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Atomic Physics In 1885, Sir William Crookes carried out a series of investigations into the behaviour of metals heated in a vacuum. The experiment of Crookes and others showed that a heated cathode produced a stream of radiation, which could cause gases at low pressure to glow and which, make other substances emit light too. The radiation emitted from the cathode was given the name 'Cathode rays'. By mid-nineties it was known that these rays could be deflected by a magnetic field and they carried a negative charge. Some scientists felt that these rays were waves and others were inclined to think they were particles.
Perrin tube In 1897, J J Thomson showed that the stream of particles were indeed electrons. He conducted the famous discharge tube experiment by passing electricity at high voltage through a gas at low pressure. A common discharge tube is a long glass tube having two metal plates, sealed at its two ends as electrodes. It has a side tube through which air can be pumped out by using a vacuum pump, so that experiments can be performed at low pressure.
Production of Cathode rays When the pressure of air in the discharge tube is reduced to .001 mm of mercury and a high voltage is applied to the electrodes, the emission of light by air stops. But the phenomenon of fluorescence is observed in which the walls of the discharge tube at the end opposite to the cathode begin to glow with a greenish light. It is now deduced that some invisible rays were formed at the cathode, which on striking the glass tube emitted a green light. Since they are formed at the cathode they are known as cathode rays. Properties (Experimental observations) Travel in straight lines When an opaque object like a metal cross is placed in the path of cathode rays in a discharge tube, a shadow of the metal cross is formed at the end opposite to the cathode.
Cathode rays cast shadows of the objects placed in their path Produce mechanical effects On placing a light paddle in the path of cathode rays in a discharge tube the blades of the paddle wheel rotate. This shows that cathode rays are a beam of particles having mass and possessing kinetic energy.
Cathode rays can rotate a high paddle wheel placed in their path Are negatively charged When an electric field is applied in the path of cathode rays, they are deflected towards the positive plate of the electric field, which shows cathode rays are made up of negatively charged particles. Effect of electric field
Effect of electric field on cathode rays
The nature of cathode rays does not depend on the nature of gas taken in the discharge tube or material of the cathode. The ratio of the charge to mass (e/m ratio) of cathode ray particles obtained from different gases was found to be exactly the same. They have a heating effect (when they strike a thin metal foil it gets heated up.) They produce fluorescence or glow upon striking glass or certain other materials. They produce X-rays when they strike hard metals like copper, tungsten etc. They penetrate through thin sheets of aluminium or other metal. Cathode rays effect photographic plates.
The cathode ray particles being negatively charged an electron is negatively charged. The absolute mass is 9 x 10-28 gram. a circular disc selects a straight beam and directs it past the electric and magnetic fields. applied perpendicularly to each other as well as to the direction of the flow of light. By measuring the deflection and the field strengths of the two fields the e/m ratio can be calculated. Characteristics of an electron The mass of an electron is 1/1840 of the mass of a hydrogen atom. Charge of an electron An electron is found to carry 1. it is taken as unit negative charge.. Since this is the smallest negative charge carried by any particle. Determination of the charge of electrons . Since the mass of hydrogen atom is 1 amu. Charge and Mass of Electron Ratio of the charge of electrons to its mass (e/m) The charge to mass ratio is found by measuring the deflection of a ray under the simultaneous influence of electrical and magnetic fields.2 .Determining e/m ratio A high voltage charge accelerates cathode ray electrons between cathode and anode.Conclusion Since all gases form cathode rays. This is illustrated in the figure below: Fig: 3. the relative mass of an electron is 1/1840 amu. which are perpendicular to each other as well as to the direction of the motion of the light beam. it means that all atoms contain electrons. After the anode.6 x 10-19 coulomb of negative charge. The beam is deflected according to the relative strengths of the electric and magnetic fields and the ratio of e/m controls the deflection.
the drop remains stationary in mid-air. Charge/mass (e/m) = 1.3 . This displaces some electrons of the air molecules.602 x 10 19 coulombs. The mass of the droplet is determined earlier. Fig: 3.1 x 10-28g Electron . The space between the two plates is irradiated with X-rays. which consequently get attached to the oil droplet.5.602 x 10-19 coulombs. which counteracts the gravity influence on the drop of oil. The fall of the oil drop is observed through a microscope. Calculation of the mass of the electron The mass of an electron (m) is determined by dividing the value of 'e' by e/m. from the rate of fall of droplet through the air when the metal plates were uncharged. The charged plates create an electrical field in the upper direction. Study of motion of oil drop under gravity and viscocity. Study of motion of oil drop under uniform electric field. From his experiments of Millikan.Millikan's oil drop experiment Page 4.76 x 108 coulomb/g Charge (e) = 1. By adjusting the electric field strength to a level equal to the downward gravitational force. The charge on the droplet is then determined by the amount of charge on the plates and the mass of the droplet. = 9. the charge on the electron is found to be 1.Small drops of oil formed by a sprayer are allowed to fall in between a positively charged upper metal plate and a negatively charged lower metal plate.
The mass of an electron is almost negligible. It has been found that all electrons emitted from all sources and by all methods have the same mass and same charge. being 1/1837th the mass of an atom of hydrogen.602 x 10-19C) and has a mass (9. Apart from the usual cathode rays emerging from the perforations. He found in similar experiments involving electric and magnetic fields.Anode rays Goldstein's experiment Characteristics of anode rays . The discharge tube experiments showed that irrespective of The gas used The nature of the material of the cathode. The electron in the atom is considered the universal constituent of all matter. The charge of an electron is referred to as unit negative charge and is the smallest known electrical charge. These rays were called anode rays.4 . the presence of negatively charged electrons suggested the presence of positively charged particles. he found a new set of rays emerging and travelling in the opposite direction. He modified the discharge tube experiments by using a perforated cathode and after evacuating the tube he applied high voltage across the electrodes. that like cathode rays these rays also got deflected but in opposite direction and were attracted towards negative plates establishing their positive nature.1 x10 -28g). Fig: 3.An electron is defined as a subatomic particle which carries one unit of electrical charge (1. Experiment and Characteristics The positively charged particles were discovered by E.Goldstien. Anode Rays and the Discovery of Protons Since atoms on the whole are neutral. all electrons were found to have the same mass and same charge and therefore the same e/m ratios. Thus electrons of all cathode rays are the same and only electrons (no gaseous atoms) make up the fundamental common particles fo the rays.
602 x 10-19 C. These particles carried a charge of 1. the atomic mass should be equal to the atomic number. As the number of protons is equal to the atomic number. To account for the remaining mass Rutherford predicted the presence of neutral particles having mass equal to that of protons. The proton is produced by the loss of an electron from a neutral hydrogen atom and is thus a hydrogen ion H+. The charge to mass ratio depends upon the nature of the gas. These rays are deflected by magnetic and electric fields in the opposite direction to that of cathode rays. They travel in straight lines and cast shadow of the object placed in their path. James Chadwick bombarded a thin sheet of beryllium element with particles and observed highly penetrating rays consisting of neutral particles. The positive particle from hydrogen is 1837 times heavier than the electron. the mass of the positive particle from hydrogen gas is. Discovery of Neutrons The whole mass of an atom is due to the nucleus.0073 amu while it has an unit positive charge of +1. The charge and mass of the positive particles The e/m ratio of the anode rays obtained from hydrogen gas was found to be highest and equivalent to 9. which is equal to 1. The charge to mass ratio is smaller than that of the electrons showing that these particles are heavier than the cathode ray particles. In 1932. These particles have a mass nearly the same as that of hydrogen atom . This positively charged particle was called proton. As the mass of the electron is 9.58 x 104 C g-1. But for all atoms except hydrogen the atomic mass is found to be more than the atomic number. The mass of H is found to be 1837 times that of an electron and so the mass of the proton is nearly the same as that of a hydrogen atom. the ratio of the mass of positive particle obtained from hydrogen to the mass of an electron is.1 x 10-28 g. The anode rays produce mechanical and heating effects. Proton The proton has a mass equal to that of hydrogen atom. Thus.67 x 10 -24 g or 1. which means that the nucleus must contain protons equal to the mass of the atom.602 x 10-19 C.
