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Measurement : (Basic Components) Distance Measurement Bearing/Angle Measurement Height Measurement Basic Controls in Surveying Horizontal Control Vertical Control Scales and Product of Field Measurement: (Survey Data) Scales Plan/Plotting Charts Maps Document Co-ordinates(Plane, Geodetic) Contours…etc Errors in Surveying Various types of errors (Systematic, Random, Gross) Error factor Basic Measurement Components in Surveying In Surveying we are basically involved in the measurement of Distances, Angles/Bearings, and Heights. These three components are the basic data obtained through surveying. From these three measurements, coordinates of points (x, y, z) may be derived. Other products obtained through surveying may also be derived from these three basic components. Distances In much of the survey operation, distance is the basic measurement and distances referred to is usually the horizontal distances. Measuring accurate distances in the past was difficult compared to measuring angles. When accurate distance measurements became possible through advancement in technology, traverse control were widely accepted, especially when triangulation was difficult. Distances are needed for various purposes: i) ii)
Surveying DEC 204 June 2011/Lect 2
Base for the determination of Scale in Triangulation Additional requirement for angle measurements in triangulation 1
This north is actually the geographical north and determined accurately by astronomical means Magnetic North – This is a line coincident to the line formed by a freely suspended magnetic needle. A magnetic needle will always point North-South. while bearing is the direction of a line with respect to a north line AN (see diagram) N B Bearing of AB = 20° 20° θ = 60° A 80° The bearing above refers to one type of north . Arbitrary North – This is a line conveniently chosen to start a survey. usually in the engineering survey work. A grid is a system of squares whose sides may be of any convenient size chosen to map an area. the True North . A line of same magnetic declination is called isogonic line Grid North .This north direction refers to the National Mapping Grid.iii) iv) v) vi) Trilateration Distances in traverses Demarcation of details/features using distances and bearings Chainage measurements Angles/Bearings Angles or Bearing is another basic component measured in surveying. The Prismatic Compass is a typical example of an instrument giving reading referred to the magnetic north. Any convenient line may be chosen to represent north even though it is not a line of magnetic or true north Surveying DEC 204 June 2011/Lect 2 D Bearing of AD = 80° Angle BAD (θ ) = 60° AN is the direction of True North 2 . place or country. The differences between line of true north and line of magnetic north differs and referred to as magnetic declination which changes from year to year and point to point. Angles are obtained by comparing two directions (AB and AD) or two bearings. There are however various types of Northing namely: True North – The line of true north is also referred to as a meridian (line passing through the geographical North and South pole) .
drainage. The azimuth of a line is the angle the line makes with reference to the meridian or the direction of the True North. Types of Height As mentioned before heights are categorised into two types namely: i) ii) Orthometric Height Dynamic Height Surveying DEC 204 June 2011/Lect 2 3 . From the understanding above . This is the height normally used in spirit levelling. Magnetic Bearing(wrt Magnetic North). It is mainly used in Engineering Surveys for example in the design and construction of roads and highways.Azimuth - It is usually referred to in Cadastral Surveying and is exchangeable to true bearing.y) information. This kind of height is not referred to the mean sea level. reservoirs …etc There is another kind of height not normally heard. railway tracks.bearings may be classified into : True Bearing or Azimuth(wrt True North). At the Datum point height has value 0.000 meter. Grid Bearing(wrt Grid North) and Arbitrary Bearing(wrt Arbitrary North) Bearings may be further grouped into : Whole Circle Bearing ( 0° to 360° ) and Quadrant Bearing (eg N 45° E . If distances and bearings are components giving planimetric (x. S 30°W ) 0° 270° 90° 180° Whole Circle Bearing W N E S Quadrant Bearing Heights Height is another main element measured in surveying. Height values are referred to the Mean Sea Level (MSL) which is the Datum for height measurement. heights provide z information. Instead it is referred to the Geopotential surface which is related to the pull of gravity. Heights that refers to the MSL as the datum is called Orthometric height. waterways. canals. This kind of height is called Dynamic height.
