronized with government policies and programmes. It provides an evaluation method to design, build, operate and maintain a resource efficient built environment. It can be applied to commercial, institutional, and residential buildings. It attempts to minimize a building’s resource consumption, waste generation, and overall ecological/environmental impact by comparing them to certain nationally acceptable limits and benchmarks. The unique characteristic of this rating system is a single window process from design to rating because of its compliance with all major environmental and building codes of India. In 2009, it was mandated that all central government and public sector unit buildings be built with a minimum of GRIHA 3- star rating. As of today, over 140 projects have undertaken GRIHA registration. To take forward the green building rating system in South India, the regional conference and exhibition on “Innovations in Green Buildings – The GRIHA Approach” was organized by ADaRSH (Association for Development and Research of Sustainable Habitats) & TERI, in Bangalore, and supported
Inagural Session of the conference Inagural Session of the conference
Dr. Michelle Addington inaugurating the exhibition Participants of the conference
Dr. R K Pachauri visiting one of the stalls
Views of the Green exhibition during the conference
Committing TERI's expertise towards the development of the state of Karnataka Dr. R K Pachauri, Director General-TERI & President ADaRSH in his address said, at present India is undergoing a massive development in all spheres due to rapid urbanization and lifestyle changes. With the high rates of economic growth that India is registering and is likely to achieve in the future, a major expansion in infrastructure is bound to take place in the coming years. To ensure efficient use of resources, including energy, lower levels of environmental impacts and meeting the challenge of climate change, it is essential that we carry out greening of India’ s infrastructure. To bring about a major change, ratings based on solid scientific principles, architectural techniques and methods that stand the test of times are essential. GRIHA rating is tailor-made to all conditions, which makes it suitable and practical to be used in India. I am happy that the government of Karnataka has always reiterated its commitment to achieve sustainable development in the state. Shri S V Ranganath, Chief Secretary, Government of Karnataka addressing the crowd and lauding TERI for its work in the realm of sustainable development said, “Cities are facing the challenges of urbanization. Energy and water are crucial issues to be tackled and TERI can play a major role in addressing these challenges in cities and help chart a sustainable way forward. He also mentioned that Karnataka shall take a lead in promoting GRIHA in the state which headed a hope for GRIHA being implemented in the state. Dr. A Ramachandran, chairman of TERI mentioned that in the 12th five year plan, environmental provisions should be included in JNNRUM urban development plans. Updates on GRIHA rating system were conveyed by Ms. Priyanka Kochhar, Programme Manager- Strategic Partnerships & Implementation, ADaRSH. Various mechanisms for implementation and the major steps towards the development of the rating system were also highlighted. SVAGRIHA, an affordable rating system has been designed as an extension for GRIHA, specifically for projects with built- up area less than 2,500 Sq.m. Guidelines and benchmarks for Green Large developments is another new development in this regard. The conference was structured to include three technical sessions where experts discussed various issues prevalent in the green buildings industry today. The first session was on the theme of “Innovation in Design with Integrated Approach”. Dr. Michelle Addington chaired the session, and discussed the importance of integrated approach in designing for human comfort in buildings. A few case studies were shown by Dr. Hariharan on Total Zero Emissions Development (TZED)/ Low carbon buildings and by Mr. Guruprakash Sastry on the major steps taken by
Infosys towards energy efficient buildings. Bangalore based architects Mr. V Vishwanath and Dr. Sujit Kumar, were the two other speakers in the session who presented their works for GRIHA compliance projects. After lunch, there was a panel discussion on policies and initiatives taken by local governments to achieve sustainable and resource efficient building environment. The discussion also highlighted India’s journey on the path towards sustainable development through various case studies. The session was chaired by Smt. Shamim Banu. A special mention was given to the Pimpri Chinchwad Municipal Corporation which has already set an example by announcing mandatory compliance of their future government projects with GRIHA. Mr. Jayapaul, Senior Country Director, Building & Construction Authority, Singapore discussed about the various policies and initiatives taken by the Singapore government towards sustainable development. Ms. Mili Majumdar, Director of Sustainable Habitat Division at TERI illustrated the current scenario of sustainable buildings in India. Various approaches and enactment programmes for green buildings were highlighted in her presentation. The presentation given by Mr. PV Sreenath, Vice president of Smart planet solutions of IBM showed how the corporate sector is keen in providing solutions for intelligent buildings. Mr.N S Prasanna Kumar, MD, Karnataka Renewable Energy Development ltd mentioned the various implementation programmes and incentives given by Government of Karnataka in the renewable energy sector. The conference also delved into innovative technologies and building material strategies being adopted in green buildings in the third session. This session was moderated by the eminent architect Jaisim. Dr. Alokita Agarwal who is the head for green design solutions for Asahi India Glass ltd. explained about various glazing products that could provide green solutions in buildings. Mr. Sudharshan, from Wipro Eco green solutions illustrated on various approaches for making buildings energy efficient. Mr. Pradeep Kumar, Associate Director, Building Energy systems at TERI and Mr. Rajmohan from Armstrong spoke about design challenges and approaches for achieving optimised solutions in green projects. The technical sessions were concluded with an extremely engaging presentation by Ar. Jaisim which was appreciated with a standing ovation from the participants. In parallel to the conference, a green exhibition was also organised to showcase green products/ services offered by various building industry manufacturers and stakeholders. Several of the top green product manufacturers like Armstrong, United Technologies, Berger Paints, Asahi Glass, Insuladd, Dow Corning, Akzo Nobel, Dow Chemicals and Owens Corning showcased their products in the exhibition.
Article compiled by: D E V S Kiran Kumar, Research Associate, Sustainable Habitat Division, TERI Photo Credits: TERI
IAPMO – India, IPA and IGBC Sign Green Building Memorandum of Understanding (MoU)
New Delhi, India (November 2011) — Recognizing a shared mutual recognition of the environmental issues and concerns related to the plumbing industry, as well as the promotion of public safety and welfare, IAPMO-India, the Indian Plumbing Association (IPA) and the Indian Green Building Council (IGBC) have entered into a Memorandum of Understanding to work cooperatively to confront and solve environmental issues in the worldwide plumbing industry. The MoU was signed during the Indian Green Building Congress last month in New Delhi. Through this MoU, the three organizations pledge to develop public awareness campaigns to promote efficient water and energy consumption concepts and technologies. Other Key Provisions of the MoU Include: • To work together in the area of codes, certifications and audits as they relate to the plumbing industry. • To lend technical know-how and to support each other in promotional activities and to educate the public on environmental issues within the plumbing industry. • To continue to develop opportunities to leverage complimentary resources between IPA, IAPMOIndia and IGBC. “Together we the leaders pledge to make India a role model for the rest of the world in addressing climate change,” said Dr. Prem C. Jain, IGBC chairman.
The Uniform Plumbing Code – India (UPC-I) is first ever plumbing code developed by the Indian plumbing industry itself to achieve the nationwide goal of “Better Plumbing for Better Living,” The UPC-I attempts to minimize risk by specifying technical standards of design, materials, workmanship and maintenance for plumbing systems, featuring tried and tested plumbing practices tailored especially for India to ensure best practices are employed for ensuring safe, sanitary plumbing systems. IAPMO India, with assistance from industry leaders such as the Indian Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ISHRAE) and the Fire and Security Association of India (FSAI), is nearing completion on the development of the Uniform Mechanical Code – India (UMC-I), featuring best practices for the design, installation and maintenance of safe, more energy efficient heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems, for release in 2012.
IAPMO–India is an Indian Corporation established to develop and promote a uniform plumbing code in India. The organization is dedicated to advancing the most up to date methods of sanitation in India and to provide comprehensive education resources. IAPMO–India and Indian Plumbing Association (IPA) have jointly published the Uniform Plumbing Code–India (UPC-I) and Green Plumbing Code Supplement–India (GPCS-I).
THE NEXT STEP IN THE GREEN BUILDING REVOLUTION International Benchmarking Study
n Australia, there are presently rating systems for sustainable design and operational performance. On a global scale, there remains a need to demonstrate to all stakeholders the full triple line benefits for sustainable buildings (i.e. social, environmental and commercial). CETEC's methodology, using recognised Indoor Environment Quality (IEQ) industry testing protocols, which measures IEQ, occupant satisfaction and financial analysis of the occupying organisations, will provide this platform for comparative benchmarked assessment. CETEC have collaborated internationally using recognised IEQ industry testing protocols in developing a model that relates physical performance of the building and occupant acceptability with its effect on health, wellbeing, productivity, and financial performance. This methodology has been tested on a number of projects in Australia and to some degree overseas by CETEC with new projects coming on board regularly. This has given CETEC the confidence to propose a worldwide study. Consequently, CETEC believes the assessment of 100 buildings in each country will provide a representative sample across a number of building types and rating periods to generate a statistically significant sample for assessing the realised benefits of modern sustainably rated buildings.
CETEC is planning to conduct a pilot study of at least 10 buildings in each country, where they would use the unique combination of recognised IEQ industry testing protocols, occupant satisfaction survey and financial performance to demonstrate real and quantifiable evidence of the benefits and cost savings associated with the operational outcomes of green buildings, leading to the ultimate and most comprehensive business case for green buildings thus far. From preliminary discussions, CETEC have already had favourable responses to the concept from practitioners in Singapore, India, United Kingdom, Germany, and the United States. CETEC is presently inviting interested building owners, developers, facilities managers, and tenants who have a commitment to sustainability, occupant wellbeing and delivering high performance indoor environment to participate in this exciting project which aims to evaluate the post occupancy performance of buildings. CETEC’s methodology, which uses recognized IEQ protocols, will provide a platform for comparative benchmarked assessment of sustainable buildings in terms of occupant wellbeing and its relationship to IEQ. The pilot assessment will include 10 buildings from India. This and the further implications for the complete international benchmarking study can be seen in Figure 1 and Figure 2 respectively.
Figure 1: International IEQ Benchmarking Study – the Indian context
Figure 2: International IEQ Benchmarking Study – India and Beyond
Dr Vyt Garnys, PhD, B.Sc., AusIMM, MRACI, ISIAQ, AIRAH, ACA, FMA Principal Consultant & Managing Director Dr. Garnys completed his Honours Degree in Chemistry at the University of WA in 1970. He has more than 30 years professional experience in solving technical problems over a wide range of industries. He assists Industries, Governments and Individuals with Industrial Products, Process Problems, Indoor and Outdoor Environmental Risk Assessments, Sustainability and Resolution services, incorporating human health, outrage management and litigation issues. In 1987, Dr Garnys formed his own technical consultancy, CETEC Pty Ltd, which also operates laboratory services as FORAY Laboratories Pty Ltd. Peter Cox is the Managing Director of PCA Directions a specialist consultancy providing strategic advice to developers of property and infrastructure. Helping companies and institutions wishing to expand their business internationally Until recently he was Managing Director/CEO of the widely acclaimed Padghams Australia and its subsidiary Padghams India which provided cost consultancy services to the property and construction industry throughout Australia, India and the Asia region. He is an acknowledged leader of his profession culminating in being accorded the position as Chairman of the International Cost Engineering Council. Peter is passionate about helping companies and institutions develop their internal project planning and control capabilities in order for them to deliver improved performance and sustainable outcomes.
The Benefits To Participants Of This International Pilot Of 10 Buildings In Each Major Country Using Sustainability Ratings Are As Follows: 1. Global recognition of the building and business; 2. Benchmarking of the performance of the building globally, regionally, nationally and locally, and by industry sector; 3. Information that will allow the participant to manage the whole indoor environment quality of the building to achieve optimal sustainability and wellbeing of staff and business productivity; 4. Information to assess and control the indoor climate for designers, contractors and contracts for any future projects; 5. Reassurance and feedback to clients, tenants and prospective high worth investors; and 6. Forms a basis for showing the financial benefits of the green building.
