ELE-6286 RF PROJECT 17.

73 MHZ CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR

Submitted By: Prabhat Man Sainju Student Number: 223947 prabhat.sainju@tut.fi 0417077314 December 16, 2011

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ABSTRACT
TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Master’s Degree Programme in Radio Frequency Electronics SAINJU, PRABHAT MAN, 17.73 MHz Crystal Oscillator Project Report, 20 pages December 2011 Subject: ELE-6286 RF Project Examiner: Olli-Pekka Lunden The project Crystal Oscillator was done as the oscillator source for PMR 446 Add-on Module for FM Receivers. The design criterion was constrained with the use of crystal oscillator. Unlike the traditional oscillators based on LC tank circuits, the module had to be based on the crystal. Crystals are used when the precision is a strict requirement and not a matter of choice. There are various oscillator design techniques that imply for both crystal and LC tank oscillators. The report discusses on one of the methods. Simulations for the project are performed in ADVANCED DESIGN SYSTEM 2009.

............ 15 CONCLUSION ........................... 16 REFERENCE ... 3 DIFFERENT OSCILLATOR CONFIGURATIONS ...................................................2 One port Negative Resistance .......................................................................................................................................7 Harmonic Analysis ............................5 Simulation Environment ... 6 SIMULATIONS ..................... 7 3..............................................3 DC Blocks ................1 General Analysis .......................1 Quartz Crystal Equivalent Model.................................... 4 2.........................4 Transistor Biasing ................................... 14 5..........................................................................................4............... 2 1.................................................2 Feedback Capacitors ................................... 8 3...6 Transient Analysis .......................................................................................................................... 7 3........................................................................................................................................ 11 CONSTRUCTION ......................................................iii TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................. 1 1............. 9 3...............................1 Bias Design ..................................................4...2 Specification .......3 Schematic ............................................................................................................................. 9 3.......... 10 3.... 17 2 3 4 5 6 7 ................................................................................................................. 7 3.................................................................................................................2 Hartley Oscillator ..............................................................................................1 Colpitts/Clapp Oscillator. 4 2...................... 10 3.......................... 8 3............................................................................................ 10 3........... 12 MEASUREMENT ..................................................................4................. 1 1...........3 Quartz Crystal ....1 Measured Output ........................................................................................................................................................................................................

the dots can be connected and seen how the crystal oscillators give rise to stable oscillation. We can express the output voltage as. the oscillators were based on vacuum tubes with operating voltage of staggering 200-300 volts.1 Block Diagram of an oscillator with feedback network Above is the basic block diagram of the feedback network based oscillator. Concept of Negative Resistance shall be discussed next.1 1 INTRODUCTION Quartz crystal oscillators were developed in the 1920s. (1. the operating voltage range has gone much below and the focus on oscillator design is now on the performance and accuracy. 1.2) . With transistors. Almost all of the schemes though are based on the theory of negative resistance. After these analyses. Prior to the advent of the transistors and monolithic ICs. An amplifier is placed with the gain A and a feedback network with gain of β. (1. There are different versions of the oscillator schemes available which shall be discussed later. The quartz crystal will also be analyzed.1 General Analysis Figure 1. All of these oscillators were invented with the use of LC tank as the primary source of oscillation rather than the quartz crystals. These oscillators are used in most of the communication circuits as the Local Oscillator source.1) This can be simplified as. is the input function to the network and is the output function of the network.

The voltage-current slope in such cases tends to extend below the origin as well over a certain region.2: One port Negative Resistance model The negative resistance model is represented by the amplitude and frequency dependent impedance given as [2] Where A is the amplitude of the loop current i(t) and A passive load is connected to the network given as .  There must be a positive feedback such that phase shift around the feedback loop is 0 or integral multiple of 2π. If it becomes zero. The criterion states that. [1] 1. this means that there would be output voltage even without the input voltage. the circuit will obtain steady state oscillation only at frequencies for which:  The loop gain is equal to unity in magnitude i.2 One port Negative Resistance Negative resistance is a conceptual term or better could be termed as a phenomenon that non linear devices exhibit. it is expressed moreover as β(jω). if A is the gain of the amplifying element in the circuit and β(jω) is the transfer function of the feedback path.2 that for the network to oscillate. the denominator term should be zero. Figure 1. This mandatory condition for the circuit to oscillate is known as Barkhausen Criterion.e.2 It is evident from the equation 1. Please note that the feedback network β is a frequency dependent term i.e. Now for the denominator to turn zero. .

