This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Metals can be coated with a variety of glassy (vitreous) coatings to provide corrosion and electrical resistance, and to provide protection at elevated temperatures. These coatings are usually classified as porcelain enamels, and generally include enamels and ceramics. (The word enamel is also used for glossy paints, indicating a smooth, hard coating.)
Porcelain enamels are glassy inorganic coatings that consist of various metal oxides. Enameling, which was a fully developed art by the Middle Ages, involves fusing the coating material to the substrate by heating them both to 425 °C-1000 °C to liquefy the oxides. The coating may be applied by dipping, spraying, or electrodeposition and thicknesses are usually 0.05 mm-0.6 mm. Depending on their composition, enamels have varying resistances to alkali, acids, detergents, cleansers, and water: they are also available in various colors. Typical applications for porcelain enameling are for household appliances, plumbing fixtures, chemical processing equipment, signs, cookware, and jewelry. Porcelain enamels are also used as protective coatings on jet engine components. Metals coated are typically steels, cast iron, and aluminum. Glasses are used as a lining, for chemical resistance, and the thickness is much greater than that of enameling. Glazing is the application of glassy coatings on ceramic wares to give them decorative finishes and to make them impervious to moisture.
Glazing Glazing, which derives from the Middle English for ‘glass’, is a part of a wall or window, made of glass. Glazing also describes the work done by a professional "glazier". Glazing is also (less commonly) used to describe the insertion of ophthalmic lenses into an eyeglass frame. Common types of glazing that are used in architectural applications include clear and tinted float glass, tempered glass, and laminated glass as well as a variety of coated glasses, all of
deicing fluids. Primer performance is an .which can be glazed singly or as double. which are subjected to high humidity. glazing units. durability. texture. and corrosion resistance. appliance housings. Such coatings act as thermal barriers. Organic Coatings Metal surfaces can be coated or precoated with a variety of organic coatings. stones. More critical applications involve. to the substrate. eye appeal. usually made of wood. and laminates to improve appearance. and deicing salts. and metal furniture. naval aircraft.0025 mm-0. Such coatings have a wide range of properties: flexibility. For aluminum structures. rain. with a lifetime of four to six years. putty. pollutants (such as from ship exhaust stacks). Toughened and laminated glass can be glazed by bolting panes directly to a metal framework by bolts passing through drilled holes. residential building siding. sea water. and dieselengine components. color. Glazing is commonly used in low temperature solar thermal collectors because it helps retain the collected heat. Coatings are applied to the coil stock on continuous lines. gutters. and which are also impacted by particles such as dust. hardness. and have been applied (usually by thermal spraying techniques) to hot extrusion dies. resistance to abrasion and chemicals. such as TV cabinets. with thicknesses generally of 0. are applied at room temperature using binders. aviation fuel. shelving. films. such as aluminum oxide or zirconium oxide. and battery acid. aluminium or PVC. organic coatings consist typically of an epoxy primer and a polyurethane topcoat. gravel. turbine blades. The glass is fixed into a rabbet (rebate) in the frame in a number of ways including triangular glazing points. and gloss. etc. Ceramic Coatings Ceramic coatings.2 mm. Ordinary clear glass has a slight green tinge but special clear glasses are offered by several manufacturers. for example. Coated sheet metal is subsequently formed into various products. Glazing can be mounted into a window sash or door stile. paneling. to extend life of these parts. or even triple.