y) a control framework to map planimetric details is used. Dynamic Heights are not given in meters or feet because they are not referred to the sea level. If a network of triangles are extended throughout the country as done in triangulation and the sides of the triangles now measured. Sea surface is actually a surface having the same potential numbers or same gravitational pull. Planimetric Control Framework control for planimetry includes . the whole area or country could be controlled using Trilateration. coverage of a big area (even the whole country) could be obtained through network of triangles. Field procedures therefore is the measurement of accurate angles of every triangle Trilateration In Trilateration the basic figure is also a triangle. Using a certain formula orthometric heights can be transformed to dynamic heights and vice versa. Astronomy etc while framework control for heights includes Levelling. This type of heights is in geopotential numbers and are related to the gravitational force. By extending the framework of triangles. Dynamic heights are measured using instruments that can measure gravitational pull of the earth such as a Gravimeter. The technique in trilateration is to measure all the sides of the triangles and to measure only one of the angles in the triangle. Basic Control in Surveying Control Framework Control framework is a basis requirement in survey work.Orthometric Heights are heights normally determined using spirit levelling. Another surface may have a different potential number and therefore the dynamic height is different. Global Positioning System (GPS) etc.Triangulation. Traversing. If the survey is for planimetric details (x. Their values are in meters or feet above the MSL or the datum and marked on Bench Marks. Likewise if the survey is to obtain height details (z) a control framework to map height details must be used The framework for planimetry cannot be used to collect height details and vice versa. This method was not that much used because angle measurement as in triangulation proved easier and instruments needed not that elaborate. Trilateration. 1) Triangulation Triangulation is a form of survey whereby field observations are done to determine the exact direction and length of one side of a triangle and angles of each triangle. By so doing the length and direction of every side of the triangle could be determined. 2) Surveying DEC 204 June 2011/Lect 2 4 .
Levelling network is a form of control for height features. They are used to capture planimetric data (x. astronomical observations to obtain intitial coordinates of points are needed before any system of control such as triangulation or trilateration can be done. rivers. As long as the survey is properly observed and adjusted. Typical data obtained from such observations are latitude.y) such as roads. From this a second order network of control is build and thereafter the third order network. Practical astronomy is thus a valuable tool to surveyors Levelling The previous method of control mentioned above is the horizontal control.3) Traverse Until the advent of Electronic Distance Measurement (EDM) trilateration as well as traverse did not prove that popular because distance measurement was time consuming and to obtain sufficient accuracy was difficult. Combination In recent years distance measurement using EDM became more useful and convenient because of its high precision and accuracy. and also traverse was possible and capable of obtaining higher accuracy. azimuth of lines. and third order control. 4) 5) 6) Surveying DEC 204 June 2011/Lect 2 5 . As practiced in horizontal control where triangulation are categorised into first. Subsequently contours can be drawn to depict the terrain of the area so that the information obtained could be used to plan construction of highways and roads for example. The first order control is initially established using instruments of high accuracy (eg precise levelling instruments). combined network can result in the most accurate form of horizontal control. To map height features (z) such as height of terrain or object a network of vertical controls are needed. second. Astronomical observations makes use of the celestial objects namely the stars and the sun and because these objects are positioned permanently in the sky with their coordinates known. As a result combined network of triangulation. levelling network are also broken down into various order of control. It can produce results of the highest order. As a result triangulation control for large areas in the past remain the general practice. Astronomical Observations The position of any point on the earth surface can be determined by astronomical observations . Traversing technique over long distances also could not maintain high accuracy. the position of objects on the earth can be referred to them For areas not yet ventured by mankind. building structures. longitude. trilateration. time which are of concern to surveyors.
