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Case study 1 Question b. Can transparency make organizational responsibility more effective?

e? Answer - Transparency has its advantages and challenges. Organizational transparency helps create trust among stakeholders encourages more informed decision making and supports grater participation. However it does not guarantee that the right decisions will be made or that information will not be manipulated or misconstrued. Despite the challenges associated with transparency current conditions and future assumptions are driving organizations to respond to the question how do we create a more transparent organization? Technology has both created the expectation and also produced the tools to deliver greater organizational transparency. Access to information through the internet has shifted the balance of power toward the customer rather than the supplier. Technology has allowed political systems to make demand on others to share once-confidential information. The public has accepted increased intrusions in the name of safety. We found that transparency and trust are inextricably connected. Tranparency is a means to another end a trusting environment. Increased transparency helps develop a culture in which trust abounds and participate in. We concluded that a culture of trust requires three prereauisties: 1. Clarity and consensus about what constitutes success. 2. Open access to common information 3. Confidence in the competence of the partners involved.

Question : a What can be the drawback of having a formal system as mentioned in point 5? The logic pattern in a system plan where certaion action are repeated while a specific consdition occurs or until a certain condition is meet

Case study 2 Question a. In the light of the system describe the decisions to be made in the area of strategic planning managerial control and operational control? What information would you require to make such decisions? Ans : Some strategic decision making will determine the system failure. Find out the objectives resource aand policies of the organization will held. Strategic managerial control are take like : 1. Find the software problem. 2. Equipment check 3. Contuct with the IT support team. 4. Find the right reason is any of user handle the system wrongly. Operational Control: 1. Call the supplier/Vendor 2. For immediate repairing contact with the support team 3. Identify the error area and send the knowledge level decision making team. Question b. What would make the system a more MIS rather than just doing transaction processing? Answer: After considering all the function and alternative solution deploy this tool in ERP(Enterprise resource planning) system rather than a POS(point of sale). An ERP system is a service oriented acchotecture with modular hardware and ssoftware units or

services that communicate on local area network. The modular design allows a business to add or reconfigure modules while preserving data integrity in one shared database that may be centralized or distributed Question c. Explain the probable effects that making the system more formal would have on the customers and the management? Answer: To develop a effective and user friendly system is challenging and potential work. If the system is not user friendly or sufficient support prompt that may cause some problem bet win the user, customer and the management. Probable effect may be 1. Customer requirement will not fulfil 2. It is quit impossible to understand what the customer needs

3. Management can not take the right decisions 4. Making distance between the customer and management and employee Case study 3 Qusetion a. What security loopholes to the fore the situation described? How can these be plugged. Answer: Security loopholes in the random number generator of windows which is fond in research. This is a program which is among the thing a critical building block for file and email encryption and the SSL encryption protocol with used by all internet browsers. For the following security loophole the plugged Mr David need some action like. 1. Licence windows operating system use in the all required system 2. Using fire wale in main server. 3. The action in question can be reduced to operation of access modification and deletion. Question b. What is the importance of security budget in the context of the given situation? Answer: The initiative will include virus related product support, and online security tool kit and a new version of IIs wich can be tailored to meet customers individual needs. The move has been greeted as a small but positive step in restoring faith in internet security , budget is required all of the level of system improvement. Such as user education, understanding best security practices, improvements in software development. Case study 5 Questions a. In the context of the given casse what managerial issues need to be addressed by Alfred? What is it important for managers to be tech savvy? Answer: For many the term digital collections is like a magic word which bring up and image of extensive universe of information available through the ingernet and accessible from home or office workstations fulfilling the promise to provide information at any time to any place and for any user. many consider the world wide web to be the digital collections accumulated vast collection of this kind is to unstable to be called a storehouse. However but thinking of digital libraries merely as vast repositoties of

