Time and Mind: The Journal of Archaeology, Consciousness and Culture

Volume 3—Issue 1 March 2010 pp. 63–84

Reprints available directly from the publishers Photocopying permitted by licence only © Berg 2010

The Prophet as Intellectual and Vice Versa: A Psychoanalytical Interpretation of the Phenomenon of Prophecy
Moritz E.M. Bilagher
Moritz Bilagher currently works as a Statistical Advisor with an international organization in Kenya. He is a graduate in Science and Technology Studies from the University of Amsterdam, a member of Kellogg College, University of Oxford, and is interested in philosophy of religion, which he studied at Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam. m.bilagher@kellogg.oxon.org

Abstract This article aims to give the phenomenon of prophecy a rational-conceptual foundation which can help further its understanding in historic, present, and future societies. This will be achieved, mainly, by reinterpreting it via some concepts of psychoanalysis as developed by Freud and Jung. It is argued that prophecy equates to the ability of persons to connect with the unconscious layers of their psyche, at the bottom of which is Absolute Mind or God. This realm, similar to the philosophers’ realm of abstraction, is characterized by timelessness, or eternity, and is contrasted with the time-bound nature of consciousness. Prophecy itself is defined as the application of principles from timeless reality in the immanent world, rather than as the ability of divination. Thus, the role of the historical prophet is similar to that of the modern public intellectual. To illustrate this, a multidisciplinary approach will be applied, applying perspectives from philosophy, theology, and, to a smaller extent, cultural anthropology.
Time and Mind Volume 3—Issue 1—March 2010, pp. 63–84

64 The Prophet as Intellectual and Vice Versa

Moritz E.M. Bilagher

Keywords: prophecy; psychoanalysis; philosophy of religion; public intellectual

Part One: Sneak Previews of a Divine Plot
Preliminary remarks on the phenomenon of prophecy and structure of this article*† Sometimes, the notes of an editor of a text are almost as interesting as the work itself. On page 88 of an 1862 edition of Spinoza’s Tractatus theologico-politicus, in a footnote the editor Robert Willis counts Spinoza among the prophets. The reason for this is that in Willis’s view Spinoza, in 1670, the year in which the Tractatus was published, foresaw an event that would take place in 1861. The essential characteristic of prophecy, as indicated here, thus seems to relate to the ability of foreseeing the future, or divination. By the same token we would, unfortunately, have to say that Willis himself was not a prophet. In another footnote (1862: 87), he makes two predictions that in less than 100 years after this edition proved dramatically untrue: that the Jews would soon be integrated in European societies without a trace; and that there would never again exist a sovereign Jewish state. The Shoa or holocaust and the foundation of the State of Israel or Nakba (catastrophe) in 1938–1945 and 1948 respectively make both predictions untrue. These notes are from a chapter dealing with the election of the Jewish people. The subject of this article is the phenomenon of prophecy. Its objective is to give prophecy a rational foundation which can help further the understanding of its nature in historical, present, and future societies. It is my intention to do this by

explaining the essence of prophecy, via some concepts from the theoretical framework of psychoanalysis as developed by Freud and Jung, primarily, while also applying perspectives from philosophy, theology, and cultural anthropology. In essence, I will argue that prophecy relies on the ability of persons to venture into the unconscious layers of their psyche, at the bottom of which we find Absolute Mind or God. This realm shows remarkable likeness with the philosophers’ realm of abstraction, as reflected in the works of Plato and Kant for example, in respect of its quality of timelessness. This is contrasted with the time-bound nature of consciousness. I will then explain that the art of prophecy consists of the application of principles from this timeless reality in the immanent world, rather than in the ability to predict the future.1 In this respect, the role of the historical prophet is similar to that of the modern public intellectual, who can thus be seen as a ‘contemporary prophet’. From this I will infer that prophecy is a phenomenon that is not the exclusive prerogative of any culture.

