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Computers & Graphics

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/cag

SMI 2011: Full Paper

**Cyclic twill-woven objects
**

Ergun Akleman a,Ã, Jianer Chen b, YenLin Chen b, Qing Xing c, Jonathan L. Gross d

a

Visualization Department, Texas A&M University, United States Computer Science Department, Texas A&M University, United States Architecture Department, Texas A&M University, United States d Computer Science Department, Columbia University, United States

b c

a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history: Received 3 December 2010 Received in revised form 10 February 2011 Accepted 7 March 2011 Available online 9 April 2011 Keywords: Weaving Knots and links Topological graph theory

abstract

Classical (or biaxial) twill is a textile weave in which the weft threads pass over and under two or more warp threads, with an offset between adjacent weft threads to give an appearance of diagonal lines. This paper introduces a theoretical framework for constructing twill-woven objects, i.e., cyclic twillweavings on arbitrary surfaces, and it provides methods to convert polygonal meshes into twill-woven objects. It also develops a general technique to obtain exact triaxial-woven objects from an arbitrary polygonal mesh surface. & 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Motivation Beyond its use in fabric design, weaving provides a wide variety of ways to create surface patterns that can be embodied in sculpture and in innovative architectural design. We focus here on twill-weaving, which can provide strength, durability, and water-resistance, along with interesting diagonal patterns. We describe methods to convert polygonal meshes into twill-woven sculptures. It has recently been shown [3,4] how any given polygonal mesh can be transformed into objects woven from ribbons of varying width, such that the ribbons cover the underlying surface almost completely, except for small holes. The ribbons can be manufactured inexpensively by using laser-cutters on thin metal sheets. The corresponding plain-woven sculptures are constructed physically by weaving these metal ribbons. Mallos [26] has created large-scale plain-woven objects. With the design and construction of more and more unusually shaped buildings, the computer graphics community has started to explore new methods to reduce the cost of the physical construction for large shapes. Most of the currently suggested methods focus on reduction of the number of differently shaped components [31,11,12]. There exists a contemporary interest among architects to explore weaving as an alternative construction method [23,13,18] based on traditional bamboo-woven housing [19,20,29]. This suggests how

weaving with ribbons from thin metal sheets can also be useful for economical construction of complicated shapes.

2. Introduction It has recently been described [3] how any arbitrary twist of the edges of an extended graph rotation system induces a cyclic plain-weaving on the corresponding surface. The method works for all meshes and is very simple: just twisting all edges in the same way. On the other hand, in order to construct other weaving structures we had to use two different types of twisted edges, characterize conditions to design the desired weaving structures, and develop algorithms to create exact and approximate versions of the weaving structures. Herein we extend the mathematical model to twill-weaving, which is used in fabrics such as denim or gabardine. Classical twill is a biaxial textile weave in which each weft (ﬁlling) thread passes over and under two consecutive warp threads, and each row is obtained from the row above it by a shift of one unit to the right or to the left. The shift operation creates a diagonal pattern that adds visual appeal to a twill fabric or to a twill-woven object, as illustrated in Fig. 1. In what follows, we deﬁne a twill-weaving as a type of cyclic weaving structure on general surfaces. Based on this deﬁnition, we identify three mesh conditions that are collectively necessary and sufﬁcient to obtain a twill-weaving from a given mesh. In fact, many meshes do not satisfy these three conditions, which implies that it is impossible to obtain an exact twill for them. Intuitively, we may expect that a mostly (4,4) mesh, i.e., a mesh with large areas of quadrilaterals with 4-valent vertices, would admit a reasonably good

Ã Corresponding author.

E-mail addresses: ergun.akleman@gmail.com, ergun@viz.tamu.edu (E. Akleman). 0097-8493/$ - see front matter & 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.cag.2011.03.003

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twill. Indeed, we have developed an edge-coloring algorithm that will create an exact twill whenever the mesh is twillable. Even if the mesh is not twillable, the output of the algorithm satisﬁes most of the twill conditions, and it exhibits the characteristic diagonal pattern for mostly (4,4) meshes, as shown in Fig. 11(c). Our generalized deﬁnition of twill leads us to identify a previously unknown weaving pattern that we call triaxial twill. Triaxial twill patterns are created from meshes that are populated with (3,6) regions (i.e., triangles with 6-valent vertices). Such meshes can be obtained by triangular schemes such as mid-edge subdivision [25] or pﬃﬃﬃ 3 subdivision [24]. We prove that every mesh obtained by midedge subdivision [25] is twillable. Triaxial twill patterns are visually interesting and reminiscent of some of the tilings of M.C. Escher, as shown in Fig. 11(d). We note that a triaxial twill does not demonstrate the characteristic diagonal pattern of classical biaxial twill. Obtaining a biaxial twill that exhibits diagonal patterns depends on having a proliferation of (4,4) regions in the mesh. Quad-remeshing schemes such as the Catmull–Clark [6] or Doo– Sabin subdivisions [10] can achieve that proliferation, and they can make the number of crossings in each cycle divisible by 4, an important property of twill weaving. In Section 8, we show the existence of meshes that continue to be biaxially twillable after application of quad-remeshing schemes.

