11/3/2011 Nervous System General functions: ñ sensory detection of change in environment and transmission of that information ñ integration processing

of the sensory information ñ motor response response generated by the interpretation of the information the nervous system can control muscles and glands Divisions of the nervous system 1. Central Nervous System (CNS) ñ brain and spinal cord 2. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) ñ composed of nerves, sensory receptors, and specialized structures called ganglia CNS = integration ñ receives sensory input from sensory receptors and processes the information and (if necessary) stimulates the response through something called the motor neuron PNS = sensory – provides input to the CNS, motor – receives output from CNS subdivisions of the PNS 1. somatic nervous system (ACH is the neuro transmitter) limited to skeletal muscle ñ sensory – provides info on status of muscles, position of joints ñ receptors are called “proprioaptors” ñ motor – somatic motor neurons that control skeletal muscle 2. autonomic nervous system – smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands ñ regulates homeostasis ñ in general it is controlled by the hypothalamus ñ sensory – provide information about changes in internal environment (ph, c02, ions, etc) ñ motor – autonomic motor neurons → control smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands ñ 2 subdivisions sympathetic – stress response “fight or flight” parasympathetic – normal relaxed response “resting and digesting” 3. enteric (referring to the intestines) nervous system (ENS) ñ involved in the regulation of the gastrointestinal tract, smooth muscle, glands ñ sensory – provides information on the status of digestion ñ motor – controls enteric motor neurons (smooth muscle and glands of the GI tract) ñ often under normal conditions, the ENS operates independently from the CNS but can receive motor stimuli from the CNS (coming from the autonomic pathways)

nourish. and controll the diffusion of substances in the blood this helps maintain chemical stability in the CNS ñ also they respond to damage within the CNS. satellite cells ñ found in PNS ñ they surround and protect neurons located within the ganglion (cluster of neurons outside the CNS) . and facilitate the neurons 2. Astrocytes – star shaped cells ñ most abundant ñ found in CNS ñ maintains homeostasis within the CNS ñ absorbs excess neurotransmitter. motor Glial Cells ñ small ñ mitotic (can divide) ñ numerous – 10-50 times the number of neurons Types of Glial Cells 1. protect. integration. debris ñ forms the blood brain barrier ñ astrocytes coat small blood vessels in the CNS. microglial – phagocytic (can consume debris and any pathogens or toxins that may have made their way into the CNS) ñ found only in CNS ñ derived from white blood cell lineage ñ increase in number by mitosis to respond to damage 4.Neural Histology in general there are 2 main categories of neural tissue/cells: 1. neurons – sensory. increase their mitosis and form this dense band/layer of plaque that is analogous to scar tissue called sclerosis 2. they migrate to the area of damage. ions. oligodendrocyte – cell has a few long processes ñ found in the CNS only ñ forms myelin sheath (living cellular layer that surrounds the axon) ñ processes from oliogodendrocytes wrap around axons of neurons 3. thus circulating the CSF 5. glial cells – support. neurolemmocyte aka schwann cells ñ found in PNS ñ produce myelin sheath in PNS ñ wrap around and coat axons in PNS 6. ependymal cell – ciliated and they line internal spaces within the CNS ñ found only in CNS = ventricles of brain and central canal ñ they secrete cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ñ cilia creates currents in the CSF.

