HISTORY OF BANKING

“Bank is a pipeline through which currency moves into and out of circulation.” Bank accepts deposits and repays cash to its customers on their demand. T h e Bank borrows money at a lesser rate of interest and lends it to t h e borrowers at a higher rate. It is thus a profit -lending concern. Bank cannotlend all the money that has been deposited with it. It has to keep a certain p o r t i o n o f t h e t o t a l d e p o s i t s i n c a s h w i t h t h e m i n o r d e r t o m e e t t h e c a s h requirements of the individuals and business concern. Banking History: Word Bank is said to be derived from the words Banc us or Banque or Bank. The history of banking is traced to as early as 200 BC. The priests in Greeceused to keep money and valuables of the people in temples . These prieststhus acted as financial agents. The origin of banking is also traced to

earlyg o l d s m i t h s . T h e y u s e d t o k e e p s t r o n g s a f e s f o r s t o r i n g t h e m o n e y a n d valuables of the people. The persons who had surplus money found it safeand convenient to deposit their valuables with them. The FIRST STAGE in thedevelopment of modern banking, thus, was the accepting of deposits of cashfrom those persons who had surplus money with them.The goldsmiths used to issue receipts for the money deposited with them.These receipts began to pass from hand to hand in settlement of transactionsbecause people had confidence in the integrity and solvency of goldsmiths.W h e n it was found that these receipts were drawn in

s u c h a w a y t h a t i t entitles any holder to claim the specified amount of money from goldsmiths. Adepositor who is to make the payments may now get the money in cash fromgoldsmiths or pay over the receipt to the creditor. These receipts were the earlier bank notes. The SECOND STAGE

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T h e y i n s t e a d o f c h a r g i n g i n t e r e s t f r o m t h e depositors began to give them interest on the money deposited with them. This proved quite a profitableb u s i n e s s f o r t h e g o l d s m i t h s . Atthe same time. T h e f a i l u r e s o n t h e p a r t o f t h e bankers to return money caused widespread distress among the peoples.in development of banking thus wasthe issue of bank notes. A conference was held in Nuremberg in 1548. This was the FOURTH STAGE. They allowed the depositors to drawo v e r and above the money actua lly standing to their credit. T h e banks in order to earn profits could not keep adequate reserves for meetingt h e d e m a n d s o f t h e c u s t o m e r s f o r c a s h . t h e r e w a s t h e n t o o m u c h c o n f u s i o n i n t h e b a n k i n g s y s t e m .This was the THIRD STAGE.The goldsmiths soon discovered that all the people who had deposited moneywith them did not come to withdraw their funds in cash. that they allowed the in development of banking. In Economicsterminology we can say o v e r d r a f t f a c i l i t i e s t o t h e i r depositors. in the development of banking. they found that they were being constantly requested for loanon good security. steps were taken to regulatethe banking organization. They also found that most of the money deposited with was lying idle.In order to create confidence among the people. 2 . They thought it profitable to lend at least some of the moneydeposited with them too the needy persons.When every bank issues receipts and most of them allowed the overdraftf a c i l i t i e s .B y e x p e r i e n c e t h e b a n k s c a m e t o k n o w t h a t t h e y c o u l d k e e p a s m a l l proportion of the total deposits for meeting the demands of customers for cash and the rest they could easily lend. They found that only afew persons presented the receipt for encashment during a given period of 1 The Bank of Punjab time.

(c) Substantial ownership / affiliation 3 . have control or hold substantial ownership interest over the other. & advances were Rs: 198 Million. The responsibilityof issuing of notes is now entrusted to a central bank of each country. beneficially owns or holds more than 50% of its voting securities or otherwise has power to elect and appoint more than 50% of its directors. The first central bank was formed inGeneva in 1578. T h e t o t a l o f d e p o s i t s o f P a k i s t a n i B a n k s w a s R s .e. 1984 i. 8 8 0 M i l l i o n . Bank of England was established in 1694.(b) Control refers to an ownership directly or indirectly through subsidiaries. if one of them or his dependentfamily members or its subsidiary. which should streamline the banking organization and technique. Group means persons.. For the purpose of this:(a) Subsidiary will have the same meaning as defined in sub-section 3(2) of theCompanies Ordinance.It wasdecided that a bank should be set up by the state. of more thanone half of voting power of an enterprise. Out of t h e s e Banks the Pakistani Banks were only 2 . COMMERCIAL BANKING IN PAKISTAN: At the time of partition total number of Banks were 38 only. a company or a body corporate shall deemed to be asubsidiary of another company if that other company or body corporate directly or indirectly controls. Indian Banks 29 & Exchange Banksw e r e 7 . w h i c h t r a n s a c t s t h e b u s i n e s s o f Banking in 2 The Bank of Punjab 14. Accordin g to banking companies ordinanceB a n k s a r e t h e c o m p a n i e s . whether natural or juridical.

