¨ GENUS DISTRIBUTIONS OF MOBIUS LADDERS A WEBSITE SUPPLEMENT

YICHAO CHEN, JONATHAN L. GROSS, AND TOUFIK MANSOUR

Abstract. The genus distribution of the M¨bius ladder M Ln is re-derived here, using overlap o matrices and Chebyshev polynomials. This website document in intended as a supplement to [4].

1.

Some sets of overlap matrices for ladders

The genus distribution, as well as the total embedding distribution, of a graph can be calculated from the rank distribution of its overlap matrices. We define for the M¨bius ladder M Ln+1 o some sets of overlap matrices:
c,x,y,X,Y,Z (1) Mn+2 as the set of all matrices over Z2 of the form Mn+2 ; n+2 (2) Mn+2 (z) = j=0 Mn+2 (j)z j as the rank-distribution polynomial of the set Mn+2 , that is, of the overlap matrices for general rotation systems for the M¨bius ladder M Ln+1 ; o c,x,y,0,Y,Z (3) Nn+2 as the set of all matrices of the form Mn+2 ; and n+2 (4) Nn+2 (z) = j=0 Nn+2 (j)z j as the rank-distribution polynomial of the set Nn+2 , that is, of the overlap matrices for pure rotation systems for the M¨bius ladder M Ln+1 . o c,x,y,X,Y,Z In a matrix of the form Mn+2 as in display (1) of [4], suppose that we first add the second row to the first row and next add the second column to the first column. Without changing the rank of the matrix, these operations produce a matrix of the following form:   xe c + xf x + z1 0 · · · 0 0 y + zn   c + xf xf z1 z2 · · · zn−2 zn−1 y     x + z1 z1 x1 y1     ..   . 0 0 z2 y1 x2 c,x+z1 ,y+zn ,X,Y,Z  . (1) Mn+2 =   . . .. .. . .   . . . .     0 zn−2 0 yn−2    0 zn−1 0 yn−2 xn−1 yn−1  y + zn y yn−1 xn

For xy ∈ {00, 01, 10, 11}, we employ the notations
c,x,y,X,Y,Z (1) Mxy as the set of all matrices over Z2 of the form Mn+2 ; n+2 n+2 xy xy j (2) Mn+2 (z) = j=0 Mn+2 (j)z as the rank-distribution polynomial of the set Mxy ; n+2

2000 Mathematics Subject Classification. Primary: 05C10; Secondary: 30B70, 42C05. Key words and phrases. graph embedding; total embedding distribution; M¨bius ladders; overlap matrix; o Chebyshev polynomials.
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YICHAO CHEN, JONATHAN L. GROSS, AND TOUFIK MANSOUR c,x,y,0,Y,Z xy ; and (3) Nn+2 as the set of all matrices of the form Mn+2 n+2 xy xy xy j (4) Nn+2 (z) = j=0 Nn+2 (j)z as the rank-distribution polynomial of the set Nn+2 .

Clearly, we have the following property. Property 1.1. For all n ≥ 1, Mn+2 (z) = Mxy (z) n+2 and Nn+2 (z) =
xy Nn+2 (z). xy=00,01,10,11 xy=00,01,10,11

For the vectors X = (x0 , x1 , . . . , xn ), Y = (y1 , y2 , . . . , yn−1 ), and Z = (z1 , z2 , . . . , zn ), with xi , yj , zk ∈ Z2 , we define the matrices x1  y1    =      y1 x2 y2 0 y2 x3 y3 .. .. .. . . . 0 yn−2 xn−1 yn−1 yn−1 xn z1 x1 y1 z2 y1 x2 y2 0 z3 y2 x3 .. . .. .. . yn−2 xn−1 yn−1 yn−1 xn ... zn−1 0         

(2)

X,Y Mn

and

(3)

X,Y,Z Mn+1

     =  z3   .  .  .  zn−1 zn

x0 z1 z2

zn

      .     