axon ñ single process from cell body ñ connects to a cell body at an axon hillock (first place where the AP is generated) 4. such as touch sensation of the skin and many other peripheral sensations 4. multipolar neuron ñ many dendrites (dendritic fibers) coming off the soma subtypes of multipolar neurons ♠ purkinje cells ñ single. axon terminals ñ contains neurotransmitters 11/8/2011 Types of Neurons 1. graded potentials and action potentials ñ ñ ñ ñ ñ ñ size can vary long lived amitotic they all can produce graded potentials. ear 3. bipolar neuron ñ has one long dendrite with branches that extend from the soma body ñ usually sensory neurons (associated with sensory pathway) example: retina of the eye. dendrites ñ process/ extension from the cell body (produce graded potentials) ñ receive info – chemical signal or change in environment (produce graded potentials) 3. some can produce action potentials high metabolism exclusively aerobic. organelles. need 02 and glucose to function General Anatomy of a Neuron 1.Neurons special for transmission of information (sensory. integration. motor). unipolar neuron ñ have only one process extending from the soma ñ this acts as both the dendrite and the axon ñ many of these are sensory neurons. multibranching dendritic fiber ñ located in cerebellum ♠ pyramidal cell ñ pyramid shaped cell with many dendrites 2. anaxonic (without axon) neuron (not on the overhead) ñ may have dendrites and soma but no axon ñ does not produce action potentials . and nucleus ñ located within CNS or ganglia of PNS 2. soma/ cell body ñ contains most of the cytoplasm.

brain ñ instead of transferring AP. can go for about a rate of 2. ñ They myelin sheath insulates the axon and allows the depolarization wave to reach the next node of Ranvier 2. retina of eye. faster velocity Classification of Nerve Fibers Based on Velocity of AP 1. (appears physically grey) in general the grey matter is found in the CNS or the ganglia of the PNS Nerve is a bundle of nerve fibers. mostly myelinated (white matter) in the CNS Action Potential Velocity of Axon is Influenced by: 1.ñ found in some sensory receptors. ear. Class A Fibers (most expensive fibers) ñ myelinated and large diameter (10-20 microns) ñ very fast @ 100 meters per second ñ locations include external sensory receptors. the velocity increases as well 3. they can release neurotransmitters Myelination some neurons have a myelin sheath coating their axons ñ glial cells wrap the axon with layers of their membrane (phospholipid coating) myelination begins in fetal development around the 14th week (@ birth brain is still unmyelinated) myelination is completed around age 16-17 years.. axon diameter ñ as the diameter of the axon increases. mostly myelinated (white matter) in the PNS Tract is a bundle of nerve fibers. There are gaps of exposed axon in between the glial cells of the myelin sheath the patches of the axon that are exposed in between they myelination are called the nodes of Ranvier White Matter is myelinated fibers (appear physically white because fatty lipid layer of fat wrapped around the axon) Grey Matter is the unmyelinated neural tissue. somatic motor neurons (that control skeletal muscle) ñ have a short refractory period in large diameter axons. temperature ñ higher temp. myelination ñ Increases the velocity of action potentials because the depolarization wave jumps from one node of Ranvier to the next node of Ranvier. soma or cell bodies of the neurons and any unmyelinated fibers.500 APs/ .

second 2. Class B Fibers ñ myelinated but very small in diameter (2-4 microns) ñ moderate speeds at about 15 meters per second ñ locations include many organs and autonomic nerve fibers 3. can self stimulate and produce a baseline rate of action potentials because the membranes are leaky and slowly depolarize to threshold equating to a steady baseline rate of action potentials. autonomic motor neurons to the heart. Class C Fibers (slowest) ñ small diameter and unmyelinated ñ go about a meter per second. An example would be somatic motor neurons Communication between Neurons transmission of info across a synapse (a junction between two cells where information is shared) synapse: between axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrite of the second neuron 2 types: ñ electrical synapse – gap junctions between the neurons AP from one neuron flows to the next found in the developing nervous system. and some glands as well ñ small diameter axons have a longer refractory period. slow ñ locations include pain sensation. but rather rare in mature nervous systems ñ chemical synapse – neurotransmitters (chemical signal) released to convey the information it is released by one neuron and it binds to receptors on the next neuron Structure of the Chemical Synapse (drawing on board.) ñ axon terminal. can go for about a rate of 250 Aps/ second some neurons are tonic meaning autorhythmic meaning that they generate their own action potentials without being stimulated. synaptic bulb contains vesicles of neurotransmitters (not always ACh) ñ synaptic cleft.. Many of these autorhythmic thingies are used for sensory some neurons are phasic which means that they will only produce an action potential if stimulated by some outside source. filled with interstitial fluid between neurons (has glycoproteins or proteoglycans to thicken and trap neurotransmitters in the cleft) ñ there are neurotransmitter receptors in the membrane (dendrites) of the neuron presynaptic neuron ñ this has axon terminal/ synaptic bulbs in synapse ñ this transmits info by releasing neurotransmitters .

