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Risandi Dwirama Putra University Technology Malaysia Introduction
In the world market, the development of a country is strongly influenced by economic factors and industry developments. Ship is not a basic industry or primary industries in the sense of agriculture, ship industry is also not a secondary industries like the steel industry or other mining industries. But the ship industry is providing a major influence in the economy. Any type of industry needed its consumer, industrial vessels provide transportation services for all types of production and industry can work well to consumers. Oil and gas industry, steel industry, the tourism industry, and all other types of industries that highly dependent with the ship industry. Each country requires a trade in maritime services. Ship industry is still an important need to distribute results of production to a variety of world industry. With its a lot ships are needed to raise and distribute industrial products to around the world. Developments in the world on ships, especially cargo is growing rapidly. Many of his demand for control every aspect of the world's logistics service, container ships are very a lot in need. Requirement in the delivery of maritime services on the large number of requests on container ship maritime services are not balanced. Industrial development in Asia, causing increased demand for container ships.
Why is researched ?
To know the development for existing ships around the world, there is need for research on classification soecities. with this analysis we can find out what's going trend of the various types of ships are registered and we can find out why this trend occurs, what causes it and we can find out what the next 10 years the ship will be there, what of the trend happened and demand design for next 10 years.
2009.net Fig.net. 1 shows the percentage of registered ships in the worldwide. Which consists of various types of ships was based on ship classification. The data is used from various Classification Soecities on the worldwide. Percentage of ship register in every Classification soecities in the world from 2000 – 2009 based on e. showing that the economy of the eastern areas began growing rapidly in the field of ship industry.ship. The number of ships registered in some eastern parts of the ship registration. Ships in the analysis was totaled 26192 of ships. . The data was taken from the years 2000-2009. this indicates that economic development in the western and the eastern part have experienced a balanced economic development .Ship registered in the past decade Ship data which is used taken from the site e. Nippon Kaiji Kyokai and the American Bureau of shipping still dominate the large number of ships registered in the agencies soecities classification that exists on the world.ship. From the year 2000 . existing data is grouped for each type of ship and will be made analysis of each development year. CLASSIFICATION SOECITIES ETC 14% NIPPON KAIJI KYOKAI 15% AMERICAN BUREAU OF SHIIPING 15% BIRO KLASIFIKASI INDONESIA 6% BUREAU VERITAS 14% LLYLOD REGISTER 14% GERMANISCHE R LYLOD 12% DET NORSKE VERITAS 10% Fig 1.
the ships are classified based on the type : Offshore Support Vessel Transportation Vessel Liquid Cargo Ship Dry Cargo Ship For offshore support vessel. can be seen from the development of the existing number of vessels each year. 4.net for offshore support vessel Trends ships for offshore support vessel have very significant growth. except for a trend in the FPSO.ship. To identify the development trend of ship register. where in 2009 the number of FPSO which registered very few of ship.1 Offshore Support Vessel. Trend shipping register in the world from 2000 – 2009 based on e.Trends Shiping registered in the past decade Trends that occur on ships registered in the past decade in the world. the trend can be seen from figure 2 below. This . As for the drillship and offshre constuction has increased very high. TRENDS SHIPPING REGISTRY IN THE PAST DECADE IN THE WORLD FOR OFFSHORE SUPPORT VESSEL 60 QUANTITY OF SHIPPING REGISTRY 50 40 30 20 10 0 1998 2000 DRILL SHIP 2002 FPSO 2004 YEARS 2006 2008 2010 OFFSHORE CONSTRUCTION Fig 2.
net for Transportation vessel Trend in the transportation vessel did not develop significantly. Trend shipping register in the world from 2000 – 2009 based on e. In general. 4. Many of its air transportation services causes an alternative of maritime transport industry was second in freight transportation services. for the transportation vessel for the last ten years from the year 2000-2009 did not experience an increase in quantity.2 Transportation Vessel DEVELOPMENT TRANSPORTATION SHIPPING REGISTRY IN THE PAST DECADE IN THE WORLD FOR TRANSPORTATION VESSEL 70 QUANTITY OF SHIPPING REGISTRY 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1998 2000 2002 2004 YEARS 2006 2008 2010 PASSANGER SHIP PASSANGER/FERRY PASSANGER/CARGO ACCOMODATION SHIP Fig 3. Increasing the quantity only for the passenger / ferry in 2007 about 60 ships are registered in the passanger ship worldwide.shows that the future drillship and offshore construction will increasingly. . where with the development of the trend drillship and offshore construction industry indicate that oil and gas will increasingly lead to deep water.ship. The decrease of the transportation vessel This could result competition on the business of marine transportation industry. another vessel for transportation in the past 10 years has decreased.