Understanding an uncertain future Although the ability to foresee future events, or divination, is not necessarily considered to be the only characteristic of prophecy, it seems to be a widely accepted one. Instances of this type of prophecy in Christianity occur, for example, when John the Baptist predicts the coming of Jesus (Matthew 3:11–12, Mark 1:7–8); when Jesus foresees the destruction of Jerusalem (Matthew 24:1–2); and when the end of times is predicted in the Book of Revelation (21). For Christians, Jesus’ arrival itself is the realization of older prophecies from the Old Testament predicting the

Time and Mind Volume 3—Issue 1—March 2010, pp. 63–84

” It is this “sense of insecurity” on which the priest-thinker capitalizes. predictable. in fact. Kwa observes. is also subject to a Time and Mind Volume 3—Issue 1—March 2010. have not been the exclusive domain of what we refer to as religion. who is incorporated into Islam as a Muslim (3:68. that. “in the postulation of a special vantage point.2 where nature has to obey divine laws just like human beings. “was thus mediated by knowledge from the start. as are the prophets of the Old Testament.” Bauman concludes (ibid. and thus over fate through an increasing understanding of nature. The laws of nature Scientific experimentation has enabled scientists to understand natural processes. being born before Christ. but acts according to regularities.” According to Kwa (1991: 101. from which a logic could be discerned beneath superficial randomness.e. This can be seen when comparing John 7:42 with Micah 5:1 or John 12:14 with Zechariah 9:9..” The fact that Radin’s priestthinker is not only a priest but also a thinker elicits part of the agenda of scientific exploration. Attempts at “owning” the future. Radin (1938: 23. John the Baptist is once asked whether he is Elijah or “the prophet. in Bauman 1987: 10) emphasizes that “[p]rimitive man is afraid of one thing. Increasing control over nature. Bilagher The Prophet as Intellectual and Vice Versa 65 coming of a Messiah. By contrast. However. the prevailing view in Christianity is that Jesus was more than a prophet. through prophecy. John then says that this is Jesus.3 even saw no difference between natural laws and divine decrees (1981 [1677]: 31. they could not have been Christians (Alighieri 1972 [1321]: 27). The reality underpinning this expectation is grounded in the realization that nature is not fundamentally chaotic. this notion can be traced back to the Old Testament. and Abraham (3:85). the instruments that our knowledge of nature have afforded to predict the future of natural events is still relatively limited.Moritz E. Dante believed the patriarchs to dwell in hell because. to an extent. Such knowledge and the consequent ability to predict the future have helped scientists make the world a place where there is an intelligible relation between action and outcome.4 The birth of the human sciences in the nineteenth century as described by Foucault (2005: 375–7) has led to the idea that the human world. Drawing on the work of Paul Radin. Only in the seventeenth century. The control over fate proposed by the religious formulators. society. so that the random could be made predictable.). 1862: 73). where Jesus is explicitly said to be a prophet (9:30–31). of the uncertainties of the struggle of life.M. has always been one of its objectives. 108). as the example of the weather forecast illustrates. a prophet predicted by Moses in Deuteronomy 18:15. This view was not only not accepted by a majority of Jews. pp. which has in turn made it possible for them to become. see also 3:53). Bauman identifies in primitive societies two fundamental types of temperament: that of the “priest-thinker” and that of the “layman” (1987: 9). These regularities are referred to as “laws of nature. His incarnation. he was the Son of God. 63–84 . during what is referred to as the scientific revolution. Spinoza. accessible only to special people and on special condition. but also criticized in the Islamic holy book the Qur’an. Nonetheless. in early renaissance Europe. who compared our Creator to nature.”—i. do moral and natural law part ways (1991: 109).