(1. thin piece of quartz with two opposite surfaces metalized to make electrical connections.[3] Electrical equivalent model of the crystal is given by the figure below: Figure 1.3 Equivalent Electrical Model of Quartz Crystal Figure 1. i.7) And (1. Cp represents shunt capacitance. C is the series capacitance and L being the inductance of the device. 1. applying a voltage to the opposing surfaces of a piece of properly oriented quartz will make it change shape mechanically and vice versa.e.3 Quartz Crystal A quartz crystal is a small.6) which implies that for the oscillation. that is. . Its physical dimensions are tightly controlled since they control oscillation frequency. Mathematical calculations show that for maximum power delivered to the load network. R represents the motional (series) resistance.3 Using the Barkhausen Criterion. the load resistance should be parameterized as below: Where R0 is the input resistance at A=0. we get (1. Quartz exhibits a piezoelectric effect.8) The network is unstable if the net resistance of the network is negative.3 depicts the equivalent model of the quartz crystal.

i1 be the small signal input current. The only difference between the Colpitts and the Clapp Oscillator is that the extra capacitor Cr is present.1 Colpitts/Clapp Oscillator with LC tank as oscillator Above is the Clapp Oscillator configuration. If either of the capacitors C1 and C2 is changed for tuning. One major setback of the Colpitts Oscillator which is overcome by the Clapp configuration is the frequency tuning. Let us consider the small signal model of the figure 2. The capacitor network of C1 and C2 is used as feedback.2. 2. Let v1 be the small signal input voltage. different oscillator configurations those utilize the above to give rise to stable oscillation need to be discussed.1 Colpitts/Clapp Oscillator Figure 2. this could affect the whole feedback network and the circuit might not oscillate at all. . Hence the input impedance can be written as.4 2 DIFFERENT OSCILLATOR CONFIGURATIONS Now necessary conditions for the crystal oscillator and the quartz crystal have been introduced.

the product of their impedances with the transconductance. Now. the output voltage is equal to where Z2 is the impedance of the capacitor.e. This term can be specified as Rin where .2: Small signal model of the Colpitts Oscillator Now assuming that the voltage dependent current source delivers the current is we can find that the total current i2 through the capacitor C2 is given as But the current supplied by the voltage dependent current source is given as It is clear from the figure that the current from the current source is the collector current and the difference of voltage between V1 and V2 is the base-emitter junction voltage.5 Since in the Colpitts and Clapp oscillator output is taken from the emitter of the transistor. Solving with the above results yields to following conclusion: Thus the input impedance is seen as the sum of impedance of the voltage divider capacitors C1 and C2 as well as an extra term i. the input current is given as Where Z1 is the impedance of the capacitor C1. Figure 2.

their product yields the negative value.3 Hartley Oscillator [Figure from ADS] . This network in fact is two capacitors in parallel. one more capacitor Cr is also present which is in parallel to the load capacitance network. Their equivalent capacitance gives the input capacitance of the network as The frequency of oscillation is given as For the Clapp Oscillator.6 Since the impedance of the capacitors are complex. 2. The feedback capacitor network is made by taking a coil and making a tap.2 Hartley Oscillator Hartley Oscillator looks similar to Colpitts Oscillator except for that it uses the inductive feedback network instead of capacitive network. Hence the overall input capacitance becomes [4] Efficiency of the oscillator is defined as the ratio of RF power delivered at output to DC power taken as input. Hence the Rin is a negative component given as C1 and C2 form the capacitive feedback network. Figure 2.

2 Specification Table 3.1 Quartz Crystal Equivalent Model VNA was used to determine the equivalent component values of the quartz crystal.2 Crystal Oscillator Specification Min Typical Max 532.0344 Unit Hz Notes At 25o C Sine wave For 50 ohm load Below the fundamental frequency DC Supply Current drawn from the source Need to fit the design in the given PCB Dimension Item Frequency Tolerance Waveform Level Harmonics Input Voltage Current Size 3 dBm -3 dB 5 volts 10 mA 5 x 5 cm2 . Hence Colpitts was chosen over the Hartley configuration. Table 3. 3. The measured value was later supplemented to the simulation model to determine the other component values.1 Quartz Crystal Equivalent Model Parameters Component Inductance Motional (Series) Resistance Series Resistance Shunt Capacitance 3 mH (approx) 50 Ohms at max 21 fF (approx) 3 to 8 pF Values 3. Oscillator design was restrained from using the inductors.7 3 SIMULATIONS The Colpitts oscillator was chosen amongst all other option given the design constraints.