Direct receptor ñ the receptor is the ion channel ñ it is a ligand gated channel ñ (example is the ACh receptors in the cleft) 2. Events at Chemical Synapse 1.. if no more action potential on the presynaptic membrane. ion channels open in the postsynaptic membrane (dendritic region) 5. Action potential on presynaptic neuron's axon reaches the synaptic bulb. Indirect receptors ñ when the receptor is a different protein than the channel . A graded potential is produced on the post-synaptic membrane. calcium influx moves into synaptic bulb binding into a molecule called calmodulin (regulating molecule for many cellular processes) and you get a calcium – calmodulin complex that activates many proteins or enzymes inside the synaptic bulb causing a (enzymatic cascade) 3.. Vesciles of neurotransmitter are transported to membrane and fuse with the plasma membrane and through exocitosis (dumping of stuff via a vesicle) they are released into the synaptic cleft 4. voltage gated calcium channels shut and calcium is pumped out of the synaptic bulb thus ceasing the neurotransmitter release Neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft will be degraded by specific enzymes in the cleft the ion channels shut on the postsynaptic membrane and the postsynaptic membrane goes back to a resting potential. neurotransmitters diffuse across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific receptors in the postsynaptic membrane (some are called direct and indirect receptors) and as the NT binds to one of those. (astrocytes clear out any remaining neurotransmitter)? Types of Receptors 1. dendrites contain neurotransmitter receptors ñ this receives info by binding neurotransmitters 11/15/2011 (illustration about pre and post synaptic neurons) dendrites only produce graded potentials. ñ The size of the graded potential will depend on the amount of neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft the number of receptors in the postsynaptic membrane and how long they stay open. 6. This graded potential could be a depolarization (usually due to sodium or calcium channels opening) or a hyperpolarization (usually do to potassium or chloride). calcium flows in and that contributes to more of the depolarization (calcium is a + charge) 2. Action potential depolarization open voltage gated calcium channels in the presynaptic bulb.postsynaptic neuron ñ has dendrites in synapse. ñ This charge (+-) dissipates over a distance along the membrane.

and analysis of sensory input . change genetic behavior inside the cell.ñ neurotransmitter binds to the receptor causing a change in the conformation of the receptor and this triggers the release/activation of a subunit protein (usually a G protein) ñ this (G) protein binds to the channel and opens it and it can also activate an internal chemical signal called the second messenger (inside the cell) this can then activate enzymes inside the cell. turn on and off genes this has a much longer effect (the second messenger) Definitions: Excitatory Event: Depolarization of the postsynaptic membrane Inhibitory Event: Hypolarization of the postsynaptic membrane Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential (EPSP): The depolarization of postsynaptic membrane due to one action potential on the presynaptic neuron Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential (IPSP): The hyperpolarization of the postsynaptic membrane due to one action potential on the presynaptic neuron\ Temporal Summation ñ when you have one presynaptic neuron that produces action potentials very quickly (one after the other) (this is directed by the neurons refractory period) ñ the continuous release of neurotransmitters makes the receptors stay open in the cleft and a big depolarization wave travels to the axon hillock and if it reaches threshold (-55mV) an action potential on the post synaptic axon is propagated. Examples cAMP. cGMP these second messengers can activate enzymes in the cell. IPSPs: ñ hyperpolarization wave might spread to the axon hillock thus inhibiting the membrane from reaching threshold Spacial Summation ñ this is when you have many presynaptic neurons stimulating the same postsynaptic neuron at the same time ñ this opens up many receptors and creates a massive graded potential ñ a lot of EPSPs can cause a massive depolarization that might take the axon hillock to threshold (-55mV) and you get an action potential on the axon. ñ Within spacial summation there can be both IPSPs and EPSPs ñ EPSPs and IPSPs are integrated/summed with each other. fine tuning the control of the postsynaptic cell Neural Circuits complex interactions between many neurons provide for coordinated responses. ñ Lots of IPSPs can inhibit the axon hillock and block action potentials ñ Temporal and Spacial Summation most often occur together at the same time. integration of information. or metabolism in the cell.

