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Louisiana The Floridas and the Caribbean British North America Russian America: Sitka Trans-Appalachia: Cincinnati Atlantic Ports: From Charleston to Boston A NATIONAL ECONOMY The Economy of the Young Republic Shipping and the Economic Boom THE JEFFERSON PRESIDENCY Republican Agrarianism Jefferson’s Government An Independent Judiciary Opportunity: The Louisiana Purchase Incorporating Louisiana Texas and the Struggle for Mexican Independence RENEWED IMPERIAL RIVALRY IN NORTH AMERICA Problems with Neutral Rights The Embargo Act Madison and the Failure of “Peaceable Coercion” A Contradictory Indian Policy Indian Resistance THE WAR OF 1812 The War Hawks The Campaign against Canada War in the South The Naval War The Hartford Convention The Treaty of Ghent DEFINING THE BOUNDARIES Another Westward Surge The Second Great Awakening on the Frontier The Election of 1816 and the Era of Good Feelings The Diplomacy of John Quincy Adams The Panic of 1819 The Missouri Compromise CONCLUSION KEY TOPICS *The development of America’s economy in a world of warring great powers *The role of Jefferson’s presidency and his agrarian republicanism in forging a national identity *The ending of colonial dependency by the divisive War of 1812
and New York) had its own distinct economy and culture. But along with their goods. though in 1800 it was a polyglot. American shipping had been hurt by the end of ties with Great Britain. demand for tobacco and rice was. In 1790. other European North American colonies seemed equally significant to the United States. a chain of Atlantic seaports dominated trade. Boston. Located 600 miles north. population rapidly expanded. The American Revolution influenced Canadians leading Great Britain to create a national legislature under strict executive control. agricultural communities. Russian fur traders had established outposts along the Alaskan coast. The outbreak of war in Europe and American neutrality led to a vast expansion of trade that fueled the growth of American coastal cities. While Spain's position weakened.*Westward expansion becomes a nationalizing force AMERICAN COMMUNITIES: MANDAN VILLAGES ON THE UPPER MISSOURI The Lewis and Clark expedition visited the Mandan villages in what is now North Dakota. The Caribbean posed strong challenges because of the sugar industry. It was also an international port and Americans were concerned that whomever controlled New Orleans could choke off commerce along the Mississippi River. Baltimore. and economically. the geographical distribution of the U. however. Americans brought diseases like smallpox.S. The most rapidly growing region of the United States was west of the Appalachian Mountains. Americans had entered the Northwest fur and China markets and were actively engaged in shipbuilding. A NATIONAL ECONOMY Most Americans lived in rural. which wiped out the vast majority of Mandans. Loyalists comprised most of the other settlers. the Spanish had established a chain of missions throughout California. Unfortunately. The Spanish also controlled New Orleans. Those with the greatest ties to the trans-Appalachian West thrived. By 1800. To protect their interests. other colonial powers strengthened their positions in North America.000 Americans lived in Trans-Appalachia. Although only 3 percent of Americans lived in cities. In 1800. East and West Florida were important Spanish colonies because they dominated the Gulf of Mexico. These cities led the nation socially. though Westerners were concerned over who controlled the city. at best. 500. Cincinnati had grown rapidly. Americans established Fort Clark as a trading base. politically. Louis was a trading post. at pre-Revolutionary levels. The male chiefs met with Lewis and Clark who offered them a military and economic alliance. The vignette shows how Thomas Jefferson’s dream of an “empire for liberty” brought death to American Indians. Each of the major cities (Philadelphia. but the Caribbean slave societies were jolted by the successful slave revolt in Haiti. serving as major trading center for the Ohio River Valley. Northerners were generally self-sufficient while the plantation regions of the South were heavily involved in marketing crops overseas. River traffic to and from New Orleans increased annually. NORTH AMERICAN COMMUNITIES FROM COAST TO COAST Despite the wretched state of transportation. French-dominated society that was half black. Russian settlements in Alaska were followed by new outposts in California. Trade stimulated the rise of 46 . For example. Charleston. Spain opened the area to American immigration. St. The Mandan lived by agriculture and hunting and resided in matrilineal clans. The heart of British North America was the former French colony of Quebec.
