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Goal of my project: Over the years induction motor has been utilized as a workhorse in the electrical industry Due

to its easy construction, high robustness and generally satisfactory efficiency with the invent of high speed power semiconductor devices three-phase inverter play the key role for variable speed ac motor drives. Traditionally six switches, 3 phase inverters have been widely utilized for variable speeds induction motor drives. This involves the losses of the six switches as well as the complexity of the control algorithms and interface circuits to generate six PWM logic signals. In the past researches mainly concentrated on the development of the efficient control algorithms for high performance variables speed induction motor drives, however the cost, simplicity and flexibility of the overall drive system which becomes some of the most important factors did not get that much attention to the researchers in this area most of the developed control system failed to attract the industry.

Induction motors are being used for many industrial and commercial applications because it its easy build, high robustness, and generally satisfactory efficiency. AC induction motors, which contain a cage, are very popular invariable-speed drives. They are simple, rugged, inexpensive and available at all power ratings. Progress in the field of power electronics and microelectronics enable the application of induction motors for highperformance drives. The speed of the induction motor can be controlled by varying its input AC voltage and frequency using an Inverter. A standard six - switch three phase voltage source inverter has six switches in three legs with a pair of complementary power switches per phase. A reduced switch count voltage source inverter i.e. four switch threephase inverter (FSTPI)] uses only two legs, with four switches. The advantage of this inverter due to the use of 4 switches instead of conventional 6 switches is lesser switching losses, lower electromagnetic interference (EMI), less complexity of control algorithms and reduced interface circuits. Several articles report on FSTPI structure. Power semiconductor devices constitute the heart of the modern power electronics, and are being extensively used in power electronic converters in the form of a matrix of on -off switches, and help to convert power from one form to another. There are four basic conversion functions that can be implemented namely; ac to ac, ac to dc, dc to ac and dc to dc. The switching mode power conversion gives high efficiency but the disadvantage is that due to the non- linearity of the switches, harmonics are generated in both the supply and load sides. The switches are not ideal and they have conduction, turn-on and turn off switching losses. Although the cost of the power semiconductor drives, may hardly exceed 20-30 percent, the total equipment cost and performance may be highly influenced by the topology of the circuit used for power conversion. Owing to the development of power electronics in power conversion, AC adjustable speed drives are becoming more and more popular for industrial applications. This equipment improves energy efficiency, but there are key issues, like efficiency and harmonic injection into the line, which affects the power factor, and the overall cost of the system, and these issues need to be considered before any drive is used for industrial or commercial purpose. 2

One way to increase the efficiency of the drive is by reducing the losses at possible places such as in the converter used along with the ac motor. These losses are computed as switching losses and conduction losses. It may also be improved as the number of circuit elements is minimized, because as the number of devices reduces the associated amount of switching reduces and so the losses are minimized. Proliferation of nonlinear loads, such as three-phase rectifiers, adjustable speed drives and uninterruptible power supplies are prone to high harmonic injection into the utility, which powers them. To reduce harmonic injections, improvement in displacement factor is considered and so power factor correction equipment like capacitors and filters are installed in the system. Harmonic currents cause resonance between utility and harmonicproducing loads or among multiple harmonic producing loads. These harmonic related phenomena result in de-rating of the system equipment such as transformers, higher transmission line loss and reduced system stability margin. Since electrical motors consume around 56% of the total consumed electrical energy the improvement in power factor of electrical drives as seen by the utility connection has been of major concern. Another consideration is the need to increase the VA capacity of motor drives, so that the full utilization of the isolated real power is possible. In order to solve some of these problems, a large variety of control techniques and converter topologies have appeared in the literature. Since good quality power factor systems are becoming more and more mandatory, power factor improvement is one of the key issues in designing a system. Several methods have been attempted in order to obtain a satisfactory power quality from the supply mains. The use of terminal capacitors across the machine windings is very common, due to its low cost and simplicity. However, this method is often not often recommended for the adjustable speed drives employing inverters which are PWM operated, as the capacitor may draw high harmonic currents due to the harmonics present in the PWM terminal voltages, and the motor may experience self-excitation, which might cause overvoltages in its terminals. In rural electric systems, the cost of bringing three-phase power to a remote location is often high due to high cost for a three-phase extension. Furthermore the rate structure of a 3