however. However. That is. each one generated by a relatively autonomous set of practices. The sociological theories mentioned above try to make sense of the world and what happens in it. but not necessarily inevitable future. or utopias of reconstruction. Utopias are visions of an ideal future. This is not the case with some of the secular utopias. as Manuel and Manuel indicated (1982: 4). says more about the time in which it is conceived than about any future it tries to describe. This self-realization may have been the main reason that in the sciences. These ends of history are at the same time desirable and inevitable. Ends of history There is. The difference between these is that the realization of a utopia of escape is entirely dependent upon divine intervention. Examples of this are Orwell’s 1984 and Huxley’s Brave New World. while a utopia of reconstruction is an ideal society that can be brought about by human intervention alone. But still. and liberalism from Voltaire and Rousseau). It therefore combines a normative with a descriptive view of the future. this notion arose against the background of a failure of ideologies to make sense of the world. normally expressed as an ideal society. The classical example of a normative view of the future is the utopia. however. These works invoke the notion that a utopia or dystopia. as predicted in the Book of Revelation. By declaring the definitive unintelligibility of human society.66 The Prophet as Intellectual and Vice Versa Moritz E. predict. by way of postmodernism the fundamental unintelligibility of the world was declared. The utopia was also a significant literary genre. Bauman defines the postmodern view as that “of an [in principle] unlimited number of models of order. To be fair. a narrow line dividing normative views of the future and descriptive ones. Mumford’s distinction between “utopias of escape” and “utopias of reconstruction” (1923: 15) is important. That is. these ideologies themselves originated from economic and sociological theories (capitalism from the work of Smith and Mill. and it is on this line of tension that the “futuristic” aspect of prophecy operates. there are views of a future that according to a presumed natural lawfulness or regularity will at one point come into existence. and they are normally part of the theory postulating that regularity itself. Bilagher set of laws. these are often regarded as even less successful than the exact or natural sciences in making sense of the realities they attempt to describe. Time and Mind Volume 3—Issue 1—March 2010. the dystopia. cultural anthropology. pp.5 In this respect.” which are thus not retractable to one overarching model. This utopia describes an ideal situation that will occur at the end of time. notoriously equally invoked its opposite. in general. These are utopias. 63–84 . These have been formulated in disciplines such as sociology. sociological theories often identify mechanisms at work in society that point to an end of history that is inherent in the nature of the laws governing the societies at hand. which can explain current events. which has. socialism from that of Marx and Engels.M. and psychology. or bring about. and there are views that describe a desirable. and is desirable. as interventions cannot have an effect in an inherently chaotic system. An example of the former is New Jerusalem. postmodernism thus also seems to declare the futility of social interventions. but also identify an inherent and intrinsically desirable order in the nature of things.

Marx. that is proving to be the “ultimate idea” that marks the end of history (Fukuyama 1992: 45). liberal democracy. proclaimed socialism as the inevitable outcome of history. This differentiates itself from the other utopias of reconstruction in that it presents itself not only as normative but also as descriptive. a few months after publication of the essay on which the later book was based. fundamentally changed the political order of the world. but it is not the only one. Plato’s Republic is a description of an ideal state. but also of one that does not yet exist. 63–84 . They are visions of what should be. there are two fundamental characteristics of a prophet: Time and Mind Volume 3—Issue 1—March 2010. These words seemed appropriately prophetic as. which sees sovereignty as an obstacle to his practical ethic. Popper however argues that it is human actions rather than a “course of history” as an independent force that decide what the future will bring (1994: 8).Moritz E. as Popper had also observed that one of the earliest forms of historicism is found in the notion that the Jewish people7 are the chosen people in a story that is written by Yahweh. Bilagher The Prophet as Intellectual and Vice Versa 67 The advent of the future Most.” which the story’s narrator Raphael Hythlodaeus does “not expect to see … for quite a few years yet” (2001 [1516]: 44). but not all of the secular utopias (Plato’s Republic. More’s Utopia is usually perceived as a social critique. pp. This view was severely criticized. in 1989. For example. of which prophets assert they can unravel the plot (2007: 455). in fact. for now it seems that it has not proved to be the ultimate outcome of world history. Kant’s world republic (1903 [1795]: 136). Utopia seems to take on a prophetic form again with Marx’s utopia: socialist society. the Berlin Wall fell. notably by Popper. Challenging Marx posthumously. According to Hirsch. then this may or may not be true. but whether the utopia itself will ever be realized depends on whether “all men are good. The German rabbi Samuel Hirsch. However. can to an extent be regarded as having been realized with the establishment of the United Nations Organization. this recipe was purely prescriptive and entirely “unprophetical” in that it proposed a course of action but did not declare its inevitability. but not necessarily of what will be. Wyndham Lewis’s United States) are utopias of reconstruction. Fukuyama asserted that by contrast it was the historical opponent of socialism. criticized those that elevated the importance of this aspect of prophecy to the extent that it would denote its whole essence (1842: 605). More’s Utopia. Part Two: Intermediaries Attempt at a definition of the concept of prophecy If we say that the ability to foresee future events is an aspect of prophecy. Kant’s world republic. But we are now moving too quickly. The occurrence of the word prophetic here is not casual. and although the theory of socialism has. indeed. borrowing from Hegel’s theory of historicism6 which perceives of world history as a definite course with a predetermined end point that can be identified by human reason (Fukuyama 1992: 64). who concluded that Marx’s “ingenious attempt to draw prophetic conclusions from observations of contemporary economic tendencies has failed” (2003: 10). Although we cannot yet be so presumptuous as to pretend the end of history has already been revealed to us.M.