The Prophet. and brokers catering to the international market. RENEWED IMPERIAL RIVALRY IN NORTH AMERICA Jefferson was easily re-elected in 1804. but lacked a strong navy. doubling the size of the United States and fulfilling his desire for continued expansion. but not enough to defeat Jefferson’s Republican successor. While Tecumseh was in the South. The solution was to maintain aspects of French institutions in Louisiana. The French also seized American ships reinforcing the failure of the Embargo Act. But white land-hunger threatened all Indians in the region. diversified national economy THE JEFFERSON PRESIDENCY Thomas Jefferson emerged as a strong president with strong party backing who was able to shape national policy. Jefferson attempted to buy New Orleans. arguing that land was the common property of all Indians. He believed that a republic required roughly equal yeoman farmers. Although Marbury v. Napoleon had acquired the Louisiana Territory from Spain. Jefferson hoped that Indians would either be converted to white civilization or moved across the Mississippi River. The law did not change British policy and caused a deep depression as well as widespread smuggling. but faced problems protecting American neutrality. navy. Jefferson was determined to defend American sovereignty.000 white 47 . 1. The confederacy was initially defensive but after the Treaty of Fort Wayne. His brother. British ships seized American vessels trading in the French West Indies and impressed sailors into the Royal Navy. The acquisition of territory with French customs created a conflict with Americans whose traditions were derived from England. Federalists gained strength. Jefferson had been elected on a promise to reduce the size of the federal government. which faced a strong independence movement in Mexico. He feared that the Federalist industrialist program would produce the same extremes of wealth and industrial squalor he had seen in Europe.insurance companies. it did establish the principle of judicial review and an independent judiciary. By 1820. The unfinished state of the nation’s capital reflected the emphasis on local communities. Jefferson provoked a landmark Supreme Court decision. Many tribes were divided into accommodationist and traditional factions. Jefferson's ideal was an agrarian republic. Tecumseh added a political dimension by forming a pan-Indian confederacy that called for an end to land sales to whites. threatening American access to the Mississippi River. which he fulfilled by cutting internal taxes and reducing the size of army. As a result. James Madison. While removing Federalist officeholders. Tenskwatawa. Indian affairs remained among the most difficult foreign problems. Neither policy won much Indian support. The Shawnee emerged as the leading force of Indian resistance in the Ohio Valley. America’s abundant land allowed him to envision a nation of small family farms (even though he himself owned a large plantation and slaves). Tecumseh urged military resistance. he accepted the French offer to buy the entire territory. the United States was on its way to building a strong. It was repealed and other similar acts passed later also proved ineffective. called for a rejection of white ways and built a pan-Indian religious movement. Western tribes resisted American incursion into their territory. in the 1808 election. and government staff. The conflict between France and Britain threatened American security. Acquisition of Louisiana put the United States in conflict with Spain. Tecumseh led a band that attempted to escape contact with whites. Madison did not restore William Marbury to his post. Despite constitutional qualms. banks. Congress first imposed a boycott and then an embargo on foreign commerce. Increasing territory seemed the solution.
Federalists demanded redress of grievances though they dropped talk of secession. Manufacturers 48 . The Southern campaigns were more successful as Andrew Jackson and Indian allies defeated the Creek Indians and invaded Florida. The war also ended lingering feelings of American colonial dependency. The Panic of 1819 hurt urban workers suffering from the decline in trade and manufacturing failures. The Monroe administration established the Second Bank of the United States and passed a protective tariff. a new generation of War Hawks from the South and West supported war as a means of expansion. Two treaties with Britain established a demilitarized Canadian border and provided for the joint occupation of Oregon. Madison’s declaration received no Federalist support. but the British did agree to evacuate the western forts.” Monroe brought former Federalists into his cabinet and embraced most of Henry Clay’s American System that updated many of Hamilton’s ideas. The Old Northwest shared New England values while the Old Southwest was based on plantation slavery. but would not subsidized roads and canals—the third part of the American System. Tecumseh formally allied with the British. In response. Easterners brought the culture and values of their home regions with them. THE WAR OF 1812 In addition to the problems of shipping and Indian resistance. Thus regional cultures were transplanted to the west. The Federalist Party was all but dead in this “era of good feelings. Overpopulated farmland in the east pushed Americans to cheap land in the west. the strength of the British-Indian forces. But the Americans won the battle of the Thames. Adams defined the response of the United States to emerging nations in the western hemisphere by designing the Monroe Doctrine. Continued opposition from New England led to the Hartford Convention. Initially the war was a disaster. cementing east-west connections. James Monroe presided over the post-war period. DEFINING THE BOUNDARIES The end of the war ushered in the Era of Good Feelings due to politicians largely agreed on the political agenda and the diplomatic achievement of John Quincy Adams. the position of the United States in North America had changed radically. Revolving around the camp meeting. and the resistance of Canadians.soldiers defeated Tenskwatawa’s followers at Tippecanoe. The Panic of 1819 was triggered by the Second Bank of the United States foreclosing on loans that led to six years of depression. The British navy established a strong blockade and burned Washington. Efforts to capture Canada failed due to New England opposition. Spain had a much smaller presence. New problems emerged as Americans moved westward. The Treaty of Ghent ended the war without addressing the major grievances. at which Tecumseh was killed. Peace also brought widespread Indian removal that opened lands and enabled Americans to resume their westward migration. the Second Great Awakening further strengthened east-west relations and helped Westerners create new institutions. Andrew Jackson’s victory at New Orleans saved American pride. The Russians were contained and peace prevailed with the British. Adams used Andrew Jackson’s incursions to pressure Spain into turning over Florida and relinquishing claims to Louisiana. A land boom was financed by speculative buying and easy credit. Secretary of State John Quincy Adams laid the foundation for continued expansion. The Indians were the only clear losers. Between 1800 and 1824.