three-phase service is higher than that for single-phase service. Therefore, single-phase to three-phase power converters are excellent choices for situations where three-phase power is not available. Such converters have a wide range of applications in which a three-phase motor is a main component and the available supply is single-phase. Other factors that influence the choice of a static converter and threephase motor combination are listed as follows:1. Threephase motors are more efficient and economical than their single-phase counter parts. 2. Starting and inrush currents in a three-phase motor are less severe than in a singlephase motor. Owing to wide applications of power converters, it is essential to develop single to three-phase converters, which are efficient, cost effective and give high quality performance. Presently, available converters for such applications are classified as rotary type; autotransformer with switched capacitors and lastly, the static converter type. The first two types of converters as given in employ bulky magnetic components of considerable size and weight. The third category that employs static semiconductor devices for direct conversion of single-phase to three-phase is by far the most active research area in which the bulky magnetic part can be eliminated and embedded control of the line and the load can be achieved. The superiority of static converters is further reinforced with the advances in power semiconductor devices and their control logic. Previous work on static single-phase converters involves the use of thyristors in combination with L, C components, as in. The disadvantage of this scheme is the limited control range and the L-C values must be matched with the load impedances. Moreover the circuit topology is bulky due to the reactor used with the input. In a number of reduced switch count converter topologies for generating high quality three-phase voltages from single-phase mains have been presented, in which the converters were classified as active input current shaping feature ones and those without the active input 4

current shaping feature. The converters, which do not employ the input current shaping feature have reduced number of switches when compared to ones in which this feature was included, but in both types the converter size is large due to the inductor, in series with the single-phase supply. In a new single-phase to three phase converter for low cost ac motor drive was presented, which employed only six switches and incorporates an active input current shaping feature that results in sinusoidal input current close to unity power factor. This converter has the capability of bidirectional power transfer, an improvement on all the previously proposed converters. In new topologies for single to three-phase power conversion was proposed in which the zero sequence voltage was used to control the supply side parameters. This allowed the integration of the load and supply control, and with this class of converters unity power factor operation was possible. Low power drive systems typically in the range of fractional horse-power (hp) to 1 hp, due to their massive emerging applications in appliances and in industrial processes have been of great interest for researchers to explore their performance while improving the same. For these low power drives it is very common to use the single-phase to three-phase type of converter to drive the motor. The usual approach for these adjustable speed drives is to implement the power factor correction (PFC) feature in the power converter itself, which normally requires additional circuitry and controls. Some analysis has been done in order to evaluate the impact of these PFC schemes in the drive system in terms of performance and costs. It was concluded that, though a good system input power factor improvement can be achieved, the used of additional PFC control feature may not be very attractive for induction motor drives, due to cost and packaging factors. Hence, in order to make this scheme more cost effective, it is important to develop power converters with PFC schemes using a reduced number of components and more integrated controls. Due to the variety of the topologies and control strategies, the converter topologies have been differentiated as Conventional converters and Sparse converters. In Conventional circuits the numbers of switching devices are sufficient enough to achieve 5

independent control of both the converter and the three-phase inverter. In sparse converters the number of switching devices are not sufficient enough to achieve this independent control, thus the converter and inverter control actions are dependent on each other. As the number of switching devices are reduced the name sparse converters has been given.