. yn−2

As described by [1] and [3], every overlap matrix of the closed-end ladder Ln−1 has the form X,Y X,Y,Z Mn+1 , and every overlap matrix of the Ringel ladder Rn−1 has the form Mn+1 . (Note that X,Y,Z the subscripts of Rn−1 and Mn+1 differ by two.) Now we further define (1) (2) (3) (4)
0,Y,Z Pn as the set of all matrices over Z2 of the form Mn ; Cn (j) as the number of overlap matrices for Rn that are of rank j; n+1 Pn (z) = j=0 Cn (j)z j as the rank-distribution polynomial of the set Rn ; and On (z) as the rank-distribution polynomial of the overlap matrices of the closed-end 0,Y ladder Ln−1 over the set of matrices of the form Mn .

Theorem 1.2. (see [2]) The polynomial On (z) satisfies the recurrence relation On (z) = On−1 (z) + 2z 2 On−2 (z) with the initial conditions O1 (z) = 1 and O2 (z) = z 2 + 1. Moreover, the generating function O(t; z) = n≥1 On (z)tn is given by O(t; z) = t + z 2 t2 . 1 − t − 2z 2 t2

¨ GENUS DISTRIBUTIONS OF MOBIUS LADDERS A WEBSITE SUPPLEMENT

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Theorem 1.3. [3] Let On−1 (z) be the rank-distribution polynomial of the closed-end ladder Ln−2 . Then the polynomial Pn (z) (n ≥ 3) satisfies the recurrence relation (4) Pn+1 (z) = Pn (z) + 8z 2 Pn−1 (z) + 2n−1 z 2 On−1 (z). with the initial conditions P2 (z) = z 2 + 1, P3 (z) = 7z 2 + 1, and P4 (z) = 12z 4 + 19z 2 + 1. Moreover, the generating function P(t; z) = n≥2 Pn (z)tn is given by P(t; z) = t2 (1 + z 2 − 2(1 − 2z 2 )t − 4z 2 (4 + z 2 )t2 − 32z 4 t3 ) . (1 − 2t − 8z 2 t2 )(1 − t − 8z 2 t2 )

2.

¨ Rank-distribution polynomial for Mobius ladders
1 (Pn (z) + 1 − z 2 ). 2
n≥3

Proposition 2.1. [6] For all n ≥ 3, PE (z) = n

Moreover, the generating function PE (t; z) =

PE (z)tn is given by n

t3 (1 + 3z 2 − 3(1 − z 2 )(1 + 2z 2 )t + 2(1 − 10z 2 − 13z 4 )t2 + 8z 2 (3 − 2z 2 − 4z 4 )t3 + 64z 4 t4 ) . (1 − 2t − 8z 2 t2 )(1 − t − 8z 2 t2 )(1 − t)
00 Lemma 2.2. The polynomial Nn (z) (n ≥ 4) equals

1 (Pn+1 (z) − 1 + z 2 ) + 2n−1 z 2 On (z). 2 where On−1 (z) is the rank-distribution polynomial of the closed-end ladder Ln−2 , and where O,Y,Zodd . PO (z) is the rank distribution polynomial over the set Mn n (5)
00 Nn+2 (z) = PO (z) + 2n−1 z 2 On (z) = n+1

Proof. Note that this case must have x = z1 and y = zn , so the matrix has the following form.        =        0 c 0 0 . . . 0 0 0 c 0 z1 z2 . . . zn−2 zn−1 zn 0 z1 0 y1 0 z2 y1 0 .. . 0 ··· ··· .. .. . . 0 yn−2 yn−2 0 yn−1 yn−1 0 0 zn−2 0 zn−1 0 0 zn        .      

c,x+z Mn+2 1 ,y+zn ,0,Y,Z

00 If c = 0, then it contributes PO (z) to Nn+2 (z). Otherwise c = 1, since there are 2n−1 choices n+1 of z1 , z2 , · · · , zn such that the number of variables in {z1 , z2 , · · · , zn } equals to 1 is even, it 00 contributes 2n−1 z 2 On (z) to Nn+2 (z). Note that PE (z) + PO (z) = Pn (z), and the rest follows n n immediately by Proposition 2.1.