3. Textile twill Most textile weaves are 2-way weaves, also called biaxial weaves. They consist of row and column strands, called weft

Fig. 1. Three biaxial twill-woven objects obtained by applying Catmull–Clark subdivision to the same initial mesh. (For interpretation of the references to color in this ﬁgure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)

2/2/1

2/2/-1

3/1/1

1/3/-1

Fig. 2. All possible biaxial twills for period n¼ 4.

and warp respectively, at right angles to each other. They are also 2-fold, which means that there are never more than two strands crossing each other. The popularity of biaxial weaving comes from the fact that most textile weaving structures are manufactured using loom devices by interlacing the two sets of strands at right angles to each other. The basic purpose of any loom device is to hold the warp strands under tension, so that the weft strands can weave under and over warp strands to create a fabric. Using a loom, it is possible to manufacture a wide variety of weaves by raising and lowering different warp strands. Grunbaum and Shephard [16] formally investigated the mathematics behind these 2-way, 2-fold woven fabrics. They coined the phrase isonemal fabrics [17] to describe 2-way, 2-fold fabrics that have a transitive symmetry group acting on the strands. Twill weaving belongs to a certain family of isonemal fabrics in which each weft row of length n (the period) is obtained from the weft row immediately above it by a cyclical shift of s units (the offset) to the right, for some ﬁxed value of the parameter s, such that n and s are relatively prime. If s¼ 71, the fabric is called twill [17]. More generally, the resulting fabrics are called (n, s)-fabrics. This family of fabrics also includes plainweaves (with n ¼2, s ¼1) and satins. Twills are widely used in clothing fabrics, for instance, in denim or gabardine. Their characteristic diagonal pattern that makes the weaving visually appealing. Since twill-weaving uses fewer crossings than plain-weaves, the yarns in twill-woven fabrics can move more freely than the yarns in plain-woven fabrics. This property makes twill-weaving softer, more pliable, and better draped than plain-weaving. Twill fabrics also recover better from wrinkles than plain-woven fabrics. Moreover, yarns in twill-weaving can be packed closer. This property makes the twill-woven fabrics more durable and water-resistant, which is a reason why twill-fabrics are often used for sturdy work clothing or for durable upholstery. A special family of twills is characterized by two integers a and b, where a is the number of over-crossings, and b the number of under-crossings of a weft thread as it crosses the warp threads. Each twill-weaving pattern in this family can be expressed by a triple a/b/s, where s¼ 71 and where b/a/ À 1 is a 901-rotated version of a/b/1. For instance, 2/2/1 and 2/2/ À 1 in Fig. 2 deﬁne 901-rotated versions of exactly the same twill structures. Similarly, 3/1/1 and 1/3/ À1 deﬁne exactly the same twill-weaving structures. This is expected since one over in weft must correspond to one under in warp and one under in weft must correspond to one over in warp. Thus, the total number of overs and the total number of unders should be equal. In this paper, we focus mainly on 2/2/1 twill, simply called 2/2 twill, but our results generalize to other a/b/1 twills. The 2/2 twill pattern is quite common, and its characteristic pattern of twill is not limited to fabrics. Brick walks and hardwood ﬂoor tiles sometimes exhibit twill patterns. (See Fig. 3(c)). This work can also be useful to study the covering of an arbitrary surface with hexagonal tiles. The visual relationship

Fig. 3. Non-fabric examples of twill pattern. (a) Is a twill-woven basket from Mozambique, and (b) shows its detail. (c) Is an hexagonal tiling that exhibits the same diagonal pattern as twill weaving.

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under). Then the other ends of segments a and c (i.e., the ends not touching segment b) must be of different types from each other. See Fig. 5(b). Akleman et al. [2] introduces the concept of extended graph rotation systems, which facilitates a practical description of a cyclic weave as a mapping of a link L on the orientable surface So, and develops a projection algorithm to convert the weaving cycles to 3D threads, such as ribbons or yarns. In the next section, we describe how cyclic weaves are speciﬁed by extended graph rotation systems and how they are constructed by means of the projection algorithm.