Harmonic Balance mode was used to analyze the harmonic components in the output and Transient Analysis to study the real time voltage and current level with respect to time. An initial voltage of 1V has been provided at one node of crystal. Mainly two main simulation models were used.1. The collector resistance is calculated as . One different thing done in the simulation apart from the real construction is the use of the initial condition. A harmonic balance could be taken equivalent to analyzing the real circuit in Spectrum Analyzer and a transient response equivalent to Oscilloscope. 3. Single resistor biasing has been used as discussed in the theoretical background. I_Probe measures the current at the output.4 Transistor Biasing Simple Collector to base biasing technique has been applied in the schematic. The inductor is replaced by the quartz crystal with one of the terminals feeding the base of the transistor and the other terminal grounded. The output is taken from the emitter terminal of the transistor. Biasing Network Feedback Network Figure 3. The crystal used had parameters as described in table 3. A capacitor feedback network consisting of two 150 pF capacitors was used. please refer to the Topics and Index of ADS.1. Oscport is a special device used for an oscillator analysis. the amplifier uses the internal noise as the startup voltage to be amplified.3 Schematic The schematic for the Colpitts oscillator using the crystal oscillator is similar to that of the schematic given in figure 2.1 Schematic of Colpitts Oscillator 5V DC source was used. Harmonic Balance and Transient Response. In reality.8 3. For more information.

2. Using the equation 3.4.4. RC=150 Ohms Using equation 3.4.2 Feedback Capacitors For the feedback capacitor values. RB=10. RE=150 Ohms Using equation 3.1) as R23 and is the current gain of the transistor and is given as The emitter resistance value RE can be calculated as.1 Bias Design With the above knowledge. From the equation. The parameters given are:  Vcc = +5V  Vc=3. the bias network was designed for the given BFP420 transistor.1. 3.1) as R21.3 S approx.3. Where RB is the base resistance indicated in the schematic (Figure 3. Using equation 3.5V  VCE=2 V  Ic=10 mA  =80 approx.) RE is the emitter resistance indicated in the schematic ((Figure 3. The transconductance value gm is equal to 0. VBE is the Base Emitter forward bias voltage (0.7 V approx.9 Where Rc is the collector resistance Vcc is the supply DC voltage Vc is the collector voltage Ic is the collector current The base biasing resistor value can be calculated as. C1=C2=150 pF . equation 2.7 will be referred. if C1=C2 Rin should be equal to the series resistance or the motional resistance of the crystal oscillator.4K Ohms 3.

mA 0. mA 5 TRAN. C39 at the emitter.56830 1.10 3.i.5 3.5 1.56855 time. 3. the capacitance for the specific frequency is given as Assuming that the capacitor provides about 10 Ohms of impedance at the center frequency of 17. C40 at the collector feedback and C36 at the DC source.56820 1.56845 1.2 Output Current and Waveform .56840 1.56850 1.0 5 0 0 -5 -5 -10 -10 1.I_Probe1. From the impedance of the Capacitor.0 0.5 4.5 5.0 1.0 3.0 2.5 2. the capacitance value turns out to be 1nF approx. msec Figure 3.0 4. msec time. The DC blocks have been designed to provide minimum impedance for the center frequency while blocking frequencies below it.56835 1.56810 1.4.73 MHz (the expected output of the oscillator).73 MHz Order: 3 Oscillator Analysis Method: Use OscPort The transient analysis parameters are: Start Time: 0 ns Stop Time: 5 ms Step Size: 3 ns (in correspondence with the expected center frequency of 17.5 Simulation Environment As known ADS 2009 was used as the simulation tool and simulated in Windows 64 bit machine.1 at three places.73448 MHz) 3.3 DC Blocks The DC block capacitors have been used in the figure 3.i. The major parameters for Harmonic Balance are: Fundamental Frequency: 17.I_Probe1.56825 1.56815 1.6 15 10 Transient Analysis 15 10 TRAN.