. if in the form of electrical energy. and have no charge. energy is given to the material but in different forms. This phenomenon is called as 'photoelectric effect' and the ejected electrons are called as 'photoelectrons'. they were named as neutrons. the minimum energy needed to remove the electron from the metal surface and h f is the incident energy [hf] then hf = W + (1/2) mv2 ……. it is field emission and if in the form of light (photons). Einstein Photo Electric Equation and Energy Radiation Quantum According to Einstein every photon that strikes the metal and colliding with electrons uses a part of its energy to remove the electron from the metal and the remaining part is used as kinetic energy [(1/2) mv2]to the electron. photo electric current is proportional to the intensity of incident radiation.e. (1) Here f is the frequency of the incident light. This frequency is called threshold frequency. If given in the form of heat it is called as Thermionic emission. v is the maximum speed of the electron.67 x 10-24 g (hydrogen atom) and no electrical charge. Photoelectric effect There are three ways in which electrons eject out of a material. Laws of Photo electric emission: 1) Photo electric effect is an instantaneous phenomenon and the time between incident radiation and emission is very small. 2) For a given frequency of incident radiation. . They are (i) Thermionic emission (ii) Field emission (iii) Photo electric emission In all the above cases. Since these particles were electrically neutral. electrons are ejected from the metal. 4) The kinetic energy of the photo electrons is independent of intensity of incident radiation. If W is the work function i.Neutron A neutron is a particle having a mass equal to 1. 3) For a given metal there exists a certain minimum frequency for photo emission. What is photoelectric effect? When light of sufficiently small wavelength is incident on a metal surface. then it is photoelectric effect. h is Planck constant and m is the mass of the electron.
m = (h/e) and c = (h/e) fo . then work done (eV) to stop the electron is equal to the maximum kinetic energy of the electron. This is similar to the Einstein photo electric equation V = (h/e) f . It is in the form of y = mx + c. (4) Equation (1). (2) If V is the stopping potential of collector.. of Einstein Photoelectric Equation and Energy Radiation Quantum Millikan performed the experimental evidence for photo electric effect. (3) Here e is the charge of the electron. He plotted a graph taking stopping potential for metal on y axis and frequency of incident on the x axis The graph is straight line cutting the y intercept. eV = (1/2) mv2 …………. where y = V. Substituting eq (3) in eq (2) eV = h (f – fo) V = h (f – fo) / e V = (h/e) f . If fo is the threshold frequency then the relation between threshold frequency and the work function is W = h fo Substituting in the above equation hf = h fo + (1/2)mv2 (1/2) mv2 = hf – hfo (1/2) mv2 = h (f – fo) ……….(h/e) fo.(3) & (4) are different forms of Einstein photo electric equation.(h/e) fo ……….The minimum frequency of the incident radiation to remove an electron is called the threshold frequency or cut off frequency. Verification.
. Even then. If the potential of the collector is made negative with respect to the cathode. The stopping potential is related to the maximum kinetic energy of the ejected electrons. Now if the potential difference between the plates is made zero still there is a photocurrent. Let us increase the potential difference between the plates continuously. difference is applied to the plates. a photocurrent is registered and if the negative potential is increased. the electrons are repelled by the anode.Emax . For some negative potential of the collector. less and less electrons reach the collector and finally when none can reach the photocurrent becomes zero. (1) where K.Emax . the number of electrons reaching the collector remains the same irrespective of the attracting potential. Some electrons go back to the anode. If a high potential. The adjacent graph (V-I) shows the above observation. eV0 .eV0] ... the photocurrent decreases. This shows that the number of electrons attracted by the collector is becoming more because of higher potential difference. The fastest photoelectron as it reaches the anode has kinetic energy given by [K. If light of reasonably short wavelength is made to fall on the plate (emitter). After a certain potential. as shown by the intercept on the y-axis.energy of the electron when it leaves the emitter. When the collector potential is negative.increase in the potential energy of the electron as it moves from emitter to collector. This must be due to the fact that the number of electrons ejected out remains the same and all the ejected electrons are attracted by the collector thereby producing a 'saturation region'..Experimental study Two metal plates are sealed in a vacuum tube.. the photocurrent becomes zero and it is called as 'stopping potential'. We find that the photocurrent also increases but reaches a saturation. The above can be explained as follows. making the emitter negative and the collector positive a photocurrent is registered in the ammeter connected in series in the circuit as long as the emitter is irradiated with light. Some of them with high kinetic energy are still able to reach the anode (collector). As the negative potential increase.
if we decrease the intensity of light the amount of the photocurrent decreases but for even the weakest signal 'photoelectric phenomenon' takes place. if the energy received by the electron from photon is hu[equation (2)] and uses an energy (f) (work function of the surface) to escape the surface then the remaining is in the form of kinetic energy.. the electron getting all the photon's energy or none at all..If the intensity of the light increases the photocurrent also increases proportionally but the stopping potential remains the same. But the stopping potential V0 provides a direct measurement of the maximum kinetic energy with which electrons leave the cathode.E)max + (f) = hu . Equation (3) can be written as . (K.. The energy received by the electrons helps it to escape from the surface of the metal and to do this the electron loses an amount of energy called as the work function of the surface of the metal (f)... This is depicted in the graph. (2) where 'h' is Planck's constant. Instead. The value of 'h' is 6. The correct explanation for photoelectric effect was given by Albert Einstein in 1905.. it may transfer its energy to the electron. Mathematically expressed as E = hu .626 x 10-34 Js. (3) this is called as Einstein's photoelectric equation. it was found that the frequency of the light is the key parameter. If classical theory is true. the stopping potential also increases and there lies a threshold frequency below which there is no photoelectric effect. the lesser the intensity the energy imparted to the electron must be less and hence there should have been a 'threshold intensity' below which there is no photoelectric effect... The energy 'E' of the photon is proportional to the frequency ''u". When the frequency of light is increased. When a photon collides with an electron. Einstein postulated that a beam of light consisted of small bundles of energy called as photons. This transfer is an "all or none" process. Therefore. At the same time. But this is not true.
(ii) There exists a threshold frequency g0 for a given metal.Planck's constant u .Frequency of the incident light e . V0 . let us recollect some of the parameters and their symbols.Work function h .Threshold potential f .Stopping potential u0 . Millikan made the first accurate measurement of cut-off voltage for sodium metal by using monochromatic light of known frequencies.f The graph shows the variation of stopping potential with frequency in accordance to the above equation. The above experimental study can be summarized as follows: Before that.Electronic charge (i) The metal emits electrons when light of sufficiently small wavelength falls on it and the emission is instantaneous.eV0 = hu . below which there is no photoelectric effect. (v) The photocurrent increases with the intensity of the incident light. . (iii) The photocurrent can be made zero by applying a negative potential to the collector and the minimum negative potential to produce zero photocurrent is called as stopping potential (iv) The stopping potential depends on the frequency of the light falling on the metal and not on the intensity of light.
2) Intensity of incident radiation: For a given photo metal if the frequency and applied voltage is kept constant with increasing intensity then we observe that photo current increases with increases in intensity with out change in the stopping potential . This point where the current is zero is termed as stopping potential.Factors on which Photelectric Effect Depends: The amount of current flow (number of electrons) and the kinetic energy of the emitted electrons depend upon 1) Applied Potential difference between the plates: For a given photo metal if the frequency and intensity of incident light kept constant and if the potential difference between the plates is increased then photo current also increases until it reaches a maximum (saturated) value. If the terminals are reversed and we increase the potential difference gradually then photo current decreases and at one point it becomes zero.
This is the minimum frequency for photo electric effect to occur. The frequency at which the photo current begins is called threshold frequency. The graph is drawn between frequencies versus stopping potential. The variation of frequency versus stopping potential is graphed and noticed that threshold frequency varies from metal to metal. The stopping potential is measured for different frequencies. 4) Material of the Photo metal: The experiment is repeated for different photo metal and their threshold frequencies are noted.3) Frequency of incident radiation: The intensity and voltage across the plates is kept constant for a photo metal with change in frequency of the incident light. .