material is also too limited. These digitized collections my be available at many places such public and private sector organizations. purpose of managerial issues need 1. Orrgainizing policy. 2. Accessibility 3. Searchabiliy 4. Preservation 5. Service Challenges and issues In the traditional organizational environment official records were static documents. These traditional documents when transformed in electronic records they have to be managed as dynamic documents. These electronic documents become muilti dimensional because they can be linked to other documents and multi media files. Importance of tech savvy: Define tagging requirements such as needing to track clicks, however or exit links to accomplish a measurement goal. Identify when extra tagging is needed and when it isnt Check that tagging actually is working as designed Know when and where to get deeper technical help. CASE STUDY 4 A web portal presents information from diverse sources in a unified way. Apart from the standard search engine feature, web portals offer other services such as e-mail, news, stock prices, information, and entertainment. Portals provide a way for enterprises to provide a consistent look and feel with access control and procedures for multiple applications, which otherwise would have been different entities altogether. Examples of a web portal are MSN, Yahoo!, AOL and iGoogle. Corporate or business web portal became common during the 1990s. As intranets grew in size and complexity, webmasters were faced with increasing content and user management challenges. A consolidated view of company information was judged insufficient; users wanted personalization and customization. Webmasters, if skilled enough, were able to offer some capabilities, but for the most part ended up driving users away from using the intranet. Many companies began to offer tools to help webmasters manage their data, applications and information more easily, and through personalized views. Portal solutions can also include workflow management, collaboration between work groups, and policy-managed content publication. Most can allow internal and external access to specific corporate information using secure authentication or single sign-on. The business benefit of the web portal from customer perspective are:

The customer witnessed tremendous increase in Internet business. The redesigned web portal offered lot of convenience to the users and received good feedback from the customers. The customer noticed tremendous improvement in operational efficiency and information accuracy and availability

And from the corporate perspective the business benefits are: Provides relevant information and functionality, unifying critical enterprise information sources. Manage all facets of unstructured information, from collaborative authoring and publishing to advanced search and navigation of existing repositories. Provide immediate value by delivering content in the context of business roles. Streamline problem solving by unifying information, applications and services. An open solution capable of integrating virtually any third-party application, information source, or Web content regardless of device or format. Access all authorized systems with just one logon, eliminating the need for multiple logon procedures and passwords

What is the importance of content management for enterprise web portal? Content management for enterprise web portal is a powerful and sophisticated Web content management system that is designed to accelerate development and delivery of critical business information. It enables end-to-end collaboration for content creation, approvals, management, retention, and publishing across Internet, intranet, extranet and portal assets. Despite its power, most of the content management system of the web portal are remarkably easy to use. It simply requires standard office skills to harness and optimize the flow of information rapidly. The ability to effectively manage content - and more importantly information and specific knowledge - directly affects organization's ability to succeed in the marketplace. Business information is, in most cases, the most valuable asset that offers to customers, employees, or business partners. Accordingly, that makes information, together with the ability to manage it, integral to the success of every business. Value is the knowledge that organization add before it offer something. So, business value is based on the information that it share. This concept is true both for the production as well as for knowledge and service industries. Looking at where this information exists, organization finds that it is often divided and decentralized throughout organizations. Information is stored frequently as content. For example, critical information can include product descriptions, instructions, policies, key customer issues, competitive strategies, and so forth. The effectiveness of the information organization offer - and in many cases the value it provides - depends directly upon the ability to distribute that information in a timely and efficient manner thus through effective content management of its web portal.

Web content management is not just about customers. It is important to employees, business partners, suppliers, and vendors because these groups represent the backbone of an organization. Making sure that they are equipped with the right information and can do business with the organization more easily than they can with competitor down the street is critical. A positive Web experience motivates the user to revisit the site like nothing else. This is a challenge that is generally underestimated by most companies. To be able to compete in today's markets, on demand availability of information is crucial. Content management is the key. Such a powerful management tool, reaching a wide spread audience, also exposes the risks associated with providing information to a broad audience. This makes it necessary to include workflow, security and structure to reflect organization policies in a Web environment. Can a small business develop and maintain such a portal? Small business can develop and maintain its own web portal. Developing web portal and maintenance of such portal is becoming more flexible, user friendly and cost effective now a days. Different domains such as yahoo are offering low cost content management tools so that within a small manpower. Sometimes some enterprises offer a limited service charge to develop and maintain web portal. With the help of these enterprises they small business can develop and maintain such a portal. But the limitation of that web portal is that as small business has limited variation of services, the information will be limited, variation will be small. CASE STUDY-5 In the context of given case, what managerial issues need to be addressed by Alfred? Why is it important for managers to be tech savvy? In todays world, the internet is just as important as electricity, heat, AC, food, and water when it comes to running any kind of business. The size of the business ultimately affects how Alfred shops for an ISP (Internet Service Provider). Now keep in mind that there are several different kinds, sizes, and shapes of businesses so we can think that Alfred has a medium size business. So the managerial issues that Alfred needs to be addressed are: Review whether either a cable or DSL connection to the internet is necessary or not. DSL carriers just like with home telephone service. Cable providers are usually limited to particular municipalities cable franchise agreement. One more option is the recent option of Verizon FIOS. Keep in mind that the business rates for any one of these options are more expensive than the organizationr home options due to the fact that the internet providers usually have a different internet connection system for business clients as well as the option to add STATIC IP addresses for server or remote access needs. Alfred can add T1, T3, and so on if this is available in his locality. These services are offered through a phone company such as and the list on this could go on for