Fig. 4. A regular hexagonal tiling and a related 2/2 twill weaving.

b over b c a a under r c over

5. Extended graph rotation systems Let G be a graph (without any self-loops). A rotation at a vertex v is a cyclic ordering of the edges incident at v. A rotation system for the graph G is a collection of rotations, one for each vertex of G. By the Heffter–Edmonds Theorem (see [14]), there is a one-to-one correspondence between graph rotation systems and graph embeddings on orientable surfaces, in which the rotation at a vertex corresponds to the ordering of the incident edges embedded around the vertex on the surface. In an extended graph rotation system (EGRS), an edge is viewed as a thin rectangular strip that can be twisted clockwise or counterclockwise, in helical sense (see Fig. 6). The sides of the strips provide two ‘‘strands’’ in the corresponding weaving pattern. For an ‘‘untwisted edge’’, these strands are ‘‘parallel’’ to the mesh-edge, and for a ‘‘twisted edge’’, they both cross over the mesh-edge and one over the other. The type of the crossover depends on the helical twist sense (i.e., clockwise or counter-clockwise). If an arbitrary subset of edges of a mesh on an orientable surface So is twisted in the same helical sense, then the EGRS induces a cyclic plain-weaving on So [2]. We now show how controlling the twist-type of every edge makes it possible to construct different weaves, beyond simple plain-weaving. 5.1. Specifying weaves on surfaces with EGRS A rotation system r0 ðGÞ of a graph G ¼(V,E) with no twisted edges uniquely determines a set W of closed walks that serve as the set of boundaries of regions of an embedding of that graph on an orientable surface So of Euler characteristic jVjÀjEj þ jWj. The set W is constructed by applying the face-tracing algorithm, and each closed walk in W is regarded as the boundary of a polygon. The surface So is obtained by pasting the polygons together. (See [14].) If we imagine that the graph G is in 3-space, then the polygons (if the polygons are sufﬁciently ﬂexible) can be pasted to G so as to form the surface So in 3-space. We imagine further that the graph G is thickened to a ‘‘regular neighborhood’’ N in which the edges become the thin rectangular strips. Thus, we have a model in 3-space of a thickened graph on a closed surface.

Cycle condition

Offset condition

Fig. 5. 2/2-twill weaving conditions. (a) Cycle condition. (b) Offset condition.

between the 2/2 twill pattern and the regular hexagonal tiling is shown in Fig. 4 [28,27]. In this paper, we are concentrating on topological and aesthetic properties of twills, rather than exploring the physical aspects of twill-weaving. Our goal is to obtain twill patterns on surfaces and to understand the impact of the initial mesh structures. Unlike plain-weaving, which results in an isotropic checkerboard-like pattern, twill-weaving results in an anisotropic structure.

4. General twill-weaving on surfaces In this section, we generalize twill weaving from planar weaves to weaves on arbitrary surfaces. We deﬁne a cyclic weaving on an arbitrary orientable manifold surface So to be a projection of a link L to So, such that there are no triple intersections of the link image at a single point on So [3]. Under this deﬁnition, cyclic weaves on general surfaces are 2-fold but not necessarily 2-way weaves. That is, a cyclic weave need not have a clear distinction of warp and weft cycles. In some exceptional cases, like those shown in Fig. 1, the characteristic diagonal patterns of twill-weaves, as shown in Fig. 2, can be obtained by coloring warp and weft threads with different colors. On the other hand, when the warp and weft distinction does not happen, it is still possible to obtain an approximate twill, which exhibits a strong diagonal pattern in most places (see Fig. 11). Similar to the terminology of knot theorists (for knot theory, see [9,22]), we call the part of a cycle between any two consecutive crossings a segment, and we call the two crossing points the ends of the segment. Two segments are called adjacent if they share a crossing. A gap is a ‘‘hole’’ in the weave, something like a region of a graph drawing that allows edge-crossings. For instance, in Fig. 5(b), the region r of the surface that is partially bounded by the sequence of segments a, b, c is a gap. Deﬁnition 4.1 (General 2/2-twill weaving). A cyclic weave on a surface So is a 2/2-twill if it satisﬁes the following conditions:

**Cycle condition: In a complete traversal of every cycle, one
**

must alternatingly encounter pairs of over-crossings and pairs of under-crossings. See Fig. 5(a). Offset condition: Let a, b, and c be three consecutive segments in a traversal of the boundary of a gap, such that both ends of segment b are of the same type (i.e., either both over or both

Fig. 6. (a) An edge, as usually represented. (b) A visual interpretation of an untwisted EGRS edge. (c) A counter-clockwise twisted EGRS edge. (d) A clockwise twisted EGRS edge.

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over under under

s over

p

s p under f over

s over p over f

s over f under

Fig. 9. 2/2-twill mesh conditions. (a) Edge condition. (b) Face condition. (c) Vertex condition. (For interpretation of the references to color in this ﬁgure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)

edge-bicoloring, in such a way that the induced cyclic weaving resembles a 2/2 twill-weave with a strong diagonal pattern in most places. A local perspective on the edge-bicoloring is represented in Fig. 9:

Fig. 7. An example of creating a cyclic weaving on a surface with face-tracing. The mesh in (a) is an octahedron with untwisted edges, embedded in a sphere. As shown in (c), the eight face-boundary walks of the octahedron are initially unlinked in 3D. However, if some edges are twisted, as shown in (d), then some of the cycles represented by the boundary walks become merged together, and the resulting cycles are linked, as in (f).