relaxed. CNS) can be both excitatory or inhibitory similar in structure to epinephrine (EPI) which is a major hormone known as adrenaline NE is sometimes described as a “feel good NT” engaged. many input neurons converging to a single output neuron ñ many times this is like a motor neuron 3.(GABA) (inhibitory) 1/3 of all brain synapses are GABA inhibitory ones ñ glycine – (inhibitory) found in the spinal cord 3. sleep cycles.1. one input neuron spreading to many output neurons (tens of thousands to millions) ñ examples include sensory input 2. possibly short term memory. converging circuit: spacial summation. memory ñ aspartate – (excitatory). mood and motivation elidel and cocaine effects reuptake of NE (not on test) ñ Dopamine (PNS. motivation. happy. or gland) 1. alert. muscle. Amino Acids (some amino acids can act as neurotransmitters) ñ found in CNS only ñ glutamate . ACh – acetylcholine ñ in both the PNS & CNS ñ excitatory – skeletal muscle ñ inhibitory – cardiac muscle ñ brain – cognition. spinal cord ñ gamma aminobutyric acid . may also play a role in seizure activity 4.(excitatory) 75% of all excitatory brain synapses are glutamate brain synapses. Biogenic amines – modified amino acids ñ many are derived from tyrosine ñ CNS & PNS ñ Norepenephrine (NE) (PNS. CNS) excitatory or inhibitory “feel good NT” Parkinson's disease – death of dopamine neurons ñ Serotonin (PNS. This is a combined diverging to a converging circuit ñ examples include problem solving. diverging circuit: amplification of signal. logic. ? Learning. math 11/17/2011 Neurotransmitters ñ chemical signal released by a neuron across the synapse that influences the behavior of another cell (could be postsynaptic neuron. Parallel after-discharge circuit: one input to many output back to one output. memory 2. CNS) mainly inhibitory . waking up. reverberating circuit: feedback loops within the circuit that may be self inhibitory/stimulating ñ examples include breathing..

ñ Curare – from plants binds to ACh receptors – blocks them. headaches 4. this fuses to surrounding connective tissue to anchor the nerve to the rest of the body Dermatome . as memory pathways are being laid down it is a neurotransmitter that helps in the process. epineurium which is a sheath of dense irregular connective tissue. creating a rigid paralysis where the muscle can't relax. long-term memory. 2. induces relaxion viagra! ñ CO – Carbon Monoxide may play a role in the formation of memory. hunger. respiratory arrest Myelin Sheath in PNS can facilitate regrowth of damaged axons back to the target tissue. 4. mood. PNS. the fasicles also containing blood vessels 5. 3. Gases ñ CNS & PNS ñ NO – Nitric oxide behavior. and possibly flacid paralysis of skeletal muscle → cant contract. CNS) ñ Endorphins – mainly inhibitory inhibits pain sensation released in response to pain or extreme stress and social interactions euphoric mood ñ Tachykinins – mainly excitatory sensation. Neurotoxins ñ Strychnine – binds to and blocks glycine (major inhibitory neurotransmitter of the spinal chord) receptors you get massive fused tetanus in skeletal muscles. the nerve itself which is all the fasicles together 6.plays a role in sleep. This can also cause respiratory arrest issues. Neuropeptides – small peptide strands (PNS. Nucleic Acids ñ ATP. pain sensation – substance P 5. i. the glial cells fuse together and form a regeneration tube. respiration. Which can increase heartrate and possible fibrilation. in the CNS. vascular control. the basic unit of the nerve is the nerve fiber / axon / dendrite endoneurium – thin sheath of aerolar connective tissue surrounds each nerve fiber fasicle – bundle of nerve fibers perineurium surrounding it which is a sheath of dense irregular connective tissue surrounding each fasicle. it is excitatory 6. similar to strychnine as in it causes rigid paralysis and respiratory arrest Botulism blocks the release of ACh as well. can die because of respiratory arrest ñ Tetanus and Botulism – bacterial toxins blocks glycine and GABA. can effect smooth muscle control.e. this does not happen in the CNS General Structure of a Nerve 1.