days. This connections will give dedicated connection to the internet and Alfred will not sharing his internet line with anyone else that may be nearby as well as steady bandwidth rates. These higher end options have been the standard for years in the industry but are starting to lose out to the more inexpensive options listed below. When he chose an ISP he is married to them like the organization would be in a cell phone contract. Questions to ask when looking for an ISP: o What is the turn around time from when he sign to when the service will be installed? o Does he need to run any lines, the ISP, responsible for this? o How do he contacts support and what is the response time if there would be an issue? o What is the cancellation fee if he choses not to continue service before contract is over? Is there any setup or installation fees? What should he be expecting in terms of speed or bandwidth?

Alfreds IT department or person, or consultant should help him evaluate how much bandwidth or speed the business requires based on what kind of equipment they are running in office or location. A lot of companies drop off of the more expensive solutions such as T1 for internet because the cost is a lot higher and the speed is a lot lower. Many broadband products contain download limits usually ranging from 1GB to 40GBs per month. However many do not, and consumers who sign up to such products are lead to believe that they may download as much content from the Internet as they like, at any time of the day or night. What is port scanning Alfred might decide? Well port scanning can be describe many ways but basically is the act of sending packets to a destination of group of hosts to try to get a response.

More and more companies have begun to take advantage of information and communication technologies in carrying out their HR functions. While IT/ITeS companies are in the forefront of this trend, companies from different manufacturing and service sectors are increasingly doing so eveyday. A recent report:http://www.expresscomputeronline.com/20070917/technologylife01.shtml in Express Computer points out that by offering more and more cost-effective applications and solutions for HR departments, IT vendors are making the lives of HR managers and executives much easier. This is the primary reason why organizations are continuously strengthening their HR departments with updated IT solutions. IT platforms free HR professionals from being mere book-keepers of labour statistics. They provide them with an opportunity to play a key role in organizational renewal and

revitalization, the report says quoting H Venkatesan, Senior Vice-president, Global Human Resource, ISGN. Employee data must be stored somewhere, and even if personnel files are held in paper form, certain data is always held electronically, the report says. Small organizations may hold employee data in spreadsheet form while larger organizations may implement enterprise-wide systems that do far more than just hold employee data. They can be put to multi-purpose use like providing employees with Web-based self-service access to HR, managing recruitment of new staff, using to underpin performance management and much more, the report points out. The above mentioned reasons depict that it is important for managers to be tech savvy. What is the importance of a system consultant to an organization? What skills should s/he process? As the business world is becoming IT based, managers are becoming tech savvy. Organizations are seeking efficient system consultant. To survive in the competitive market, the company needs now a days information system. Proper use of information system can lead only by a system consultant. A system consultant analyze all parts of the business and make an efficient information system. Consultant should be communicative, versatile, practical and perceptive and should have detailed knowledge of relevant standards, certification processes and skills in general quality management methodologies and techniques. The consultant should also have knowledge of the following: illustrate the concepts concerning quality management in a clear and understandable way throughout the organization, paying special care to the understanding and adoption of the quality management principles; - communicate with the relevant personnel within the organization, at all levels, to involve them actively in the quality management system realization; - guide the organization in identifying the appropriate processes needed for its quality management system and defining the relative importance, sequence and interaction of those processes; - assist the organization in identifying documents which are needed to ensure the effective planning, operation and control of its processes; - lead the organization in the implementation of a process approach to its quality management system, that is suited to its own culture, characteristics, and specific business environment; - evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of the quality management system processes and stimulate the organization to look for opportunities to improve them;

promote continual improvement of QMS within the organization, through the adoption of suitable methods such as self assessment, management review, systematic use of the PDCA cycle and others; identify the training needs and train appropriate employees in the organization to be able to continue the maintenance of the QMS after the consultant has finished his task; where necessary, assist the organization to identify the relation between its quality management system and any other management systems (such as environmental, or health and safety management systems), and facilitate the integration of these systems.