**blue means the edge is counter-clockwise twisted; red means the edge is clockwise twisted.
**

We will call a mesh twillable if there exists at least one edgelabeling solution such that the corresponding EGRS rðGÞ induces a general 2/2 twill-weave. Deﬁnition 5.1. We now redeﬁne a 2/2 twill-weaving in terms of an edge-bicoloring. Let r be the EGRS obtained by twisting all the edges of a mesh M0.

**Edge condition: Any three edges consecutive in a ‘‘face bound
**

Fig. 7(a)–(c) illustrates this for the example of the octahedral graph on the sphere. Observe that the neighborhood N of the graph is a surface-with-boundary that lies on the sphere. Notice also that the components of bd(N) form a link in 3-space, in which the components are completely unlinked. Next let A be an arbitrary subset of edges of G. Choosing either the clockwise or counterclockwise sense and then twisting all the edges of A in that direction gives an EGRS rðGÞ. (Beyond the usual case of a single half-twist of an edge, an EGRS permits any number of half-twists, each specifying a unique weave.) Twisting the corresponding strips in the surface N has the effect of linking components of bd(N). An effect of twisting the strips is to link some of the components of bd(N) together, thereby forming a link L in 3-space, with a natural projection to the surface So, as shown in Fig. 7(d)–(f). Applying the face-tracing algorithm to the EGRS rðGÞ constructs the components of the link L. The link L mapped on So makes a cyclic weaving W on the surface So. We say that the cyclic weaving W is induced by the extended graph rotation system rðGÞ. An important property of cyclic weaving, easily derived [3], is that every cycle c in a cyclic weaving induced by an extended graph rotation system has an even number of crossings. If c is a self-crossing, then every sub-cycle of c separated by a self-crossing has an even number of crossings (see Fig. 8). This property holds, regardless of how we twist the edges, and it will be used in the rest of the paper. 5.2. General 2/2 twill conditions for meshes We now describe how the theory of extended graph rotation systems can be used to simplify our initial problem of specifying generalized twill-weaving on surfaces to a problem in ary’’ induced by r must have two consecutive like-colored edges and the other edge colored differently. See Fig. 9(a). Face condition: If two consecutive edges in a ‘‘face boundary’’ F0 in M0 are colored differently in r, then their neighboring two edges in F0 must be like-colored in r. See Fig. 9(b). Vertex condition: If two edges consecutive in the rotation at a vertex v in M0 are colored differently in r, then their neighboring two edges in the rotation at v must be like-colored in r. See Fig. 9(c).

Fig. 8. Every cycle and sub-cycle in a cyclic weaving induced by a EGRS has an even number of crossings.

Theorem 5.2 (Twillable mesh conditions). A mesh is twillable if and only if there exists a edge bicoloring that satisﬁes the edge, vertex, and face conditions given just above. Proof. As we described above, the two sides of an edge in the mesh correspond to two cycle segments in the corresponding weaving structure. In particular, a clockwise twist of the edge implies that the left segment under-crosses the right segment at their crossing point, while a counterclockwise twist of the edge implies that the left segment over-crosses the right segment at their crossing point (the sides of the segments are determined when we traverse the edge on the surface along a speciﬁc direction. Note that no matter which direction of the edge we are traversing, the above statements always hold true). Therefore, two consecutive segments in a cycle from two consecutive edges of the same twisting type in a face boundary induce two different types of crossings, while two consecutive segments in a cycle from two consecutive edges of different twisting types in a face boundary induce two crossings of the same crossing type (note that a segment moves from one side to the other side after it passes through its crossing point). Based on this observation, and comparing Figs. 5 and 9, we can easily prove the theorem now: the edge condition for meshes in Deﬁnition 5.1 is just equivalent to the cycle condition for 2/2 twills in Deﬁnition 4.1, while the face and vertex conditions for meshes in Deﬁnition 5.1 are equivalent to the offset condition for 2/2 twills in Deﬁnition 4.1. &

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2. 3.

4.

Fig. 10. Applying twillable mesh conditions to a regular (4,4) mesh creates an anisotropic structure of twist types.

Fig. 10 shows an example of a (4,4)-grid (i.e., quadrilaterals with 4-valent vertices) structure that is edge-bicolored to satisfy twillable mesh conditions. The edge bicoloring on the right deﬁnes a 2/2 twill-weave. 5. 6.