Hirsch says. was the ideal future of humankind (ibid. prophetic) speech is usually “understood to emanate from a source … different from the subject who usually speaks out of the body in question.: 31). They are thus utopians in the classical sense.68 The Prophet as Intellectual and Vice Versa Moritz E. indeed. Spinoza (1862: 58). and their successors. To an extent this reflects the original meaning of the Greek word prophet (προφήτης) or Hebrew nabi or navi (‫ :)נְבִיא‬interpreter. This understanding is even clearer with the group whom Goldberg and Rayner call Time and Mind Volume 3—Issue 1—March 2010.: 604). Spinoza. For Maimonides. prophets also have to act as guardians of the virtue of society and. similarly. for example. Anthropologist J.). not the source (1963 [c.. if necessary through the agency of an angel (ibid. this characteristic of prophecy may be prevalent in many cultures. for example.: 79). says that “the business of the prophet was not so much to teach the laws of his nation as the rules of a virtuous life” (ibid.” but on the other “denounced social injustice” (Goldberg and Rayner 1989: 39). It is the combination of these characteristics that defines the prophet. intervene in current affairs. The “new” prophets Amos. as Goldberg and Rayner indicate.: 385–6). pp. The prophets thus do not only gather knowledge for the sake of it. This activist function of the prophets in Hirsch’s view is amplified by the specific role he saw for them: that of the guardians of the virtue of the people (ibid. Hirsch. Bilagher the recognition that what is said are not the words of the prophet her. Leavitt (1997: 31).1190]: 384).e.: 596). The prophet is one whom God talks to.” These are good examples of Hirsch’s criterion that the words of the prophets are recognized as not their own but that it is. The prophet is thus an intermediary between God or a divine realm and the people. In fact. the ability to see into the future (ibid. but also engage with societies to ensure their adherence to ethical values. In fact. 63–84 . for instance. he argues that “to know anything in advance seems highly indifferent to the religious life” (ibid. and the function of their vision of an ideal future would be to educate the people of the present so as to bring about this ideal (ibid. says that “mantic” (i. God speaking through them. but also to the prophet himself. in fact.: 601). to that end.M. which prompted them to intervene in actual states of affairs in any possible way (ibid. As Hirsch said. The future the prophets could see. emphasizes that this does not concern the simple divination or the prescience of events. however. the prophet is someone who proclaims a law of which he or she himself is. as if to satisfy any curiosity.or himself and. preachers of righteousness.” Similarly.” Guardians of virtue But only having access to divine knowledge is not enough to be a prophet. such as the “representations of Zechariah … were so obscure that without an explanation they could not be understood by himself.: 605). Hosea. however. not to others only. for Spinoza a prophet is “one who interprets things revealed by God to those who of themselves cannot have certain knowledge of them” (ibid. champions of the Covenant. Summarily.: 590). Hirsch’s definition of prophecy accords well with other authoritative interpretations of this phenomenon. argues that some prophetic accounts. on the one hand were “spokesmen of Yahweh. the prophecies of the prophet Daniel “were so dark that even when explained they were still unintelligible.