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YICHAO CHEN, JONATHAN L. GROSS, AND TOUFIK MANSOUR

10 Lemma 2.3. The polynomial Nn (z) (n ≥ 4) equals 10 Nn+2 (z) = 4z 2 Pn (z),

where Pn (z) is the rank-distribution polynomial of the Ringel ladder Rn−2 . Proof. Note that this case must have x = 1 + z1 form.  0 c 1  c 0 z1   1 z1 0    0 z2 y1 c,x+z Mn+2 1 ,y+zn ,0,Y,Z =  .  . . .  . .   0 zn−2   0 zn−1 0 zn and y = zn , and the matrix has the following 0 z2 y1 0 .. . 0 ··· ··· .. .. . . 0 yn−2 yn−2 0 yn−1 yn−1 0 0 zn−2 0 zn−1 0 0 zn        .      

Multiply row 3 by the constant c and add it to the second row. Similarly, multiply column 3 by the constant c and add it to the second row. If z1 = 1, then we add the first row to the third row and then add the first column to the third column. A similar discussion follows for y1 . We c,1,0,0,Y,Z interchange rows 2 and 3 and then columns 2 and 3, whereby we transform Mn+2 into the following form:   0 1  1 0  0    0 z2 z3 · · · zn−1 zn      z2 0 y2    . ..   . 0 z3 y2 0 0     . .. .. .   . . .    zn−1 0 0 yn−1  zn yn−1 0

0,Y,Z Note that the lower-right n × n submatrix has the form Mn . There are 22 different assignments of the variables y1 and z1 in this case, and it contributes 4z 2 Pn (z) to the polynomial 10 Nn+2 (z). 01 Lemma 2.4. The polynomial Nn (z) (n ≥ 4) equals 01 Nn+2 (z) = 4z 2 Pn (z),

where Pn (z) is the rank-distribution polynomial of the Ringel ladder Rn−2 .

¨ GENUS DISTRIBUTIONS OF MOBIUS LADDERS A WEBSITE SUPPLEMENT

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Proof. Note that this case must have x = form.  0 c  c 0   0 z1    0 z2 c,0,1,0,Y,Z =  . Mn+2  . .  . .  .  0 zn−2   0 zn−1 1 1 − zn

z1 and y = 1 + zn , and the matrix has the following 0 z1 0 y1 0 z2 y1 0 .. . 0 ··· ··· .. .. . . 0 yn−2 yn−2 0 yn−1 0 zn−2 0 zn−1 0  1 1 − zn       .      yn−1  0

Multiply the last row by the constant c and add it to the second row. Similarly, multiply the last column by the constant c and add it to the second row. The resulting matrix has the following form.   0 0 0 0 ··· 0 0 1  0 0 z1 z2 · · · zn−2 zn−1 + cyn−1 1 + zn      0 z1 0 y1     ..   0 . 0 z2 y1 0 c,0,1,0,Y,Z  . Mn+2 =  .  . .. .. .   . . . .   .   0 zn−2 0 yn−2    0 zn−1 + cyn−1 0 yn−2 0 yn−1  1 1 + zn yn−1 0 If zn = 0, We first add the first row to the second row then add the first column to the second c,0,1,0,Y,Z column. A similar discussion to yn−1 . we can transform Mn+2 to the following form:   0 0 0 0 ··· 0 0 1  0 0 z1 z2 · · · zn−2 zn−1 + cyn−1 0      0 z1 0 y1     ..   0 . 0 z2 y1 0 c,0,1,0,Y,Z . Mn+2 =  .   . .. .. .   . . . .  .   0  zn−2 0 yn−2    0 zn−1 + cyn−1 0 yn−2 0 0  1 0 0 0 There are 22 different assignments of the variables yn−1 and zn , and in this case, it contributes 01 4z 2 Pn (z) to the polynomial Nn+2 (z).
11 Lemma 2.5. The polynomial Nn (z) (n ≥ 4) is given by the equation 11 Nn+2 (z) = 2z 2 Pn (z) + 4z 2 QE (z), n

where Pn (z) is the rank-distribution polynomial of the Ringel ladder Rn−2 , and where QE (z) is n O,Y,Zeven ,1 the rank-distribution polynomial over the set Mn .