6. Edge bicoloring with voting Each cycle in a twill must have the number of its crossings divisible by 4, because the pattern is two-over, two-under, and the numbers of over-crossings and under-crossings must be equal. Although many meshes do not admit an exact twill, for meshes with large sub-meshes of quadrilaterals with 4-valent vertices, it seems intuitively possible to obtain a reasonably good twill-weave in most places. Based on this intuition, we have developed and implemented an edge-bicoloring algorithm that can satisfy the twill conditions in most places. The resultant weavings can demonstrate strong diagonal patterns everywhere. This edge-bicoloring algorithm creates exact twill if the mesh is twillable. When we encounter an obstruction to the extension of a twill, we use a ‘‘voting’’ strategy that seeks to minimize the number of conﬂicts with the edge, face and vertex conditions. 6.1. Partitioning threads into bunches In order to distinguish the cycles of the mesh from those of the induced weaving, we refer to the latter as threads. We observe that the mesh itself induces the threads. That is, since every edge of the mesh is to be twisted, the face-tracing algorithm yields the same set of threads, no matter which way any individual edge is colored or twisted. A preliminary step before assigning colors (representing twist directions) to the edges is to partition the threads into bundles such that no cycle crosses another in the same bundle. (This is like vertex-coloring in graph theory.) For instance, if there exist only two bundles of threads, they are classiﬁed as warp and weft. The characteristic diagonal pattern of twill becomes visible when distinct colors are applied to warp and weft threads (see Fig. 1). Even in the cases when partitioning into two bundles is not possible, giving all the threads in the same bundle the same color illuminates the structure of the weaving, as shown in Fig. 11(c). 6.2. Breadth-ﬁrst extension with a voting strategy Our edge bicoloring involves growing a sub-mesh of colored (i.e., twisted) edges by coloring frontier edges, i.e., edges that are incident on a vertex of the growing sub-mesh, but are not yet colored. The color is chosen to meet all the twilling conditions, if possible. When exact twilling is not possible, we use a ‘‘voting’’ rule. Here is the procedure: 1. Initialize sub-mesh S with an arbitrarily selected vertex v0. Color all edges incident at v0 (i.e., the ﬁrst frontier set) in such

a way that the vertex condition is satisﬁed (the edge and face conditions are vacuously satisﬁed), and add those edges to S, including their other endpoints. Determine the set F of frontier edges for S. Select a frontier edge from F for which one of the two possible colors satisﬁes all available edge, vertex and face conditions and assign that color. Continue such selections from F and color assignments as long as possible. The remaining edges are called ‘‘leftover edges’’. Each leftover edge is potentially subject to four applications of the edge condition, since each of its two threads traverses a neighboring edge in each of the two directions. It is similarly subject to four applications of the face condition and four applications of the vertex condition. We view each of these 12 conditions as having an equal ‘‘vote’’. When some neighboring edges are not yet colored, a vote may be unavailable. If all available conditions agree, the edge is colored accordingly. If there is any conﬂict, the decision is postponed. Until every edge has been considered, return to Step 2. Color a least conﬂicted (i.e., strongest majority) edge e by majority rule; then recalculate the votes for the neighboring edges. Continue choosing and coloring a least conﬂicted edge until all edges are colored.

6.3. Group hierarchy in voting Partitioning the threads into bunches and assigning the same color to each thread in the same bunch helps to produce strong diagonal patterns. The voting power of bunch is proportional to the sum of the lengths of its threads, which permits a largest bunch greater power in deﬁning the twill. This approach provides a consistent look as shown in Fig. 11. 6.4. Weighted voting The vertex and face conditions are important to obtain diagonal patterns. The edge condition guarantees only that the cycle alternates two-over and two-under. If the mesh is not twillable, it is helpful to give the vertex and face conditions higher weighting in the voting than the edge condition. Allowing 3/1 twill in few places helps to achieve strong diagonal patterns as it can be seen in Fig. 11. As mentioned earlier, if the mesh is twillable, then our edgebicoloring algorithm constructs an exact twill. Fortunately, there exist a large number of twillable mesh families. We study mesh families that can provide exact biaxial twill in Section 8. In studying twillable meshes, we have discovered that there also exists another family of twill patterns, which we call triaxial twill. Interestingly, it is easy to obtain meshes that can produce exact triaxial twill, as explained in the next section.

7. Exact triaxial twill Triaxial twill-weaves are created from meshes with (3, 6) regions (i.e., triangles with 6-valent vertices) predominating. Such meshes can simply be obtained (see Loop [25]) by mid-edge subdivision, which involves superimposing what graph theorists call a medial graph on an arbitrary mesh. As illustrated in Fig. 12 (left), the procedure begins with a ‘‘parent mesh’’: 1. Insert a ‘‘new vertex’’ at the midpoint of each parent edge. This subdivides each parent edge into two ‘‘old edges’’. 2. Traverse the boundary of every face of the parent mesh, and in so doing, join each pair of consecutive new vertices by inserting a ‘‘new edge’’.