CETEC company profile CETEC Pty Ltd is a leading science and technology based applied consultancy firm, which has been delivering technical solutions for over twenty years. CETEC provides a range of services for the built environment, including conducting holistic post occupancy evaluations of sustainable buildings to assess and optimise Indoor Environment Quality (IEQ), occupant satisfaction, health and wellbeing. They have conducted several hundred interpretative indoor environment quality investigations for individuals, companies, governments, and organizations. Palm Rating and History in India Given its expertise in Indoor Environment Quality (IEQ) and sustainable building materials and practices, CETEC has taken part on several trade missions over the last ten years, including missions to China, the Middle East, Singapore, Europe, and, on several occasions, has travelled with both the Australian and Victorian governments’ trade missions to India. One of the success stories from a trade mission to Mumbai was the collaboration between CETEC and Shree Ram Urban Infrastructure, whose project, Palais Royale, was in the process of being the first Platinum Design LEED apartment building in India and one of the largest developments of its type (see Figure 3). Shree Ram is a well known Indian based multinational textile and property company. Mr. Jahangir Yar Khan, Senior Vice President of Projects for Shree Ram recognized the next step of the “green building revolution” and the shift from a concern solely focused on energy to a holistic approach which also considered the future health and wellbeing of occupants. Consequently, CETEC was commissioned to provide a Palm Rating (Health and Sustainability) on the base building at the design stage. Dr. Vyt Garnys, Managing Director of CETEC, has been given the support of Dr. Jain and the Indian Green Building Council for the international benchmarking study, and is also looking to deliver the Palm Healthy Building accreditation system in India. These initiatives work well in India because it’s an important consideration for office, apartment, and hotel clients that are quality conscious and are looking to build on the Indian Green Building Council accreditation, whilst remaining focused on the indoor environment quality for their occupants.
CETEC has progressively developed an understanding of the need for a holistic approach to optimise the efficiency and effectiveness of the occupant/facility interaction. CETEC has called this approach Facility Ecology and will use this approach as the basis for delivering the international benchmarking survey. Facility Ecology is a study of the interaction of building/ structure with the occupants and involves the collection of quantitative indoor environment parameters and occupant satisfaction assessments to evaluate overall wellbeing and productivity. The Facility Ecology approach to delivering the Post Occupancy Indoor Environment Quality Assessment for the buildings involved in the International Benchmarking Study comprises of the following components: • Confirm all objectives with relevant stakeholders; • Perform a post occupancy study, comprising of an occupant satisfaction survey and indoor environment quality measurements in accordance with internationally recognized validation protocols; and • Provide a comprehensive report outlining the performance of the building in terms of Indoor Environment Quality and occupant satisfaction, including recommendations on how the building can improve and deliver gains in corporate productivity and health and wellbeing of building occupants. The approach can be utilised as an ongoing management tool by the organisation/ building o w n e r / facility manager in order to validate and optimise the benefits resulting from a high performing indoor environment. Figure 3: The proposed Palais Royale in Mumbai
Shree Ram Urban Infrastructure’s Palais Royale was an apt example of India’s commitment to the green building revolution. As green buildings in India continue to develop with the continued growth of the Indian Green Building Council, the international benchmarking study will provide an opportunity to showcase the performance of these buildings against international standards. CETEC would like to encourage those parties interested in participating in the international benchmarking to contact Dr. Vyt Garnys at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Inspired to be GREEN I Volume 11 I
THE EMERSON CUP– ASIA & MIDDLE EAST GUIDES HVAC&R INDUSTRY TO HIGH EFFICIENCY AND ENERGY CONSERVATION WITH INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS
NEW DELHI (October 21, 2011) – The Emerson Cup is an annual competition instituted by Emerson Climate Technologies to recognize and celebrate exceptional design and innovation in air conditioning and refrigeration projects. The competition, held for the last eight years in China, has just completed its fourth consecutive year in India and South East Asia and was extended to Middle East this year. The gala awards night saw esteemed industry leaders announce the Excellence and Honorary award winners across various categories. Addressing the audience, Mr. Giovanni Zullo, VP Marketing & Product Planning, Emerson Climate Technologies said, “The HVAC&R industry makes a significant contribution to the Green Building movement with opportunities for improvement in energy efficiency and indoor air quality. Emerson’s involvement includes not only developing energy efficient technologies, but also supporting the process of adoption. The Emerson Cup is an initiative to recognize and celebrate leadership and innovation in the air conditioning and refrigeration industry, paving way for the talented designers to showcase their outstanding work.” The Emerson Cup 2011 comprised five primary categories: 1. New Building 2. New Building – With Emerson Technology 3. Retrofit 4. Commercial Refrigeration 5. Students – Engineering and Architecture The New Building award category witnessed a high number of nominations this year. The Excellence award (residential and commercial buildings) was given to EEC Engineering Network for New Bangkok Government Mega Centre, Bangkok, Thailand, while the Honorary award was presented to ARUP Singapore Pte Ltd for Campus for Research Excellence & Technological Enterprise (CREATE), Singapore. A new category introduced this year, New Building – With Emerson Technology, witnessed an equally good quality of entries. The Excellence Award was won by Interbrand Traders Co Ltd for Assumption University, Bangkok, Thailand and Vijay Punjabi Consultants Pvt. Ltd for Tata Consultancy Services, Powai, Mumbai was recognized as the Honorary award winner. The Excellence award for the Retrofit category was presented to Mr. Pankaj Dharkar for Fateh Prakash Palace Heritage Hotel, Udaipur and the Honorary award was won by Mr.Fernando S. Guevara for Radisson Hotel, Cebu, Philippines. In the Commercial Refrigeration category, Ek-Chai Distribution (TESCO Thailand) won the Excellence award for Fresh Distribution Center, Pathumthani, Thailand and Dr. R Saravanan from Anna University & Mr. C. Narendran from Guha Industries won the Honorary Award for their joint project on Cascaded Energy Plant, Kochi. The Students category invited ideas from students for designing an energy efficient house. A group of engineering students from University of Philippines, UP Diliman Team ME 155 and Mabin Mathew, architecture student from College of Engineering, Trivandrum, India, won the Students’ Cup. In welcoming everyone to the awards ceremony, Mr. Shrikant Bapat, Managing Director, Emerson Climate Technologies (India) Ltd. said “It has been heartening for me to witness the phenomenal growth of The Emerson Cup competition across India and South East Asia over the past four years. The Emerson Cup panel of judges was impressed with the quality of entries received in 2011. This competition is a great platform for us all to promote the application of high efficiency air conditioning and refrigeration systems along with other Green Building concepts.” He added, “Emerson is proud to be part of an industry that includes developers, architects, consulting engineers and OEMs alike, who are taking the lead to create a more sustainable future. The Emerson Cup plays an important role in encouraging development and innovation and together we can work to drive innovative thinking and creativity at all levels of our industry.” The Emerson cup nomination prerequisite is that the air conditioning or refrigeration project should be commissioned within the last five years. Students are asked to submit an executable idea for designing an energy efficient house. All projects were judged by an independent panel of judges from India, Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines and Singapore. About Emerson Climate Technologies Emerson Climate Technologies, a business segment of Emerson, is the world’s leading provider of heating, air conditioning and refrigeration solutions for residential, industrial and commercial applications. The group combines best-in-class technology with proven engineering, design, distribution, educational and monitoring services to provide customized, integrated climate-control solutions for customers worldwide. Emerson Climate Technologies’ innovative solutions, which include industry-leading brands such as Copeland Scroll and White-Rodgers, improve human comfort, safeguard food and protect the environment. About Emerson Emerson, based in St. Louis, Missouri (USA), is a global leader in bringing technology and engineering together to provide innovative solutions for customers in industrial, commercial, and consumer markets through its network power, process management, industrial automation, climate technologies, and tools and storage businesses. Sales in fiscal 2011 were $24.2 billion. For more information, visit www.Emerson.com
The 2011 Competition Reaches New Heights and Elevates Standards for Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Design and Application
Marakkanam Community centre Community Center in Marakkanam, near Auroville Built in 1 year from 2005 to 2006.
Auroville Visitors centre Visitors Center of 1200 m2, built in Auroville. Recipient of the 1992 Hassan Fathy’s International Award for architecture for the poor. Built in 40 months from 1989 to 1992.
Auroville Green Gallery
Al Medy Mosque Mosque of 457 m2 built in the heart of Riyad in Saudi Arabia. Finalist of the 2007 Aga Khan Architecture Award. 2010 First prize « Prince Sultan Bin Salman Award for Urban Heritage » granted by the Al-Turath Foundation in Riyad. Built in 7 weeks between January and February 2004
Second prototype of an earthquake resistant house sponsored by HUDCO. Built in 1999 in New Delhi. It was assembled in 66 hours Vikas commnunity 13 apartments in Vikas Community in by 18 men. This demonstration Auroville. Four floors building: 3 floors on a basement floor. was granted a gold medal from Finalist for the 2000 World Habitat Award. Built in 45 months ITPO (India Trade Promotion from 1991 to 1998 Organization).
Karneswar Nataraja Temple honoring Lord Shiva Nataraja built near Auroville. The cloister dome is covered by a 14 m long pyramid. Built in 6 months in 2006.
Ermitage House for a priest near Auroville Built in one year in 2006.
Mine House First prototype of an earthquake resistant house built in Instanbul, in 1996.
Disaster resistant "Tsunami House" built near Auroville. First prize of the 2005 national competition « Hazard resistant house design contest » granted by the Gandhigram Rural Institute. Built in 2 months in 2005.
Deepanam School School built in Auroville. With 6 classrooms and a multi-purpose hall. It is covered by a segmental vault of 10.35m span, 2. 25 rise, and ~ 30 tons – Vault built in 3 weeks using the free spanning technique (without support) Built in 20 months from 1994 to 1996.
E’BLOCKS A Green Building Material
By the Auroville Earth Institute
An Auroville Earth Institute initiative
Earth as a building material
Earth has been used as a construction material for thousands of years. The oldest mud bricks ever found were produced around 9,000 BC at Dja’de El Mughara in Syria and the oldest traces of large human settlement, the city of Mari in Syria, date from the 5th millennium BC. Earth techniques are varied and used worldwide: according to UNCHS/Habitat, 40 to 50% of the world population lives in earthen dwellings. The Ramasseum, the oldest earthen building still standing, is about 3,300 years old and lies on the west shore of the Nile, near Luxor in Egypt. UNESCO surveyed that 17% of the urban heritage sites are built with earth. Between the end of the 19th century and the second half of the 20th century, skilled earth builders disappeared and we owe the renaissance of earthen architecture to the Egyptian architect Hassan Fathy. Building with earth is a means to build affordable houses and to empower people by giving them the opportunity to build their habitat themselves through a community process. The examples of earthen buildings all over the world prove that this material is economical, long lasting and can promote an endogenous and sustainable development.
E’Blocks are high quality Compressed Stabilized Earth Blocks (CSEB) prepared by manually compressing locally available earth, sand and cement (5% by weight). They
achieving thermal comfort throughout Economical the year. With proper Eco - Friendly planning and design, less energy is needed to achieve a comfortable indoor environment. Easily Available
Exposed E’Blocks walls regulate indoor humidity and help
The energy consumption for a square meter (m2) of E’Blocks E’Blocks are perfect for structural load bearing masonry wall is about 4 times less than a square meter of country fired are NOT FIRED, but are stronger than country fired (exterior or interior, exposed or plastered). Using E’Blocks bricks in India (Puducherry area). This outstanding energy bricks after one month of curing. The production of for building Arches, Vaults and Domes can substantially efficiency is a result of the very little quantity of stabilizer E’Blocks needs 4 times less energy than country fired reduce construction cost as compared to conventional needed to produce E’Blocks.
bricks. With minimum maintenance, well designed
The production of E’Blocks built using E’Block Buildings perform better than those is an easily transferable technology assistance or simply Eblock production unit with our that can be learned in one week. The Auroville Earth Institute contact us for a delivery of readily available E’Blocks. organizes one week training courses that guarantee a complete thermal comfort. technology transfer. This technology allows otherwise unskilled and unemployed people to learn a new skill and find a job. Contact us: Building with E’Blocks is a labor intensive technology that helps For information and orders Auroville to Institute, reducing unemployment and allows builders Earthlower their Auroshilpam, Auroville, the dependence on imported materials therefore decreasing TN 605101 +91 (0)413 262 3064 overall price of buildings.
conventional fired bricks in durability, strength and in
techniques. Use locally available resources and setup a
To allow low income groups in disaster prone areas to benefit from safe and affordable houses, the Auroville Earth Institute has been looking at ways to adapt E’Blocks and make them disaster resistant. Since 1995, research has been oriented towards the development of a cost-effective technology based on reinforced masonry with Hollow Interlocking Compressed Stabilised earth Blocks (HI CSEB). Vertical and horizontal reinforced concrete members reinforce the masonry to create a box type system that can resist disasters. Three types of blocks have been developed: the square hollow interlocking block 245, which allows building up to 2-3 floors high, the rectangular hollow interlocking block 295, only used for ground floors and the rectangular dry hollow interlocking block 300 also used for ground floors. Disaster resistant E’Blocks have been approved by three governments: Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Iran. The technology has extensively been used in Gujarat for the rehabilitation after the 2001 earthquake. With a six-month technical assistance from the Auroville Earth Institute, the Catholic Relief Services built 2,700 houses and community centers in 39 villages. This technology was also transferred to Kutch Nav Nirman Abhiyan and is used in Sri Lanka for the reconstruction of the zones affected by the 2004 tsunami. Green architecture is now a leading trend but most of the green constructions are built with hi-tech technologies requiring sophisticated engineering that most people cannot afford. The challenge is now to make green buildings affordable for the poor. With E’Blocks, the Auroville Earth Institute promotes both an endogenous development and a sustainable construction material that has beneficial social and economical impact on the community.