Receptors pain. ñ Tonic neurons Intrafusal fibers are attached to all the connective tissue layers of the muscle if there is a stretch in the muscle this is detected by the intrafusal fibers. intrafusal fibers ñ 3-10 modified muscle cells ñ lack sarcomeres and don't contract 2. this triggers the sensory neurons and you get an increase in action potentials on the sensory neuron and this information is sent to the spinal cord (CNS) 11/22/2011 Proprioreceptors 1. proprioreceptor responses (which are internal receptors which detect changes in the position of joints and also the status of muscle Proprioreceptors ñ Muscle Spindle located in skeletal muscle this detects stretch in the muscle Muscle Spindle Structure 1.Area of skin that provides sensory input to one pair of spinal nerves and the trigeminal nerves (5) Myotome skeletal muscles controlled by a pair of spinal or cranial nerves Reflexes Involuntary. Tendon Organ ñ located in the tendon of muscles. temperature. touch. Muscle Spindle ñ if you increase the stretch of the muscles it increases the action potential on the sensory neurons ñ stimulates a response which is a mild contraction of the muscle 2. chemical. visual. which is basically a nerve ending encapsulated in a connective tissue sheath or capsul ñ when the muscle contracts. often protective. it stretches the tendon which is detected by the golgi tendon organ and it stimulates a change in the action potential frequency stimulating a mild inhibition of the muscle ñ this smooths out the onset of the contraction and this protects the tendon . rapid (few neurons in the pathway doesn't require much processing. and a response to a specific stimulus. auditory. sensory neurons ñ 2 sensory neurons that wrap around the intrafusal fibers.

straighten the leg and catches the weight of the body The Brain! ñ Needs a constant supply of blood 750ml/min ñ needs a constant supply of O2 and glucose ñ the brain “floats” in the cranial cavity within CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) CSF ñ located in the CNS: .Patellar Reflex ñ this is a tendon stretch reflex that uses proprioreceptors 1. ñ This stimulates the quads and inhibits the hamstring group and you get a contraction 2. as the quadricepts muscles begin to contract the tendon organ is stimulated by that muscles contraction and it introduces a mild inhibition of the contracting muscle. tap the patellar ligament and this introduces a little stretch and it is translated all the way to the connective tissue layers of the quadricepts muscles of that tendon and this stretches the muscle spindles causing an increase in the action potentials on the sensory neurons. so the extension of the knee is very slight and short lived Tendon Stretch Reflex ñ this is important because it helps maintain balance and muscle tone Tendon Organ ñ protects the tendon from damage due to force of contraction Withdraw Reflex ñ usually in response to pain/ touch ñ quick contraction of muscles to remove body from painful stimulus Ipsilateral ñ means all the neurons of the reflex arc are on the same side of the body ñ an example is the tendon stretch reflex and withdraw reflex Crossed Extensor Reflex ñ involves both sides of the body (contralateral – neurons on both sides of the body) ñ if you were to step on a sharp object with the right foot (stimulus on right side) right leg – contract/ stimulate quadracepts muscles and relax/ inhibit the hamstrings ♠ this will flex the femur pull right off the ground and pull it away from potentially damaging stimulus left leg – contract/ stimulate hamstrings and relax/ inhibit the quads ♠ this will extend the femur.