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Fig. 11. Examples of approximate biaxial cyclic twill-woven objects constructed from polygonal meshes with the voting algorithm. Genus-30 example has its cycles partitioned into two bunches, even though the weaving does not satisfy twill conditions everywhere. (a) Venus; (b) Bunny; (c) Cubical; (d) Genus-30. (For interpretation of the references to color in this ﬁgure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)

Fig. 12. Mid-edge subdivision always produces a twillable mesh. (For interpretation of the references to color in this ﬁgure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)

3. Color every old edge blue and every new edge red (Fig. 12 (right)) or vice versa.

Theorem 7.1. For any parent mesh on any orientable surface, the mid-edge subdivision scheme produces a twillable mesh. Proof. Let M be a mesh obtained by the mid-edge subdivision scheme on an arbitrary mesh. It sufﬁces to prove that the coloring process on the mesh M given in step 3 above gives a bicoloring of the edges of M that satisﬁes the conditions of Theorem 5.2. First observe the following: (1) if v is an old vertex in M, then all edges incident to v are old edges; (2) if v is a new vertex in M, then v is incident to exactly six edges, in which two are old edges, four are new edges, and in the rotation at v, the two old edges are separated by two consecutive new edges on each side; (3) each face in M either has all new edges on its boundary, or is a triangle made by one new edge and two old edges; and (4) no two faces whose boundaries are all new edges share a common edge. Based on these observations, we can easily verify that the bicoloring given in step 3 satisﬁes the conditions of Theorem 5.2. For example, to see that the face condition is satisﬁed, let e1 and e2 be two consecutive edges in the boundary of a face F in M. If e1 and e2 are colored with different colors, then the face F must be a triangle whose boundary consists of one new edge and two old edges. Therefore, the other edge of F must be an old edge, which is neighboring to both e1 and e2 in the face boundary. Thus, the neighboring edges of e1 and e2 (which in this case are the same edge) must be colored with the same color. That is, the face

Fig. 13. Examples of triaxial twill weaving on genus-0 surfaces.

condition in Theorem 5.2 is satisﬁed. The vertex condition and the edge condition can be veriﬁed similarly. & Triaxial twill patterns are interesting, reminiscent of some M.C. Escher tilings (as in Fig. 13). However, triaxial twill does not demonstrate the characteristic diagonal pattern.

8. Exact biaxial twill To obtain the characteristic diagonal patterns, we use biaxial twill that is obtained from meshes populated by (4,4) regions (i.e., meshes with large areas of quadrilaterals with 4-valent vertices). The simplest method [30] involves overlaying the medial graph. The vertex-insertion method [6] involves insertion of a new vertex at the center of a region, followed by a subdivision of each edge on the region boundary, and adjoining the resulting vertex to the vertex at the center of the region. The corner-cutting method [10] involves reapplication of the medial graph construction. These are collectively called quad-remeshing schemes. They can convert any

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9. Implementation and results We have developed a system by implementing an edge bicoloring algorithm to obtain twill patterns. This algorithm provides exact twill-weaves for biaxial and triaxial twillable meshes and acceptable approximate twill weaves for other meshes. Our system can transform any given polygonal mesh into an approximate or exact cyclic twill-woven object. The system converts threads of the weave into ribbons or into yarns by using the projection algorithm described in [3]. Users can interactively change the thickness of ribbons or yarns. Fig. 17 shows an example of an edge bicoloring and of the resulting cyclic woven objects, for thick and thin ribbons. All the twill-wovenobject images in this paper are direct screen captures from the system, and they were created in real-time. The colors of the threads are chosen based on the partitioning algorithm. We use saturated colors to emphasize the twill structure. For choosing the colors, we employ two different strategies. 1. To get colorful yet balanced results as in Fig. 1, we sample the hue space with equal angles. This strategy is useful to emphasize strong diagonal patterns, which are clearly visible in the case of non-self crossing cycles. 2. To get a subtle twill effect as in Fig. 1(a)–(c), we sample only a small portion of the hue space with equal angles. This is used in the case of self-crossing cycles. Despite the color similarities, the diagonal pattern remains evident in these images. The projection algorithm always guarantees that the sizes of the ribbons are relative to the underlying polygons. Therefore, the widths of the ribbons vary in different parts of the mesh. The projection method can create a sparse weaving, but, since twill becomes more visible in dense weaving, we use only dense woven objects in our examples. The projection method closes the gaps better with the mesh is obtained from a few iterations of a subdivision scheme. Since we already apply subdivision schemes to obtain denser meshes, the projection method covers the entire surface very smoothly, and the results look as if texture mapped onto smooth surfaces. Perhaps surprisingly, the results we have achieved cannot be obtained with texture mapping. 3D geometry allows us to achieve more realism in an interactive rendering. We can compute a real-time shadow, which can show the top ribbon’s shadow on the bottom ribbon. We can also use a specularly reﬂected environment map, which looks signiﬁcantly different in the top and bottom ribbons. Having 3D geometry also allows us to change the width of the ribbons in real time. Since we can easily unfold the ribbons, it is theoretically possible to construct these woven surfaces as physical shapes.