It was convenient then because each instrument were designed for one particular purpose. GPS however is capable of giving both horizontal as well as the vertical information to the highest accuracy. Topographical Surveying and Cadastral Surveying. Y . For this reason scaling has to be done Scales can be represented by various ways : a) Numerical Scale .for example a Map Scale of 1/ 100 or a Map Scale of 1 : 100 means 1mm on drawing/map equals 100 mm on ground b) Line Scale 0 1Km 2 Km 3 Km A line scale is a graphical representation and can be represented in a very simple form. 1 : 5 000 . Cadastral. Various scales are adopted ie 1 : 2 000 . Topographical) Manuscript and finally Maps on a certain projection Documents (eg Field Book. control network determination has to be separated into horizontal and vertical. various products could be produced either in the graphical or digital form: Plan or Plotting at a desired scale ( Engineering. Likewise a levelling instrument is so designed to be used for vertical control. 1 : 7 500 or 1: 10 000 for country lot Surveying DEC 204 6 June 2011/Lect 2 . usually large scale especially in Engineering Surveying. Plotting…) Hydrographic Charts (Bathymetry …) Height information such as Contours Provison of control points in monitoring Engineering Project Calculation of Areas and Volumes (Earthworks … etc) Co-ordinates (X . A theodolite for example is designed to be used for horizotal control determination and not for heights.7) Global Positoning System (GPS) In the past.and Geodetic Co-ords) Digital Terrain Models (DTM) Plan or Plotting Many survey work end up as a plan or plotting at a certain scale.Scale. GPS instruments can thus provide the x. Product of Field Surveys /Presentation of Field Measurement Scales Ground features whether natural or artificial cannot be brought to drawing without putting it to scale. This type of scale is most commonly found on maps From the measurements made in the field. In Cadastral Surveying the final product is a plotting called Certified Plan (CP) (Plan Akui/PA). y and z co-ordinates of individual points and a network of horizontal and vertical control instantaneously could be established throughout the country . Z) (Plane Co-ordinates.
charts are referred to surveys made with regards to water feature such as surveys made for ports and harbors. Map of Series L 707 means Area code Scale of map Number (for small country/area) Series of numbers for specific area L 7 0 7 L L7 L70 L707 Documents The survey work carried out in the field has to recorded either on paper or using some form of electronic recording. In the past and even to-day field books are used. When it concerns areas within harbors and ports large scales of 1: 7500 are used. Survey measurements have to transferred to the field book with care . Besides the alphabet and numeric to denote where Malaysia is. Maps Maps are ploting of large areas such as the whole country. water depth etc. shorelines. the scale of map is futher given an identity (5 for small scale and 9 for large scale ie in the range of 1 : 15000 – 1 : 5000. Field data in order to be used at the national level for mapping therefore need to be transformed. small and medium scales are used (1:25 000 and smaller). 1: 5000 In Engineering and Topographical Surveying the scales adopted may follow that of the cadastral surveying but includes in it details of heights usually in the form of contours and spot heights Charts Charts are plotting of Hydrographic Survey. The region of Malaysia is given an alphabet “ L “ which also includes China. Thailand and Malaysia being small is further given a numeric “ 0 “. Topographic maps are produced by JUPEM using a numbering system. The main concern in charts is to provide information about the safe movements of water vessel around ports and harbors. Whatever cancellation must also be made in a proper manner. In Malaysia Jabatan Ukur dan Pemetaan Negara (JUPEM) or the Department of Survey and Mapping is the authority on the matter of surveying and mapping. Therefore where plans. data are produced with reference to the Cassini-Soldner projection . Maps of Peninsular Malaysia are drawn on a projection called Rectified Skew Orthomorphic (RSO) while in cadastral surveying.For urban areas/city areas scales are usually at 1 : 200 . Conversion from RSO to Cassini-Soldner and vice versa is available. Surveying DEC 204 June 2011/Lect 2 7 . The activity of mapping is usually handled by Government Agencies. The field book especially in cadastral survey is a document and can be used for legal proceedings of disputes. 1 : 2000. plotting and maps concerns measurements made on land. Sketches must be legible and clear. Japan. Where area of concern is far from ports. In Malaysia the Royal Malaysian Navy is the authority on hydrographic surveys and navigation charts are their concern. and the south east asian countries. 1 : 500 .