ship.3 Liquid Cargo Ship DEVELOPMENT TRANSPORTATION SHIPPING REGISTRY IN THE PAST DECADE IN THE WORLD FOR LIQUID CARGO SHIP 600 QUANTITY OF SHIPPING REGISTRY 500 400 300 200 100 0 1998 2000 2002 2004 YEARS LNG 2006 LPG 2008 TANKER 2010 CHEMICAL/OIL TANKER Fig 4. but the oil industry continue to increase until next 2025. the future will demand more and more for the oil tankers and chemical tankers.4. Oil has led to deep water and the longer the oil contained in the earth's are running .net for Liquid Cargo Ship The trend going for the ship registered on the type of liquid cargo ship showed improvement. As with the development of offshore construction and drillship is increasingly leading to a deep water causing Chemical/Oil tankers and tankers also experienced a significant increase. Oil usage is still the main energy source which is still needed. Although oil expected to reach its limit. The use of oil as a primary energy source on earth must be considered. Trend shipping register in the world from 2000 – 2009 based on e. Each year the design and capacity of tankers and chemical/oil tankers will increase. With the new design and larger capacity so chemical/oil tankers and tankers must use double hull system that functions for the prevent leakage of the tanker. Increased use of liquid cargo ship indicate that the increasing world consumption of oil and gas.
An increasing number of dry cargo to prove that there was an increase on the economy of some countries especially from some developing .ship. for the last 10 years is looking dry cargo ship continued the positive trend. LPG and LNG began to be taken seriously. 4.net for Dry Cargo Ship Based on the above data. The IEA estimates that gas would be one source of global energy is necessary in 2025. so the development of gas industry also increased. an increase in energy consumption of this gas stands at 28% of global energy use in 2025. which forced the state to increase the amount of quantity of gas production.low. High import demand also influence the gas industry.4 Dry Cargo Ship DEVELOPMENT TRANSPORTATION SHIPPING REGISTRY IN THE PAST DECADE IN THE WORLD FOR DRY CARGO SHIP 600 QUANTITY SHIPPING REGISTRY 500 400 300 200 100 0 1998 2000 2002 2004 YEARS CONTAINER RO-RO 2006 2008 2010 BULKER GENERAL CARGO SHIP Fig 5. This advantage is forcing the gas-producing countries to take greater opportunities for exploiting gas. and therefore began to consider other alternative energies. Trend shipping register in the world from 2000 – 2009 based on e. factors that lead to an increase in LNG and LPG are both on the supply side and demand is the continued increase in world gas consumption.
500 TEU with a complex design. Economy in the Asian countries show the positive impact. although in the year 2009 decreased. Added drill ship caused by the oil resources that the longer the leading deep water Transportation vessel Development of the marine transport industry is not so good as with the development of container industry. the trend for dry cargo will further increase for the future.net we can predict the trend will happen for the next 10 years offshore support vessel The development of offshore support vessels in the future will be dominated by the drillship.countries. if this condition have continued the possibility of future the three lion can play an important role in the import and export industry in the world.ship. and security for passengers.2008. Growth passanger / ferry should be done with a new design with attention to aspects of design and speed of the ship. Where the number of drill ship will still grow until 2025. For the container ship that significant design changes from the early 1980s until now. New Building And Design Demand From this data e. Early 1990's with a small TEU capacity of Converted cargo capacity of 500 TEU vessel that has a simple design. number of dry cargo ship is designed also getting bigger from year to year. Container is one more proof of that the dry cargo showed an increasing trend from year 2000 . Industrial exports and imports is still a major factor in the improvement of the economy in a country. Despite the decline. Liquid Cargo ship . Transportation vessel still needed. including the economic crisis that occurred in several countries. has now changed into New Panamax design that can carry weight with a capacity of 11. the three lion growing strongly. Economic growth in countries asian gives the positive trend to dry cargo ship.000 to 14. Passanger / ferrry will continue to grow well for 10 years in the future. Decrease the amount of container in the year 2009 could be caused by several things. The increase economic competition also gives an influence on the trend of dry cargo ship. But for the next 10 years.
tangker owners will try to raise the capacity of the vessel to reduce operational costs and increase profits. For 10 years oil will still survive. .Oil is still placed as the main energy source in the world. while the LNG continues to rise. thereby reducing environmental damage. the trend of container ships will actually experience a bad trend. Gas is an energy alternative sources of oil as an energy balance on Earth. Container ship is one good trend have served until the next 10 years. In 2005 the trend of LPG has been decreasing. but the LNG ship will increasingly dominate the future of the LPG. its other energy alternatives are needed. Oil resources are increasingly leading to deep water will require liquid cargo to transport oil from the field. if the global economic crisis. predictable future for the LNG ship visits will be more and more with greater power capacity. development of the oil tankers will still take up to 10 years. but the main energy source on earth is the longer it will decrease. Tanker in the future should pay attention to design its cargo. In the future freighter LPG and LNG gas will be more numerous and capacity vessels will be even greater. Tanker capacity will also grow. any future double-hull tankers must have to prevent the tanker from leaking. economic growth in Asia make a container ship is needed. Dry Cargo Ship Ten years would dominate the dry cargo ship of all the trends for existing ships. The new design and larger capacity container will be more greater for 10 years in the future. due to increasing oil resources in the deep sea. This trend is still valid if the lack of a global crisis that can caused breaking world economy.