3. 6. 2. 7. (not on test) Review of the Brain Brain Step ñ old region ñ includes medulla oblongata ♠ connects to the spinal cord as it passes through foramen magnum ♠ 2 large anterior bulges called pyramids ♠ large motor and sensory tracts that produce this large bulge in the front and connects the brain to the spinal cord ♠ decussation of the pyramids is where the tracts from one side of the spine switch to the other side ñ this produces a major contralateral control for most peripheral functions because of this decussation . picked up waste) ñ this ends up in the subarachnoid space of the brain and it drains through structures called the arachnoid villi which are extensions of the arachnoid. 8. 4.. 5. they project into large low-pressure veins called dural sinuses ñ Old CSF flows through arachnoid villus and into the blood ñ most of the CSF drains into super sagittal sinus which lies on top of the longitudinal fissure hydroensephalitis is a block of a part of the flow and …. 2 lateral ventricles interventricular foramina 3rd ventricle cerebral aquaduct 4th ventricle aperatures central canal subarachnoid space Functions of CSF: ñ maintains homeostasis in the CNS delivers O2 and nutrients removes CO2 and waste ñ provides buoyancy Volume of CSF in CNS is between 100-160mL at any given time However you produce 500mL/day because several time you use up and reabsorb CSF is secreted by choroid plexus ñ these are located in each ventricle ñ they are composed of a network of blood capillaries covered by the epindemyl cells which selectively filter the blood and then secrete the cerebrospinal fluid into the ventricals ñ the ependymal cells circulate CSF via cilia Old CSF (lost nutrients and O2.1.

it also blocks somatic motor output Diencephalon (superior to midbrain) ♠ forms the walls of the 3rd ventricle ñ Thalamus. cognition. midbrain. Reticular formation ♠ pathway from spinal cord to cerebral hemispheres. they are dopamine releasing neurons and parkinsons disease is associated with damage to this region. and determines what sensory input goes to cerebrum and what is blocked ♠ very important during sleep.♠ the medulla also contains a cardiovascular center that regulates the heart and blood vessels to maintaincirculation and blood pressure and rhythmicity center that regulates breathing 11/29/2011 Pons ♠ superior to the medulla ♠ ventral bulge ñ respiratory center providing smooth cycles of breathing ñ taste and equilibrium ñ muscle involved in facial expressions and swallowing cerebellum ♠ post. and the the levels are low in the morning ñ Hypothalamus inferior and anterior to the thalamus it regulates the autonomic nervous system and regulates homeostasis . To pons ♠ 2 hemispheres ñ folia – superficial layer of grey matter ñ arbor vital – deep white matter tracts ♠ coordinates skeletal muscles and balance ♠ learned movements ♠ sense of passage of time mibrain ♠ cerebral peduncles ñ large tracts connect lower brain with cerebrum contains a large nucleus (cluster of grey matter) called the ñ substania nigra (means 'large dark') and this is involved in the inhibition and regulation of skeletal muscle. bi-lobed structure receives sensory input from the lower brain and spinal cord and relays motor output from the cerebrum this modulates the flow of information to and from the cerebrum important in emotion. learning and memory ñ Pineal Gland posterior to the thalamus it is an endocrine gland that secretes the hormone melatonin ♠ as solar light declines melatonin secretions increase ♠ induces sleepiness ♠ melatonin levels drop during night. this includes ñ portions of the medulla. it blocks sensory input. pons. almond shaped. diencephalon (thalamus) ♠ processes sensory input – filters it.