The magnitude of error may be small though. They are cumulative in nature which means they are either +ve or –ve. 2) Random Error This type of error is difficult to rationalise. Errors in Surveying All survey work contains error no matter how meticulous we plan or execute the survey. Nevertheless we cannot tolerate errors and effort must be done to reduce errors. A close interval may be needed for undulating and irregular terrain while a sparce interval is sufficient for flat terrain. Of concern here is the plane co-ordinates. It cannot be mathematically modelled. but it is present even in cases where extreme care is exercised. We are not perfect and errors are inevitable. It is also not cumulative and have a tendency to compensate one another and as such difficult to eliminate. 3) Gross Errors/Mistakes Surveying DEC 204 June 2011/Lect 2 8 . Errors can generally be categorised into three groups : 1) Systematic Error This type of error exist in all survey work and arise from some physical phenomenon which can be mathematically modelled. To reduce such errors observations are repeated and those not within expectation are eliminated. At the end of the day measurements becomes more than what it should be and should be subtracted by 0. Theoretically random errors are the left-over after gross and systematic errors are eliminated. signed by the surveyor concerned and the whole work approved correct by JUPEM Co-ordinates Co-ordinates are derived from measurements carried out in the field. Each contour line depict a particular height above MSL .1 mm shorter than the standard tape all measurements made using this tape will always be more by 0.1mm for every tape length measured. Co-ordinates have to be adjusted before they can be of use. Contours Information about terrain is best represented by contours.1 mm . For example if a measuring tape is 0.Survey plans is also another form of legal document because both the field book and the plans especially in cadastral survey has to be checked. They are usually derived from both the planimetric survey to obtain x and y coordinates such as in traversing and the height surveys using leveling techniques to obtain z coordinates. Contour intervals are designed to give an idea about the nature of terrain.
Poor attitude and discipline of these individuals cannot be tolerated. temperature and rain cannot be easily predicted. inexperienced and procedures not adhered to. Several factors contribute towards the buildup of errors. Among the main factors are: 1. Instrument Factor This is the main factor. Environmental Factor From day to day and time to time. Error Factor Besides knowing the types of errors present in survey field operation we also have to appreciate the nature of errors in surveying. Changes of wind. Observer’s Factor Surveying as of now is very human-dependent. Sophisticated technology needs new input and refinements may simplify procedures. booking.This type of error originate from negligence during observations and booking which may occur due to inexperience and careless act of the observer or because of tiredness or fatigue. 2. Instruments may also be manufactured with some form of defects even with great care during manufacture. Calibration and checks from time to time has to be done. Hourly changes may happen to the sun’s ray. Their accuracy and calibration may change. and plotting. All these may change the standards which the equipment were calibrated. 3. Superior technology may fail if observers are indiscipline. Familiarising with the instruments is very important as technology changes rapidly. wind and atmosphere. Observations in the morning may not be affected by shimmering and refraction compared to noon or late afternoon observation. Instrument operators have to be properly trained. Skilled labor is important. But strange thing can happen. They play an influential role and affect quality of the observations and hence the magnitude of errors made. To avoid such mistakes a system of check must be devised during field observation. Mistakes are the most serious of all the errors and cannot be adjusted or corrected. New findings may therefore override previous procedures. This is a common phenomenon in mass production. Materials also advanced through current research findings. Surveying DEC 204 June 2011/Lect 2 9 . If they are physically graduated for example in levelling staff and measuring tape it may fade over years of usage. Electronic-based instrument can be unstable at times. Instruments also have some form of life because of wear and tear. Wrong reading and careless booking is still common. changes happen to the environment.
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