The Auroville Earth Institute
The Auroville Earth Institute in Auroville near Pondicherry, researches, develops, promotes and transfers energy and cost effective earth based technologies. These technologies are disseminated through training courses, seminars, workshops, publications and consultancies in and outside India. Since 1990, more than 7100 people from 72 countries have been trained. One of the goals of the Auroville Earth Institute is to give everyone the knowledge and therefore the possibility to build their habitat themselves using earth techniques. Since its creation in 1989, the Auroville Earth Institute has been researching and developing stabilized earth techniques. The Auram equipment for building with earth, and especially the Auram Press 3000, is sold worldwide. It produces Compressed Stabilized Earth Blocks (CSEB), also called E’Blocks, that are high quality blocks compressed manually with local available earth, sand and cement (5% by weight). They are not fired, but are stronger than country red bricks after one month of curing. E’Blocks can be used in different types of projects, from low income housing to luxurious homes and public buildings. E’Blocks are suitable for load bearing structures and can withstand the load of four floors without concrete columns. Arches, vaults and domes can replace concrete beams and slabs, thus bringing the overall cost lower than conventional structures. Furthermore, E’Blocks do not necessarily need to be plastered.
E’Blocks: Compressed Stabilized Earth Blocks
E’Blocks have many environmental and social advantages. As firewood is not needed for their production, choosing E’Blocks over fired bricks limits deforestation. If planned in advance, quarries resulting from sourcing soil on site can be converted into rainwater harvesting tanks, wastewater treatment systems, reservoirs, basement floors or landscaping features.
Satprem Maïni, Architect, Director Auroville Earth Institute, Auroshilpam, Auroville 605 101 T.N. India Tel.: +91 (0) 413 – 262 3330 / 262 3064 General Information: email@example.com Training Courses: firstname.lastname@example.org www.earth-auroville.com
Inspired to be GREEN I Volume 11 I
Active And Passive Ventilation Strategies for a High Performance Building Design
Introduction The story of evolution of mankind is synonymous with its desire to understand and win over the might of Mother Nature. In its pursuit to live comfortably, the evolution began from taking shelter in caves thereafter graduating to temporary wood or stone construction settlements along the rivers, further advancing to permanent low rise stone buildings and finally to cement/steel sky scrapers. It is important to note that all along this journey, evolution was the key wherein human beings slowly understood best techniques to harness abundant offerings of nature. It is only after the industrial revolution, the progression fast tracked and the world became energy intensive. This brought in change of lifestyles and along with it and process requirements. The current so called modern dwellings have the ability to fight the natural elements for enhancing human comfort. The classic example can be seen in air-conditioned indoor spaces which have become a necessity. However, while designing these cool buildings, both architects and engineers focus on matching the cooling demand through energy guzzling air-conditioners rather than harnessing natural elements to minimize the air-conditioning load without compromising on thermal comfort. Today’s trend of dependency on fossil fuels to gain comfort may not be applicable in future as they are depleting at a fast rate. There is a need to find alternate methods to achieve the comfort and what is better than understanding how our ancestors were able to achieve and remold what we already knew without disturbing the ecology. This article focuses on passive design strategies that coupled with active techniques can help in significantly reducing the energy demand of a building and also its carbon footprint. Understanding Passive Design For designing a climate responsive, environment friendly and sustainable building, incorporating passive design is a necessary ingredient. It is important to note that word “Passive” does not only refer to environment but also to techniques that can be based on harnessing & enhancing nature’s offerings. It is a clear link between the nature and the human comfort to ensure that the interiors remain comfortable for the occupants in different climatic zones. Thus, passive is a relation between nature and built form. This practice of using natural element to gain comfort has been practiced since the evolution and can be remolded in modern time to use in various ways. Passive cooling systems rely on natural heat sinks to remove excess heat from a building. They derive cooling directly from evaporation, convection & radiation without using electrical energy. All strategies rely on diurnal changes in temperature and relative humidity. The applicability of each system depends upon the prevailing climatic conditions. India and History of Passive Design From the evolution of human race, these elements of nature have been controlled to gain comfort in different ways. India being a large country with different climatic zones has its own history of incorporating passive features in building structures for various climatic zones which is today known as Vastu Shastra i.e. “science of construction” & “architecture”) and a traditional Hindu system of design based on directional alignments. Looking at the history of Indian traditional buildings, one can determine how these elements have played an important role in design of buildings for different climatic zones. It is important to note that a combination of both passive design features coupled with ventilation strategies helped in cooling of buildings.
Author: Ashish Rakheja, Chief Operating Officer, Spectral Services Consultants an AECOM Company. Mr. Rakheja has completed his graduation from REC Allahabad in Mechanical Engineering followed by M. Tech in Thermal Engineering from Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi. Mr. Rakheja has been working with Spectral for last seventeen years and expertise includes design & coordination of multidisciplinary engineering activities. He heads the large team of Spectral engineers and has hands-on working experience for number of projects all over India. He is involved in imparting training to budding Architects in the field of Building Services as a visiting faculty at School of Planning & Architecture (SPA), Guru Gobind Singh University and Vastu Kala Academy, New Delhi for last several years.He has worked on writing codes & standards with various Governmental agencies like: Panel member - revision of National Building Code (NBC) on HVAC System, Panel member - new chapter on Sustainability in National Building Code of India, Member Core committee & Chairman- Sub committee (HVAC system) for BEE-IGBC initiative on developing guidelines for Green Data Centres, and alternate member - panel for revision of ducting system set-up by Bureau of Indian Standard. Ashish Rakheja has handled design activities of services for design of 19 LEED Platinum rated green building projects in India. He is spearheading the green building movement in India in capacity of role as Chairman, Technical Committee of Indian Green Building Council (IGBC) and certified LEED India Trainer. The coauthors of this article are Ms Sana Salman & Ms Shikha Sharma who are working as green building professional at Spectral Services Consultants, An AECOM Company.
Passive Design Strategies Before discussing the ventilation strategies, it is important to understand the other passive elements of building design as only a combination of both can help in providing comfortable environment to occupants and also cutting down on energy use. A partial application may not provide desired results and hence it is important to understand the following concepts Orientation Building orientation is the most simple and primary step for a well designed building which brings in ample daylight while keeping out the direct solar radiation from entering the building. This helps in lowering down indoor temperatures and also need for supplementary cooling is reduced. The ideal orientation of the building in hot and dry climates is to have longer axis oriented East/West Proper orientation can help increase or decrease the internal heat gains by upto 5%.
Patni Computers: one of the India’s first platinum rated building by Design and Development (D&D) has been oriented north/south to receive ample day light.
Courtyards With the harsh prevailing climate of Tropics, a common design feature in the traditional homes is the courtyards. The buildings with courtyards offer substantial potential for utilizing passive strategies for enhancing indoor thermal comfort. Over the years, courtyards are being designed incorporating other elements such as water bodies and vegetation taking in account wind pattern and local vegetation. The prevailing wind can be directed into the building which is thus pre-cooled to reduce the surrounding ambient temperature. In addition, vegetation further enhances thermal comfort by softening the harsh summer sun penetrating inside the building. Thus a lower temperature micro climate around the development not only helps in minimizing heat gain in occupied spaces but also reduces ventilation load (due to outdoor air addition) in a building. This strategy can help in reduction of up-to 2-3% in building energy demand.
Window Wall Ratio (WWR) Glazing is the key element of built form for providing light, ventilation and views. It can enhance the appearance of a building and connect with the outdoor spaces. Glazing has significant impact on the energy efficiency of the building envelope. Poorly designed windows, skylights or any other glazed surface can make the indoor environment uncomfortable for the occupants round the year. It can over heat or over cool the dwelling in summers and winters respectively. But if well designed, these can help maintain year round comfort thereby reducing the demand for artificial cooling or heating. While choosing the glazing and the glazed area for the built form, the designer needs to design in harmony with climatic condition. It is important to have an efficient Wall to Window ratio (WWR) to have ample daylight and ventilation without over exposing building to the sunlight. High performance modern buildings have achieved typically up to 2% energy reduction for every 10% reduction in glazing area and thereby presenting an opportunity of enhancing thermal comfort with the help of ventilation strategies rather than active cooling techniques.
Wipro Technologies building designed by D&D in Gurgaon has a compact building envelope opening out with greater transparency towards courtyard
Insulating Building Envelope Insulation is one of the important and effective means of energy conservation that works silently and discretely. Insulation is provided essentially on walls and roofs of the buildings since most of the heat transfer happens through these surfaces. It improves building envelope performance by minimizing heat loss and heat gains through its surfaces. Before insulating surfaces, one should ensure that they’re properly air sealed and moisture controlled in order to have comfortable indoor environment quality. The insulation thus lowers down indoor temperatures and presents an opportunity to designers for applying passive & active ventilation strategies to further enhance the indoor thermal comfort. Optimum insulation for External Walls & roof can result up to 5% of energy savings over conventional building.
Annual consumption (MWh)
Optimum WWR ratio recommended is 30%-40% for achieving balance between day-lighting and air-conditioning loads
660 650 640 630 620 R-2 R-5 R-10 R-15 R-20 R-30 R-40
Patni Computers: Angular Sun shades have been designed on East-West facades in order to cut off harsh solar radiation
Annual consumption (MWh)
External wall construction
636 631 626 R-2 R-5 R-10 R-15 R-20 R-30
Shading Devices Shading the building especially during summer months can reduce the temperature and improve occupant comfort. The efficient shading can block up to 90% heat from the direct sun. If the shading devices are well designed it not only reduces summer heat gain but can also prevent glare thus providing comfortable working conditions. Shading methods can range from operable, to fixed and from metals to more natural like plants. For the best results, designer may choose methods of shading that would allow maximum daylight while preventing unwanted heat gains. Plants should be selected that allows filtered light inside the building. Shading devices should have high reflectance values. The use of shading devices can help in reducing up to 5% internal energy demands.
Graph showing effect of Wall & Roof insulation over Annual Energy Consumption
Inspired to be GREEN I Volume 11 I
Natural Ventilation Natural ventilation depends solely on air movement to cool the occupants by collecting prevailing winds and replacing the warm air inside with fresh cool air. The building should be designed in a way that it captures natural winds and should be able to eject warm spent air outside the building. Since the natural wind cannot be scheduled, it is the ability of the designer to enhance natural ventilation using stack vent, operable windows, skylights, monitors and jaali screens. With development of advanced innovative techniques, new methods of ventilations such as turbo ventilator and solar chimneys are being provided on the roof of the building for efficient ventilation. These work on the principle of stack air effect but with higher air change rate. Better results can be achieved with combination of conventional and innovative passive techniques which will work best for the climatic zone where building is situated. In the project below (Refer Figures 1 & 2), the architect and the engineer worked together in eliminating the expensive air-conditioning for common areas, corridors & passages without compromising thermal comfort. The building has been oriented in a manner that cold air over the swimming pool is drawn into corridors & common spaces. The spent air is expelled out of building from atrium & tall stacks which have turbo ventilators for enhancing air flow rate. The air pattern and its movement have been studied using CFD techniques and computer simulation tools for achieving nearly 20 degree temperature reduction over peak ambient conditions. Evaporative Cooling Evaporative cooling is based on the principle of thermodynamics wherein the indoor air temperature is lowered by evaporating water. The evaporative cooling can be categorized broadly into Direct or indirect evaporative cooling. Direct evaporative cooling is used in semi open spaces such as courtyards. The water body is placed in the direction of wind and as the wind blows over the water body, it immediately cools the surrounding thus reducing the ambient temperatures directly. Innovative techniques have been developed to cool larger spaces based on this technology. Traditionally, the desert coolers (with air blowing over wet khus pads), were effective means of achieving cooling in homes. However, due to lack of control over Relative Humidity, these have lost ground to air conditioners. However, it is important to note that evaporative coolers work well in dry ambient climates like Nagpur, Jaipur, Hyderabad etc. and have significantly lower power consumption over compressor based air conditioners. Alternatively, the cooling can also be achieved by indirect methods wherein air and water are not allowed to come in physical contact but a simple heat exchange is achieved.