Fig. 14. Diagonal twill-weaving patterns on a quad mesh obtained by remeshing a (8,4,3) regular mesh. (For interpretation of the references to color in this ﬁgure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)

Fig. 15. Diagonal twill-weaving patterns on a quad mesh obtained by remeshing a (16,4,4) regular mesh. (For interpretation of the references to color in this ﬁgure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)

mesh into a quad mesh, either in which all faces are 4-sided or in which all vertices are 4-valent. Moreover, iteratively applying such quad-remeshing schemes causes (4,4) regions to predominate. If a quad mesh M0 is twillable, then any mesh obtained from M0 by these quad-remeshing schemes is also twillable. This hereditary twillability helps us to create an arbitrarily dense weaving, by iterative quad-remeshing. Having threads whose numbers of crossings are multiples of 4 crossings is not sufﬁcient to obtain a 2/2 twill. We must also create consistent offsets to obtain the twill look. To create offsets, twisting the edges so as to satisfy the vertex and face conditions in Deﬁnition 5.1 is still important. We have experimentally created a few such meshes and we have formally shown the existence of quad meshes on every surface of genus larger than 0 in the form of (4m,4n,g)1 [1]. [Examples of twill-woven objects obtained by remeshing (8,4,3) and (16,4,4) meshes are shown in Figs. 14 and 15, respectively. It is also possible to use semi-regular polyhedra to create twillable meshes. The twill-woven objects in Fig. 16 come from descendant-twillable meshes that were produced by adding handles to 2n-gonal bipyramids [33], such as an octahedron. Another important property of cyclic biaxial twill-woven objects is that two thread colors are sufﬁcient, as shown in Figs. 1, 14–16. This is because the threads in an exact biaxial twill-weaving can be naturally partitioned into warp and weft thread bundles such that no two threads in the same bundle cross each other.

10. Conclusion and future work We have introduced a theoretical framework for creating twillwoven objects based on extended graph rotation systems. We have formulated generalized twill conditions that apply to twills on any surface, not just on the plane. Based on the twill conditions, we have developed an edge bicoloring algorithm that produces acceptable approximate twill-weaves for any given mesh and exact twill for twillable meshes. Moreover, we have developed a procedure to convert an arbitrary mesh to generalize triaxial twill, which exhibits an interesting pattern that is signiﬁcantly different from diagonal patterns. In our investigations so far, we have not located commercial textile looms for triaxial twill. However, triaxial twill patterns provide an interesting hexagonal tiling of surfaces.

1 The notation (n,m,g) denotes a genus-g regular mesh where all faces are n-sided and all vertices are m-valent [1,7,32].

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E. Akleman et al. / Computers & Graphics 35 (2011) 623–631

g=6

g=6

g=7

g=7

Fig. 16. Two higher genus examples of biaxial twill-woven objects that are induced by a quad mesh obtained from meshes produced by adding handles to 2n-gonal bipyramids. (For interpretation of the references to color in this ﬁgure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)

Bicolored edges

Thin ribbons

Thick ribbons

explore ways, such as shortening the strips into more manageable lengths, for easier construction of woven objects. The venus and bunny meshes that are used to create approximate biaxial cyclic twill-woven objects in Fig. 11(a) and (b) are created by the Quadcover method [21], courtesy of Wenping Wang and Li Yupei. The rest of the models in the paper are created using TopMod3D [5].

Fig. 17. The correspondence between the bicolored edges and cyclic weave.

Acknowledgments We have shown, furthermore, that for any surface of positive genus, it is possible to construct meshes that can be converted to a biaxial twill that exhibits diagonal patterns. Since the geometry is not important for twillability of a mesh, the same mesh structure can be used to cover any surface of the same genus. In addition, we have shown that these twill-weaving structures can be painted in two colors. We have identiﬁed the effect of subdivision schemes on the cyclic weaving structures. Our results are not limited to twill. The relationship between mesh subdivision and weaving reﬁnement can effectively be used for other weaving and knitting patterns. It may be useful to check some remeshing schemes that we have not analyzed, such as the pﬃﬃﬃ remeshing scheme of 3 subdivision [24]. Our results also suggest that it is possible to provide consistent anisotropy over an arbitrary surface of positive genus, and it can be used to understand the limitations and requirements to create anisotropic structures on arbitrary surfaces. Another important implication of this result can be the characterization of the mesh structures that are parameterizable, since any consistent parametrization can be used to cover the surface with a consistent anisotropic pattern. An interesting direction is to explore the links between plane symmetry patterns [15,8] and weaving. There currently exists an interest in computer graphics for exploring symmetry patterns on surfaces such as N-way rotational symmetries (N-RoSy) ﬁelds [28,27]. In particular, 4-RoSy ﬁelds have potential to design twill patterns on a given surface while moving singularities to invisible or natural positions. We are currently researching on the material and constructing technicalities of weaving on an architectural scale. As we have discussed in Section 1, plain or twill woven objects can be constructed from ribbons of varying width that are manufactured inexpensively by using laser-cutters on thin metal sheets. For future research, there are several practical issues that need to be resolved to make this happen. For instance, the unrolled ﬂat ribbons are both long and wavy. Cutting such a ribbon as one continuous piece results in a huge amount of waste material. It is our experience that the physical construction of weaving is difﬁcult with such long and wavy ribbons. Therefore we currently We are grateful to the anonymous reviewers for their helpful suggestions for the improvement of the paper. This work partially supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant no. NSF-CCF-0917288.