Main advantages of the four-switch converter compared to the conventional six-switch converter can be summarized as bellow ; The number of the power semiconductor switches and the fly-wheel diodes are reduced, resulting in cost and space savings. Besides, the control and drive circuits are reduced which itself brings more savings.Due to a reduced number of switches, the conduction and switching losses in the semiconductor devices will be reduced. Eliminating some semiconductor devices from the topology, directly leads to more reliability. DC link voltage is as twice as a six-switch converter. Although it is an advantage in the rectifier operation mode, but it may not be desired in some inverter applications. This topology also has some drawbacks; The third phase current flows through the DC link capacitors. So they are exposed to low frequency harmonics which calls for bigger values for the DC link capacitors. A controller is needed to balance the capacitors voltages. It is proved that the balanced voltages can be readily achieved by a simple proportional controller. 6

Since the four-switch converter does not eliminate the third-order harmonics automatically, so a bigger value for switching frequency is expected.

Literature survey:
1. M.B.R. Correa, C.B. Jacobina, E.R.C. Silva, A.M.N. Lima: A General PWM Strategy for Four-switch Three-phase Inverters, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 21, No. 6, Nov. 2006, pp. 1618 1627. This paper presents a method to generate PWM signals for control of four-switch three-phase inverters. With the proposed approach, it was possible to study several PWM schemes using three or four vectors to synthesize the desired output voltage during the switching period. The scalar version of the proposed modulation technique can be implemented by software and may be easily included in drive software with a negligible increase in the computational effort. The effects of capacitor unbalance have been evaluated, and compensation procedures have been proposed. The THD analysis shows that the PWM pattern based on three vectors, in which two are small, presents the lowest harmonic distortion. However, the common-mode voltage 7

analysis points out that use of the two greatest vectors, , is more adequate for common-mode voltage reduction. The paper also presented suitable PWM strategies to be applied when the motor windings are delta connected. 2. M.N. Uddin, T.S. Radwan, M.A. Rahman: Fuzzy-logic-controller-based Costeffective Four-switch Three-phase Inverter-fed IPM Synchronous Motor Drive System, IEEE Transaction on Industry Application, Vol. 42, No.1, Jan/Feb. 2006, pp. 21 30. A cost-effective 4S3Ph-inverter-fed IPMSM drive incorporating an FLC has been developed, simulated, and successfully implemented in real time using the DSP TI TMS320C31 for a prototype 1-hp motor. The proposed 4S3Ph-inverter-based drive reduces the cost of the inverter, the switching losses, and the complexity of the control algorithms as well as interface circuits as compared to the conventional 6S3Pinverter-based drive. The vector control scheme has been incorporated in the integrated drive system to achieve high performance. The incorporation of FLC as a speed controller enhances the robustness of the drive. In order to verify the robustness of the proposed approach, the performances of the proposed FLC-based 4S3Phinverter- fed IPMSM drive have been investigated both theoretically and experimentally at different operating conditions. A comparison of performances for the proposed 4S3Ph-inverterfed IPM motor drive with a conventional 6S3Ph-inverter-fed drive has also been made in terms of THD of the stator current and speed response under identical operating conditions. The proposed 4S3Ph-inverter-fed IPMSM drive has been found robust and acceptable for high-performance industrial variable speed- drive applications considering its cost reduction and other inherent advantageous features. 8


F. Blaabjerg, D.O. Neacsu, J.K. Pedersen: Adaptive SVM to Compensate DC-link Voltage Ripple for Four-switch Three-phase Voltage-source Inverters, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 14, No. 4, July 1999, pp.743 752.

This paper introduces a new adaptive SVM approach for compensating the dc-link ripple in a B4 inverter. To achieve this goal, both dc-link voltages are sensed and the equations corresponding to the time portions allocated to the switching vectors by the SVM method are modified accordingly. The theory, design, and performance of this PWM method are presented, and the method effectiveness is demonstrated by extensive simulations and experiments. The quality of the inverter output waveforms is demonstrated to be the same as for the ripple-free case. Furthermore, this adaptive SVM method allows reducing the size of the dc-filter capacitors. However, assuming the presence of the dc-ripple leads to a more reduced value of the maximum rms phase voltage and to additional stress of the power devices and the induction machine which have to be weighted against the advantages.