1/2mv2max = eV0 The above relation shows that the maximum velocity of the emitted photoelectron is independent of the intensity of the incident light. of electron = 1/2mv2max If e is the charge on the electron and V0is the stopping potential. If we apply negative potential to plate Q with respect to plate P. all the photoelectrons emitted from the plate P are reaching plate Q. the stopping potential V 0 if related to the maximum kinetic energy of the photoelectron that is just stopped from reaching plate Q.The minimum negative potential given to plate Q at which the photoelectric current becomes is called stopping potential or cut off potential. At this stage. If m is the mass and vmax is the maximum velocity of photoelectron emitted. For the given frequency of incident radiation. we have. Therefore. ii. and increases it gradually we note that photoelectric current decreases rapidly until it is zero.E. Photoelectric Effect : Equations When a photon strikes the surface of the metal. the energy (hv) of the photon is absorbed by the electron in the metal and a part of its energy is used to set free the .Stopping Potential If the frequency and the intensity of the incident radiation are kept fixed. it is found that the photoelectric current increases gradually with the increase in positive potential Q until a stage comes at which the photoelectric current becomes maximum for a certain positive potential of Q. then work done by the retarding potential in stopping the electron = eV0. then Maximum K. at a certain negative potential on plate Q. the stopping potential is independent of its intensity. For a given frequency of the incident radiation. i. Now the photoelectric current attains saturation value and it does not increase further for any increase in the positive potential of plate Q.
b) Each ring will be populated by appropriate number of corpuscles so as to impart maximum stability to the structure. By constraining them to be in a singular plane. Therefore hv = hv0 + 1/2 me v2 .9.2 . Hence he proceeded to propose placement of negative particles to be embedded in the solid positively charged sphere. Illustration 1. If they are not restricted to one plane. characteristic of the metal where the photoelectric effect takes place is called threshold frequency. there will be number of nested shells. Source of radiation. where hv = energy of the photon W = energy required to overcome the attractive forces on the electron in the metal also called work function K. Einstein’s explanation. Thus we can write. Atomic Models Thomson's Model of an Atom . Analytical and geometrical complications dissuaded him from getting a general solution to the shell like structure. . Since this could be visualized as plum pudding in England and Raisin bread in USA. Thomson’s model of an atom was dubbed as respective culinary delicacy in that country. Einstein’s theory of photoelectric effect.E = kinetic energy of the emitted electron. He tried unsuccessfully to make the model account for the spectral lines for some of the atoms.E .electron from the attractive forces in the metal. The Compton Effect.8. however. Thomson's model of an atom caused the following effects to ensue: a) They would arrange themselves into a series of concentric rings.Main Features He considered two possible effects when a number of negatively charged corpuscles in a sphere of uniform positive charge 1) how would they arrange themselves 2) What would they do to the structure of the atom. me = mass of the electron v = velocity of th ejected electron vo = threshold frequency The frequency of the incident light which should be greater than a certain minimum value. hv = W + K.10 Law of photoelectric emission. The remaining energy of the photon appears in the form of kinetic energy of the released electron. Page 7. Pair production.
Rutherford's Model - Discovery of Nucleus Ernest Rutherford, an energetic New Zealander working in England, was studying the properties of particles spontaneously emitted by radioactive substances. Of particular interest was a positively charged, relatively heavy emission named alpha particle. Quantities of such particles are emitted by certain radioactive elements and Rutherford's group had learnt how to control and detect them. Alpha particles (a) are positively charged particles having 2 units of positive charge and 4 units of mass, i.e., these particles are doubly charged helium atoms (He 2+). They are emitted by radioactive elements like radium and polonium. Rutherford's Experiment A stream of alpha particles (much like a stream of tiny bullets) was directed at a thin foil of gold atoms and a detector arranged to surround the sample completely, except for a small hole for entry of the particles. The foil was several thousands of atoms thick.
What was expected? Keeping the prevailing model in mind (Thomson's 'raisin pudding') the cloud of positive electricity should offer little resistance to the passage of alpha particle even though the latter is charged. The reasoning is that alpha particles are moving at high speed and have a great amount of forward momentum (mass x velocity = momentum). Even though there would be some repulsion due to like charges, the momentum would overcome this and the particles ought to be deflected slightly or go straight through. What was observed?
Most of the alpha particles passed straight through the gold foil without any deflection from their original path A few alpha particles were deflected through small angles and few were deflected through large angles Very few alpha particles rebounded completely on hitting the gold foil and turned back in their path (just as a ball rebounds on hitting a hard wall)
Since most of the alpha particles pass straight through the gold foil without any deflection it shows there is a lot of empty space in an atom Some of the alpha particles are deflected through small and large angles, which shows that there is a 'centre of positive charge' in an atom, which repels the positively charged alpha particles and deflects them from the original path. Very few alpha particles rebound on hitting the gold foil, which shows the nucleus is very dense and hard which does not allow alpha particles to pass through it.
Conclusions from the Rutherford Scattering Experiment: 1. As most of the alpha particles passed through undeflected , this means that they did not come across any obstruction in their path. Thus, most of the space in an atom is expected to be empty. 2. As a few alpha particles suffered minor deflected and a very few major deflections, this means that these must have met with some obstructions in their path. The obstruction must be very small, as only a few particles were obstructed by it. 3. As some alpha particles were deflected back, it means that there must be similar charge present at that place. Alpha particles have positive charge. Since they were repelled of deflected back, the obstruction must also carry same charge, Positive charge. 4. Rutherford regarded this very small, massive and positively charged obstruction in an atom as nucleus. Out of electrons and protons known at that time, only protons were heavy and positively charged. Therefore, Rutherford predicted that all the protons were present in an atom in a small space called nucleus. The
alpha particles which came for head on collision with the nucleus were deflected back or suffered major deflections. The particles which got an opportunity to pass through the positive field around the nucleus suffered minor deflection.
Model of the Atom as Conceived by Rutherford
The atom of an element consists of a small, positively charged nucleus in the centre, which carries almost the entire mass of the atom. The electrons are revolving around the nucleus at high speed. The number of electrons in an atom is equal to the number of protons. Hence it is electrically neutral. The volume of the nucleus is negligibly small compared to the volume of the atom. Most of the space in the atom is empty.
Rutherford compared the structure of an atom to the solar system. In the solar system the Sun has the maximum mass and planets revolve around it. . But according to the electromagnetic theory. The loss of energy would slow down the speed of the electron and eventually the electron would fall into the nucleus. Similarly in an atom. But such a collapse does not occur. Rutherford's model was unable to explain why there was no collapse. Drawback of Rutherford's Atomic Model Rutherford proposed that electrons revolve at high speed in circular orbits around the positively charged nucleus. if a charged particle were accelerated around another charged particle then there would be a continuous radiation of energy. the nucleus forms the main mass of atom and electrons revolve around it.
In other words the angular momentum of an electron Thus. As long as the electron remains in a particular orbit /energy shell its energy remains constant.Bohr’s Atomic Model In 1913. 4.etc. . from the nucleus. N. heavily positively charged nucleus around which electrons revolve in definite circular paths called orbits. Neils Bohr proposed a model of an atom based on the Planck's quantum theory of radiation. shells or numbered as 1. They are designated as K. Only those orbits are permitted in which angular momentum of the electron is a whole number multiple of where h is Plancks constant. Any moving body taking a circular orbit has an angular momentum equal to the product of its mass (m). 3. velocity of movement (v) and radius of orbit (r). 2. These orbits are associated with definite energies called energy shells/energy levels. L. ….. This accounts for the stability of an atom. …. The basic postulates of Bohr's theory are: An atom consists of a small. M. etc.
This difference is also the energy of photon expressed as E2 .E2' i. where electrons in an atom occupy energy levels higher than those permitted by its 'n' and 'l' values. to a higher level. This excited state being unstable. Bohr postulated that as long an electron remains in a particular orbit it does not emit radiation i. DE = E2 . Electrons can either lose or absorb energy abruptly.e.. It can absorb a definite amount of energy and jump to a higher energy state. For instance when an electron moves from the 'normal or ground state .13 . the state of lowest energy as required by its 'n' and 'l' values.E1 = hn.e. The reverse is also true and the change in energy isDE. the electron comes back to a lower energy level. The one electron of hydrogen being closest to the nucleus is in its lowest energy shell (n =1) or normal ground state. strikes a photographic plate.E1' of an atom i.E1 = hn Fig: 3.Energy changes in an electron jump Bohr's atomic model explained successfully: The stability of an atom. it causes the atom to be in its 'excited state . when they jump from one energy level to another. it gives its impression in the form of a line. When the energy emitted during transition. The frequency of the emitted radiation is: . The atomic spectrum of hydrogen was explained due to the concept of definite energy levels.e.. lose energy. Hence it does not become unstable.This postulate introduces the concept of quantization of angular momentum.