The first LEED Platinum building of India in Hyderabad namely CII Godrej Green Business Centre boasts of “Sheetal Minars” or “Wind Towers”. These Towers have high thermal mass which is cooled down by spraying water in night time. During the day time, outdoor hot air is drawn through this pre-cooled tall structure for meeting the ventilation requirement of building as per ASHRAE Standard 62.1. Since the ambient air achieves lower temperature without significant gain in latent load, hence it helped in reducing the overall air-conditioning load and also provided free cooling opportunities during shoulder months. Similarly, the third LEED Platinum Building of India namely “Wipro Office Building in Gurgaon” employs indirect cooling methodology for reducing ventilation air temperature. The outdoor air is passed over coil carrying water from cooling tower to reduce the temperature before injecting into AHU room. The cooling effectiveness of evaporative machines have been further enhanced by using combination of Direct & Indirect techniques and they are now gaining acceptance in market for achieving amazingly low indoor temperatures especially in hot dry climate/seasons. However, the limiting factor in adoption of this technology is availability of soft water and high maintenance. Variants of these techniques are currently being employed on larger projects to create a favorable micro climate. The common examples are ultra fine misters etc. One of the community projects in India currently under design is considering using combination of pipes carrying water from adjacent lake laid under the open pathways along with misters and shading devices to achieve comfortable environment for occupants even during peak summers. Conclusion As it can be seen from above discussions, the emphasis on high performance buildings is to design in tandem with nature duly harnessing the potential as well as capitalizing on conventional wisdoms. The Building Owners and Designers have unique challenge to look for innovative design solutions that are best suited to their budget as well as buildings. The Integrated Process of design (IPD) is now recommended wherein Owners/Architect/ Consultants/Manufacturers/Contractors sit across the table to jointly optimize building design using collective wisdom. Any High Performance Building cannot ignore passive techniques, which can reduce energy demand upto 40% over conventional buildings in India. Passive strategies can be most efficient ways to obtain results that are sustainable in their output. Since ventilation is a very important aspect for a comfortable living and a large amount of money is invested in installing Air conditioning systems and good amount for operating them. With the growing price of energy and increasing awareness, many building Owners demand a cost effective solution wherein use of simulation softwares like COOL/T, IES, PHDC, Optivent, Equest, Ecotect etc. help in validating performance of planned measures without compromising on the occupant comfort.
Sheetal Minars’ strategically located in the wind direction for CII - Sohrabji Green Business Centre in Hyderabad. It is the first LEED Platinum building in India designed by Karan Grover Associates
Inspired Student Article of 2011
Built Environment and Community Health Is your neighborhood Walkers Paradise.
Built Environment And Community Health - Is Your Neighborhood Walkers Paradise. With growing evidence for the multiple benefits of walking, “walk ability" - the extent that the built environment offers convenience to pedestrians; is given increasing importance. The concept of walk able communities has become the wave of the future. “Walk ability” with its positive effects on public health, safety and environmental quality has become the new buzz word in planning of cities. So is your neighborhood a walker’s paradise? In recent years the public health community has become increasingly aware that the design of the built environment can have a major impact on the health of the public. Hence, they are promoting built environment that are more conducive to healthy physical activity and lifestyles such as “walk able” communities. “Walk able” communities can offer health, social and environmental benefits and also contribute towards sustainable built environment. Imagine the communities where work, shops, schools, libraries, places of worship and community parks are all within the walking distance, one may expect more physical activity in such community. On the other hand, poorer health indicators may be expected among communities with few parks or walking paths, high crime rates, numerous alcohol and tobacco outlets, and little access to fresh food. As a sustainable built environment professional, I have a personal interest in promoting such development which has environmental benefits. Walking is good for us at all levels. At the personal level, physical activities like walking and cycling reduce heart and respiratory diseases, cancer and other risks. By design these walkable communities also encourage social interaction and thus creating close knit environment. At the community level, everyone benefits when lots of things are within walking distance – lesser car use reduces air pollution and carbon emissions. Promoting walking is an effective way to increase population levels of physical activity. To increase walking, a whole-of-community approach is required that combines multiple-level strategies: public education, changes to the built environment and strategies that create a positive social environment. Neighbourhood aesthetics and access to facilities, parks and shopping tend to be associated with increased walking for recreation. Ar. Alankrita Soni, MBEnv(SustDev), GRIHA Trainer, she is an Architect with 4 years of experience in the field. She holds a masters degree in Built Environment in Sustainable Development from the University of New South Wales, Sydney. Note from Author: Architects and Planners are the builders of our cities and can play an important role in shaping our present and future world. There is an urgent need to address the great challenges of our times like climate change, global warming; land, air and water pollution and growing population with health concerns. For fast-growing economies in the world especially Asian countries like India and China; there is a massive demand for practical and sustainable built environment designs (i.e. the physical structure and infrastructure of communities) that will help provide a good healthy environment with higher standard of living. With this article “Built Environment and Community Health - Is your neighborhood Walkers Paradise?”, I want to highlight few important aspects of the good sustainable built environment design.
Walk able Communities can offer health, social & environmental benefits. Image Source: www.knoxmoc.org
Three Important Factors That Appears To Be Associated With The Physical Activity Are: • • • Individual factors (knowledge, attitudes, values, skill and self-efficacy). Social environmental factors (social support, having someone to walk with, creating community focal points, social connectedness and social norms—i.e. community beliefs about what is valuable or important). Built Environment factors - design for physical activity - the presence of walk able and recreational facilities, universally accessible spaces, neighbourhood design, changing urban form and managing land use impacts, creating safe and pleasant spaces and government policies that influence land use and transportation systems (A whole-of-government approach is crucial to the creation of ‘walkable’ communities in new and existing developments).
Although the built environment is the least understood, it is becoming apparent the built environment can either facilitate or discourage walking. It Is Important To Consider Following Elements Of The Built Environment. • Mixed-use planning—The variety and proximity of destinations (how close destinations are to walk to); access to key destinations is a critical factor influencing the choice to walk for transport. Walking for transport is associated with living in neighborhoods that have good access to public transport destinations. Density— Compact, connected built environment with a mixture of densities and land uses patterns create shorter distances between different desired destinations, thus encouraging people to walking. Areas with higher residential densities are more likely to support the presence of shops and services; thus the density of an area is indirectly related to walking.. Street connectivity— The directness of travel routes between homes, shops, workplaces and other destinations. Neighbourhoods with grid pattern street networks typically have greater connectivity than those with curvilinear layouts.
Walkable Neighborhoods encourages the use of public transport. Image Source: Smart Growth Indy
A new Google Maps-powered index (http://www.walkscore.com/) can helps you to find out how “walk able” your neighborhood is, enter your address on site. It’ll give you a rating from 0 (car-dependent) to 100 (walker’s paradise) based on your home’s distance to schools, stores, restaurants, parks, libraries, cinemas, gyms and transit stops. When looking for a place to live in an unfamiliar neighborhood; it would be wise to know beforehand what those neighborhoods have to offer or what they are lacking. This could make the process much easier. Walk able communities are no long a part of good urban planning books, but are reality. Walk Score ranks the walk ability of the 50 largest U.S. Cities and the top scoring cities are New York (Walk Score 85.3), San Francisco (Walk Score 84.9), Boston (Walk Score 72.2), Chicago (Walk Score 74.3), Philadelphia (Walk Score 74.1). Inference: • 90% of New York residents have a Walk Score of 70 or above. • New York's most walkable neighborhoods are Little Italy, SoHo, Flatiron District. New York's least walkable neighborhoods are Rikers Island, Roxbury, Breezy Point. • 98% have a Walk Score of at least 50—and 2% live in CarDependent neighborhoods.
In summary, built environment that promotes “walk ability” is wise choice that can make you not only healthier and wealthier, but also happier. To increase walking, a holistic approach is required that combines multiple-level strategies like public education, changes to the built environment and strategies that create a positive social environment. These factors act together to motivate, support and provide opportunities to encourage physical activity.
Inspired to be GREEN I Volume 11 I
Concentrated Cleaning Soultions
Mr. Abhay Desai Director Regional Sector Marketing BSC / FM APAT, Diversey India Pvt.Ltd.
ndustrial & institutional cleaning has come of age in the last few decades. Due to increasing fuel prices, transportation and storage costs of any product are shooting through the roof. Today, as environmental concerns are increasing, the need to have products that can be used or consumed for a longer period of time is the need for the hour. Hence, professional cleaning and hygiene products are slowly but surely moving from ready to use or lower concentrates to super concentrates, thereby lowering transportation and storage costs for customers. In recent years, economic & environment concerns are forcing customers to ask manufacturers and service providers to give them solutions that address the needs, most important of them being operational efficiency. The rising cost of raw materials both petroleum and non-petroleum products are pushing the cost of formulated detergents higher and higher. The cost of plastic itself has increased rapidly over the past couple of years and there is a continued environment concern with regard to disposal and reuse of the same. The trend can be seen in cleaning applications like laundry, kitchen and housekeeping. The effectiveness of a product is mainly dependent on how the product is dosed, dispensed or diluted. Under dosing and over dosing are both economically harmful for the organization where it is being used. The focus on sustainability, environment & the growing necessity of reduction in plastic waste is also a key factor. In the developed economies like the UK, US, chemical manufacturers have moved to innovative packaging technology like bag-in-box, super concentrates, hyper concentrates to reduce the impact of plastic in manufacturing and hence usage.
From a customer’s perspective, moving to a super concentrate from ready-to-use or basic concentrate product has the following advantages: • Reduction in the number of cases or volume of cases handled, which in turn means less storage space required. Use of accurate dispensing system ensuring minimum wastage. Cost in use advantage vis-à-vis low concentrated products. Reduction in plastic that is to be recycled, hence positive contribution to the environment.
• • •
In lieu of these above advantages, the user has to make an upfront investment in buying the super concentrates, which on an overall basis are much lower than the cost of RTUs and concentrates purchased. Lets take an example: suppose that customer A is today purchasing 100 ltrs of product X, which he uses with a dilution of 2% with the help of a pelican pump. This 100 ltrs of product X of pack size 2X5 ltrs at the recommended dilution gives the customer 5000 ltrs of RTU solution. Let us now assume that the customer replaces product X with product Y, which has a pack size of 2X1.4 ltrs & a dilution of 0.25%. Considering that we need 5000 ltrs of RTU solution, we need 4.4 cases (approx. 5 cases) instead of 10 cases of product X. Thereby, the customer ends up saving almost 10 cans of 5 ltrs equivalent plastic and CO2. The cost in use also works out to be lower. Super concentrates or hyper concentrates with such low dilutions cannot be dispensed through pelican pumps. We need sophisticated easy to use, tamper proof and 100% accurate system to ensure there is no wastage of chemical or errors in dilution.
Whether it is a large site or small to medium size, systems are designed for multiple uses and different product requirement that improves efficiency, increases safety, simplifies operation and improves your environment footprint.
Inspired to be GREEN I Volume 11 I
Green Product: High S.R.I Tile from AB Ceramics
M E M B E M E M B E RR
High SRI 95 Roofing Tiles by A. B Ceramics are ECBC Compliant
THE ROOF: Protection from the Elements The roof is a critical element in the building and fulfils 2 very important functions, namely to protect the space from rain and also from excessive heat from the sun. In a typical Air conditioned buildings the majority of energy is consumed in cooling the space. The heat gain through the roof is a major contributor to the heat ingress and can be reduced by the use of highly reflective materials on the roof and / or insulation.
Roof Incident solar radiation of 3000 wh/m2
AB Ceramics High SRI 95 Tile
HIGH S.R.I ROOF TILES BY A. B CERAMICS Reduced Heat Island Effect: AB Ceramics Roof Tile is suitable for Terrace application and has the advantage of reflecting heat away from the roof, whereby reducing heat ingress in to the conditioned space and making it an ideal Green Building Material. The glaze coating contains a very high % of Zirconium Oxide 9>8%). This is for heat resistance and crack resistance. >8% zirconium oxide content in glaze coat will give the best opaque surface which will reflect 95% of the solar heat.