4. C.T. Lin, C.W. Hung, C.W. Liu: Position Sensorless Control for Four-switch Three-phase Brushless DC Motor Drives, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 23, No. 1, Jan. 2008, pp. 438 444. This paper has presented a novel FPGA-based sensorless control scheme for four-switch three-phase brushless dc motor drives. In the scheme, a novel asymmetric PWM scheme using six commutation modes in the FSTP inverter is proposed. The position information is estimated from the crossings of voltage waveforms in floating phases, and a low cost FPGA is utilized to implement the algorithm. Because the stator current waveforms of the FSTP inverter using this novel voltage PWM scheme are rectangular, the motor will operate smoothly 9

and the torque ripple will be at the same level. However, the two estimated commutations maybe cause commutation torque ripple. The experimental results show that the scheme works very well. With the developed control scheme and the lowest cost implementation, the proposed scheme is suitable for commercial applications.


J. Kim, J. Hong, K. Nam: A Current Distortion Compensation Scheme for Four-switch Inverters, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 24, No. 4, April 2009, pp. 1032 1040.

It was investigated that the source impedance unbalance and the center tap voltage fluctuation were the major reasons for the phase current distortion of the four-switch inverters. Both of them originated from the limited (finite) capacity of dc-link capacitors. Hence, the motor phase current distortion becomes ignificant as the frequency decreases, load increases, and the capacitance decreases. The corresponding errors were derived as the functions of the capacitive variable , and a compensation method was proposed based on . The effectiveness of the proposed method was supported by the simulation and experimental results. The proposed method, just requiring measurements of -phase current, can be easily implemented.Thus, the proposed method is believed to be a viable tool for four-switch inverters.


Stanislav Bartos, Ivo Dolezel, Jakub Necesany, Jiri Skramlik and Viktor Valouch Institute of Thermomechanics ASCR, Dolejskova, Electromagnetic Interferences in Inverter-Fed Induction Motor Drives, Institute of Thermomechanics ASCR, olejskova 5, 182 00 Praha 8, Czech Republic.

The equivalent models of the feeding cable as well as the IM suitable for the determination of stray current disturbances in the common and 10

differential modes have been suggested. The frequency characteristics of selected parts of the system and their contributions to the resultant harmonic spectra have been evaluated as well. The responses obtained on this model well correspond with the responses captured on the real drive system. This holds even at the very beginning of the transients, where the variables variables (mainly currents) are characterized by steep changes (peaks) and high frequencies. As for the IGCT inverters, it has to be expected that these inverters may produce similar voltage waves traveling along the cables connecting the inverters and ac motors and resulting phenomena as those produced by the IGBT inverters, although IGCT total switching times are substantially longer. The paper summarizes also the experience acquired during laboratory experimental operation of the IGBT and IGCT inverter feeding a 3-phase induction machine (IM) as well as practical knowledge gained from the employment of these switching devices in vehicles of city mass transportation. 7. M. Nasir Uddin, T. S. Radwan, and M. A. Rahman, Performance Analysis of a Cost Effective 4-Switch 3-Phase Inverter Fed IM Drive, IRANIAN JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING, VOL. 5, NO. 2, SUMMER-FALL 2006 1682-0053/06$10 2006 JD, 97 A cost effective 4S3P inverter fed IM drive has been simulated and successfully implemented in real-time using TI TMS320C31 DSP for a prototype 1 hp induction motor. The proposed control approach reduces the cost of the inverter, the switching losses, and the complexity of the control algorithms and interface circuits as compared to the conventional 6S3P inverter based drive. However, the proposed inverter based drive suffers from slight unbalance in the phase currents which cause relatively higher speed vibrations as compared to the conventional 6S3P inverter fed drive. The vector control scheme is incorporated in the integrated drive system to achieve high performance. The performance of the proposed drive is investigated both theoretically and experimentally at different operating conditions. A performance comparison of the proposed 4S3P 11

inverter fed drive with a conventional 6S3P inverter fed drive is also made in terms of total harmonic distortion (THD) of the stator current and speed response. The proposed 4S3P inverter fed IM drive is found acceptable for high performance industrial variable speed drive applications considering its cost reduction and other advantageous features.