5. . then we have These will give different lines in the spectrum of the atom corresponding to different transitions having definite wavelengths. 4. 8……to n = 4 Pfund series from n = 6. For example. the electrons in different hydrogen atoms absorb different amounts of energies.Different routes to the ground state from n = 4 Different lines depending upon the difference in energies of the levels concerned can be summarized in the form of series named after the scientists who have discovered them. 9……to n = 5. the electrons in some atoms may jump to second energy level (L). Lyman series from n = 2. 6.Since E2 and E1 have only definite values and are characteristic of energy levels of atoms. 6. Thus each transition will produce a light of definite wavelength. For example. the values of 'n' will also be definite and characteristic of the atoms. These are raised to different energy states. Fig: 3. if the electron jumps down from the third to the first energy level having energies E3 and E1 respectively. These electrons come back from the higher energy levels to the ground state in one or more jumps emitting different amount of energies. while in others it may be to the third (M). 6……to n = 2 Paschen series from n = 4. 7. 5……to n = 1 Balmer series from n = 3. fourth (N) or fifth (O) and so on.. which is observed as a line in the spectrum. 5. 3. 7……to n = 3 Brackett series from n = 5. 8.e.14 . when the electron jumps down from the fourth to the first energy level having energies E4 and E1 respectively or from the fifth to the second i. then the wavelength of the spectral line would be Similarly. 7. 4. The sample of hydrogen gas contains a large number of atoms and when energy is supplied. E5 and E2.
This model failed to explain the effect of magnetic field on the spectra of atoms (Zeeman effect). If the energy difference between the electronic states of hydrogen atom is 214. The shapes of molecules arising out of directional bonding could not be explained. which is equal to atomic number.39 x 1014 s-1 . The dual nature of electrons (both as wave and particle) and the path of motion of the electron in well defined orbits were not correct. They were: Limitations and problems It could not explain the line spectrum of multi electron atoms. The energy of the electron in a particular orbit of hydrogen atom could be calculated by Bohr's theory. what will be the frequency of light emitted when the electron jumps from the higher to the lower energy state? (Planck's constant = 39.68 kJ mol-1. h = 39.79 x 10-14 kJ mol-1) Solution The frequency (n) of emitted light is related to the energy difference of two levels (DE) as E = 214.68 kJ mol-1. The effect of electric field on the spectra could not be explained by Bohr's model (Stark effect). The energy of the electron in the 'nth' orbit has been found to be where 'm' is the mass and 'e' is the charge of the electron. Although Bohr's model successfully explained the stability and the line spectrum of hydrogen. Li can be written as: where 'Z' is the nuclear charge. The energy expression for hydrogen like ions such as He. Problem 7.79 x 10-14 kJ mol-1 = 5. it had its limitations.
Substituting for v. n2 = 4 Dividing equations (i) by (ii) Radii of orbits According to Bohr's second postulate Since Where m is mass of electron. n2 = 3 For the second line in Balmer series.Problem The wavelength of first spectral line in the Balmer series is 6561 Å units. n1 = 2. Calculate the wavelength of the second spectral line in Balmer series. . Now [Because necessary centripetal force is provided by the electrostatic force of attraction between electron and nucleus] whose charge is Ze where Z is the atomic number of the atom. n1 = 2. Solution According to Rydberg equation: For the first line in Balmer series. r is radius of orbit in which e revolves around the nucleus. v is linear velocity.
Velocity of electron in a stationary orbit substituting the expression for r in the equation..e. We get The resulting expression is Calculation shows that when n=1. velocity v of the electron is 1/137 time velocity of light is vacuum i. The total energy (T..29 x 10-11m This is called the Bohr radius.E) of the electron in stationary orbit The energy of electron revolving in a stationery orbit is of two types. .1 x 10-31kg e = 1. Kinetic energy due to velocity and potential energy due to the position of the electron. r a n2 the stationary orbits are not equally spaced On substituting the value h = 6. we get r = 5.6x10-34 J-sec n=1 K = 9 x 109Nm2/c2 m = 9.e.6 x 10-19c.For Hydrogen atom Z = 1 i.
k . As n increases. e. On putting the value m .E + P.Now (-ve is for charge of an electron) Now T.E Spectral series of hydrogenations. h. the total energy of electron is more than that in the inner orbits. we get For hydrogen The -ve sign implies that electron is bound to the nucleus. .E = K.
14. Energy levels of hydrogen atoms.In case of Krypton.5. Atomic number is the number of protons. Paschen Series. Electrons are subatomic.6. one can go to periodic table and get the atomic number. So the number of neutrons= 84 . Protons along with neutrons are called nucleons and are bound inside the nucleus by binding energy. Balmer Series. Nuclear Physics The Nucleus Protons and neutrons are nuclear particles. e. They have +1 elementary charge. the atomic number is 36.Number of protons. A proton is same as H+ ion. Brackett Series. Since they are part of mass number along with the protons. the number of neutrons is equal to. This number is written at the base of the symbol of the element.Pages 13. Lyman Series. Mass of proton is 1.672621637(83)×10−27 kg with 1/2 spin.4.16. Protons Protons are the positively charged particles in the nucleus of an atom.g: The mass number of Krypton is 84 and the number of protons is 36. In order to find the number of protons. Illustration 3.g. Neutrons They are nuclear particles with mass nearby that of protons but no charge. which means number of protons. Mass number .7. Electrons . Proton is composed of two up quarks and one down quark.36 = 48 Mass number is written at the top of the symbol of the element. non-nuclear particles. Pfund Series.15. Protons were discovered by Ernest Rutherford in 1919. e.
6726 x 10-27 kg = 1.1095 x 10-31 kg = 0. Mass of proton = mp = 1.6750 x 10-27 kg = 1.5 MeV/c2 and the energy equivalent of 1u is 931. They are arranged in sub-shells in different energy levels.511 MeV/c . proton in terms of various units are : Mass of electron = me = 9. Electrons are rotating outside the nucleus of an atom. and the sub-shells as s. e. The mass of a proton is about 1836 times the mass of the electron whereas the neutron is slightly massive than proton and its mass is about 1839 times the mass of electron. Thus the number of electrons can be found from the number of protons. In the above case.. Atomic Masses and Composition of Nucleus : Atomic Masses The mass of the nucleus itself constitutes almost all the mass of the atom because the mass of electron is quite negligible when compared to either of the nucleons-proton or neutron.Electrons are negatively charged subatomic particles. Electrons posses a spin of +1/2 or -1/2. in atomic mass unit is 12 amu.28 MeV/c2 . The masses of electron. Mass is generally expressed in kilogram.008665 . d. Mass of neutron = mn = 1.J.. The exact value for the mass of 12 C 6. accepting or sharing of electrons. Electrons are elementary particles and are not composed of quarks.. The energy levels are named as K. 1 amu = 1u = 1. They were discovered by J. The mass of elementary particles may also be expressed in atomic mass units denoted by amu or simply u called unified atomic mass unit. As the number of electrons is same as that of protons. f etc.the atom of Krypton will have 36 electrons. u = 2 0.660565 x 10-27 kg In nuclear physics the mass is also expressed as million electron volt / (speed of the light )2 or simply MeV / c2 . L. 1 u = 931. Electricity is actually flow of electrons. .602×10−19 Coulomb. the atom attains stability as the opposite charges attract one another.000549 . M etc.Thompson in 1897. p. u = 938.5 MeV.573 MeV/c2 . an isotope of carbon atom.g.007276 . Their mass is 1/1836 th of that of proton and is many a times neglected in related calculations. The charge is −1. Chemical bonds are formed either by donating. u = 939.. One atomic mass unit is defined as 1/12 th mass of 12 c 6 .