System consultant should have the following skills also He or she should have knowledge and understanding of the following International Standards in order to apply these as appropriate to the overall objectives of the organization: - ISO 9000:2000 (Quality management systems Fundamentals and vocabulary) - ISO 9001:2000 (Quality management systems Requirements) - ISO 9004:2000 (Quality management systems Guidelines for performance improvements) - ISO 19011:2002 (Guidelines for quality and/or environmental management systems auditing) CASE STUDY-6
Like a lot of people who buy software for their businesses, Rick Dalzell saw his budget frozen last year. Unlike most of those people, though, Dalzell still has about $200 million to spend--but then, as chief information officer at Amazon.com, he has a lot to do. Dalzell wants to maintain Amazon's edge in technology--an edge that is more critical than ever as Amazon increasingly squares off against sophisticated e-commerce survivors like eBay. Dalzell made a name for himself by slashing $1.4 billion out of inventory costs; he has continued in the same vein in Seattle. Just two and a half years ago, Amazon spent 11 cents on tech for every $1 in sales. Now, under Dalzell's new austerity regimen, the company spends only about 6 cents. But other business companies may not get results like Dalzell's just by squeezing pennies. Because they need to slash unnecessary costs and to invest own way to efficiency. As Dalzell puts it, "The organization can't be cheap for the wrong reasons." Here are the rules he's followed to success at Amazon. Dalzells most effective move was to replace Sun servers with Linux boxes from Hewlett-Packard. For every $1 spent on the new hardware, he saved $10 in license fees, maintenance, and expected hardware upgrades. Some companies, Microsoft chief among them, have long warned that Linux savings are deceptive, certain to be offset by the costs of maintaining an operating system unsupported by a corporate proprietor. Dalzell doesn't buy it.

One of the Dalzells strategy is recognize when the organization have to spend to save. Amazon maintains its own warehouse-management software, even though ready-made alternatives like Logility might cost as little as $375,000. But with its own software, Amazon can tweak inventory algorithms whenever it wants--so that, for example, a book isn't shipped to New York from a Nevada warehouse when it could be sent faster and cheaper from Delaware. Another strategy Help the organizationr partners help the organization said that Dalzell recently began to invest in Web services--tools that make it easy for partners to hook into applications Amazon had developed for its own use. Now retailers like Nordstrom and Gap can feed their inventory into Amazon's new apparel store without a lot of custom coding. It also means that freelance programmers can build their own online stores using Amazon's payment, fulfillment, and customer services. (These associated stores get a 5 to 15 percent cut of the orders they bring to Amazon.) For example, a Romanian coder created www. simplest-shop.com, which uses Amazon's Web services tools to extract product data from Amazon and then fashions side-byside comparison tables--a feature not available on Amazon.com. What could be better? Customers benefit, and Simplest Shop essentially does Amazon's marketing for it. The strategy use a tight budget as an excuse to get creative forces the organization to focus on what really works. And in a perverse way, that frees up creativity. "First the organization think about the problem in a million different ways," Dalzell advises. "The organization'll come up with something really innovative. Then the organization apply the real-world constraints, and figure out how to solve the problem." Dalzell looks at his stagnant budget as an engineering challenge. And as every engineer knows, it's the constraints that make a problem interesting.

The limitation of Dalzells strategy is that all the things Dalzells include in the strategy is based on his experience in his own business firm. This strategy might not suitable for the others. Thats why business houses findings it difficult to keep costs down inspite of the fact that technology is getting cheaper. CASE STUDY 7 What system would the organization propose hat would serve the companys need? Manufacturing is defined as the transformation of raw materials into finished goods or product for sale by using machines and processing systems. In order to manage manufacturing processes, a software based production, purchasing, shipment planning and inventory control system called Manufacturing Requirements Planning (MRP), has been developed. From this system, Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP II), a method for the effective planning of all resources like men, machine and materials of a manufacturing company, has been derived. And from MRP II, Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) has evolved. ERP integrate all the business functions into one database. It supports business organization needs and improves the business processes including strategic planning,