Proposed Topology

In the simulation and experimental work, the single phase half bridge rectifier converts AC power to DC. The DC power is fed to FSTPI. The FSTPI converts the DC power to controlled 3-phase AC power. The 3-phase induction motor is driven by the FSTPI. Microcontroller is used to generate the controlled PWM pulse for FSTPI. The controlled PWM pulses of microcontroller are fed to the gate of MOSFETs of FSTPI through the driver circuit to drive the IM.

Fig1: circuit diagram of four switch three phase inverter

Principle of FSTPI operation

The power circuit of the FSTPI fed IM drive is shown in Fig. 1. The circuit consists of 4switches S1 , S2 , S3 and S4 and split capacitors C1 and C2 . The 3-phase AC input, which is of fixed frequency, is rectified by the rectifier switches. The power circuit is the three-phase four-switch inverter. Two phases a and b are connected to the two legs of the inverter, while the third phase c is connected to the center point of the dc-link capacitors, C1 and C2 .The 4 power switches are denoted by the binary variables 1 S to 4 S , wherethe binary 1 corresponds to an ON state and the binary 0 corresponds to an OFF state. The states of the upper switches ( S1 , S2 ) and lower switches ( S3 , S4 ) of a leg are complementary that is S3 =1 S1 and S4 =1 S2 . T he terminal voltages Vas


,Vbs and Vcs of a 3-phase Y-connected Induction Motor can be expressed as the function of the states of the upper switches as follows: Since, there is no control on the third phase, the middle point of the DC link (point C) is taken as the reference, so:

where Vas , Vbs , Vcs are the inverter output voltages,V c is the voltage across the dc link capacitors, Vdc is the voltage across the capacitors C1 and C2 (V c =V dc / 2 ).

In matrix form the above equations can be written as:


Block diagram of FSTPI fed closed loop induction motor drive:


The block diagram of the proposed FSTPI fed induction motor drive system is shown in figure 2. The drive system consists of: Three phase AC supply, Three-phase diode bridge rectifier, Three-phase four switches Inverter (FSTPI), 3-phase induction motor. Control logic, Processor board.

The controlled equipments are:

The standard AC supply is converted to a DC voltage by a three-phase diode bridge rectifier. A voltage source FSTPI is used to convert the DC voltage to a variable AC voltage. The output of the FSTPI is fed to the three-phase induction motor. PC is loaded with software and code composer software. The software consists of several external modules used for different engineering applications. The values of each block are adjusted according to the need of drive system. codes are generated and these codes are targeted (loaded) to the processor. The processor generates the required PWM pulses according to the users setting blocks in PC. The sensor is connected at the shaft of the motor to sense the actual speed of the induction motor. The sensor output is fed to the processor through the ADC of processor. The processor compares the reference speed (set speed) with actual speed through software loaded. The generated error signal is fed to the PI controller in the processor. Based on the output of PI controller, the processor generates the required controlled PWM pulses for FSTPI to control the speed of the induction motor.