the atomic mass of an exceptional isotope can vary from the relative atomic mass or standard atomic weight by several mass units.u). It is also called a universal mass unit. Nuclear Density where m is average mass of a nucleon.m. we find (Rh0) r = 2. i. Nuclear density is same for all elements and is densely packed.e. Ro = 1. Suppose if the elements have more than one common isotope the dissimilarity between the most common atomic mass will be half a mass unit or more (e.g.98 x 1017 Kg /m3 i.. Since the mass of a single atom is subsequently small its unit is measured by means of a unit known as the atomic mass unit (a.1x10-15 m.66 x 10-27 Kg. Atomic Mass: Mass of an Atom The atomic mass is basically noted as the mass of an atom.. which contains only one isotope at a time as in the case of atomic weight. Note that the sizes of nuclei are different but density of nuclear matter is same for all nuclei. or Putting m = 1.Nuclear Size Experiments reveal that volume of a nucleus is proportional to the mass number A. Thus one a. chlorine).m. V a A 4/3p R3 a A R a (A) 1/3 or R = Ro A 1/3 (Where R is radius of nucleus assumed to be spherical) Ro = 1.1x 10-15 m an empirical constant \The atomic nucleus of different elements have different sizes.u is equal to 1/12 the . which is based on the weight of one carbon atom. However the value of nuclear density is far more greater than atomic density. Thus.e.
u for hydrogen to 296 a. Binding energy is also defined as the minimum energy required as the minimum energy required to split the nucleus into its constituent nucleons . The ratio of binding energy of nucleus and the total number of nucleons in the nucleus is called the binding energy per nucleon . Introduction to mass defect and binding energy: Mass Defect The actual mass of a nucleus is always found to be less than the sum of the masses of the nucleons present in it . The explanation for the mass of an atom is easier when expressed by means of atomic mass unit. For synthetic elements e.mass of a carbon atom. This element contains 'z' protons and ( A . Calculate atomic mass -standard atomic weight: The Standard atomic weight is defined as the mean of the relative atomic mass of an element in the restricted environment of the Earth's atmosphere.m. ( M' ) = z mp + ( A .m --------------> (2) The mass defect per nucleon of the nucleus is defined as packing fraction . Hence . thus the idea of natural isotope abundance has no meaning. mass of the constituent nucleons ( M' ) .z ) mn ------------> (1) Where mp and mn are the masses of the proton and neutron respectively . or the mass of one hydrogen atom. It is called as 'binding energy per nucleon . Binding Energy : The energy equivalent of the mass defect is the binding energy of the nucleus . Packing fraction = where m = mass defect and A = mass number The mass defect that is occurring i the formation of nucleus is converted into energy.z ) neutrons .z)mn ] . According to the mass energy relation .m.008 a. The mass difference is known as the mass defect and is denoted by . Consider nucleus of an element ZXA with the mass number 'A' and atomic number 'z' . It is also called as 'binding fraction' or ' average binding energy ' .E = 931. binding energy B. It is calculated by the IUPAC Commission on Atomic Weights and Isotopic Abundances. If 'M' is the actual mass of the nucleus of the element then the mass defect is m = [ zmp + (A .g Lithium the isotope produced by means of synthesis.5 MeV ---------------> (3) Binding fraction = number where a = Binding energy of the nucleus and b = Mass Graph of Binding Energy : . Atomic mass ranges from 1.u for the element of ununquaternium. Hence .
binding energy per nucleon rises sharply at first . can be exerted from its ground to higher energy states . like an atom . It is observed from the graph that .The graph of binding energy per nucleon as a function of mass number is shown in fig (1) . The nucleus . In the same way . while those with low mass number can be undergo a process called ' fusion ' . the binding energies per nucleon in 5B11 and 7N14 are lower than in 6C12 . The figure bears the following features 1) The binding energy per nucleon is approximately equal to 8 MeV for nuclei of intermediate mass number . 2) The binding energy per nucleon is lower for both light nuclei ( A < 30 ) and heavy nuclei ( A > 120 ) . reaches a maximum and then decreases slowly as 'A' increases . It may also be noted that the binding energies per nucleon in 1H1 and 3Li6 are lower than in 2He4 . Some large mass number nuclei are prone to a process called spontaneous ' fision' . However . the energy scale will be in millions of electrons volts rather than the electron volts used for the atoms and hence during transition . The decrease in binding energy per nucleon for heavy nuclei ( A > 120 ) shows the contribution of the increasing coulomb repulsion between the protons inside the nucleus . . the emitted photon will be in the gamma ray region . These examples provide an indication of the existence of a shell structure at the nuclear level very similar to that at the atomic level .
The very power of radium radiation made it possible to detect many new properties of radioactive rays. The power of emission does not depend upon the physical conditions of the substance and the chemical combination. Nuclear Fusion. 3. Helium and lead are invariably associated with radioactive substances. 5. There is always a rise in temperature of these substances placed in ordinary conditions. Pierre and Madame Curie. 4. therefore. 8. in addition to uranium. Curie called all such substances capable of radiating the Bacquerel rays as radioactive substances. Soon after this discovery. These rays discovered by Becquerel were called Becquerel rays. .Pages18. like light of X-rays. Radioactivity The discovery of X-rays by Ronlgcn in 1895 led to the speculation thai X-rays were connected with the fluorescence of the glass walls of the discharge tube.. Becquerel discovered in 1896 that salts of uranium affected a photographic plate covered with black paper after several hours of exposure. though the uranium salt was never exposed to light previously. The phenomenon of radioactivity is exhibited by elements of high atomic weight whose nuclei tire rather unstable and break up on tneir own accord. Of all the radioactive substanccs. The radiations penetrate through matter. accelerated nor be retarded under any physical circumstances. concluded that the photographic effect was produced by uranium itself whatever be the nature of the chemical combination in which it might exist and that the effect was due lo some kind of rays which uranium was emitting constantly.20 Q. The process is spontaneous in the sense that it can neither be started. M. The phenomenon itself—the emission of such rays—came to be known as radioactivity. Nuclear Forces. Nuclear Fission. The substances emit radiations without any excitation. 7. The property of radioactivity is mostly marked in substances of high atomic weight. The radioactive substances possess the following characteristics: 1. In the course of his studies on phosphorescence. It was. the discovery of radium was great event. Radium was found to radiate with an intensity one million times that of uranium. then tried to discover some more substances which could give out Becquerel rays. Later.Value of a nuclear reaction. both husband and wife. The radiations emitted by radioactive substanccs arc due to ccrtain changes in the nuclei of the atoms of these substanccs. Radioactive substances ionise the gas and they affect a photographic plates as well. Subsequently. the former in the form of emanations and the latter as the last product of the radioactive change. They found that this phenomenon was exhibited by polonium. 2. 6. Radioactive substances continuously go on decreasing in weight. actinium. stopped. radium. thorium etc. the rays discovered by Becquerel began to callcd radioactive rays. all compounds of uranium were observed to produce the same effect.19.
exploring almost every conceivable aspect of radioactivity. A photographic plate is placed a short distance above the lead . and y-rays. The results of Rutherford's experiments were astounding. not necessary that all the three types of radiations be given out by every radioactive substance. there was a tremendous rush of investigators in the new field. He concluded that radioactive radiation had a complex composition.From 1898 onward. These scientists (Rutherford and Villard) showed that radiations were comprised of a-rays P-rays. 13. It is. This arrangement is placed in a highly evacuated chambcr (not shown). The existence of these three distinct types of radiations can be demonstrated by a simple experiment described ahead : A small amount of radioactive substance (Fig.18) is placed at the bottom of a narrow canal drilled in a lead box so that a fairly parallel beam of radiatfbn from the radioactive substance will issue at the slit. however.