. wear faces of micrometers and calipers. and end mills). and its high thermal conductivity allows closer packing of chips than would be possible with silicon or gallium-arsenide chips. Then. surgical knives. combined with the important properties of diamond (hardness. razors. for example. Examples of diamond-coated products are scratchproof windows (such as those used in aircraft and missile sensors for protection against sandstorms). glass. as a single crystal or in poly crystal line form. cutting tools. ceramics. and fuel-injection nozzles.important factor in the durability of the coating. and coatings for cutting tools and dies. drills. have enabled the production of various aerospace and electronic parts and components. and plastics. abrasive in grinding wheels. turbine blades. Diamond can be doped to form n. Important advances have been made in the diamond coating of metals. and cutting tools (such as inserts. these include smooth. and ion-beam-enhanced deposition. An important application is in making computer chips. dies for drawing wire less than 0. high thermal conductivity.06 mm in diameter. sharpening of the abrasive grains). Besides. optically clear diamond film.e. sunglasses. diamond-coated speakers for stereo systems. such as chemical vapor deposition (CVD). wear resistance. and transparency to ultraviolet light and microwave frequencies). consequently.. light-emitting diodes. Techniques have also been developed to produce free-standing diamond films on the order of 1 mm thick and up to 125 mm in diameter. Studies are also continuing into the growth of diamond films on crystalline copper substrate by the implantation of carbon ions. plasma-assisted vapor deposition. DIAMOND COATING The properties of diamond that are relevant to manufacturing engineering are described as cutting-tool material. The film is then laser cut to desired shapes and brazed onto. for grinding hard materials and dressing of grinding wheels (i. The development of these techniques. using various techniques.and p-type ends on semiconductors to make transistors. a lot of research is being conducted to develop improved coating materials. unlike the hazy gray diamond film formerly produced. electronic and infrared heat seekers and sensors. significantly increasing the speed of computers.
and microscale probes. and wire brushing) produces a certain surface texture and appearance. cone-like surface texture. optical or aesthetic reasons. electrical-discharge machining. Less expensive than diamond films but with similar properties (such as low friction. a few nanometers in thickness. tools and dies. and chemical inertness. gears. ion-beam-assisted deposition process. some of these processes can be used to modify the surface produced by a previous process. injection molding. Surface texturing consists of techniques such as etching which is using chemicals or sputtering techniques. functional. high hardness. grinding the surface of a cast part. machining. However. grinding. grinding. lasers which is using excimer lasers with pulsed beams. . Finally. bearings.Diamond-Like Carbon A more recent development is diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings. atomic oxygen which is process reacting with surface to produce a fine. forging. as well as a smooth surface). golf club heads and computer hard disks. manufactured surfaces (casting. electric arcs. polishing. which use a low-temperature. For example. Obviously. polishing etc) can be further modified by secondary operations for technical. DLC has applications in such areas as engine components. grit blasting. rolls for temper mills. SURFACE TEXTURING Each manufacturing process ( such as casting. powder metallurgy. micro-electromechanical systems. The applications include molds for permanent-mold casting.
basic embossing rollers. or to enhance its decorative appeal and reduce its sensitivity to surface scratches. There may be a requirement to reduce (or even increase) the friction between mating parts. Surface Texturing is used because defined as ‘the modification of the functional properties of the surface of an object’. followed by a chemical or electro-chemical machining process to etch away those parts of the surface that remain exposed. to improve the formability of a metal sheet. making it suitable for a large number of applications. capable of producing non-random (deterministic) textures on both flat and cylindrical metallic parts. These properties. can also be achieved by surface texturing .A New Technology for Producing Textured Surfaces using Ink . nitriding or ion implantation. automotive steel and aluminum sheet. The Ink-Jet Texturing Process Ink-jet texturing is a remarkably straightforward process. surface engineering is typically undertaken to change the physical or visual properties of a surface. to increase the surface area of a substrate (perhaps to improve the adhesion of a coating). A controlled mask is printed on the surface of the part. The standard embodiment of ink-jet texturing. .Jet Texturing by Intexia Lid Overcoming the limitations of previous technologies. ink-jet texturing is a new process developed by Intexia Lid. are many and varied. is termed 2D texturing. and the reasons for wanting to change them. Essentially it could be any image generated in the software and downloaded to the ink-jet printhead. and basic injection mould dies. Surface engineering is frequently taken to mean the application of chemical processes such as coating. Furthermore. including directly textured bearings and seals. The texture pattern could be of a regular geometry for functional purposes (such as sheet steel) or a decorative pattern for embossing. irrespective of the hardness of the metal. there is no heat-affected zone or displaced material. Yet all of the above benefits.modifying the topography of the surface instead of its chemistry. in which the surface is etched to a single depth. and more.