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YICHAO CHEN, JONATHAN L. GROSS, AND TOUFIK MANSOUR

Proof. Note that this case must have x = 1+z1 and y = 1+zn , and the matrix has the following form:   0 c 1 0 1  c 0 z1 z2 · · · zn−2 zn−1 1 + zn      1 z1 0 y1     ..   . z2 y1 0 0 c,1,1,0,Y,Z . = Mn+2   . .. .. .   0 . . .     zn−2 0 yn−2    zn−1 0 yn−2 0 yn−1  1 1 + zn yn−1 0 Multiply the last row constant c and add to the second row. Similarly, multiply the last column by the constant c, and add it to the second column. A similar discussion continues for the row (column) 3. The above matrix is thereby transform into   0 0 0 0 ··· 0 0 1  0 0 1 + z1 + zn z2 · · · zn−2 zn−1 + cyn−1 1 + zn      0 1 + z1 + zn 0 y1 · · · 0 yn−1 0     ..   0 . 0 z2 y1 0 .    . . . .. .. . .   . . . . .   .   0 zn−2 0 0 yn−2    0 zn−1 + cyn−1 yn−1 0 yn−2 0 yn−1  1 1 + zn 0 yn−1 0 (1) Case 1: c = 0. There are four subcases. • Subcase 1: zn = 1, yn−1 = 0. Note that the lower-right submatrix has the form O,Y,Zeven 11 Mn . In this case, it contributes z 2 PE (z) to the polynomial Nn+2 (z). n • Subcase 2: zn = 0, yn−1 = 0. We add the first row to the second row, and then add the first column to the second column. Note that the lower-right submatrix has the 11 E O,Y,Zeven . In this case, it contributes z 2 Pn (z) to the polynomial Nn+2 (z). form Mn • Subcase 3: zn = 1, yn−1 = 1. We first delete the first row and the last row, then delete the first column and the last column. At last we obtain a matrix of the form O,Y,Z 11 Mn−1 even ,1 . In this case, it contributes z 2 QE (z) to the polynomial Nn+2 (z). n−1   0 0 0 0 ··· 0 0 1  0 0 z1 z2 · · · zn−2 zn−1 0     0 z1 0 y1 · · · 0 1 0      ..  0  . z2 y1 0 0  .   . . . .. .. . .  .  . . . .  .   0 zn−2 0  0 yn−2    0 zn−1 1 0 yn−2 0 1  1 0 0 1 0 • Subcase 4: zn = 0, yn−1 = 1. We delete the first row and the last row, and then delete the first column and the last column. We obtain a matrix of the form O,Y,Z 11 Mn−1 even ,1 . In this case, it contributes z 2 QE (z) to the polynomial Nn+2 (z). n−1

¨ GENUS DISTRIBUTIONS OF MOBIUS LADDERS A WEBSITE SUPPLEMENT

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(2) Case 2: c = 1. In this case, there are again four subcases:  0 0 0 0 ··· 0 0  0 0 1 + z1 + zn z2 · · · zn−2 zn−1 + yn−1   0 1 + z1 + zn 0 y1 · · · 0 yn−1   ..  0 . z2 y1 0 0   . . . .. .. . .  . . . . .  .  0 zn−2 0 0 yn−2   0 zn−1 + yn−1 yn−1 0 yn−2 0 1 1 + zn 0 yn−1

1 1 + zn 0

       .      

yn−1 0

• Subcase 1: zn = 1, yn−1 = 0. Note that the lower-right submatrix has the form O,Y,Zodd O 11 Mn . In this case, it contributes z 2 Pn (z) to the polynomial Nn+2 (z) . • Subcase 2: zn = 0, yn−1 = 0. We add the first row to the second row, and then add the first column to the second column. Note that the lower-right submatrix has the 11 O,Y,Zodd O form Mn . In this case, it contributes z 2 Pn (z) to the polynomial Nn+2 (z). • Subcase 3: zn = 1, yn−1 = 1. We delete the first row and the last row, and then delete the first column and the last column. We obtain a matrix of the form O,Y,Z 11 Mn−1 even ,1 . In this case, it contributes z 2 QE (z) to the polynomial Nn+2 (z): n−1               0 0 0 0 . . . 0 0 1 0 0 z1 z2 . . . zn−2 zn−1 + 1 0 0 z1 0 y1 . . . 0 1 0 0 z2 y1 0 .. . 0 ··· ··· ··· .. . .. . 0 yn−2 yn−2 0 1 0 zn−2 0 1 zn−1 + 1 0 1 0 0 0 