230mm brick wall with plaster
Screed Nonwoven polyester geotextitle AB Ceramics Hollow Clay Tile with Vermiculture Energy Use breakdown
wall Incident solar radiation of 1600-1800 wh/m2
Shade Incident solar radiation of 300-600 wh/m2
Insulation above RCC Slab Screed with slope RCC Slab
Cities and urban areas are 3 to 8 °F (2 to 4°C) warmer than surrounding areas due to the heat island effect. This temperature difference is attributed to more buildings and pavements that have taken the place of trees and vegetation. Urban heat islands are primarily attributed to horizontal surfaces such as roofs and pavements that absorb solar radiation. The daily temperature rise on hot days results in an increase in the peak energy consumption in all major cities due to an increase in the air conditioning load. Albedo, which in this case is synonymous with solar reflectance, is the ratio of the amount of solar radiation reflected from a surface to the total amount reaching that surface. The solar radiation reaching an object on earth includes visible and ultraviolet light and infrared radiation. Ordinary Portland cement concrete generally has a solar reflectance of approximately 0.35 to 0.45 although values can vary. The LEED rating system from Indian Green Building Council, Sustainable Sites Credit 7.2: “Heat Island Effect: Roof” can be achieved with using 75% of the roof with an SRI of 78 or better for a flat roof. Cool Roofs: The ECBC defines “cool roofs” as roofs which have a reflective coating that has a high emissivity property which is very effective in reflecting away the suns energy from the roof surface. The temperature of the cool roof can be 10 – 16 degree Celsius lower than a normal roof. Roofs with a slope less than 20 degrees should have a SRI of 0.70 to be classified as Cool Roof.
The heat entering from roof is reduced and hence indoor temperature is also reduced which results in energy savings on air conditioning loads and reduced indoor temperatures for naturally ventilated spaces. The reduction in electricity use has the added benefit of reducing power plant carbon dioxide emissions. A study by Cool Roof Rating Council, USA estimates that replacing non reflective, dark roofing materials with a white roof on an average house with a 1,000-square-foot roof would reduce CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions by 10 metric tons a year. Light in Weight: Light in weight: ABC tile is between 1.3 to1.5 kg/sqft. This is much less than conventional weathering course weight (about 9 to 10 kg/sq ft) .In addition to this substantial weight reduction, this tile does not require any water proof layer during installation. Again weight reduction & cost reduction. Water Absorption: The tiles outsourced by AB Ceramics are 100% water proof (on glaze surface), and has no water absorption. Cement concrete tiles absorb about 7.5% and it is for this reason that a water proof layer is given. Insulation: Below the glass coat, the base body contains 30% porosity. Such pores will act as insulation for heat. First of all, solar heat will be reflected away due to white and glossy, in addition to this, the base body is 30% porous. The tile is water proof as well as heat proof. Better by Design: The thickness of the tile is increased and the tile back side, is made with deep grooves. Such deep groove pattern will help a lot for a strong bond with cement. Roofs are subjected to heat and rain, so better bonding will ensure long life. Cost Effective: The use of these tiles reduces the cost of roofing and water proofing of the project. Typically the installation costs 60-75 rupees per square foot as compared to typical roofing and waterproofing which totals close to 150 rupees per square foot.
Contact: No 11, Pon Nagar, Jayankondam, Ariyalur Dt., Tamil Nadu 621802. Mobile: 9879075864 – (0) 8000883585, Fax: 02822 221066 Email: email@example.com
ith technology gaining momentum in recent years, it seems everything is going mobile. You can surf Facebook and chat with friends on MSN on your mobile phone at the same time. Imagine the convenience if the controls for your home electronics and entertainment could also be mobile? Wiser Home Control, the latest generation of “smart home” by Schneider Electric, makes that convenience a reality. It brings you a whole new home experience. “Wiser Home Control revolves around people, not just technology. It is the ideal solution for integrating different technologies. It enables people to have better control over their home life, helping them to achieve a better lifestyle, a better home and a better environment.”
learn system is the key. “We have developed a graphic user interface featuring self-explanatory icons and jargonfree language. Everything is pre-programmed. With just a touch of the icon, you can control different functions of your home. The same intuitive user interface can be installed in different control devices like a touch screen panel, computer, web tablet and mobile phone, or even integrated into your Microscoft™ Media Centre. Being IPbased, Wiser Home Control is a scalable solution which is flexible and easy to upgrade. Whether it is an entrylevel or a full-blown series of controls, there are different solutions to fit different needs. Living with Wisdom and Attitude Living green is more topical than ever before. However, • In the past “smart home” promised a lot but delivered little, but with the advance of TCP/IP technology, systems like Wiser can now deliver the unfulfilled promise of older generation smart homes. Traditional thinking is that you need to sacrifice some comfort to be green, but the latest trend in the world is to attain “painless” green. Wiser Home Control is typically this kind of painless green solution. To be green usually change of habit to minimize wastage, the automation and convenience of Wiser Home Control will actually help and encourage to change to the green habit.
By Ms Sonali Kaushik Vice President, LifeSpace Business, Schneider Electric India Pvt. Ltd. sonali.Kaushik@schneider-electric.com Making Home Control Mobile One of the most important breakthroughs of Wiser Home Control is its out-of-home control function; in another words, it makes home control mobile. With Wiser, you can control with your mobile phone or laptop computer no matter if you are on the road or in your office. If you have installed IP cameras, you can even see your commands as they happen. ”Wiser Home Control incorporates encrypted wireless technology to ensure secured data transaction. Users can also coordinate their installer’s service call via the secured remote access without physically having to enter their homes. User-friendly Scalable Solution Wiser Home Control makes operating technology in your home easy by providing seamless control of lighting, music, home theatre, cooling system, curtains and shutters, security systems, and much more. To link and manage all these functions, an easy-to-use and easy-to-
A good home control system should not only provide people with a better lifestyle and ensure that they live well, but also be environmental-friendly. “Wiser Home Control goes beyond looks and comfort,” “With its userfriendly integrated platform and remote access ability, Wiser offers the user the enjoyment of 24/7 connectivity, comfort and convenience, entertainment and peace-ofmind in an environmental-friendly way. Imagine if you have forgotten to turn off your air-conditioner, you can do so when you are on the road instead of having to rush home or leave it on all day. The time scheduling function will turn off lights automatically in preset timing; the scene control function helps to optimize the ambience in correct lighting and brightness to be energy-efficient; and a lot more. We can all do something good for the environment and we can start at home. A good home control system will definitely contribute to this aspiration.
inspired to be
for those inspired by green, written by the experts
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Delivering Safe Water & Conserving It
By Ms Megan Lehtonen, Director Business Development The IAPMO Group. As president of Onni, Inc. for over ten years, Megan was instrumental in establishing GreenPlumbers as the “green” standard for the plumbing industry in the United States by training more than 5,500 plumbers in 42 states in the first full year of operation, and establishing partnerships with IAPMO, the UA and major trade organizations.
e have no doubt all heard that water, as we know it, sits at the nexus of food security, education, gender empowerment and global disease. And a massive freshwater crisis looms over humankind in the coming decade. According to the chairman of CII’s National Committee on Water, the efficiency of water supply by municipalities in urban areas is less than 50 percent. Water supply lines not only leak due to poor infrastructure, they are also tapped illegally, and not all consumption points are metered. The per-capita consumption of water is growing beyond demand in urban centers. The story in rural areas is just the opposite: people don’t even have easy access to clean drinking water. It is estimated that 50 percent of the Indian population does not have access to sanitation and waterborne diseases affect 37 million Indians annually. The leaders in India’s efficiency efforts all agree: India’s water crisis must be addressed as a burning platform, with a sense of urgency and a whole new mindset in water management; technology, innovation, investments, collaboration and new learning must all be leveraged and capability built on a massive scale. The unique thing about water is that every citizen — each and every one of us — is a consumer of water. How can we protect this invaluable resource? STANDARDIZATION OF PLUMBING PRACTICES This is the theme of the upcoming Indian Plumbing Conference in Delhi, Nov. 18, at which the 2011 edition of the Uniform Plumbing Code – India (UPC-I) will be released. It is the foresight of the organizers of the Green Building Congress, along with forward-thinking organizations within India, like the Indian Plumbing Association, who have made major end roads in the development and implementation of guidelines and educational programs, that will help to ensure the delivery and conservation of safe water. IAPMO India is thrilled to be amongst the leaders in this field of water and energy conservation, participating in some of the exciting initiatives on the horizon and developing ways in which we can collaborate whenever and wherever possible to increase the benefits of our combined activities. All of these leaders share the same conservation heartbeat, we at IAPMO are excited at what lies ahead. Our recent partnership with Intertek – the most respected testing lab in the world – has afforded us the solution of world class testing and certification under one roof. At the request of leading green organizations and manufacturers, IAPMO India will be focusing on testing and certifying plumbing products and rating their efficiency. The plumbing industry has the ability to create great change in the conditions for India — and build a model for the rest of the world — saving massive amounts of water and energy. BACKGROUND ON IAPMO IAPMO is a non-profit organization with nearly a century of focused code development and model codes that protect half the world’s population. The association has many ongoing initiatives with this specific target, including dedicating its resources to include this vision within India. In the world of product certification, IAPMO and IAPMO Research & Testing (R&T) have more 70 years of experience, with certification of more than 400 different product types — and 120 Green products. IAPMO’s mark of conformity — the UPC shield — has been the most recognized product compliance mark for more than 55 years. It is the symbol looked for by consumers to ensure that the products and fixtures they use conform to the standards referenced in the
Uniform Plumbing Code. IAPMO published its first Uniform Plumbing Code in 1946 — and has since developed codes in a number of countries. About four years ago, IAPMO made the decision to focus its efforts in India after hearing a request from industry leaders for the need for a more comprehensive plumbing code to compliment the National Building Code (NBC). With expert assistance from the Indian Plumbing Association and its technical committee, the UPC-I was developed and published in 2008. Since then, IAPMO India produced the Green Plumbing Code Supplement and the Swimming Pool Code. As mentioned, the UPC-I is being revised and the updated version released at the Indian Plumbing Conference in Delhi. Furthermore, IAPMO India brought the Green Plumbers program to India last year. Green Plumbers, originally developed in Australia in response to that country’s dire water crisis, has helped to reduce that nation’s water usage by 50 percent since its inception eight years ago. Green Plumbers is a three-day accreditation course on environmentally conscious plumbing practices and technologies. The courses include Caring for our Water, Climate Care, Water Efficient Technology, Solar Hot Water, and an Inspection Report Service. Green Plumbers has trained more than 100 GPAS to date and readers of this article are encouraged, in your own specific capacity and line of work, to contact IAPMO India or the IPA for this training. Green Plumbers will be conducting this training in 11 centers all over India. IAPMO India applauds Dr. Jain’s commitment, as he nominated seven delegates from Spectral to the last workshop in Mumbai. We hope to train more of his people soon. In the United Stages, the Green Plumbers courses and curriculum (which has to date trained more than 10,000 plumbers nationwide) is an education provider for the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC). LEARNING FROM EACH OTHER When it comes to water conservation through technology, you would think there’s a lot to teach the people of a country that has more cell phones than toilets. The truth is, however, the world has a lot to learn from India. Countries such as India, that have had water shortages for generations have been using these new technologies for centuries. Rainwater harvesting is mandatory in most states in India and people have been capturing and reusing their water for ages. The true need in countries such as India is to expand conservation efforts while maximizing health and safety. The unbeatable combination that IAPMO offers these countries is effective conservation and sustainability, coupled with the best codes and standards in the world. India has the extraordinary opportunity to define a new industry — plumbing! — and within that new development, to make sure that our most precious resources are protected by delivering groundbreaking education programs and initiatives. There are few things more exciting to witness than education. coupled with a worthy mission. The water we have now is all the water we are going to have. We need to make the best use of it in every aspect of our lives. Now, is the time to focus on the urgent need and the social benefit of increased water conservation, and water re-use under effective health and safety codes. Your assistance is required to achieve the common goal of protecting the health of nations while conserving natural resources by adopting the codes and standards in every new building design and construction. Education and training programs based on the plumbing codes can only be successfully implemented through partnerships of industry leaders committed to change.
This industry can change the world through conservation, but not without your help. It starts with you.
Growth of Housing Sector in India
India has witnessed significant growth in the building sector during the past 5 - 6 years. Yet, many reports indicate that the growth during the next 20 years would be many-fold higher. For instance, it is anticipated that the built-up space in the building sector would rise from the current 20 billion sq.ft to 100 billion sq.ft in the next 20 years. (Source – Climate Works Foundation 2010). This means that 80% of the building stock in India is yet to be built. It is the housing sector that needs to be watched where it is anticipated that the growth would be higher than the commercial sectors. Even during the recent years of a rather lower growth in the construction sector, housing sector in India has grown at 20%. Notably, the housing loan disbursement rose from 2.63 lakh crores in 2008-09 to 3.64 lakh crores in 2010-11. (Source: RBI, August 2011, New Delhi). The buildings sector accounts for atleast a third of all energy related CO2 emissions worldwide [Source: UNEP] and nearly 60% of the world’s electricity is consumed in residential and commercial buildings (although this usage varies widely according to geographical location, climate and consumption patterns) [IEA 2009] .This sector has a major role to play in enhancing resource efficiency in the coming years.