Appendix A. Supplementary material Supplementary data associated with this article can be found in the online version of 10.1016/j.cag.2011.03.003.

References

[1] Akleman E, Chen J. Regular mesh construction algorithms using regular handles. In: Proceedings of the IEEE international conference on shape modeling and applications (SMI 06); 2006. p. 171–81. [2] Akleman E, Chen J, Gross J, Xing Q. Extended graph rotation systems as a model for cyclic weaving on orientable surfaces. Technical Report TR09-203l, Computer Science Department, Texas A&M University; 2009. [3] Akleman E, Chen J, Xing Q, Gross J. Cyclic plain-weaving with extended graph rotation systems. In: ACM transactions on graphics; Proceedings of SIGGRAPH’2009, 2009. p. 78.1–8. [4] Akleman E, Chen J, Xing Q, Gross J. Single-cycle plain-woven objects. In: Proceedings of IEEE international conference on shape modeling and applications (SMI); 2010. p. 90–9. [5] Akleman E, Srinivasan V, Chen J, Morris D, Tett S. Topmod3d: an interactive topological mesh modeler. In: Proceedings of CGI’2008; 2008. p. 10–8. [6] Catmull E, Clark J. Recursively generated b-spline surfaces on arbitrary topological meshes. Computer Aided Design 1978;10:350–5. [7] Conder M, Dobcsnyi P. Determination of all regular maps of small genus. Journal of Combinatorial Theory Series B 2001;81(2):224–42. [8] Conway JH, Burgiel H, Goodman-Strauss C. The symmetries of things. A.K. Peters; 2008. [9] Crowell RH, Fox RH. Introduction to knot theory. Dover Books on Mathematics; 1977. [10] Doo D, Sabin M. Behavior of recursive subdivision surfaces near extraordinary points. Computer Aided Design 1978;10:356–60. [11] Eigensatz M, Kilian M, Schiftner A, Mitra NJ, Pottmann H, Pauly M. Paneling architectural freeform surfaces. In: ACM transactions on graphics (TOG)— Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2010, vol. 29(4), 2010. p. 45.1–8. [12] Fu C-W, Chi-Fu Lai YH, Cohen-Or D. K-set tilable surfaces. In: ACM transactions on graphics (TOG)—Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2010, vol. 29(4), 2010. p. 44.1–8. [13] Griffen CS. Weaving as an analogy for architectural design. In: ACSA annual meeting, 2001 /http://faculty.philau.edu/griffenc/weaving_analogy.htmS.

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- J. Gross- CS E6204 Lectures 7,8a
- J. Gross- CS E6204 Lecture 6
- J. Gross- CS E6204 Lecture 5
- J. Gross- CS E6204 Lecture 4
- J. Gross- CS E6204 Lecture 3
- J. Gross- CS E6204 Lecture 2
- J. Gross- CS E6204 Lecture 1
- Shiqing Xin et al- Making Burr Puzzles from 3D Models
- Chi-Wing Fu, Chi-Fu Lai, Ying He and Daniel Cohen-Or- K-set Tilable Surfaces
- Mayank Singh and Scott Schaefer- Triangle Surfaces with Discrete Equivalence Classes
- Jonathan Palacios and Eugene Zhang- Rotational Symmetry Field Design on Surfaces
- Matthias Nieser et al- Hexagonal Global Parameterization of Arbitrary Surfaces
- Yu-Kun Lai et al- Metric-Driven RoSy Field Design and Remeshing
- Jonathan Palacios and Eugene Zhang- Interactive Visualization of Rotational Symmetry Fields on Surfaces
- Qing Xing et al- Pattern Mapping with Quad-Pattern-Coverable Quad-Meshes
- Ergun Akleman et al- Cyclic Twill-Woven Objects
- Qing Xing- Band Decomposition of 2-Manifold Meshes For Physical Construction of Large Structures
- Qing Xing, Ergun Akleman, Jianer Chen and Jonathan L. Gross- Single-Cycle Plain-Woven Objects
- Qing Xing and Ergun Akleman- Creating Abstract Paintings with Functional Interpolation
- Xing Qing- Many-to-many feature point correspondence establishment for region-based facial expression cloning
- Qing Xing et al- Spulenkorb
- Yen-Lin Chen, Ergun Akleman, Jianer Chen and Qing Xing- Designing Biaxial Textile Weaving Patterns
- Ergun Akleman, Jianer Chen and Jonathan L. Gross- Paper-Strip Sculptures
- Matthias Nieser, Jonathan Palacios, Konrad Polthier and Eugene Zhang- Hexagonal Global Parameterization of Arbitrary Surfaces

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