Limitations of FSTPI:
Due to the inherent voltage vector limitation in the four-switch inverter, three-phase 120 balanced current can only be obtained by using 60phase shifted PWM control strategy. In order to properly utilize the four-switch inverter topology in a certain application, it is very important to understand its operational limitations. The main limitations are lower voltage utilization and higher harmonic components. Consequently, it can result in an increased harmonic copper losses and torque pulsations. Therefore, the four-switch inverter cannot be an alternative to the six-switch inverter configuration in all application areas, but can be a good choice in middle power range application, in which a certain harmonic level can be tolerated. For this circuit to be more effectively utilized advanced PWM control strategies should be developed for wide application in industry. Applying the component minimization concept of the four switch inverter to the conventional three-phase to three-phase PWM converter system, we can reduce the number of switches from the conventional configuration and come up with the eight switch based configuration. The desirable functions of an active power factor correction scheme are line voltage rectification, bus voltage regulation and line current wave shaping. To perform these tasks an additional circuitry, based on a dc-dc converter, is added to the front-end rectifier. Among a number of dc-dc topologies proposed in the literature, the use of a boost converter has been considered very appropriate for many applications due to the following reasons. 1) The dc bus voltage is higher than the conventional diode bridge rectified ac voltage. This is very convenient to increase the range of operation of single-phase to three phase motor drive inverters. 2) It has an inductor in the input and a capacitor at the output, which is very convenient for filtering. Figure 1.3 shows the conventional active power factor correction scheme based on the boost converter. The input current shaping is done by the boost action of the inductor and the switchs.


For efficient operation of the above scheme the circuit needs to be operating at a high switching frequency in tens of kHz range. At higher switching frequencies the switching losses increase, and the cost of high voltage diodes with fast reverse recovery characteristics prove to be costly. This configuration does not provide bi-directional power flow between the dc bus and the ac mains, which is a very desirable feature for ac motor drives. Moreover, though the boosted dc bus improves the drive operating range, when compared to the conventional system, still there is a limitation for the system speed range. Several single-phase to three-phase topologies were proposed in [7] with bidirectional power flow and input current shaping capabilities and with reduced component count.


[1] J. Kim, J. Hong, K. Nam: A Current Distortion Compensation Scheme for Fourswitch Inverters, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 24, No. 4, April 2009, pp. 1032 1040. [2] M.B.R. Correa, C.B. Jacobina, E.R.C. Silva, A.M.N. Lima: A General PWM Strategy for Four-switch Three-phase Inverters, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 21, No. 6, Nov. 2006, pp. 1618 1627. [3] M.N. Uddin, T.S. Radwan, M.A. Rahman: Fuzzy-logic-controller-based Costeffective Four-switch Three-phase Inverter-fed IPM Synchronous Motor Drive System, IEEE Transaction on Industry Application, Vol. 42, No.1, Jan/Feb. 2006, pp. 21 30. [4] C.T. Lin, C.W. Hung, C.W. Liu: Position Sensorless Control for Four-switch Threephase Brushless DC Motor Drives, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 23, No. 1, Jan. 2008, pp. 438 444. F. Blaabjerg, D.O. Neacsu, J.K. Pedersen: Adaptive SVM to Compensate DC-link Voltage Ripple for Four-switch Three-phase Voltage-source Inverters, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 14, No. 4, July 1999, pp.743 752. [6] Microchip Technology, 2001, PIC16F877A Data sheet, [7] M. Vasudevan, R. Arumugam, S. Paramasivam: High-performance Adaptive Intelligent Direct Torque Control Schemes for Induction Motor Drives, Serbian Journal of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 1, May 2005, pp.93 116. 19

[8] M. Bounadja, A. Mellakhi, B. Belmadani: A High Performance PWM Inverter Voltage-fed Induction Machines Drive with an Alternative Strategy for Speed Control, Serbian Journal of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 4, No. 1, June 2007, pp.35 49. [9] K. Rathnakannan, V. Ranjan: The Modeling and the Analysis of Control Logic for a Digital PWM Controller based on a Nano Electronic Single Electronic Transistor, Serbian Journal of Electrical Engineering Vol. 5, No. 2, Nov. 2008, 285 304. [10] MATLAB, Simulink User Guide, Math Works Inc., 2007