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It is anticipated that the built-up space in the building sector would rise from the current 20 billion sq.ft to 100 billion sq.ft in the next 20 years.
Need & Expectations from Green Homes
Eco-friendly designs are not alien to the Indian ethos. Historically, there has been excellent rendition of eco-sensitivity in the design of many monuments. The challenge today is how such an approach can be made the mainstream of design philosophy. Till about a decade, all manifestations of eco-design were not inherent in one single building or community. A highly energyefficient or a water efficient home could get away being called as ‘green’. Today, a green home needs to address all facets of environmental concerns, be it the site, water, energy, materials and indoor air quality related aspects. Green practices adopted in residential buildings can substantially reduce or eliminate negative environmental impacts. As an added benefit, green homes reduce operating costs, enhance marketability in case of residential apartments, and reduce health problems resulting from indoor air quality problems. Green homes reduce operating costs, enhance marketability in case of residential apartments, and reduce health problems resulting from indoor air quality problems.
Stakeholder Survey for Green Homes
A survey was conducted by the Indian Green Building Council (IGBC) to comprehend stakeholders’ perceptions on what they perceive as a ‘green home’. The respondents were asked to choose top three green features, while buying a house, which they would not compromise.
IGBC Green Homes - Survey Result
The IGBC survey results showed that, more than 60% of the respondents have chosen daylighting and ventilation as top priorities on which they would not compromise, while choosing a house.
About the authors
Srinivas S Srinivas heads the Green Building division of Indian Green Building Council at CII Godrej Green Business Centre, Hyderabad. He leads a team of Architects and Engineers involved in Green buildings and Rating systems.
Sampath Kumar Kabothu Sampath is a Counsellor in Green Buildings division of Indian Green Building Council at CII-Godrej Green Business Centre, Hyderabad. He is in-charge of IGBC Green Building Certification activities and he is an IGBC Accredited Green Building Professional, trained Green Buildings Faculty and Assessor.
IGBC Green Homes Rating System
Based on several feedback and surveys, IGBC launched the IGBC Green Homes rating system, the first exclusive residential rating program in India under the leadership of Ar Sharukh Mistry, an architect known for his passion and commitment to green. This rating system is a voluntary, consensus-based and market-driven programme, and is designed to address occupant priorities. The rating system received overwhelming response, both from developers and individuals. Today, over 2,34,118 dwelling units with built-up area of 398 million sq.ft are being designed as IGBC Green Homes. The different types of dwelling units covered under IGBC Green Home rating program include independent houses, gated communities, villas, residential apartments, service apartments, guest houses, hostels and resorts. Existing residential dwellings can also be retrofitted to meet the green homes criteria.
Benefits of Green Homes
A green home can have tremendous benefits, both tangible and intangible. Based on the study carried out on IGBC green homes, it is found that the immediate and most tangible benefits are energy conservation and water saving. Green homes can have energy savings to the tune of 30 - 40 % and water savings to an extent of 20 – 30 % over conventional homes. The most intangible benefit is that 90% of these homes have adequate daylighting. Enhanced ventilation as compared to conventional homes is another significantly notable feature. Green homes can have energy savings to the tune of 30 - 40 % and water savings to an extent of 20 – 30 % over conventional homes.
Top 10 Eco-friendly Features in IGBC Green Homes
Some of the distinct measures which one may not normally find in conventional designs include wall insulation, roof Insulation, day lighting through the use of sun pipes, shading devices, use of salvaged materials, low VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds) paints, onsite waste water treatment, vermi-composting, energy & water submetering and the installation of energy efficient appliances.
Learnings from implementation of IGBC Green Homes Rating
Having facilitated close to 400 million sq.ft, there have been several learning’s for IGBC, both technical and managerial.
• There is a need to change the mind-sets of the people
Perhaps the most critical aspect in taking forward the green agenda amongst the residential sector is to change the mindsets of people – occupants and developers alike. Paradigm shifts need to happen in design and delivery of such dwelling units. This sector is not used to engaging professional architects in design. But the fact is that an architect can design a green home through simple design interventions.
Avani Residence, Hyderabad IGBC Green Homes - Platinum Rated
Shem Park, Chennai IGBC Green Homes - Gold Rated
Inspired to be GREEN I Volume 11 I
Architects can change the way that people think of such designs. Initially, people seemingly assumed that salvaged materials are inferior in quality or that it spoils the aesthetics of a home. It took some time for people to accept this approach of reusing salvaged materials in their new homes. Today, there are numerous examples of IGBC green homes where people have refurbished, reprocessed and reused 100 year old materials in new buildings. An architect can design a green home through simple design interventions
easily available off-the-shelf. The BEE programme of labeling appliances is an excellent example of enriching the way a customer makes a choice. There are a host of home products and appliances where there are ample opportunities to label their performance.
Viswa Syamalam Residence IGBC Green Home: Platinum Rated
• There is now a need to deliver green home without increasing the EMI
Thus far, green homes were taken off largely due to passion, pride and the associated benefits. The challenge ahead is to deliver green homes with no incremental cost; if possible, cost that is less than conventional homes. The occupant, especially in the residential sector is so cautious and concerned while calculating the EMI. Cost can significantly decrease if one works on alternate materials and design approaches. There are now instances of several materials, the cost of which have decreased due to the market demand. The incentives for green homes, which many hope can increase the penetration of green designs, can only enhance pride and not economics. Even a 40 % or 50 % reduction in tax may not in any way alter the financial attractiveness. Green homes can stand on their own merit if the benefits are amply demonstrated. IGBC is working on enabling market transformation to make green homes attractive. IGBC is working on enabling market transformation to make green homes attractive.
BCIL T-Zed Homes, Bangalore IGBC Green Homes: Platinum Rated.
• There are different drivers for people wanting a green home
An important lesson emerges if one were to analyse why varied cross section of the stakeholders embraced the concept. Drivers vary for different stakeholders. For example, an occupant looks at comfort, aesthetics, quality of life, feelgood factor, all leading to ‘Happiness Index’. A developer looks at the business sense and marketability in delivering such homes. The rating system should address all of these drivers and facilitate an enabling system. The IGBC Green Homes rating is able to address the priorities of diverse stakeholders.
Considering the projected growth of the residential sector, it is imperative to work on the agenda of green homes to ensure a sustainable living. The residential sector can contribute significantly in climate change mitigation. Green Homes should be a national priority, as it is beneficial to the individual, society and the nation. Islands of individual excellence are fine but to reap quantum benefits, green homes should become a way of design philosophy and not an exception. IGBC is well on its way to translate this in to a reality. Green Homes should be a National priority, as it is beneficial to the individual, society and the nation.
Mahindra Chloris Project IGBC Green Homes: Platinum Rated
• Product certification can make it easy for the common man
The availability and affordability of materials, products and technologies is another critical aspect. Sourcing of green products has been a concern for individual home owners. Hence, to enable market transformation, IGBC is working with building manufacturers, so that green products are
Energy from Algae...
– A ray of hope for the power hungry world
etrochemical resources are limited and are bound to be scarce in the times to come. Also, due to their adverse impact on the environment, which has lead to a widely discussed phenomenon of global warming, the use of these fossil fuels has to be reduced by both the developed as well as the developing world. Development of CO2-neutral sustainable fuels thus becomes a high priority in the research regimes across the world. Energy generation from certain plants like rape or oil palm may not be the best option as these may also be used for food production. Thus Hydrogen, which is used by fuel cells to generate electricity, could be a likely winner due to absence of green house gas generation in fuel cell technologies. Some energy experts have even gone to the extent of predicting that within decades the world will switch to a purely hydrogen driven existence, where energy will be abundant, inexpensive and nonpolluting. Hydrogen can be extracted from fossil fuels, but currently it is more expensive than directly using oil or natural gas. Water can also be split into hydrogen and oxygen through electrolysis, but that requires electricity, which again might be generated using fossil fuels, or from renewable sources such as wind or solar that are even more costly. High oil prices, competing demands between foods and other Biofuel sources, and the world food crisis, have hence ignited interest in alga culture (farming algae) for making vegetable oil, Biodiesel, Bioethanol, Biogasoline, Bio-methanol, Biobutanol and other Bio-fuels, using land that is not suitable for agriculture.
Microalgae are mono-cellular, plant-like organisms engaged in photosynthesis and converting carbon dioxide (CO2) into Biomass. Algal Biomass contains three main components: carbohydrate, protein, and natural oils. Therefore, it is capable of producing a number of potential fuels, such as production of methane gas via biological or thermal gasification, production of ethanol via fermentation, production of Bio-diesel, and the direct combustion of the algal Biomass for production steam or electricity. Recent research initiatives have proven that microalgae Biomass appear to be the one of the promising source of renewable Bio-diesel capable of meeting the global demand for transport fuels. Microalgae commonly double their Biomass within 24 hours and with high oil productivities, they are highly desired for producing Bio-diesel. Using microalgae to produce Bio- diesel will also not compromise production of food, fodder, and other products derived from crops. More over, energy generation from microalgae is largely CO2 neutral as they take up CO2 during their growth and this CO2 is later released again when they are used for energy production. Industrial CO2 emissions may also be used as a “re-source”, as algae grow faster at high CO2 concentrations and, hence, produce more Biomass for energy production. The algae could well be used in waste water treatment and can be grown in different environments in both fresh and salt water.
Cultivation of microalgae has thus emerged as one
of the most promising sources for Bio-oils that may significantly contribute to tomorrow’s energy supplies. John Gartner, in his article “ Algae : Power Plant of the future?” tells that Hans Gaffron, a German researcher who fled from Germany to University of Chicago in the 1930 observed in 1939 that the algae would (for a then-unknown reason ) sometimes switch from producing oxygen to instead creating hydrogen, but only for a short period of time.
Million Tons/ Year
World Bio-diesel production capacity. (Biodiesel 2020 - Market Survey)
Inspired to be GREEN I Volume 11 I
Under normal circumstances, algae contain mainly hydrocarbons and proteins; the fat content does not exceed 20% of the total dry weight. But in 1980 it was discovered that under nutritional stress limited nutrients or saline environment certain microalgae will accumulate up to 72% of their weight as lipids (fatty substances).A typical algal mass has a heating value (heat produced by combustion) of 8,000- 10,000 BTU/ lb, which is better than lignite; but the heating value of algal oil and lipids is 16,000 BTU/lb, which is better than anthracite. A breakthrough finally came only 60 years later in 1999, when University of California at Berkeley professor Tasios Melis, along with researchers from the National Renewable Energy Lab, discovered that depriving the algae of sulfur and oxygen would enable it to produce hydrogen for sustained periods of time. The concept of extraction of Biodiesel from algae is shown in the image above. Dr Shakeel A Khan, Scientist, Indian Agri research institute explains in his article “Algae -a novel source of renewable energy and carbon sequestration” that there are two practical and very common methods of large-scale production of microalgae.
The solar collector tubes are generally 0.1 m or less in diameter. Tube diameter is limited because light does not penetrate too deeply in the dense culture broth that is necessary for ensuring a high Biomass productivity of the PB. Micro algal broth is circulated from a reservoir to the solar collector and back to the reservoir.
The potential of microalgae for making liquid fuels has led to the creation of hundreds of companies in the field and extensive research is going on for identifying the most efficient and cost effective process for commercial production of Bio oils from algae. In spite of this, there are only a handful of efforts which are close to pilotscale production of fuels, including Sapphire Energy and Cellena Oil, which is backed partially by Shell Oil. One of the patented technologies that use a mix of raceway ponds and PBs for production of Bio-fuels from Algae is the HR Bio petroleum Technology. In their pilot plant, a selective strain of algae is grown in a PB at constant conditions that favor continuous cell division and prevent contamination of the culture by other organisms. The main body of the production PB is a long series of four large temperature and pH controlled tubes that are connected together in parallel. The process is diagrammatically shown in figure above. The algae are exposed to sunlight while kept in suspension to maximize growth. Subsequently, the algae are transferred from the PBs to an open pond system, which is paddle wheel driven, re-circulating raceway, fitted with a durable plastic liner. The goal here is to expose the cells to nutrient deprivation and other environmental stresses that lead, as rapidly as possible, to synthesis of Biodiesel. Environmental stresses that stimulate oil production can be applied rapidly by transferring culture from the PB to an open pond. Ponds, like PBs, are exposed to full sunlight. Depending upon the desired product, the pond is harvested on 2nd or 3rd day and the algae cells are concentrated by gravitation into slurry, excess water is then removed, and then further concentrated by centrifugation. The wet Biomass is then dried. The oil and other by-products are extracted by a proprietary process.
