Louis XIV’s Foreign Policy Balance of Power 1st sense: equilibrium: pwr distrib.

amongst many separate states 2nd sense: equil. disturbed, opposing states ---> coalition & provide counterweight by which balance is restored 3rd sense: “holding” the balance: a state is needed more by aliies the it needs them = this state “hold” the Balance of power or it belongs this state belongs to no coalition, tries to keep all others in balance its intervention would be decisive ---> also “holds” the balance (strictly speaking, not involved at all) Statesmen Pursuing Balance of Power aim: preserve own indep. of actions to utmost, ther4 ally vs. any state threatening to domin. one state too pwrful - others shun alliance w/ it unless willing to be puppets would instead seek alliance w/ weaker states (counterweight) to restore balance v. feared ally w/ weaker also ---> enhances own importance, more considerations for self smaller states = import i.e. Den = location, Dutch = $/ships ---> can tip balance Purpose Balance of Power Politics not 2 preserve peace, rather sovereignty & indep. so called “liberties of Europe” ther4 alliance were easily made/unmade accord to interp. of current situation effective to this end 17th & 18th C 1) grt # states capable pursue ind. foreign policy 2) not held bk by ideologies or sympathies, only aim to protect own indep. or enlarge interests 1667-1668 : War of Devolution (legal term used in prelim demands) Louis claimed Sp Neth & Franche-Comté Blocked by Triple Alliance: Eng/Dutch/Swedish Peace of Aix la Chapelle 1668 1672-1678 : the Dutch War Louis strngr @ home, now allied w/ Charles II Eng - invades w/ 100,000 troops vs. Dutch + austr Hapsburgs, Brandenburg, Denamrk dutch resort to opening dikes and flooding countryside Treaty of Nimwegen 1678: France stopped but gained Franche-Comté

Louis XIV: Foreign policy

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1679 Louis ---> HRE: Alsace-Lorraine encouraged by his success, weakness Ger Empire, & other div. of European pwrs: took Strausbourg 1681 Louis had elector of Brandenburg, electors of Rhineland Church states HRE diet divided: pro/con French Emperor Leopold I distracted in East w/ Hungarian revolt (supp by Louis) Turks had joined Hungarians, 1638 beseiged Vienna (like 1529) finally got Turks out w/ help Poland 1686 League of Augsburg formed Leopold gathered Cath powers vs. French Prot. (revoc of Nantes) allied w/ William of Orange 1688-1697 : 9 Years War (War of the League of Augsburg) Louis basically overwhelmed (William gained resources Eng when ---> king 1689) 1697 Peace of Ryswick: a return to prewar status *Wars of the 1680’s 90’s gained Louis no terr beyond what had @ Nimwegen Louis fighting on homefront: supp army of 200,000 vs. grt nations Europe, Bnk of Amsterdam, Bnk of England exceeded French resources successor to Colbert: Le Peltier devalued money, sold offices, titles, gave tax exemptions -- not enuf as usual, burden fell upon peasants: revolts widespread last decades of 17thC series bad harvests 1688 - 1694 made things worse price wheat up! starvation, (buried 1/10th of pop these years) slump manuf/exports, pillaging troops.... People called for peace! Louis granted 5 year respite while rebuilding resources to fight next war 1702-1713 : War of the Spanish Succession fought by pro armies, not wholes peoples, civ pop generally spared cept civil war in Sp + more starvation in France 1st large scale war where religion mattered little commerce/sea power @ stake Eng $ liberally used on continent “world war” in sense that overseas fighting involved France ---> Spanish inheritance <--- HRE ea had ruler who married a sis of Charles II various treaties signed to partition Sp possessions (1698) idea: preserve bal of power
Louis XIV: Foreign policy 2