The expanded view on the right shows the waveform of the output which would have been a pure sinusoid in the absence of harmonics.93254 1. It shows that the current started to grow after 1 ms and at 1.0 -400 1. MHz Figure 3.75585301MHz plot_vs(dBm(HB. The second harmonic is much below the fundamental frequency.2 shows the current over entire 5 ms time period.Vo) -10 -15 -20 -25 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 f req.Vo).93266 1.93252 1.93250 1.93264 1.Vo[1]*conj(HB.51170602MHz plot_vs(dBm(HB. . mV 200 TRAN.3 Output Voltage Waveform Figure 3.93262 1.93258 1. freq)=-8.0 1.93276 time. Harmonics analysis is done below: Eqn PoutdBm=10*log(Pout)+30 3. Similar to figure 3.7 Eqn Pdc=real(-conj(HB.93272 1.353745611 Max m2 m2 freq=35.4 Harmonic Analysis of the Colpitts Oscillator Above figure shows the harmonics analysis of the simulated Colpitts Oscillator. The output power at the fundamental frequency is 2.5 5.93268 1.5*real(HB.I_Probe1. It shows different power levels.5 1.11 Above figure 3.354 dBm. The table above the harmonics figure is generated by ADS.93270 1. This shows that the wave form is not exactly sinusoidal but with the hint of presence of harmonics.0 4.i[1])) PoutdBm 2.354 5 0 -5 m1 m1 freq=17. The power level of 1st harmonic as per the figure is more than 9 dB below the fundamental frequency. freq)=2.327915817 dBm(HB.Vo.Vo).Vo.3 shows the voltage level at the output.5 3.0 2.0 0. The expanded version of the same waveform is shown in the right side of the figure.93260 1.002 Eqn Pout=0. msec Figure 3.5 2. mV 200 0 0 -200 -200 -400 0. msec time.5 4.045 Pout 0.93274 1.i[0])*5) Harmonic Analysis Pdc 0. the rise of the oscillation is clearly seen in the figure.93256 1.2.5 ms it attained stable amplitude. 600 600 400 400 TRAN.0 3.SRC1.

the board is washed. Figure 4.73448 MHz Part Number CRCW06031500F CRCW06031002F C0603C151F5G C0603C102J5R pb_sms_BFP420_19960901 Amount 2 1 2 3 1 1 The substrate board used for etching was FR4. The line width was calculated assuming 17. Its dielectric constant is 4.73448 MHz to be center frequency and 50 ohm impedance using the java applet provided in amanogawa web application [5].1 Layout generated by ADS Above figure shows the layout generated by the ADS for the oscillator circuit. . Once the layout starts to appear on the surface etched. Standard 0603 SMD components were selected from the ADS Component Library. Table 4. The line width was calculated to be around 43 mils. The transparent sheet was overlaid on the substrate surface.12 4 CONSTRUCTION The layout for the circuit was designed in the ADS Layout Editor. Then the whole thing including the substrate and the transparent film overlaid on the substrate was put in the ultraviolet exposing machine for about 2 minutes.8 mm.5 and thickness of about 0. The exposed substrate was then taken out and submerged in the diluted solution of NaOH or the developer solution. A separate ground plane was also generated to facilitate for the soldering of the crystal. This layout was printed on the transparent sheet with high resolution. It is now ready to be fed to the bubble-tank.1 Part list for the layout design Component Resistor Resistor Capacitor Capacitor Crystal Transistor Value 150 Ohm 10 kOhm 150pF 1 nF 17.

13 Bubble tank contains Sodiumpersulphate. the board is ready. The board is now ready for soldering.2 Picture of the Crystal Oscillator Prototype . A spray of flux is done to the board so that soldering applied sticks to the board. A SMA connector was used to at the output with the central pin soldered to the output line and the outer legs soldered to the ground. wires were used as the connections to supply and ground. Figure 4. [6] The board is then washed and cleaned with ethanol. Apart from the parts mentioned above. Holes are then drilled carefully with appropriate sized drill bits. Figure 4.2 is the image of the final prototype that was built after the process of etching and soldering the components. After 20-25 minutes. a strong oxidizer that corrodes the unnecessary copper layer.