management control and operational control. It also operates across functional departments and their particular activities. Cross functional activity is very important part of ERP. It reduces paper work and job completion time with full control. ERP is available for manufacturing and non-manufacturing companies. Initially, ERP software is intentionally made for manufacturing industries. It is known as manufacturing ERP software. Combination of MRP and ERP gives more established device and application in these industrial sectors than ERP software. It has integrated workflow processes that are designed specifically to optimize the use of the manufacturers resources. It minimizes the total costs and administers resources, entire life cycle, from raw material acquisition, production planning, production, marketing, sales to finance. Manufacturing ERP software is ideally suited for minor, mid-sized, make-to-order, engineer-to-order, made-to-inventory, discrete manufacturing, small and large manufacturing industries around the world. Manufacturing ERP can be purchased from all small niche market and major ERP vendors offering ERP software solutions that meet requirements. Getting right manufacturing ERP software for the organizationr manufacturing enterprise will help the organization optimize the organizationr all resources, carefully planning, decision through information based and prepare for unexpected hitches along the business cycle. It will also help the organization to manage the organizationr organization and all its departments effectively. It will reduce the organizationr expenditures and improve the organizationr manufacturing capacity. Considering that the company already has CBIS installed, will the organization contemplate complete overhaul of the system or add functionalities of the existing systems? CBIS is able to install, configure and troubleshoot many divisional applications. For more specialized applications, only installation assistance is available. Fully supported Microsoft Office suite (current version), McAfee VirusScan , Email clients (Outlook and Entourage only), Calendaring: (Outlook and Entourage only), Web Browsers (Mozilla, Firefox, Safari, Internet Explorer), BSD-developed applications (Gradtrak, AdmTrak, Lottery), Supported Operating Systems1 (Macintosh OS X (10.4+) and Windows XP Professional (SP2) ) CBIS will support the current version and one previous version. So the company need not do complete overall the system to use ERP. Justify the requirement of Chief Information Officer in the context.

In this context the CEO needs to understand (and document) the functionality the organization need from the organizations application infrastructure. If the organization is a manufacturer, the organization need a system to track orders, materials, works in progress and inventory. If the organization is a distributor, works in progress probably won't matter, but having two-level pricing will. Defining the functionality the organization requires for the organizations business is the second step in developing the organizations ERP. If the organization have unusual requirements those need to be defined so that the organization will be able to see which, if any, ERP products can support them. Examine organizations process to ensure they're efficient. As the clich goes, automating a poor process only gets it done faster -- not better. Assessing the organizations processes with a skeptical eye can help the organization understand whether the organization is doing some things only because of habit or even because the organizations current applications force the organization to. The outcome of this step in the process should be a list of requirements. It may be a good idea to list them as must-haves, like-to-haves and wouldn't-it-be-greats. With a list broken down in this fashion it will be easier to see what products are the right ones for the organization to consider. By the way, both step one and two are important whether the organization're narrowing the organizationr search to open source ERP or wish to consider commercial products as well. The organization can't select the right product without knowing what the organization need, so don't shortcut these steps. CASE STUDY-8 A digital system uses discrete (discontinuous) values, usually but not always symbolized numerically (hence called "digital") to represent information for input, processing, transmission, storage, etc. By contrast, non-digital (or analog) systems use a continuous range of values to represent information. Although digital representations are discrete, the information represented can be either discrete, such as numbers, letters or icons, or continuous, such as sounds, images, and other measurements of continuous systems. Although every thing is becoming digital system in the world now a days, but it is a matter of fact that sometimes digital system can become unreliable and carries risk. One of the main reasons is noice. Any noice can change the system between 0 and 1 and the information of the system can misguide. More over during the installation of software any delay can make the whole system unrelaiable. The operating system malfunction can cause data loss. And can lead to the system crash. The file system structure can also get corrupted due to viruses. Viruses tend to attach themselves to legitimate computer programs. Once the user runs the program, the virus gets activated. Some viruses can spread very rapidly and can infect the organizationr entire computer system in a very short duration of time. Certain viruses run a data loss program on the organizationr computer. Therefore, the organization may find it hard to save files, or the organization

may lose the organizationr files. The file system structure can also get corrupted due to viruses. Viruses tend to attach themselves to legitimate computer programs. Once the user runs the program, the virus gets activated. Some viruses can spread very rapidly and can infect the organizationr entire computer system in a very short duration of time. Certain viruses run a data loss program on the organizationr computer. Therefore, the organization may find it hard to save files, or the organization may lose the organizationr files. In this way digital system can give us unreliable data or carries enormous risk in losing data from the whole information system. To minimize damages due to failure of digital systems, the following countermeasures should be put:

Backup the organizationr data regularly. So that the first case of the case study can be solved. Ensure that the organizationr computer is protected. Run an anti-virus and antispy ware regularly. De-fragment the organizationr hard drive on a regular basis to ensure that the organizationr computer is guarded against the unhealthy fragmentation of the organizationr important files. Protect the network connection with Firewall: Firewall is a software which blocks suspicious potentially dangerous connections to preventing viruses from network to penetrate into the organizationr system. Test the validity of the organizationr backups by doing restoration of the data to a test system. Use data encryption on the organizationr wireless networks