Historical development Shipping containers become a very important factor for the world economy. and has a big quantity is used as the main services in the container ship industry. This can be attributed to a . This makes the growth of the container ship industry makes a vessel owner to provide a better service. particularly with the entry of China into the global economy.specifies the patterns of Containerization began to seriously impact global trade and production strategies. Delivery of goods using the container has been providing shippers with access to safe. with a container ship service also contributed to the income of each country. Growth (1990-2008) . A history of shipping containers can be divided into the following periods (Nedyalkov. container is still not considered and acknowledged in the global shipping. easy and relatively cheap for the international market in any part of the world through the networks connecting the trade in each country.TRENDS IN THE CONTAINER SHIPPING Risandi Dwirama Putra University Technology Malaysia Introduction In the process of globalization. The container has been tremendous growth in the last few decades. 2011) Introduction (1958-1970) . 2008 is defined as the year of maturity of container traffic. Container trade growth is also accompanied by the globalization of markets.is the first commercial container service began in the late 1950s until the design of the first cellular containerships in the 1960s. so competition between the container shipping services has forced the owners to increase productivity and more cost efficient. This will be linked with the maturation of the global economy. Larger vessels.became recognized as a product container transport and accelerated investment in intermodal facilities. Adoption (1970-1990) . the delivery of goods using container ships make an important contribution to international trade.
2011) From Fig.1 percent per year. This can be attributed to several reasons: international trade liberalization and globalization that has accompanied it. world container trade growth accelerated to an average growth rate of 9. 1 between the years 1980 to 2004 container traffic has grown more than 80 million TEUs.6 percent each year. the historical development of container ships trend shows a steady increase. an increase is more than 100% from early 1980. changes in the composition of international trade to shift from basic commodities . it is also associated with an average annual growth of 9% growth coumpond . only around 18 million TEU capacity of container ships. And is predicted if the trend is still ongoing. This increase requires a change in terms of design and container transport capacity. Fig 1. has accelerated the growth of international trade. economical and limits of the world recession began in 2008 with the impact on container traffic . And is expected in 2020 of container traffic reached 371 million TEU. It is estimated that container traffic will further increase between the years 2004 to 2020 with an average 7. container traffic will increase until 2020. up to 2004 grew by 105 million container TEUs.number of factors and various types of technical. Beginning in 1980. At the same time. From Figure 1. Historical development of container ship (Nedyalkov. During the 1990s and in the early 2000s.
the development of container can be seen from figure 2. In the early 1990s. and China has grown greatly over the past decade provide competition in the world economy The global economic crisis is affecting the trend of container ship traffic. also create profitable growth in container volumes. agriculture and steel industry and other mining industry. Containerization. in the year 2008 / 2009 world economic crisis has an impact on the delivery and requirements container as a result its impact on global economic growth. spect Design which have changed most since 1980’s Aspect design have changed most since 1980’s in container ship is ship size keep growing and capacity of container ship is bigger. This development causes changes in shape and size of container ships as well as design aspects of the ship itself. Great progress has been made. Asia has become a rival in the world container market. caused evolving information and other technologies that expand into global trade and also provides stimulation to the volume of container ships. If the global economic crisis. With the rapid economic growth in recent years. The charge is the greater need greater power. a trend that occurs may be different from a given scenario. containerization was growing up in China. three tiger has become the new container markets. Because of the global economic crisis negatively impact the world economy which led to adverse impacts on container traffic. and draft the necessary are also getting bigger. .towards processed primary products and manufactured goods. with advances in technology the delivery process is not only focused on primary industries. The development of container volume and growing amount of containers. the development of terms of trade. For example China has emerged as a new major container market which greatly contributes to its special container development trend in Asia.
In the year (1970 . The ship owners prefer to use a larger container ships to reduce costs for transporting cargo. Latest design global container Early development of container or container that is in the first period (1956 .1970) with the "Converted cargo vessel" which has a length of 135 m and the size of the container only has a capacity of 500 TEUs. Fig 2.1980) comes the second generation of container in the presence of "cellular container ship" with a capacity of 1000 .2500 TEUs.Latest Design Global Container and Construction of the Container in the last 5 years The growth of container traffic led to the growth capacity of container ships. In the third generation (1988-2000) to the . There is a picture of the early development of the container.