and the ability to respond to the environment ñ different regions of the cortex have specialized functions (see handout!) ñ some functions are lateralized (meaning more predominant on one of the hemispheres) lateralization of cerebral cortex ñ language centers like broca's area. analysis. fear mammillary bodies – 2 ventral bumps on the anterior surface that detect olifaction (sense of smell) Cerebrum ♠ superior to diencephalon ♠ 2 hemispheres ♠ basal nuclei – deep clusters of grey matter that surround the diencephalon ñ motor control. pleasure and pain centers. impulsive behavior and “instinct” ♠ cerebral cortex ñ superficial layer of grey matter ñ convulated surface – increases surface area for more neurons ñ divided into 2 separate hemispheres by the longitudinal fissure ñ the corpus callosum – large trace that connects the 2 hemispheres ñ this is responsible for consciousness. emotion. 12/1/2011 . senses. motivation. learning and memory. alertness. and wernecke's area are more dominant in the left hemisphere for most people there is one hemispheres of the brain that is categorical. amygdala (deep region in temporal lobe) ñ it is responsible for emotional memory. artistic and intuitive responses. non-synchronized waves indicate regions of the brain are acting independently of each other large. antidiuretic hormone emotions. drives (hunger. insight (mostly right) electroencephalogram (EEG) ñ measures electrical activity in the brain ñ produce patterns of electrical activity that are called brain waves small. impulse control ♠ limbic system – deep region of the cerebrum incudes many basal nuclei and fornix (olfaction). language. hippocampus (deep region in temporal lobe). synchronized waves indicate regions of the brain are acting in a coordinated fashion. problem solving.pituitary gland which regulates many endocrine functions it secretes hormones (but stored in pituitary gland) such as oxytocin. (mostly left) And one is representational. sex). mammillary bodies (olfaction). including logic. more involved in spacial relationships. sleep. language comprehension. awareness.

lots of noise awake. more tedious. drops ñ heart rate drops ñ ventilation rates drop ñ loss of muscle tone ñ ñ ñ ñ ñ stages 4-1 delta → theta → alpha body temp. engaged. synchronized waves relaxed . meditation ñ beta wave large. Non-REM – (NREM) ñ considered deeper sleep than REM ñ there are different stages (1-4) ñ alpha → theta → delta ñ body temp. slow.Brain Waves ñ alpha wave slow. solving problems ñ theta wave fast. eyes closed. large waves young children when awake and engaged adults when awake and daydreaming ñ delta waves large. warms heart rate and ventilation increases muscle tone comes back ñ NREM dreams are less emotional. irregular. small. thinking. beta like waves ñ heart rate and ventilation are similar to waking ñ body temperature is similar to waking ñ vivid emotional dreams 2. REM – rapid eye movement ñ brain waves. irregular. highly synchronized waves normally only seen in sleep seen also in infants Sleep ñ normal periods of unconsciousness Sleep Cycles ñ repeated pattern of activity/ physiology during sleep 1. less exciting Functions of Sleep ñ repair and rebuild ñ possibly some endocrine regulation .

unconscious ñ regulation of internal environment – homeostasis Sensory input – internal receptors ñ detect changes in chemistry ñ detect changes in pressure ñ detect changes in stretch Motor output – smooth muscle.ñ coding memory Memory ñ storage and retrieval of information about a previous experience memory is the pattern of activity across a neural network/circuit/trace ñ short term memory temporary storage of non-important information and is quickly and permanently forgotten ñ long term memory permanent storage of information that involves the formation of a memory trace or pathway presynaptic neurons ♠ increase in synaptic bulbs ♠ increase in neurotransmitter production (vesicles) postsynaptic neurons ♠ increase in dendritic area ♠ increase in receptors Factors that facilitate long-term memory: ñ emotion ñ rehearsal ñ associations link new info to existing info ñ automatic Autonomic Nervous System ñ involuntary. cardiac muscle. glands 2 subdivisions of the ANS sympathetic ñ fight or flight ñ response to stress/ excitement. preganglionic neuron – cell body in CNS ñ has myelinated axons in the PNS ñ forms synapse with 2nd motor neuron . prepare for activity parasympathetic ñ resting and digesting ñ relaxed situation homeostasis ANS motor pathway has 2 motor neurons 1.