      .      1  0

• Subcase 4: zn = 0, yn−1 = 1. We delete the first row and the last row, and then delete the first column and the last column. We obtain a matrix of the form O,Y,Z 11 Mn−1 even ,1 . In this case, it contributes z 2 QE (z) to the polynomial Nn+2 (z): n−1

Theorem 2.6. [6] For all n ≥ 4, √ √ √ n 1 − 3x + 2 x √ n 1 − 3x − 2 x gCLn (x) = 1 − x + (−2 x) + (2 x) 4x 4x √ 1 1 √ √ + 2n x(i 2x)n Un − Un−2 2i 2x 2i 2x √ 1 1 √ √ + (1 − x)(2i 2x)n Un − Un−2 , 4i 2x 4i 2x where Us is the sth Chebyshev polynomial of the second kind and i2 = −1

8

YICHAO CHEN, JONATHAN L. GROSS, AND TOUFIK MANSOUR

Theorem 2.7. For all n ≥ 4, √ √ √ n 1 − 3x + 2 x √ n 1 − 3x − 2 x gM Ln (x) = x − 1 + (−2 x) + (2 x) 4x 4x √ 1 1 √ √ + 2n x(i 2x)n Un − Un−2 2i 2x 2i 2x √ 1 1 √ √ + (1 − x)(2i 2x)n Un − Un−2 , 4i 2x 4i 2x where Us is the sth Chebyshev polynomial of the second kind and i2 = −1 Proof. By Lemmas 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, we have gM Ln (x) = gCLn (x) − 2 + 2x. The theorem follows. Theorem 2.8. The generating function N(t; z) = N(t; z) = where f (t; z) = 5 + 3z 2 + 13(z 2 − 1)t + (−20z 4 − 106z 2 + 6)t2 + (3 + 109z 2 − 160z 4 )t3 + (−2 + 2z 2 + 448z 4 + 32z 6 )t4 + 24z 2 (−1 − 7z 2 + 16z 4 )t5 − 64z 4 (1 + 7z 2 )t6 . Proof. By Lemmas 2.2, 2.3, 2.4 and 2.5, we obtain Nn+2 (z) = 1 (Pn+1 (z) − 1 + z 2 ) + 10z 2 Pn (z) + 2n−1 z 2 On (z) + 4z 2 QE (z). n 2 t3 (1 − z 2 ) 1−t
n≥4

Nn (z)tn is given by

4z 2 t4 f (t; z) , (1 − 2t − 8z 2 t2 )(1 − t − 8z 2 t2 )(1 − 4t2 z 2 )(1 − t)

Multiplying the above equation by tn and summing over n ≥ 2, we obtain N(t; z) = t 2 P(t; z) − P2 (z)t2 −

+ 10z 2 t2 P(t; z) +

z 2 t2 (O(2t; z) − 2t) + 4z 2 t2 Q(t; z). 2

By Proposition 2.1 and [2, Proposition 2.4], we now complete the proof.

References
[1] J. Chen, J. L. Gross, and R. G. Rieper, Overlap matrices and total embeddings, Discrete Math. 128 (1994) 73–94. [2] Y. Chen, T. Mansour, and Q. Zou, Embedding distributions and Chebyshev polynomial, Graphs and Combin., DOI: 10.1007/s00373-011-1075-5. [3] Y. Chen, L. Ou, and Q. Zou, Total embedding distributions of Ringel ladders, Discrete Math. 311 (2011) 2463–2474. [4] Y. Chen, J. L. Gross and T. Mansour, Total embedding distributions of M¨bius ladders, 2011. o [5] L. A. McGeoch, Genus distribution for circular and M¨bius ladders, Technical report extracted from PhD o thesis, Carnegie-Mellon University, 1987. [6] http://www.cs.columbia.edu/ gross/supplementary.html

¨ GENUS DISTRIBUTIONS OF MOBIUS LADDERS A WEBSITE SUPPLEMENT

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College of Mathematics and Econometrics, Hunan University, 410082 Changsha, China E-mail address: ycchen@hnu.edu.cn Department of Computer Science, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 USA E-mail address: gross@cs.columbia.edu Department of Mathematics, University of Haifa, 31905 Haifa, Israel E-mail address: toufik@math.haifa.ac.il

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