II. which is potentially catastrophic if a good thermal contact is critical. Ink-jet texturing could have significant advantages compared to laser etching. break down at high temperatures or be attacked by chemical contact. Some companies in the automotive industry are currently investigating potential new technologies to enable this application of surface textures. yet retain the flexibility of ink-jet and laser for incremental serialising. Thermal and mechanical processes may distort thin parts or leave material tens of microns proud of the marked face. including surface smoothness and pattern design.Jet Texturing: I. which can decrease the quality of the object being created.Application Ink . laser etching uses high temperatures to displace the unwanted metal. or to achieve the desired level of lubrication for the parts to function efficiently. Furthermore. With ink-jet texturing. Ink-Jet Texturing for Permanent Traceability Another area of potential application is component marking for permanent traceability. Ink-Jet Texturing in Engine Components Intexia’s high-resolution system offers a wealth of potential applications for ink-jet texturing in engine components. The surfaces of many of these parts have to be textured to retain sufficient friction. . therefore eliminating any formation of heat-affected zones. the unwanted metal is dissolved into solution. An inkjet textured code would be permanently recessed into the surface. Conventional ink-jet codes may wear off. This type of texturing can also be used in mechatronics.
and spraying (in figure 34. . and (c) electrostatic spraying (used particularly for automotive bodies).12 Methods of paint application: (a) dip coating. Common methods of applying paint are dipping. and fading. and dry quickly. The selection of a particular paint depends on specified requirements. making them more difficult to clean than the first two types. are easy to apply. (b) flow coating. temperature extremes.22). Paint generally classified as: – Enamels – produce a smooth coat with a glossy or semi-glossy appearance. FIGURE 34. – Water-based paints: applied easily. The engineering applications of painting range from appliances and machine tools to automobile bodies and aircraft fuselages. but have a porous surface and absorb water.PAINTING Paint has been widely used as a surface coating. rolling. Paints are available with good resistance to abrasion. – Lacquers: Form a film by evaporation of a solvent. brushing.
Electrostatic Spray In electrocoating or electrostatic spraying. saves in material costs and labor I.can lead to less paint waste III. Requires extra cleanliness . However. Advantages and Disadvantages of Electrostatic Spray Advantages I. Use the robotic control to guide the spray nozzle. Has high transfer efficiency. deep recesses and corners can be difficult to coat with this method. Electrostatic spraying is better compare to conventional spraying. because the loss can be as little as 10℅ of the paint. Disadvantages Has guns that tend to be bulky and delicate II. Has good edge cover Has uniform film thickness III. Requires all parts to be conductive Has high equipment and maintenance cost II. IV. IV. paint particles are charged electrostatically and are attracted to surfaces to be painted. producing a uniformly adherent coating.
forming much finer thin fog. the high compress air tends to throw the paint away when the paint passes through the special nozzle. Due to the occlusion of electrostatic. The charged particles are given their initial momentum from the fluid pressure/air pressure In this case. the lost paints are sucked back to the workplace in generating a kind of surrounding electrostatic effect and the over spraying phenomenon is thus minimized. the machine has achieved the purpose of electrostatic coating.Electrostatic Spray by OTSON Technologies Corporation In using the liquid electrostatic spray gun . In this way. . the expelling effect appears between the paint carrying electrostatic and the live particles as to cause further atomization of paint and thus. the droplets pick up the charge from an electrically charged electrode at the tip of the gun by charged electrode.