779E7 plot_vs(Trace1.773E7 plot_vs(p2_prabhat_final.Trace1.062 m1 0 m2 Trace1 -20 -40 -60 -80 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 freq.. p2_prabhat_final. MHz Figure 5. freq)=4.freq)=1.14 5 MEASUREMENT m1 indep(m1)= 1.668 m1 indep(m1)= 1. MHz Figure 5.Trace1 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 p2_prabhat_final.553E7 plot_vs(Trace1..1 Frequency Response of Prototype 1 in the Spectrum Analyzer m2 indep(m2)= 3.038 20 m1 m2 p2_prabhat_final..freq...546E7 plot_vs(p2_prabhat_final.2 Frequency Response of Prototype 2 in Spectrum Analyzer Mainly two devices have been used during the measurements. freq)=1. p2_prabhat_final.freq)=5..756 20 m2 indep(m2)=3.Trace1. Oscilloscope was used for the analysis of transient response of the . they are Oscilloscope and Spectrum Analyzer.

7 mA approx for first prototype and 9.7 mA current from the source. There was no as such Peakto-Peak voltage specified for the prototype. All other measurements seem to be meeting the required specifications as compared to the table 3. This was basically due to the feedback capacitors that pulled the center frequency down. The measured current was about 8. .11.06 Level Prototype 2 384 17. The prototype measurements show that both of the prototypes have the power level at the fundamental frequency to be above 3 dBm.72905 9. The current drawn from the source is measured by the digital voltage source. This indicates that the frequency tolerance was met. The measured efficiency using these data is calculated using the equation 2.1 5. Spectrum Analyzer used for this purpose is Agilent E4407B.15 oscillator and the spectrum analyzer for the frequency response of the circuit. The specified tolerance was 532 Hz. the peak was seen to fall within the span in the scope. The frequency tolerance was measured by changing the span of the spectrum analyzer to 500 Hz.1 shows the measurement output in tabulated form.1 Measured Output Table 5. For prototype 1. The center frequency observed in the measurement is different from the expected value as the actual resonance frequency of the crystal was measured and found to be different from that stated.1 Measured Output Parameters Prototype 1 398 Peak-to-Peak Voltage 17. But it was just measured out of the oscilloscope. With the frequency span of the analyzer set.03 1. Also the 1st harmonics is below 3 dB of the fundamental frequency. The current measurements show that it draws approximately 8.1 mA for the second prototype. For prototype 2.2.71 source 4.75 Output Power Level st 1 Harmonics Power 1.66 Unit mV MHz mA dBm (Fundamental Frequency) dBm Table 5. 5.72905 Frequency Current drawn from 8.

The output measurements presented are all with respect to 50 ohm load.16 6 CONCLUSION Crystal Oscillators are precise and compact oscillators that are used in modern day communication systems by virtue of its high quality factor and accuracy.354 dBm. it has been used with the quartz crystal. The center frequency observed with the measurement was different from that of the crystal itself. Though in simulation. The equivalent model was used in the simulation tool ADS for further simulation. Colpitts Oscillator was originally designed to be used with the LC tank oscillator. The equivalent model of the quartz crystal shows that it has very high inductance (in the range of mH) and very low series capacitance (in femtoFarads). . Even though they might be available. But in this project. For this. These feats are very hard to achieve with actual components. The output was taken of the emitter and fed to a 50 ohm load. This was because the load capacitance applied in the form of the capacitor feedback network adds up to the shunt capacitance of the equivalent electrical model of the crystal. their size may be incomparable with that of the commercial quartz crystals. the equivalent model of the quartz crystal was observed from VNA. we observed the output power in dBm to be about 2. Hence the center frequency is slightly shifted. the hardware measurements showed it being above 3dBm which was our expectation from the specification.

G. 3rd Edition .org/wiki/Colpitts_oscillator [5] www.amanogawa.tut.php/1586/PCB_etch. CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR CIRCUITS.com [6] https://moodle.M. D. Revised Edition [4] en.17 7 REFERENCE [1] en. Matthys.pdf [7] Pozar.wikipedia. Microwave Transistor Amplifiers Analysis and Design [3] Robert J.org/wiki/barkhausen_stability_criterion [2] Gonzalez. Microwave Engineering.fi/file.wikipedia.

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