and release ACh ñ postganglionic motor neurons located in the ♠ (a) sympathetic chain ganglia ñ located on either side of the spine ♠ (b) collateral ganglia ñ ganglia that are wrapped around the abdominal aorta long.2. preganglionic motor neurons ñ all bodies are located in the brain and sacral regions of the spinal cord ñ they have long myelinated axons that form a synapse with the post ganglionic motor neurons ñ they release ACh 2. postganglionic neuron – cell body in ganglion of PNS ñ has unmyelinated axon in PNS ñ forms synapse with target tissue sympathetic ñ preganglionic motor neurons located in the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord they have short axons. called terminal ganglia ñ short and unmyelinated axons ñ they release ACh Most target tissue/organs of the autonomic nervous system are controlled by both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions. Cholinergic fibers ñ these are neurons that release ACh ñ include: somatic motor neurons all preganglionic motor neurons of the ANS all postganglionic motor neurons of the parasympathetic division some postganglionic motor neurons of the sympathetic division Cholinergic Receptors ñ receptors that bind to ACh ñ types of cholinergic receptors nicotinic ♠ located in the neuromuscular junction . postganglionic motor neurons ñ cell bodies are located in ganglia very close to the target tissue. But the sympathetic is more coordinated and robust. unmyelinated axons that release NE 12/5/2011 Parasympathetic 1.

reproductive organs (smooth muscles contract) decrease motility (contractions) of the GI tract pupils dilate increase sweat metabolic changes endocrine changes ♠ increase in cortisol ♠ increase secretion in epinephrine (prolongs the effect and mimics the sympathetic effect) tending and befriending ñ stress response ñ oxytocin reduce heartrate and blood pressure . cardiac muscle and glands ♠ can be excitatory or inhibitory ñ cardiac muscle – inhibitory ñ smooth muscle of GI tract – excitatory adrenergic fibers ñ neurons that release norepenephrine ñ this includes most postganglionic motor neurons of the sympathetic division adrenergic receptors ñ bind to norepenephrine ñ types of adrenergic receptors alpha beta ♠ b receptors in cardiac muscle are excitatory ñ both are located in target tissue of the cardiac muscle.♠ all postganglionic motor neurons of the ANS ♠ adrenal medulla ♠ they are always excitatory receptors muscarinic ♠ located in target tissue of parasympathetic control ñ such as smooth muscle. kidneys. smooth muscle or glands can be either excitatory or inhibitory Effects of sympathetic control ñ fight or flight. preparing for action in response to some sort of stress (sympathetic control is much more coordinated and extensive involving lots of tissues) ñ it is enhanced and prolonged by epinephrine from the adrenal medulla/gland increase in heartrate increase in blood pressure vasodilation of blood vessels to the skeletal muscles (smooth muscle relax) vasoconstriction of the blood vessels to the GI tract.

bitter.social activities calming effect parasympathetic control ñ ñ ñ ñ resting and digesting in response to normal conditions. skin increase GI motility (contraction) External Sensation ñ detection of changes in the external environment Mechanoreceptors ñ deformation of membrane resulting in an action potential in the sensory neuron touch hearing equilibrium stretch chemoreceptors ñ receptor binds to some sort of chemical signal taste (chemicals in food that bind to receptors called taste buds and an action potential is fired off) ♠ sweet. umami smell ♠ chemicals in the air that we are breathing that bind to receptors in what is called the olfactory mucosa (inside lining of nasal cavity) (abt 5 million receptors there) ♠ about 15-30 variations of receptors ♠ pattern of activation codes for a particular scent Vision! ñ Detection of photons (unit of light) ñ pathway of light rays light passes through cornea (this refracts the light then it goes through the aqueus body and into the lens which refracts the light and focuses the light onto the retina . salty. sour. kidneys. safe and normal environment many functions are independent of eachother no widespread coordinated response lower heartrate lower bloodpressure vasodilation to GI tract. reproductive organs.

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