Post Panamax experiencing significant growth. contructionPanamax-class the largest is the Emma Maersk of Denmark with a capacity of 12500-13000 TEU.500 TEUs. This type of third generation container vessels are Panamax class. the greater the capacity of container ships. Its successful economic development in Asian countries make important changes in the network container ship in asia. The fourth generation of post-Panamax container ship is. draught 15 meter. by reaching 305 meters long and capable of carrying capacity of 5000 TEUs. Over the last decade. This ship can carry cargo capacity of 30004000 TEU. which has a length of 335 meter long ship and has a capacity of 8000 TEUs reached.8 meter and 63. a wave of economic .development of container ship cargo capacity and type. The continued development of the time. And continued development of the container ship served until the present. breadth 42. Fig 3 Germanisher Lylod Asia Container Trend The development of container shows a positive direction in ASIA countries. Emma marsk whic has length 352. In the sixth generation container appears is "New Panamax" which was 397 m long and with a capacity of 11. which can reach 290 meters in length and has a draft of 11-12 meters.5 air draft. Post Panamax developed more into postPanamax Plus. Beginning in the 2000s.000 to 14.18 meter.
and Singapore. Lately. Kaohsiung and Busan area developed as a regional hub. Local routes also developed linking Japan and Singapore. including the port of Port Klang and Bangkok. Cargo originating from China that led to the Japanese now have been combined with other cargo shipping services between ports A number of Southeast Asian and Chinese ports are also developed. increasingly complex feeder services were introduced to connect to port a regional hub port keys from Hong Kong. Chinese ports incorporated into new feeder shipping network. concentration of its container shipping network. With the rapid economic development in Southeast Asia during the 1980s. Hong Kong. In the early 1970s. adding to an increasing number of container lines. China. adding further complexity to the delivery systems of Asia. China has started to provide service delivery to these locations to other Asian countries. Singapore and Kaohsiung. causing areas in the region of Asia another less experienced decent growth rate. . the Asian shipping network largely concentrated in Japan. then to the another ports of Southeast Asia. Intense network developed between the ports of the Pearl River delta ports and Hong Kong. In the 1990s. Therefore. originally in conjunction with the service to Japan and then with additional specialized services to various countries including Taiwan republic and other countries. The growth of China's economy. with the rapid growth of China's container trade. the beginning of the container industry in advance of the subcontinent Asian countries are still lagging behind. Significant volume of regional cargo sea routes began to emerge in the short path that connects the new centers to the main hub to Japan . Where to asia region. On the other side of the American delivery service was also suspended in Hong Kong and Singapore region. Shipping companies began experimenting with the addition of line routes in Southeast Asia.development in Asia has brought a progressive structural change in the container shipping network in the inter-continental trade into and from Asia and intra-Asian trade. Lane shipping containers from Europe / Far East traffic that passes through the trans-Pacific and stopped in Japan region. Busan and Japanese ports increased feeder link with Shanghai and the central and northern regions of China.
MAN Diesel. Maritim Institut of Malaysia. Propulsion Trends in LNG Carriers. M ichael. the construction of new ports create greater traffic in the waters of Asia for the better future container ship Reference : http/e. Copenhagen. Et. Tipe-tipe Kapal . 3. 318-332 Dinariyana. 2001. Marine Department . The Impact of Cargo Trends On Terminal Development in Asia. China and from other Southeast Asia. Published in the International Journal of Maritime Economics. Technical University of Varna Bulgaria. . This route has proven to be attractive to cargo from Taiwan Province of China and Hong Kong. Fakultas Teknologi Kelautan – ITS Surabaya Hong Kong SAR Government.With further growth in Southeast Asia. Vol. Denmark Nedyalkov. pp.A. 2011. 2008. Facultly of Marine sciences and ecology. Econometric analysis of the ship demolition market.ship. With the rapid growth of container. Study on the Next Generation of Large Containerships. Trends In The Container Shipping And Need Of A New Generation Container Terminals And Container Vessels . JurusanTeknik Sistem Perkapalan. 2011. 2005. Sabine. Marine Policy 32 (2008) 1023 – 1036. a new strategy to serve the area in the East Coast of the United States was introduced. Tororin. increased port handling facilities in mainland China and Hong congestion at ports has been developed. Serving Tomorrow’s Mega-Size Container ShipsThe Canadian Solution. Knapp. with a cargo ship from asia and asian southeast region continue a new route to America via the Suez Canal.net/ C. Hongkong Khalid Nazery. Ircha.B. A. 2006.
Vessels . Facultly of Marine sciences and ecology. Technical University of Varna Bulgaria. .
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