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By: Jobo Y Kogapo It all started in 1948, when the world came together to signed the ‘Universal Declaration of Human Rights’. One of its blueprints was to proclaim ‘All Children have the Right to a Basic Education’. The effectiveness, since then, was limited until the ideology of ‘Education for All’ (EFA) was introduced at the conference in Jomitten, Thailand in March, 1990. The conference has triggered for the birth of Universal Basic Education (UBE) and documentation of a blue print ‘World Declaration on Education for All’, as UBE type outlining its framework of actions to meet basic learning needs. Papua New Guinea (PNG) is strategically planning to make this journey, as stipulated in Vision 2050. PNG is on the route to run-way however, she has to make sure the basics within the system are made right and future enforcing strengths are proposed with confidence. This article exposed theoretical framework, which would stand as one of the major elements of success in implementing UBE in PNG education system. Universal in this context will mean the whole people without exception. Basic will mean that, on which anything rests. It is the root or bottom or the foundation from which other parts get support. While education will be interpreted to mean the act of bringing up or training of a child, through instruction and in the process bring about the strengthening of his powers of body and mind to be able to understand his culture. So, implementing UBE can mean free education for all at any level specified. The literal meaning now amid worrying parents would be to see their child, without exception would have access to free basic education without hindrance. UBE has the potential to minimize the illiteracy rate of 59.6 per cent (2000), ignorance and poverty as well as stimulate and accelerate the pace of national development, political consciousness and national integration. The increasing illiteracy rate is becoming a developmental problem now and viable measures must be taken to eradicate or reduce level of illiteracy. And this calls for the best strategic point to maneuver. Literacy is necessary for an individual to understand information that is out of context, whether written or verbal. Literacy is essential if we are to eradicate poverty at home, improve infant mortality rates, address gender inequality, and create sustainable economical development. Without literacy skills—the abilities to read, to write, to do math, to solve problems, and to access and use technology—tomorrow’s adults will struggle to take part in the world around them and fail to reach their full potential as parents, community members, and employees. The crushing impact of illiteracy has lead into a devastating secret shame, leaving the illiterates to live painful loneliness and feel stupid amid the so-call hyper-technological and informative world. It is of vital move that young generation in PNG must be educated despite what may become in the future. UBE would be the best approach to educated and develop for better and improved society, a society which posses self-reliability, creative, innovative, productive, responsible and respecting the laws of the land. In implementing UBE, it would mean PNG can work towards achieving Middle Income Economy. Now, what challenges does PNG have that stands as the key concept to adapt in order to achieve the predetermined visions? The concept itself is found in its theoretical framework. Every organization has an input and output process. The quality of the input determines the nature of the outcome. UBE is based on the System Theory. The system theory states that there are different parts in any organisation playing different functions. These different parts interact
Changchun. There are so many unreached objectives which have stands as loop holes in the system and thus call for a critical attention by the authorities. more information or comment on: jobokogapo@gmail. availability of infrastructural and instructional materials. review of the then existing curriculum. The teacher’s interaction with the UBE program and the teacher’s interaction with the students in the learning situation will determine output. etc. As stipulated under 1.17. This article was contributed by Jobo Y KOGAPO who is undergoing Masters of Education specializing in Entrepreneurship Pedagogy at Northeast Normal University. conversion and output.com 2 . the interaction with the objectives of the UBE and the interaction with the students and finally the impact of the UBE on the students and the general society. The conversion is the interaction of the teachers with the UBE program. The system in this concept is the UBE. and avoiding individual compensation for work undone. UBE for all-age children from elementary to Grade 12 would be the climax goal but at an expense of careful planning and funding. These factors include teacher’s disposition towards their role as teachers and facilitators in the UBE. can she create a new society through UBE? Yes! PNG can. prompt payment of salaries. PNG education system must strategise to set its objective in line with the Vision 2050. overcrowded student population. there should be public enlightenment. All these plus others have the capacity of influencing and determining the nature of the input in within the system. can move the part if the mindset is for the people. PNG must adapt a workable structure to experience successful interaction between the parties involved. adequate budgetary provision and basic education and skill acquisition programs. For the policy to succeed. So. social mobilisation. There are 3 basic processes in the system theory. An effective UBE reform must learn from the previous reforms’ implementations and its debatable issues in PNG.with each other and are independent on each other. Nigeria’s education reform on Universal Primary Education (UPE) has failed due to improper planning. The level of teacher’s participation in and implementation of the objectives of the UBE will be determined by the level of input. if UBE is planned and funded well. The input is what comes in from the outside. The conversion process also involves the interaction of the teacher with the students who are suppose to be recipient and beneficiaries of the UBE. Jilin Province. the conversion is the processes of internalisation while the output is the effect of the input and the conversion process on the system. what does this mean? In measuring perception of teachers of the UBE as an educational reform policy. provision of infrastructural facilities. The output is observable from the relationship between the system and the environment in which the system exists. the input will be the teacher’s own experience of the UBE in the learning environment and other places where such teachers interact with other teachers on the implementation and workability of the UBE. level of community awareness and participation in the educational process. They re-strategised and implement UBE with new perspective covering the loop holes and have improved their achievement.1 Education in Vision 2050. CHINA. teacher recruitment training and improve remuneration. He can be contacted for any query. The teacher’s experiences are influenced by a number of factors. These are the input. The teacher’s perception of the UBE will be determined by all the components of the system which are the teacher’s experience. Although PNG has its own negativity.2. Thus. The educational system as functioning according to the system theory. qualification.
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