Raceway ponds: It is a closed loop re-circulation channel that is typically about 0.3 m deep. There is a paddle wheel, which mix and circulate the algal Biomass. Flow is guided around bends by baffles placed in the flow channel. Raceway channels are built in concrete or compacted earth, and generally lined with white plastic. During daylight, the culture is fed continuously in front of the paddle wheel where the flow begins. Broth is harvested behind the paddle wheel, on completion of the circulation loop. The paddle wheel operates all the time to prevent sedimentation. Photo-Bioreactors (PBs): PBs have been successfully used for producing large quantities of micro algal Biomass. PBs permit essentially single-species culture of micro algae for prolonged durations. Tubular PB consists of an array of straight transparent tubes that are usually made of plastic or glass.
ndia consumes crude oil at a rate far above its production rate, leaving them reliant on foreign oil supplies. Even if crude oil use was not growing at 5-6% annually, India’s reserves would run out in less than 20 years at current extraction rates. With estimated 70% of petroleum occurring in automobiles, developing liquid alternative fuels usable in vehicles is vital, making Bio-fuels an attractive option. However, producing cropbased fuels in a country so densely populated, with such poor food security and limited arable land, would be difficult and dangerous. Table alongside compares the capacity of Bio fuels generation from different sources. According to “Biodiesel 2010 – A global Market survey” , India has up to 60 million hectares of non-arable land available to produce jatropha, and intends to replace 20% of diesel fuels with jatropha-based biodiesel. India is already one of the world’s biggest producers of algae and this alternative could prove particularly valuable for India where current commercial production is generally for human consumption. Biodiesel from algae can be interchanged or mixed with regular diesel, the main vehicle fuel in India. Extensive research is also on to identify specific strains of algae and to Algae 500-20000 develop processes and technologies, wherein Oil Palm 635 Bio-fuels from algae Coconut 287 may be directly used in Jatropha 207 transportation, rather than blending them Rapeseed/ 127 with fossil fuels. But the canola battle has just started. Peanut 113 The 2nd edition of the Sunflower 102 Biodiesel 2020 study finds the biodiesel industry Safflower 83 is entering a new era of Soybeans 48 transition to alternative Hemp 39 feed stocks, emerging technologies, and revised Corn 18 government policies favoring sustainable feed stocks and fuels. Each of these transitions offers considerable challenges and growth opportunities for biodiesel developers, producers, feedstock producers, and entrepreneurs.
Kansas State University engineer Wenquiao Yuan and his colleague think that growing algae on floating, acre-sized platforms in the ocean could dramatically reduce expenses associated with algae oil production by providing free sources of sunlight, nutrients, controlled temperature and water. However, the ocean environment could present some unavoidable problems – like weather extremities. Some reports even suggest that it will be at least 10 – 15 years before we can hope to have found a satisfactory solution to this end. Thus the future of commercial scale production of Bio-fuels and energy from algae is still unclear. While the research and pilot tests will continue and even more funds and resources will be committed and deployed, the world at large should continue building emphasis on energy conservation and efficient utilization of electrical as well as thermal energy. We must acknowledge that at present it is far cheaper and easier to conserve energy than to generate more from renewable sources and the environmental impact of ever increasing generation from fossil fuels is already there for the world to see. -------------------------------------------------------------------------The author, Subhash Chandra Mathur, is a UN empanelled International Energy Sector Expert, power sector veteran and MD of Samarpit International Group (SIG). Sumit Mathur is an alumnus of IIT Delhi and an energy sector enthusiast. SIG works extensively in the field of Energy Conservation, Carbon Management, Green Buildings and Sustainability.
Gallons of oil per acre per year
On the other hand, according to US Energy & Policy Advisor Daniel Kammen, the most interesting feature about algae is that it’s a wildcard. Algae might be a big player, but right now, there are some real breakthroughs required for a reasonable sized scale of production of algae-oils, sufficient to run even a car According to Christen Coogner of Discovery news, although algae is currently the most energydense Bio fuel source, the cost of producing algae oil is prohibitively expensive. The U.S. Department of Energy estimates that the Bio fuel would cost around $8 per gallon at the pump. Other experts have Source: “Algae -a novel source of renewable energy and carbon sequestration” by Shakeel A Khan even projected prices of more than $50 per gallon because of inefficient production and harvesting methods.
Supreme Industries’ Thermal Insulation Division offers cutting edge technology
upreme Industries has been on the fore front of introducing path-breaking plastics for myriad applications in diverse industries. The company, established in 1942, offers unique roofing solutions, already popular in the industry. Supreme's protective packaging division plays the role of a solution provider to clients in diverse industries, specifically in the application areas of Packaging & Cushioning, Insulation and Construction. The division is a part of Supreme group, who is an acknowledged leader of India’s plastic industry, handling over 2,30,000 tonnes of polymers annually and having the group turnover in excess of Rs. 4,500 crore. Supreme offers ‘DURA and INSU range of products’ for roofing and thermal insulation applications. Innovative ‘INSU’lations Energy is the single largest operating expense and accounts for over $100 billion in expenses for commercial buildings each year. With a view to improve efficiency and enable conservation of energy, the Thermal Insulation Division of Supreme provides top-of-the-line insulation solutions with its ‘INSU’ range of products. Each of the products that Supreme offers i.e. INSUshield – FR, closed cell chemically crosslinked polyethylene, INSUboard - Extruded polystyrene and INSUreflector - Radiant barrier are for the purpose of saving energy in different segments of the industry and for different applications. Supreme’s Thermal Insulation Division offers solutions in the following areas: • Ducting Insulation in hospitals, shopping malls, airports, PEBs, IT/ BPO etc. • Pipe insulation for split AC tubings, chiller piping, drain pipes, chilled water lines etc. • Floor insulation in server rooms, data centres, medical & diagnostic centres, and control rooms for petrochemicals.
• Underdeck insulation in PEBs, textile units, malls, airports etc. • Overdeck and wall insulation in commercial buildings, residential buildings, cold storages etc. In line with this, Supreme offers ‘INSUreflector’- a radiant heat reflective insulation material made of polyethylene air bubble film (ABF) laminated with aluminum foil on one or both sides. The bright surface of the aluminium foil reflects 96 per cent to 99 per cent infra-red radiation received by the surface of a heated slate roof. It protects the building from undesirable heat gain. The thin reflective foil having low emissivity and high reflectivity when installed with an air space restricts the transfer of far-infrared radiation making it an ideal material to be used for underdeck application. ‘INSUshield’ is a non-fibrous, fire retardant (‘Class O’ in fire propagation and ‘class 1’ in surface spread of flame), closed cell, tri dimensional chemically cross-linked polyethylene foam. An ideal environment friendly insulation material, with a perfect solution for all your insulation needs for ducts, roofs, pipes, vessels, etc. The divergent advantages of ‘INSUshield’ are ease of installation, low thermal conductivity and good moisture and vapour resistance preventing microbial growth and optimum condensation protection. DURAroofil (Formerly SIL ROOFIL) are customised, light weight, resilient, soft, polymer based closed cell profiles for PEB structures. Quality at its Best: A methodical, systematic and stringent approach to quality ensures durability to all their products. The company adheres to international quality standards while manufacturing products. ISO 9001:2000 and ISO 14001 certifications and NABL accreditation for various plants is a testimony to their serious approach to quality. It is strongly recommend that all buildings where human effort is involved or where the process so requires, be insulated for a better working environment & productivity.
Inspired to be GREEN I Volume 11 I
Light up your space
An outlook of the various types of lighting and it’s energy consumption
What does Lighting mean to us?
Lighting is not just about to lit up our space. It can do a lot, it helps perform tasks more easily, make us feel safer and more comfortable, and allow us to enjoy the space with full potential. Lighting adds beauty and drama to a room. It can make a small room look open and airy, and a large room appear cozy and inviting. It can create a stimulating atmosphere for a night of entertaining, or a quiet feeling of relaxation after a long, tiring day. In so many ways, lighting can make a difference. And, it does so inexpensively compared to other space decorating or remodeling options.
Color rendition How colors appear when illuminated by a light source. Color rendition is generally considered to be a more important lighting quality than color temperature. Most objects are not a single color, but a combination of many colors. Light sources that are deficient in certain colors may change the apparent color of an object. The Color Rendition Index (CRI) is a 1–100 scale that measures a light source’s ability to render colors the same way sunlight does. The top value of the CRI scale (100) is based on illumination by a 100-watt incandescent light bulb. A light source with a CRI of 80 or higher is considered acceptable for most indoor residential applications. Glare The excessive brightness from a direct light source that makes it difficult to see what one wishes to see. A bright object in front of a dark background usually will cause glare. Bright lights reflecting off a television or computer screen or even a printed page produces glare. Intense light sources—such as bright incandescent lamps— are likely to produce more direct glare than large fluorescent lamps. However, glare is primarily the result of relative placement of light sources and the objects being viewed.
Determining the needs
Lighting the spaces shall depend on the activity happening in that space, say for the light in a reading room needs to be different from the light in the restaurant. And it shall further be enhanced at different levels at different planes within a space, say for in office the light shall be optimum at the working plane (750 mm from floor). And it could further be advanced with the aid of technology - such as occupancy sensors, daylight sensors, dimmers etc.
Illumination The distribution of light on a horizontal surface. The purpose of all lighting is to produce illumination. Lumen A measurement of light emitted by a lamp. As reference, a 100-watt incandescent lamp emits about 1750 lumens. Footcandle A measurement of the intensity of illumination. A footcandle is the illumination produced by one lumen distributed over a 1-squarefoot area. For most home and office work, 30–50 footcandles of illumination is sufficient. For detailed work, 200 footcandles of illumination or more allows more accuracy and less eyestrain. For simply finding one’s way around at night, 5–20 footcandles may be sufficient.
Ambient lighting Provides general illumination indoors for daily activities, and outdoors for safety and security. Task lighting Facilitates particular tasks that require more light than is needed for general illumination, such as under-counter kitchen lights, table lamps, or bathroom mirror lights. Accent lighting Draws attention to special features or enhances the aesthetic qualities of an indoor or outdoor environment.
Indoor Lighting Design
When designing indoor lighting for energy efficiency, you want to consider some basic design principles and methods. Energy-efficient lighting design principles include the following: • More light is not necessarily better. Human visual performance depends on light quality as well as quantity. • Matching the amount and quality of light to the performed function. • Installing task lights where needed and reduce ambient light elsewhere. • Using energy-efficient lighting components, controls, and systems.
Color temperature The color of the light source. By convention, yellow-red colors (like the flames of a fire) are considered warm, and blue-green colors (like light from an overcast sky) are considered cool. Color temperature is measured in Kelvin (K) temperature. Confusingly, higher Kelvin temperatures (3600–5500 K) are what we consider cool and lower color temperatures (2700–3000 K) are considered warm. Cool light is preferred for visual tasks because it produces higher contrast than warm light. Warm light is preferred for living spaces because it is more flattering to skin tones and clothing. A color temperature of 2700–3600 K is generally recommended for most indoor general and task lighting applications.
Outdoor Lighting Design
When designing outdoor lighting, you need to consider the purpose of the lighting along with basic methods for achieving energy efficiency. Here are some basic methods for achieving energy-efficient outdoor lighting: • Security and utility lighting does not need to be bright to be effective. • Use fluorescent, high-intensity discharge, or low-pressure sodium lights unless incandescent lights are automatically controlled to be on for just a few minutes each day. • Consider incandescent flood lights with combined photo sensors and motion sensors in the place of other security lighting options. • Use photo sensors with fluorescent, high-intensity discharge, or low-pressure sodium lights. • Make sure outdoor light fixtures have reflectors, deflectors or covers to make more efficient use of the light source and help reduce light pollution.