Their penetration in air is unique and the rays cannot be detected beyond a distance called the range . if the photographic plate is developed. a-particle is. They produce a strong effect on living organisms. per cm of path in air. beta (P) and gamma (y). Following arc some of the results of these investigations: a-rays 1.P. These are deflected towards the right showing thereby that they carry a negative charge. 8. The rays that are rather easily deflected by a magnetic field and are made up of electronsbecame known as beta (P) rays. 6. 3. If the intensity is great.T. The alpha (a) rays were those which a magnetic field deflects only slightly and application of Flcmming's left-hand rule indicates that they consistof positively charged particles. the first three letters of the Greek alphabet. After a fairly long exposure. Gamma (y) rays was the name given to those that are not at all affected by the magnetic field. . made up of 2 neutrons and 2 protoits andhence may be represented as 2lle*. 5. do not consist of charged particles. It should be noted that a-rays are deflected in a magnetic field in the form of a narrow beam. They cause fluorescence of luminescent materials like zinc sulphide. 1. y-rays therefore. 2.62 x lO24 g which is foup times the mass of hydrogen atom. therefore. this depends on the initial energy of the rays which is characteristic ofia given source. A strong magnetic field is applied at right angles to the plane of the figure. 4. They blacken photographic plates. They arc easily absorbed by matter: they penetrate between 10* and 10~ 3 cm of aluminium or a few cm of air at N. Each type is given a special name and designation : alpha (a). 7. three distinct blackenings will be found on it. spread out beam. Beta and Gamma Rays The separation of radioactive rays into alpha. 2. P-rays.box to receive the rays. They have a much smaller fluorescent effect than a-rays. They possess a positive charge equal to 3. This is because all the a-rays emerging from the radioactive substance are of the same energy. They ionize gases—less efficiently than a-rays—about 100 ion-pairs . Properties of Alpha. They blacken photographic plates. it may be fatal. proving the existence of three distinct types of radiation. They are deflected by magnetic and elcctric fields. beta and gamma rays made it possible to investigate their properties individually. They ionize gases readily (producing about 103 ion-pairs in air). while the (i-rays are a beam of electrons of different energies. 3.2 x 10"19 coulombs. whereas the beta (P) rays arc deflected in the form of a broad. They are hence helium nuclei. They have high emission velocities—about 109 cm per second. which is practically twice that of an electron and mass equal to 6.
They produce a distinct effect on the skin.5)x10-13 J High energy radiations 0 Velocity Same as that of light Energy (6 – 16)10-13J Same range as β particles (1 . 1837 8. 4. They penetrate matter more easily than a-rays but are absorbed completely by one or two mmof aluminium or a few metres of air .rays 9. They are easily deflected by magnetic fields and also by electric fields. They penetrate matter readily .11 x10-31 kg γ . 2.rays 6. but by secondary electrons released from gas atoms and at metal surfaces . These cause relatively small ionization in gases . They are electromagnetic radiations of very short wavelength . 6. ionization is thus a secondary process. X-rays they are considered as 'photons' and do not carry any charge. like 'ight. they have no definite range owing to the successive deflections caused by collisions with atoms. They blacken photographic plates like X-rays.035)x10-13J (0.67x10-27 kg or 4 a. They are unaffected by magnetic or electric fields. They sue fast electrons .rays Negligible Identity Charge Electrons . 7. the mass of slow P-ray is about — the mass of hydrogen atom.1 unit Nearly same as that of light (0.5)x10-13J . Y-rays 1. 6. Comparative properties of the three kinds of radio-active radiations are given in the following table : Rutherford studied the penetrating power of these radiations and their behavior in electric and magnetic field.03 . 5.u Helium nuclei He2+ + 2 units Nearly 1/10 th that of light β . 9. They cause fluorescence but this is not easily observed by eye. 5. 3. They are always accompanied by another tiny particle called the neutrino which is electrically neutral and its mass is negligibly small.4. Their emission velocities approach the velocity of light.m. this is not affected directly by the yrays. "hard" y-rays pass through a few cm of lead. His conclusions have been summarized in the table below: Property Mass α .
24.particle about 1-2m in air Not deflected Penetrating power Small . then there are 2n possible energy levels which are splitting and creating a band of energy (electrons possessing a range of energy levels). Hence.rays γ .27.21.26. a valence band is created.Property Effect of electric and magnetic field α . all electrons have discrete energy states. Conduction Band Conduction bands are caused due to the higher energy levels of the electrons. Semiconductor Devices Atoms are clustered together and are overlapped in solids. Energy Gap Valence band and the conduction band lies in the energy gap.22. . Valence Band When the electrons have closely spaced energy levels.a few cms of air Very large 10000 times that of α -rays stopped only by thickness of about 1520cm of lead Effect an photographic plate and zinc sulphide Affected more strongly then by β and γ rays Effect is less then α -rays Least effect Pages 20. 100 times that of α . Starting from LAWS OF RADIOACTIVE DECAY.rays Deflected Deflected towards towards negative positive pole pole Large. If there are 'n' orbits. the outermost valence atoms are overlapped.25.rays β . Paul's Exclusion Principle No two atoms can have the same quantum state.23. Therefore.
. d) When r lies between b and c. If N atoms were to be considered in silicon crystal. then there will be 2N electrons filling 2N possible energy levels in 3s. there is no interatomic separation. 6N possible levels in 3p of which only 2N is completely filled.e. This brings about a considerable modification in the case of energy levels of the electrons in the outer shells.e. there is no visible splitting of energy levels. The energy of electrons of each atom starts changing. r = d>>a. . b) When the spacing is progressively decreased i. The valence electrons are attracted by the nucleus of the other atoms. In this stage 4N levels are filled and 4N levels are empty. whereas the energies of electrons in the inner shell do not change. we get a large number of closely packed levels. E. the lower completely filled band is called valence band and upper unfilled band is called conduction band. they begin to influence each other. c) When r = c.. the gap between 3s and 3p completely disappear and the 8N energy levels are (2N of 3s and 6N of 3p sub shells) continuously distributed. e) When r = b>a. This gap or separation is called the forbidden gap. c<r<d. This collection of closely spaced energy levels is called an energy band. Each atom in the crystal behaves as free atom. Take for example silicon whose electronic configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p2. free electrons in an isolated atom have certain definite discrete amount of energy..According to the Bohr's theory.e. the 3s and 3p electrons of neighbouring silicon atoms becomes appreciable. If large number of atoms are brought close to one another to form a crystal. actual spacing in the crystal the 4N filled energy levels are separated from 4N unfilled energy levels. f) When r = a i.. The process of splitting of energy levels can be understood as follows: a) If interatomic spacing of atoms is very large i.g. the energy levels get slightly changed and instead of a single 3s or 3p levels.
electrons are rarely present. Metals or In metals.Conductors. There is no forbidden energy gap in between. in the valence band there is a left out deficiency of electron that is called Hole (positively charged). But it is possible for electrons to gain energy from external field and so the electrons in these bands contribute to the electric current. in the case of conductors and semiconductors.. As the electron (negatively charged) jumps from valence band to conductance band. i. On the contrary in the conduction band. This band is never empty but may be partially or completely with electrons. In other words. the valence electrons in the valence energy move from the valence band to conductance band. either the conduction band is partially filled or overlaps with valence band. Insulators Here the valency bands are completely filled and conduction band is empty and the forbidden gap is quite large. The forbidden energy gap is devoid of any electrons and this much energy is required by electrons to jump from valence band to the conduction band. insulators and semi conductors. For example in diamond Egap is 6eV.e. no electron is able to go from valence band to conduction band. Even if a small electric field is applied. Semiconductors . as the temperature increases. Depending on the value of Egap. Even if an electric field is applied. free electrons start moving in a direction opposite to field and hence a good conductor of electricity. Insulators and Semiconductors The electrons in the valence band are not capable of gaining energy from external electric field and hence do not contribute to the current. energy gap solids can be classified as metals (conductors).
e. Each of the four valence electrons of the atom is shared with a nearest neighbouring electron and constitutes a covalent bond.The valence band is completely filled and conduction band is empty. Kinds of Semiconductors Semiconductors are of two types : intrinsic semiconductors and extrinsic semiconductors. Hence they are called semiconductors. Its electrical conductivity is called 'intrinsic conductivity'. in each atom of Ge (or Si) there are 4 valence electrons around an inert core (nucleus + tightly-bound internal electrons) having a charge of +4e . In germanium crystal. But as temperature is increased. The E gap is also less i. electrons move from valance band to conduction band and as a result a vacancy is created in the valence band at a place where an electron was present before shifting to conduction band.. Intrinsic Semiconductors : A pure semiconductor (free from any impurity) is called an 'intrinsic' semiconductor. Charge carriers in semiconductors At high temperature. electrons in valence band (VB) gain thermal energy and jump to conduction band (CB) and acquire small conductivity at room temperature and so behave like conductors. Electric Conduction in Intrinsic Semiconductors : There are two well known pure semiconductors : germanium (Ge) and silicon (Si). Therefore the electrical conduction in semiconductors is due to motion of electrons in conduction band and also due to motion of holes in valence band. .*. that is. 1). electrons are not able to cross this forbidden gap and so behave like insulators. The valency of each of them is 4. At zero kelvin. The valency is a hole and is seat of positive charge having the same value of electron. of the order of few eV. Pure germanium and pure silicon in their natural state are. intrinsic semiconductors. these atoms are so arranged in an ordered array that each atom is situated on a corner of a regular tetrahedron (Fig. These bonds (shown by dashed lines) provide the binding forces between the neighbouring atoms.