the degree of cleanliness required -. This is a good method to remove caked or clumped materials. grease.the type of contaminant to be removed -. . Bonded Abrasive--sand paper used to loosen and remove material Abrasive Blasting—striking of surface with stream of solid material to impact and abrade surface contaminants and protrusions Tumbling – use of rotating barrel filled with grit or abrasive material which cleans and smoothes surface as parts are tumbled.chemically converts organic oils into soap solution.SURFACE CLEANING A) Cleaning and Removal Processes: Cleaning consists of the removal of contaminating or otherwise unwanted liquid. cleaning of the surface is the first process that precedes almost any other surface treatment or coating process. Ultrasonic Cleaning – use of high frequency vibration to cause cavitations near the surface of a part and dislodge dirt and loose material. or semi-solid material from the surfaces of the component. Emulsification – dipping or spraying solvent and emulsifying solution which reacts with contaminant allowing dirt and grease to take on a form that becomes suspended in the solution. The type or method of cleaning to be used depends upon • • • • • • • • • • -.the cost of cleaning -. therefore. Steam Jets – use of high pressure steam to melt and dislodge oil. Most surface treatment operations require a clean and prepared surface.the design of the part B) Mechanical Cleaning: Wire or Fiber Brushing—use of wire wheel or brush to scrape off rust and loose surface material. C) Chemical cleaning: • • • Solution or Solvent Cleaning– dissolves oils and greasy contaminants in a liquid cleaning solution base of hydrocarbons Saponification -. solid. and dirt off surface.
wetting agent.immersion of part in bath of molten salt. tarnish. and machining compounds. and oil-borne dirt. acid. Electrolysis releases oxygen and hydrogen which provides a scrubbing action on the part. carbon. blind holes. oxides. Generally used to remove oxides. dirt. pickling.dipping or submerging a part in a pool of solvent to dissolve and remove oil. Used to remove scale. scale. Aggregation--agents collect and concentrate oil and dirt for easier removal D) Cleaning Fluids: • Alkaline Cleaning – soaking or spraying a part with a solution of alkali salts and detergents. E) Design Guidelines for Cleaning Cleaning discrete parts with complex shapes can be difficult. Also be used to pit and roughen up the surface. Make several smaller components instead of one large components. Vapor Degreasing – a part is passed through a container with solvent in a vapor state. Requires a water rinse. grease. Provide appropriate drain holes in the parts to be cleaned. Some design guidelines are as follows: • • • Avoid deep.• • Dispersion--active elements cause physical movement to move contaminants away from surface. • • • • Very good for removing oil. Acid Cleaning – soaking or spraying a part with solution of acidic salts. Part is warmed and removed. • • Salt-Bath Cleaning-. The vapor condenses on the cool part and drips off. or salt-bath cleaning processes. and dirt from metals. Immersion Cleaning -. Very good for removing rust. Electrochemical cleaning-. . Pickling – immersion of a part in a strong acidic cleaning solution. grease.use of electrical charge and current to assist alkali. and detergents in water. which may be difficult to clean. and scale. and graphite contaminants.
(3rd Edition). CONCLUSIONS Surface treatment is an important aspect of all manufacturing processes. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology.The treatment and disposal of cleaning fluids. Schmidt (2001). (9th Edition). Materials and Processes in Manufacturing. friction. as well as of various fluids and waste materials from the processes described in surface technology.aspx?ArticleID=1925 http://p2pays. coating. REFERENCES • Serope Kalpakjian. are among the most important considerations for environmentally safe manufacturing operations. Several techniques are available for modifying surfaces. Ronald A. • • • http://www. deposition. Inc. plating. state: John Wiley & Son. Processes.otson. Groover (2002). and Systems. • E.com/surface_technologies.g.htm http://www. Clean surfaces can be important in further processing and use of the product (e. Black. or welding). Kohser (2003). Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing Materials. Schey. The processes used include mechanical working and coating of surfaces. state: John Wiley & Son. J T. heat treatment. (year).com/article.metallic materials.html . (2nd Edition). and coatings. wear and fatigue resistance. Inc. • Mikell P.azom. corrosion. such as enamels. Steven R. state: Prentice Hall. non. painting. (4th Edition). such as appearance. Introduction to Manufacturing Processes. Cleaning can have a significant economic impact on manufacturing operations. • John A. Various mechanical and chemical cleaning methods may be utilized. and paints. Paul Degarmo. It is used to impart specific physical and mechanical properties..org/ref%5C01/00777/appltech. state: Mc Graw Hill.