Comparison of the features of the various types of lighting
Incandescent Incandescent bulbs are produced in a wide range of sizes, light output, and voltage ratings, from 1.5 volts to about 300 volts. They require no external regulating equipment and have a low manufacturing cost, and work equally well on either alternating current or direct current. As a result the incandescent lamp is widely used in household and commercial lighting, for portable lighting such as table lamps, car headlamps, and flashlights, and for decorative and advertising lighting. Fluorescent A fluorescent lamp or fluorescent tube is a gas-discharge lamp that uses electricity to excite mercury vapor. The excited mercury atoms produce short-wave ultraviolet light that then causes a phosphor to fluoresce, producing visible light. A fluorescent lamp converts electrical power into useful light more efficiently than an incandescent lamp. Lower energy cost typically offsets the higher initial cost of the lamp. The lamp is costly than others because it requires a ballast to regulate the current through the lamp. While larger fluorescent lamps have been mostly used in commercial or institutional buildings, the compact fluorescent lamp (cfl) is now available in the same popular sizes as incandescents and is used as an energy-saving alternative in homes. High-intensity discharge A high-intensity discharge (HID) lamp is a type of electrical lamp which produces light by means of an electric arc between tungsten electrodes housed inside a translucent or transparent fused quartz or fused alumina arc tube. This tube is filled with both gas and metal salts. The gas facilitates the arc’s initial strike. Once the arc is started, it heats and evaporates the metal salts forming a plasma, which greatly increases the intensity of light produced by the arc and reduces its power consumption. Highintensity discharge lamps are a type of arc lamp. Compared with fluorescent and incandescent lamps, HID lamps have higher luminous efficacy since a greater proportion of their radiation is in visible light as opposed to heat. Their overall luminous efficacy is also much higher: they give a greater amount of light output per watt of electricity input. Light-emitting diode A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices, and are increasingly used for lighting. Introduced as a practical electronic component in 1962, early LEDs emitted low-intensity red light, but modern versions are available across the visible, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths, with very high brightness. LEDs present many advantages over incandescent light sources including lower energy consumption, longer lifetime, improved robustness, smaller size, faster switching, and greater durability and reliability. LEDs powerful enough for room lighting are relatively expensive and require more precise current and heat management than compact fluorescent lamp sources of comparable output.
Efficacy (lumens/ watt)
Color Rendition Index (CRI)
98–100 (excellent) 98–100 (excellent) 98–100 (excellent)
Color Temp (K)
Incandescent Standard "A" bulb Tungsten halogen Reflector 10–17 12–22 12–19 750–2500 2000–4000 2000–3000 2700–2800 (warm) 2900–3200 (warm to neutral) 2800 (warm) Indoors/ outdoors Indoors/ outdoors Indoors/ outdoors
Fluorescent 50–90 (fair to good) 65–88 (good) 2700–6500 (warm to cold) 2700–6500 (warm to cold) Indoors/ outdoors Indoors/ outdoors Indoors
Straight tube Compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) Circline
High-Intensity Discharge Mercury vapor Metal halide High-pressure sodium 16,000– 24,000 5000–20,000 16,000– 24,000 50 (poor to fair) 70 (fair) 25 (poor) 3200–7000 (warm to cold) 3700 (cold) 2100 (warm)
25–60 70–115 50–140
Outdoors Indoors/ outdoors Outdoors
Light-Emitting Diodes Cool White LEDs Warm White LEDs Low-Pressure Sodium 60–92 27–54 60–150 35,000– 50,000 35,000– 50,000 12,000– 18,000 70–90 5000 (cold) (fair to good) 70–90 3300 (neutral) (fair to good) Upto 44 (very poor) Indoors/ outdoors Indoors/ outdoors Outdoor
Energy Savings Tips
Lighting uses 12 to 15 percent of the electricity consumed in a home. Suggested ways to economize on electricity bills with lighting are: • Turn lights off when you don't need them. • Use dimmers to save energy. • Use photoelectric cells or timers to turn lights on and off automatically. • Use the more efficient reflector bulbs, especially for task and accent lighting. (Example: a 50W "R" bulb can put as much light on an object as a 100W "A" bulb.) • Use energy-saving fluorescents wherever possible. They give more lumens-per-watt (more light from the electricity consumed) than incandescents. New compact fluorescents produce light that is similar in color to that of incandescents, making them an excellent choice for residential use. They are now available in styles that can accommodate a wide variety of decorative and functional fixtures. Information Source : US Department of Energy
Inspired to be GREEN I Volume 8 I
All About LEED Credentials
by Mr Bazeeth Ahamed
reen Building has been buzz word in construction sector in recent years. It is important that construction professionals get equipped with appropriate credentials to elevate them to the market standards. This article is intended to guide construction professionals to acquire LEED Credentials. Frequently asked questions about LEED credentials are answered here by Mr K.M. Bazeeth Ahamed is a Certified Energy Auditor and LEED AP with two specialties namely BD&C and O&M. He has been a part of various green building projects in UAE and is actively involved in educating professionals on Green Buildings and LEED Credentials. Mr. Bazeeth Ahamed has also authored “LEED Green Associate Made Easy” an online course on LEED Credentials.
1. There are many Green Building rating systems. Why should anyone be interested in LEED?
Yes, there are number of Green Building rating systems. Many rating systems are restricted to particular country .The most popular internationally accepted rating systems are BREEAM (Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method) and LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design). In my opinion LEED Credentials has higher market value compared to BREEAM for the following reasons. • LEED is widely accepted in international market, particularly in middle east countries where the construction sector is in boom. There are around 600 LEED registered projects in Middle East countries. LEED Credential add value for a prospective employee in international market. LEED is developed by US Green Building Council based on environmental and climatic conditions in US. The environmental and climatic conditions in US widely vary ranging from hot humid conditions to cold dry conditions. This makes LEED versatile and can be easily adapted to any country. LEED India, LEED Brazil and LEED Canada are some of the rating systems which adopted LEED USGBC with minor changes to suit the requirements of their country.
2. What LEED Credentials are available for Construction professionals?
LEED offers three tire credential system as follows: Tier 1: LEED Green AssociateLEED Green Associates have the understanding of LEED Core Concepts and Strategies and posses knowledge level required to assist a LEED Project. Tier 2: LEED AP- LEED AP has the knowledge to implement and document LEED project. LEED AP Credential comes with a specialty. • • • • • LEED AP ID+C is suitable for professionals in interior design and construction. LEED AP professionals Homes is suitable for in residential buildings.
LEED AP O+M is suitable for facility managers involved in operation and maintenance of the building. LEED AP ND is suitable for professionals in infrastructure and township development. LEED AP BD+C is suitable for many professionals involved in commercial buildings, high rise residential buildings, office buildings, hotels and schools. LEED AP BD+C would be ideal for most of the candidates. Around 90% of the present LEED APs have the spatiality BD+C.
In conclusion I will advice earning LEED Credentials is the best way to demonstrate your competency in Green Buildings to the potential employers.
Tier 3: LEED Fellow – The LEED Fellow was developed to honor and recognize distinguished
3. Where should I start for LEED Credential?
Any one new to LEED Credentials should start with LEED Green Associate. • •
green building principles or LEED. The document must affirm that the candidate was enrolled in the course. The document must provide the applicant’s date(s) of enrolment.
4. What are steps in applying for LEED Green Associate?
Step 1: Preparing the eligibility document Candidates should satisfy any of the following requirements to appear for LEED Green Associate Option 1: Involvement in LEED registered project For the LEED Green Associate credential, a person who provides support on a project registered for LEED certification would be eligible. Candidates should document the eligibility requirement through a letter of attestation from his Supervisor/Client/Project Manager. Following are the requirements for Letter of Attestation: • • • The letter must name a specific LEED-registered project. The letter must affirm that the applicant was involved with the project. The letter must provide the date(s) of the applicant’s involvement with the project.
Candidates who cannot document option 1 or 2 can easily document option 3. There are lot of free online courses available in USGBC course catalogue. Step 2: Understanding the LEED Green Associate exam and collection of study resources. Following are some of the basic information on LEED Green Associate exam. • • • • Exam can be taken through prometric centers in any country. Computer based test, 100 multiples choice questions. Total duration 2 Hrs and 20 mins (10 minutes tutorial on interface + 2 Hrs exam + 10 minutess exit survey). Passing score 170/200 – This doesn’t mean 85 percentage. The evaluation is based on relative performance against baseline performance. No negative marking. Results available immediately after the exam.
Many professionals may not have opportunity to work on LEED registered projects. They have Options 2 and 3. Option 2: Employment or Previous employment in sustainable field of work. Professionals employed or previously employed in sustainable field of work are eligible to appear for LEED Green Associate exam. Candidate should document the experience with letter of attestation. Following are the requirements of Letter of Attestation. • The letter must explain how the applicant’s profession or company relates to environmentalism or the green building industry. The letter must affirm the applicant’s employment and provide the applicant’s job title or company. The letter must provide the applicant’s date(s) of employment.
Further details are available on LEED Green Associate candidate handbook. Candidate hand book can be downloaded from http://www.gbci.org/main-nav/ professional-credentials/candidate-handbooks.aspx Study Resources: Following are the official study resources: • Green Building & LEED Core Concepts Guide, 1st Edition (USGBC, 2009) (available at www.usgbc.org/ store). Green Office Guide: Integrating LEED Into Your Leasing Process, Section 2.4 (USGBC, 2009). LEED 2009 for New Construction and Major Renovations Rating System (USGBC, 2009. LEED for Existing Buildings: Operations & Maintenance Reference Guide, Introduction (U.S. Green Building Council, 2009). LEED for Existing Buildings: Operations & Maintenance Reference Guide, Glossary (USGBC, 2008). LEED for Homes Rating System (USGBC, 2008). Cost of Green Revisited, by Davis Langdon (2007). Sustainable Building Technical Manual: Part II, by Anthony Bernheim and William Reed (1996). The Treatment by LEED® of the Environmental Impact of HVAC Refrigerants (LEED Technical and Scientific Advisory Committee, 2004). Guidance on Innovation & Design (ID) Credits (USGBC, 2004). Credit Interpretation Rulings (www.gbci.org). Guide to Purchasing Green Power (U.S. EPA, 2004).
• • •
As all consulting and contracting companies are striving towards sustainability, in my opinion any one in construction sector should be able to comply with this requirement. Option 3: Engaged in or completed an education program that addresses green building principles: This is the simplest way of satisfying the eligibility requirement. Candidates can document the eligibility requirement by either course completion certificate or Letter of attestation. In case of letter of attestation it should have the following information. • • The document must provide the course’s title and provider. The document must explain how the course relates to
• • • •
• • •
Inspired to be GREEN I Volume 11 I
LEED 2009 for Operations & Maintenance Rating System (USGBC, 2009). LEED 2009 Minimum Program Requirements (USGBC, 2009).
3 days before the exam should be sufficient. Exam preparation effort may reduce on attending a course.
6. How to maintain the LEED Green Associate Credential?
Candidates who successfully pass the LEED Green Associate exam must complete 15 Continuing Education (CE) hours biennially. Lot of online courses are available in USGBC course catalogue which can help the candidates fulfil this requirement. A Credential Maintenance fee of $ 50 is applicable biennially.
All the above except Green Building & LEED Core Concepts Guide, 1st Edition (USGBC, 2009) are available for free download. Page 12 of the candidate hand book has direct download links of the above resources. There are third party study guides available which consolidates all the above resources. To list a few third party study resources: GBES Study Guide – www.greenexamprep.com Stuidio4 Study Guide – www.studio4llc.com LEED Green Associate Made Easy – www.learning-green.com Step 3: Application Examination: & Scheduling the
7. What are the requirements to appear for LEED AP Credential?
To appear for LEED AP Credential Examination, the candidate should be involved in LEED Registered projects. There are online internship programs available if the candidate did not have chance to work on LEED Registered Project.
Application and scheduling procedure are detailed in LEED Green Associate candidate hand book; the following are the key information in relation to application & scheduling the LEED Green Associate exam. • Candidate shall apply for eligibility through www. gbci.org a pdf version of the eligibility document (Letter of Attestation or Course complete certificate) need to be uploaded. Candidate will receive eligibility id within 24-48 hrs on completion of application. On receipt of eligibility id, examination can be scheduled. Examination fee is payable at the time of scheduling the exam. The fee details are as follows. Full time student/USGBC Member (Full time employee of USGBC member companies) - $ 150. Others - $ 200. The eligibility id is valid for 1 year from date of receipt, candidates can make maximum of three attempts within the eligibility period.
8. What study resources are required to LEED AP Credential?
LEED Reference manuals are the sole study resource for LEED AP Credential. Third party Q&A may be helpful for the candidates. The two popular third party resources are greenexamprep. com & everblueenergy.com.
9. What is the examination fee associated with LEED AP Credential?
LEED AP exams can be taken either as combined with LEED Green Associate or separately. Following are the fee associated with the exam. Application fee: $100 Exam fee (per exam appointment): Combined exam: • Members: $300 • Non-members: $450 Specialty exam only:* • Members: $150 • Non-members: $250 For any clarifications feel free to email the author at email@example.com
5. How long should I study of LEED Green Associate Exam?
This depends on individuals, in my opinion 2 hrs a day for one month and an intensive preparation for
Disclaimer: “LEED AP” and the related acronym, and the LEED AP logos are trademarks owned by the U.S. Green Building Council and awarded to individuals under license by the Green Building Certification Institute.