With rise in temperature of the crystal. When an electric field is applied to the crystal. The conductivity of an intrinsic semiconductor is very poor (unless the temperature is very high). conducting electric current in the crystal.At temperatures close to absolute zero. all valence electrons are tightly bound to the core and so no free electrons are available to conduct electricity through/the crystal. the free electrons move in a direction opposite to the field. At ordinary temperature. more and more electrons are freed and so the conductivity of the crystal increases. At room temperature. only one covalent bond breaks in 10 9 atoms of Ge. a few of the covalent bonds are broken due to thermal agitation and thus some of the valence electrons become free. however. .
The extrinsic semiconductor is obtained by doping of trivalent or pentavalent impurities in a tetravalent semiconductor. Consider a pure semiconductor such as silicon or germanium which are having four valence electrons. Here n represents the negative type. The electron which is free in the above process is considered as free electron. n-type semiconductor p-type semiconductor N-type Extrinsic Semiconductor: n-type extrinsic semiconductor: When a small amount of pentavalent impurity is added into a pure semiconductor. There is some small amount of energy is required to detach this electron. The best example of pentavalent impurity are arsenic. Then the another fifth electron is free. Thus. If a pentavalent impurity is added which are having the five valence electrons then the four electrons of pure semiconductor create covalent bond with the four electrons of impurity. The pure semiconductor is easily altered into impure semiconductor by adding a less amount of certain inmpurities. It is acts as a conduction electron. added to the material is known as extrinsic semiconductor. The other name of extrinsic semiconductor is impure semiconductor. Hence it is called as n-type semiconductor. The impurity which is to be add into pure semiconductor is called doping agent. Doping and Types of Extrinsic Semiconductor: Doping: Doping is the method of adding impurities into pure semiconductor. then it is called n-type semiconductor. Introduction to extrinsic semiconductor: A semiconducting material in which the charge carriers orginate from impurity atoms. Since it can produce or donate the number of free electrons.It means that only 1 atom in 109 atoms is available for conduction. The addition of pentavalent impurity provides a huge number of free electrons which are having negative charges in the semiconductor. antimony. intrisnic semiconductors have no practical utility. Donor: The impurities which can produce the n-type semiconductor are called as donor. Types of extrinsic semiconductor: The extrinsic semiconductor is classified into two types based on the impurities added. .
P-type Extrinsic Semiconductor: p-type extrinsic semiconductor: When a small amount of trivalent impurity is added into a pure semiconductor. The holes are majority carriers and electrons are minority carriers. Acceptor impurities: The impurities which can produce p-type semiconductor is called acceptor impurities. An addition of acceptor impurity provides more holes. Hence it is called p-type semiconductor where p represents a positive type. indium. . By adding impurities which are trivalent produce a huge number of holes in the semiconductor. then it is called as p-type semiconductor. A small percentage of energy is required for electron to enter into acceptor energy level. Here allowable energy level is produced over the valence band. Some examples of trivalent impurities are gallium. Hence it creats a holes which can accept the electrons. The process of adding trivalent impurities produces a huge number of holes which are having positive charge carriers in the semiconductor.
semiconductors obey Ohm's law. . then. where R is the resistance of the semiconductor.d. Let ne and nh be the electron density and hole density. across the block. In case of low electric fields. Electric field.Conductivity and Resistivity of Semiconductors Electrical conductivity of extrinsic semiconductors Consider a semiconductor block of length l and area of cross-sectional A. If V is the p. I = Ie + Ih = neAeVe + nhAeVh where Ve and Vh are the drift velocities of electrons and holes respectively.
This region which is devoid of any free charges is called depletion region.e. The accumulation of electric charges of opposite polarities in the two regions gives rise to an electric field. . the resulting arrangement is a PN junction or junction diode. nh increase with rise in temperature. Flow of Current through a P-N Junction Diode When a p-type semiconductor is brought into a close contact with n-type semiconductor crystal. the p-region of the junction will have ionised acceptor atoms which are immobile. As ne. As a result of the migration of charge carriers across the junction. the electrons from nregion diffuses through the junction into p region and the holes from p-region diffuse into n-region.. This is like a fictitious battery and prevents the further migration of charges. the electrons leave ionised donor atoms which are bound and cannot move. On account of difference in concentration of charge carriers in the two sections. This battery is otherwise the potential barrier VB. it completes the covalent bond. Similarly. This process is called electron-hole recombination. Due to this the electron falls into the vacancy i.where me and mh are the mobility of electrons and holes and s is conductivity of semiconductor. s (conductivity) also increases.
Here the forward bias opposes the potential barrier VB and so the depletion layer becomes thin. For every electron hole combination. On crossing the junction. recombination process takes place. This junction is also called a semiconductor diode.The width of the depletion region and VB depends on the semiconductor and its doping concentration. Biasing of the P-N junction Forward biasing A p-n junction is said to be forward biased. Symbolically the p-n junction is shown as where P-side is known as anode and n-side the cathode. The majority charge carriers in the P type and N types are repelled by their respective terminals due to battery B and hence cross the junction. a covalent bond near the +ve terminal of the battery B is broken and this liberates an . if the positive terminal of the external battery B is connected to p-side and the negative terminal to the n-side of the p-n junction.
This in turn creates more holes in P-region.electron which enters the +ve terminal of B through connecting wires. This is the reverse current. The majority carriers are pulled away from the junction and the depletion region becomes thick. Half wave rectifier . The V-I characteristics of a p-n junction diode Use of P-N Junction Diode as a Rectifier Rectifier is a device which is used for converting alternating current/voltage into direct current /voltage. Thus a large current will flow to migration of majority carriers across the p-n junction which is called forward current. Reverse biasing A p-n junction is said to be reverse biased if the positive terminal of the battery B is connected to N-side and the negative terminal to p-side of the p-n junction. the electrons from -ve terminal of B enter n-region to replace electron lost due to recombination process. The resistance becomes high when reverse biased and so there is no conduction across the junction due to majority carriers. The minority carriers however cross the junction and they constitute a current that flows in the opposite direction. At the other end.
Therefore the component of ripple is calculated by ripple factors it is denoted by gamma.21 percent of ripple is present at the out put when compared at input that means unwanted signal is still increased by 21 percent. During the positive half cycle on account of induction. The amount of DC voltage across the output of half wave rectifier is given by It is also called as average voltage. The pn junction is reverse biased.The A-C to be rectified is connected to the primary P1P2 of a step down transformer. During the negative half cycle S1 is negative and S2 is positive. which are connected to diode and load resistance R as shown. It forward biases the junction diode and hence a current flows in direction shown. P-N junction diode as full wave rectifier . S1 is +ve and S2 is -ve. In the output only one half of the wave is present and the other half is missing. S1S2 are the secondary coil of the transformer. it is less than Vm always since out put of half wave is not a pure DC it is pulsating DC. 1. Therefore half wave rectifier is poor rectifier. We therefore get output across load resistance. It offers high resistance and hence there is no flow of current due to majority charge carriers and thus there is no output across load.e. i.. The output is taken across the resistance R.
the upper PN junction diode i. . we use two PN junctions..e. The current flows in circuit due to majority charge carriers of D1 in the direction shown. D1 is forward biased and D2 is reverse biased. The output signal voltage is unidirectional and current flows through the load resistance R during both the halves. The current flows in the circuit due to majority charge carriers of D2 in the direction shown. the diode D1is reverse biased and D2 is forward biased. During the positive half of the input A-C (fig).For full wave rectification. During the negative half cycle.