These assets with appropriate margins should be inpossession of the banks / DFIs with perfected lien.17. Moody‟s or Fitch-Ibca. which will include his/her spouse.e.16.1962.The inter-branch indemnity / guarantee issued by the bank‟s overseas branch in favor of its sister branch in Pakistan. shares of listed companies which are actively traded onthe stock exchange. listed TFCs rated at least „A‟ by a credit rating agency on theapproved panel of State Bank of Pakistan and certificates of asset managementcompanies for which there is a book maker quoting daily offer and bid rates and there isactive secondary market trading. unconditionaland demand in nature.means beneficial shareholding of more than 25%by a person and/or by his dependent family members. Familymembers have the same meaning as defined in the Banking Companies Ordinance. shareholding in or by the Government owned entities and financial institutionswill not constitute substantial ownership / affiliation. for the purpose of these regulations. certificates of deposit. Liquid Assets are the assets which are readily convertible into cash without recourseto a court of law and mean encashment / realizable value of government securities. NIT Units. Moody‟s or Fitch-Ibca.15.dependent lineal ascendants and descendants and dependent brothers and sisters. Certificates of Investment(COIs) issuedby DFIs / NBFCs rated at least „A‟ by a credit rating agency on the approved panel of State Bank of Pakistan. provided the 50 The Bank of Punjab bank is rated „A‟ and above or equivalent either by Standard & Poors. assigned either by Standard & Poors. Medium and Long Term Facilities 4 .should be „A‟ and above or equivalent.the issuing banks‟ rating.Guarantees issued by domestic banks / DFIs when received as collateral by banks / DFIswill be treated at par with liquid assets whereas. for guarantees issued by foreign banks.However. would also be treated at par with liquid assets. Major Shareholder of a bank / DFI means any person holding 5% or more of theshare capital of a bank / DFI either individually or in concert with family members. certificates of mutual funds. bankdeposits. The indemnity for this purpose should be similar to a guarantee i.

NBFC means Non-Banking Finance Company and includes a Modaraba. Investment Bank. however. They are. to secure their risks / exposure. Discount House.19. LeasingCompany.appropriate margin shall at least be equal to the prescribed margin).23.mean facilities with maturities of more than oneyear and Short Term Facilities mean facilities with maturities up to one year 18. Readily Realizable Assets mean and include liquid assets and stocks pledged to thebanks / DFIs in possession. assignment of receivables.20. from the date of opening of L/C till the receipt of title documents to the goods. 51 The Bank of Punjab The banks / DFIs may also take exposure against Trust Receipt. PBA means Pakistan Banks Association. AssetManagement Company and a Venture Capital Company. Housing Finance Company. anassociation or body of individuals whether incorporated or not. Other Form of Security means hypothecation of stock (inventory).24.e. Person means and includes an individual. contract receivables. lease rentals. etc. Exposure withoutany security or collateral is defined as clean.Banks /DFIs will be free to decide about obtaining security / collateral against theL/C facilities for the interim period.21. Secured means exposure backed by tangible security and any other form of securitywith appropriate margins (in cases where margin has been prescribed by State Bank. a Hindu undivided family. freeto take collateral / securities. Subordinated Loan 5 . a firm.22. in addition to the TrustReceipt. with „perfected lien‟ duly supported with completedocumentation. i. a company and everyother juridical person.

machinery and any other fixed assets. Tangible Security means readily realizable assets (as defined in these PrudentialRegulations).26. 52 6 . Underwriting Commitments mean commitments given by commercial banks / DFIsto the limited companies at the time of new issue of equity /debt instrument. The loan shall be disclosed in the annual audited financial statements of theborrower as subordinated loan. subordinate to the claim of the bank / DFI taking exposure on the borrower anddocumented by a formal sub-ordination agreement between provider of the loan and thebank / DFI. mortgage of land. building.25.means an unsecured loan extended to the borrower by itssponsors. the un-subscribedportion will be taken up by them (commercial banks / DFIs). plant. that in casethe proposed issue of equity / debt instrument is not fully subscribed.

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