Look at the post-War of 1812 conflicts as the consequence of the absence of political parties. 5. politics tended to break down along class and sectional lines. Maine was admitted as a free slave state and slavery was barred north of Missouri’s southern boundary. The material on cultural institutions and the Second Great Awakening should be useful here. Emphasize that if a Federalist Party had existed. 3. David Edmunds’. Look at westward migration from the Indians’ perspective. allied with Southern Federalists. Hence closer ties to Britain via the Jay Treaty made sense. angering Southerners.pressed for higher protective tariffs. Tecumseh and the Quest for Indian Leadership. The text’s suggested readings point you to R. Since there were no parties to command loyalties and force coalitions. Lecture Suggestions 1. Hence they needed access to the Mississippi River and acquisition of new territory. CONCLUSION Westward expansion shaped the fundamental direction of the United States as Americans searched for broader definitions of community. note the parallel development of a national economy. The issue of admitting Missouri to the Union created a crisis in 1819. Federalists sought to build an economy based on commerce that would serve their merchant constituency. 49 . Lecture on how westward expansion was changing the character of American society and how the republic was responding to that change. But note also the heavy-handed use of government power to enforce the Embargo Act. Northerners opposed the creation of new slave states because it would tip the balance between slave and free states. They also needed the widest possible market for their goods. Republicans sought to build an economy based on agriculture that would serve their farmer constituency. Henry Clay forged a compromise which maintained the balance between free and slave states. Both precluded close ties with Britain. Examine Jefferson’s philosophy of government and evaluate his success at implementing it. 4. Similarly. 2. Southerners sought to expand slavery and were concerned that Congress would even consider the matter. James Tallmadge probably would have been a member and hence. a wellwritten short biography. The Panic of 1819 showed how far the nation had come from Jefferson's agrarian republic toward a commercial nation. His budget and tax cuts are examples of how he was able to fulfill his ideals of limited government. Make the connection between the domestic policies of the two parties (discussed in the previous chapter) and their foreign policy goals. A more serious crisis developed over the efforts to admit Missouri into the Union as a slave state. A central theme in the chapter is about the emergence of a national identity.
etc. 8.” What does that mean? Why did he believe that America could maintain itself as an agricultural republican society? What were Jefferson’s domestic goals? How thoroughly did he achieve them? What were the Jeffersonians’ foreign policy goals? Why did they support continental expansion? What sorts of problems did this lead to? How did the War of 1812 come out of this? How did Indians respond to American expansionism? Was there an alternative to the conflict that resulted? In what ways was America becoming less of a localized nation and more of a nation with a national identity and national economy? Why was there so much political conflict during the so-called “Era of Good Feelings?” Is this the result of the collapse of the old party system? 2. 6. 3. 50 . Walter LaFeber’s The American Age (Norton. but it does a wonderful job of synthesizing nineteenth century history and putting it into perspective. Out of Class Activity Most schools have copies of the Lewis and Clark journals.? Thomas Jefferson is spoken of as a “Republican Agrarian. 2nd Edition. The text says that in 1800 few people would have predicted that America would become a continental nation. 7. 9. 1987). Students could work on presenting various aspects of the journey. Barney’s The Passage of the Republic (Heath. LaFeber does a superb job of connecting foreign policy with domestic problems. Why is this true? What were America’s rivals? What drove America’s push for continental expansion? Why was America’s economy in 1800 so thoroughly local in its orientation? What changes were occurring at that time that led it to become a national economy? What geographic areas developed as manufacturing centers. If You’re Going to Read One Book on the Subject I’m a big fan of William L. Many instructors are not well-prepared when it comes to discussing foreign policy.Discussion Questions 1. It’s not that well-known. The book is organized around the issue of republicanism and shows how the demographic and economic growth of the United States set in motion a series of events leading to expansionism and sectional conflict. 5. 4. 1994) is the best onevolume diplomatic history available. food centers. The book is relevant for the entire nineteenth century and ought to be consulted. Individuals or groups might each be responsible for a given amount time and for presenting to the class the major events and themes they uncovered.
S. 1977) “Thomas Jefferson’s Monticello” Tours Jefferson’s home and displays Jefferson’s style of living. (Color. etc. Madison” Dramatizes the Supreme Court case that laid down the principle of judicial review. his ability as an architect. 14 minutes. (Color. (Color. 36 minutes. his inventions. Shows how the war spurred U.Audio Visual Aids “Marbury v. industry. stimulated national pride. Emphasizes the role of British impressment. 1982) 51 . and shaped relations with Canada. 1975) “The War of 1812” Shows causes and consequences of the war. 24 minutes.