Working of a transistor The VEE supply is used to forward bias emitter base junction. As a result significant current flows. If central thin layer is of p-type and outer thick layers are of n-type semiconductor. If central thin layer is of n-type and outer thick layers are of p-type semiconductor.. The thin layer of junction transistor is said to form the base (B). One of the thick layers serves as emitter (E) and the other thick layer serves as collector (C). the semiconductor device having two junctions and three terminals. we get n-p-n transistor. Function of collector is to collect the majority carriers and base provides the proper interaction between the emitter and the collector.Transistors Junction-Transistor is a semiconductor device which is obtained by growing a thin layer of one type semiconductor in between two thick layers of other smaller type semiconductor i. The function of emitter is to emit the majority carriers. very few electrons or hole undergo recombination process and rest diffuse through collector base junction due to potential . Once these reach the base. once the potential barrier is exceeded. The majority charge carriers diffuse from emitter into base and this results in emitter current IE as indicated in the above diagram. which can be achieved by interchanging the biasing across the junction triode. hence the name a junction transistor is given For proper working of a transistor.e. we get p-n-p transistor. A junction transistor is a transformer of resistance. emitter base junction should be forward biased and CB junction should be reverse biased.
Transistor circuit configuration The three types of circuit connections for operating a transistor: i) Common base (CB) configuration ii) Common emitter (CE) configuration iii) Common collector (CC) configuration The common electrode is generally grounded and is common to the input and output circuit. the IC .IE. Apply Kirchhoffs current law. IE = IB + IC The action of NPN is similar to that of PNP. Thus the current in PNP is caused by holes and the current in external circuit by electrons. Due to very less recombination process. . In a PNP the diffused holes reach the collector and at the same time an electron from the emitter enters into the positive pole of VEE thereby creating a hole in the emitter.on the collector side.
Transistor characteristics .
(VBE v/s IB).To study the transistor characteristics a transistor is either operated in common emitter configuration or in common base configuration. A family of curves may be drawn by varying VCE. To study the characteristics. Let us take an npn transistor operated on common emitter mode. Voltmeters are connected in parallel to measure the input voltage (V BE) and output voltage (VCE). namely VCEis made constant and the variation of input current with input voltage is measured and the same plotted in the graph. The graph resembles the characteristics of a forward biased P-N junction. As discussed earlier a transistor works only when the input side is forward biased and output side is reverse biased. Ammeter are connected in series with base and collector to measure base current and collector current respectively. the output parameter. The slope of the graph at a given point gives the input resistance .
Now to study the output characteristics. input current is kept constant and the variation of out voltage and output current are measure and a graph is plotted (adjacent page). The output impedance can be found from the graph. Ie = I b + I c Where Ie is the emitter current. Output impedance is the ratio of output voltage to output current at a constant input current. looking like a saturated one. The ratio is nearly constant and it is called as current gain. Ib is the base current and Ic is the collector current. . In common base transistor amplifier. It resembles characteristics of a reverse biased P-N junction diode. That is The output characteristics show that IC changes rapidly in the beginning but soon IC becomes independent of VCE. In the operation of a transistor.
It is defined as the ratio of the collector current (Ic) to the base current (Ib). = Av aa. D.C. Voltage gain (AVac.c.) is defined as the ratio of change in output voltage (DVc) to the change input voltage (DVi) i. .c) is defined as the ratio of change in collector current (DIc) to the change in emitter current (DIe) at constant collector voltage A. power gain is defined as the ratio of change in output power to the change in input power.c OR In common emitter transistor amplifier d. current gain (b) .C..e.C current gain : It is defined as the ratio of collector current (Ic) to the emitter current. A. Alternating current gain (a.
A.voltage gain (AVac) is defined as the ratio of the change in output voltage (DVC) to the change in input voltage (DVi). a.C. Thus.c) . the voltage across the load (the lamp with resistance RC) VRC + VCE = VCC. the supply voltage shown as 6V If VCE could fall to 0 (perfect closed switch) then Ice could go no higher than V CC / RC. such as the light-switch circuit. and the collector voltage drops because of the collector load resistor. power gain.C. a.c. Transistor as a Switch In a grounded-emitter transistor circuit..e. the values of input voltage can be chosen such that the output is either completely off.It is defined as the ratio of the change in the collector current (DIC) to the change in base current (DIb) at constant collector voltage Transconductance (gm) is defined as the ratio of change in collector current (Ic) to the change in input base emitter voltage (Vi). the base and collector current rise exponentially as the base voltage raises. A. even with higher base voltage and current and the transistor is then said to be saturated. or completely on.c. . current gain (ba. The equations are as given below: VRC = ICE × RC. Power gain is defined as the ratio of the change in output power to the change in input power i. Here negative sign shows the phase reversal of output.
The junction diode is made of photo .electron pairs are created. a new hole . This increases the current in the circuits. When light falls on such diodes and if the wavelength of the light is such that the energy of the photon is sufficient to break a valence bond. These photodiodes are used in computers and in films Light Emitting Diode (LED) .sensitive semiconductor material. This increases the number of charge carriers and hence the conductivity increases. It works in reverse bias condition but the applied potential is less than break down voltage when the intensity of light increases. the current also increases and attains a saturation.Photodiode Photodiode is essentially a P-N junction which works on the basis of electric conduction from light.
LEDs work under forward bias condition.arsenate or indium phosphate.It can produces an output continuous. For maintaining and starting of oscillator need not any external signal. But LEDs emit light using electric current.c source is called as an oscillator. we can see the emitted light. the extra energy is emitted as a photon. calculators. LED's are used as indicator light in burglar alarms. If the wavelength of the emitted photon happens to lie in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum.LED are light emitting diodes. digital watches etc. While a photodiode works under reverse bias condition. Transistor as an Oscillator Oscillator: A device which is used for providing the alternating output from a d. Photodiodes receive light and hence conducts differently. It works in just the opposite way a photo diode works. A simple oscillator circuit is similar to the amplifier circuit. When a conduction electron makes a transition to valence band to fill up a hole in a PN junction. Essentials of a Simple Oscillator Circuit: Essentials of an oscillator: Components: Tank circuit Transistor amplifier Feedback circuit . It is again a P-N junction made of gallium . But the difference is an oscillator can provides its own input signal.
Tank circuit: A tank circuit contains inductance L and capacitance C in parallel. Feedback circuit: Feedback circuit is for providing the positive feedback. Simple oscillator circuit: The above simple circuit has a CE configuration. Transistor amplifier: Transistor amplifier is used for amplifying the input energy and make losses in resistive component. .L and C are used for finding the frequency of oscillations.
Its magnitude is depends of the number of coils in L’ and the connecting between L and L’. The capacitor C1 is attached to the base circuit which gives the low resistance where as the capacitor connected parallel to the emitter resistance has a high resistance.The feed back coil L’ is attached to the common base circuit and it is parallel to the coil L. Now the frequency of an oscillation is Due to mutual induction this oscillations induced a low voltage to the coil L’. Now this feedback voltage is passing between the base and emitter which is in the form of amplified form. The emitter resistance RE is for providing the biasing and other two resistances R1 and R2are available.Hence the resistance RE has no effect on ac operation of the circuit. it starts to discharge the charges to the coil L . the mutual inductance of the coils L and L’ is M. The frequency of this is same as the frequency of LC circuit but it is an induced voltage. This energy of this amplifier is used to meet the losses and keeping oscillations in tank circuit.This simple circuit is called as collector oscillator because it consists of a capacitor and inductor connected in the collector. Operation of simple oscillator circuit: when the switch is closed the collector current starts to increase causes charging of capacitor. These coils are acted as a primary and secondary of the transformer. . After the capacitor reaches the maximum charge.
This simple circuit is called as collector oscillator because it consists of a capacitor and inductor connected in the collector. . The capacitor C1 is attached to the base circuit which gives the low resistance where as the capacitor connected parallel to the emitter resistance has a high resistance. The frequency of this is same as the frequency of LC circuit but it is an induced voltage. The emitter resistance RE is for providing the biasing and other two resistances R1 and R2are available. This energy of this amplifier is used to meet the losses and keeping oscillations in tank circuit.The above simple circuit has a CE configuration. it starts to discharge the charges to the coil L . Its magnitude is depends of the number of coils in L’ and the connecting between L and L’. the mutual inductance of the coils L and L’ is M. After the capacitor reaches the maximum charge.Hence the resistance RE has no effect on ac operation of the circuit. Operation of simple oscillator circuit: when the switch is closed the collector current starts to increase causes charging of capacitor. These coils are acted as a primary and secondary of the transformer.The feed back coil L’ is attached to the common base circuit and it is parallel to the coil L. Now the frequency of an oscillation is Due to mutual induction this oscillations induced a low voltage to the coil L’. Now this feedback voltage is passing between the base and emitter which is in the form of amplified form.