1700 Charles II died: had will: Sp possessions were to stay intact ---> grandson Louis XIV (Philip of Anjou) only if Louis prom crowns Sp/Fr never inherited by one ruler if Louis refused ---> son Hapsburg emp in Vienna Louis accepted: Bourbons in Versailles and Madrid ther4 Fr. influence extended, if not united “The Pyrenees exist no longer” Other powers stunned & didn’t like the sidelines motives for action: claimed Fr. pwr 2 strong 50 years overseas maritime rivalry to resolve check France’s ezpansion commercial pwr in N Amer, Asia, Africa William III acted immed. : formed Grand Alliance 1701 Eng/Holl/emp HRE w/ Brandenburg, Prtugal, Savoy vs. France, Spain, Bavaria 1702 Grand Alliance declares war on France A long war cuz no sooner one side gain temp adv ---> raised demands for settlement G.A. had two brilliant military men John Churchill : Duke of Marlborough (Eng) Prince Eugene of Savoy (Austr) 1704 allies served a crushing blow to France @ Blenheim many early battles won by Allies Louis sues for peace: but refuses offer cuz demands enormous Louis still wants: 1) hold 2 crowns 2) conq Belgium 3) Fr. merch ---> Sp Amer 4) @ worst fight in self defense 1710 - Louis = minor success ---> insists on holding Sp crown Spanish: fight in support of will, unity of Sp possess., integrity of Sp itself Austr ---> Barcelona ---> Catalonia: who again rebel & recog Austr claims = civil war in Spain ---> Spain in Hapsburg family crush Bavaria, Austr infl.---> Alps: Italy Dutch ---> want security, keep Fr out of Belgium, close Scheldt River Eng ---> Gibraltar, trty w/ Port, want same as Dutch + dislike Fr supp pretenders also like Dutch: keep Fr merch out of Sp Amer, adv own comm inter. Brandenburg/Savoy ---> for whatever adv. turned up Peace of Utrecht 1713-1714
Louis XIV: Foreign policy 3

Partition Sp wld, not only to two legal claimants = balance of power principle in action (Brit const. history: when Lords block Commons, create new Lords to have approp maj.) Savoy = recog as “king” of Sardinia Brandenburg = recog as “king” of “Prussia”, tiny region Sp Guelderland (of SP Neth) Austr Hapsburgs = Milan, Naples, Sicily, Sp Neth. Dutch = guarantees of security, garrison “Dutch Barrier” (forts in Belg on side ---> Fr) could now expect minimal competitionfrom S. neighbors BUT: severely strained by war & outdistanced by Brit **Dutch never again play a primary role in Eur politics British = greatest winners ---> one grtst pwrs in Eur Union w/Scots 1707 during war Gib/Minorca ---> pwr in Medit. Belg (“pistol aimed @ the heart of Eng”) in Austr. hands (who didn’t really want it) Added to Amer holdings Asiento extorted from Spain privil. of providing Sp Amer w/ slaves, Bristol & Liverpool benefitted grtly Brits ---> Sp Amer: compete w/ french assured line of Prot Kings landed arist. / merch allies in firmly in control ---> great wealth: basis Ind. Rev. Spain = no Eur. poss, but kept American Louis XIV grandson = Philip V of Spain (cond. Fr/Sp thrones never under one) ** completed decline of Spain as grt power ***William II obj: prevent Fr dominance is achieved War = main cause loss of Fr strength prod poverty, misery, depop. (famine 1709) exposed Louis to severe crit @ home 40,000 new offices sold = reduced revenue base of future revived aristocrat/Parlementary opposition for now abandoned conq Belgium ceased recog Stuart pretenders Newfoundland/Nova Scotia(Acadia) ---> Brit. recog Brit sovereignty in Amer NWest(Hudson Bay Terr) YET: Fr only checked, not down and out Louis’ statebuilding had withstood true test: defeat on battlefield retained Alsace-Lorraine, Franch-Comté influence strong in Spain deep strength, capacity for recovery ---> renewed econ expansion Lang/cult continued spread thru Europe
Louis XIV: Foreign policy 4

Treaty Utrecht confirmed internat’l relations estab. by Wesphalia nations members of Eur sys recog ea other as sov states connected only by free negoc., war, treaty adj differences thru facile xchange of terr, wo/regard of people there France and Great Britain emerge as two leading powers: ther4 principle carriers, exporters of type of civiliz. predomin. in Modern Wld Ger = “feudal chaos” Ital = negligible Sp = subordinate to France

Louis XIV: Foreign policy

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