It is interesting to note that prophecy as a theological theme has attracted varying degrees of attention in the monotheistic world religions. in Peters 2006: 373). They are all.Moritz E. the phenomenon of prophecy seems to be characterized by a combination of traits: first. In Judaic theology. in varying degrees. Jesus refused because he wanted people to believe for their own sake.” Intermediaries between worlds In what are usually referred to as the three monotheistic traditions. the prophet engages with contemporary society. not because of a miracle (1992: 317). eternal principles and as a derivative of this.” In Christianity.)ﺝﺏﺭﻱﻝ‬and Mohammad is seen as the “seal of the prophets. Dostoyevsky believed. Bultmann. specifically protecting its ethical values (as a guardian of virtue). critics of contemporary society. we find this idea reflected in anthropological experience more generally. Jesus. secondly.” Again. This knowledge means that the prophet understands general or abstract. Time and Mind Volume 3—Issue 1—March 2010. the prophet) is “a natural destabilizer and critic of society at the same time that he or she can represent a confirming voice from beyond” (Leavitt 1997: 30–1). does not seem to emerge as an inherent part of prophecy either.: 199): “[t]hey are all interpreters of currents events in the light of general religious and moral principles. or proclamation of the good news. it is not a main theme among important theologians such as Barth. When Satan tempted him to perform one. God speaks. mediated through the agency of the angel Gabriel or Jibril (‫ . therefore. Jesus. following this line of reasoning. the miracle was not a central tenet to Jesus’ teaching. the prophet is a person with vision. Prophecy is then almost a type of hermeneutics. As a consequence.. This may have to do with the fact that the main figure in Christianity. it is almost absent. In Islam by contrast. pp. is seen as the Son of God. contrary to common perception. however unpopular it may be. The performing of miracles. the preacher needs to challenge our this-worldly assumptions and loyalties so that we can open ourselves to a message that comes from beyond. and Mohammad. as was the case with Moses (Ten Commandments).” A more recent voice. attributes a prophetic role to priests (Peters 2006: 374) in as far as they deconstruct the current world view: “[t]o proclaim the gospel as God’s Word.e. with contributions from almost all important Judaic thinkers. where the “mantic performer” (i. and Tillich. Spinoza explicitly argues that the nature of the prophets is not in conflict with human nature (1862: 47) and Dostoyevsky argued that. In the words of Barth (1963: 12. fearless in delivering their message. This could be explained from the point of view that the Qur’an is thought to be the undiluted word of God. 63–84 .M. incidentally. who can imagine an ideal future or utopia— but not predict the future as with divination. Bilagher The Prophet as Intellectual and Vice Versa 69 the Latter Prophets (ibid. for example. in Christianity prophecy is not the direct mediation between a community and a transcendent God but between it and Jesus. “[w]hen the Gospel is preached. thus translating general principles to laws and decrees for the here and now. it is central. kerugma (κηρύγμα). the prophet stands in a special relation with God and has therefore privileged access to divine knowledge. And.

that in contemporary society the view that physical reality is somehow more real than the metaphysical one has gained the upper hand. What is material is subject to rot. a conscious plot. it raises one more. in the religious rejection of material reality suspected. however. and while it also seems true that in the West what is holy has been replaced with what is rational (Ramdas 1993: 7). for example. but what has always been subject to heated debate in the history of philosophy is (a) how these realities relate to each other and (b). or understanding prompted only to good. very specific question: what does it mean to be in a special relation with God? This can be rephrased as: what does it mean to have access to a realm of divine knowledge. 63–84 . by contrast. therefore.8 This is contrasted with empirical reality as abstract reality. it would be obviously wrong to think that the postulate of a metaphysical reality is irrational. metaphysical reality is withdrawn from sense experience by definition. as Le Goff (1988: 83) described for Christianity in the Middle Ages: “God’s incarnation was also his humiliation. Plato’s world of unity While it certainly seems true that the materialist position. spiritual. not an explanation of it. and immaterial than the physical. according to Rorty. mind. Bilagher Privileged access Our definition of prophecy is. which is what the idealists think. is stronger in the public discourse nowadays than idealism.M. for whatever reason. In relation to the first of these questions. and feel. the body is “lower” than the spirit.S. what one can see. Lewis (1961: 9–12). In Judaism. and material. That both exist in one way or another can hardly be denied. It seems safe to say. whether one precedes the other. we would not have had the 2. where a class of “weaklings. Christianity. pp.. This state of affairs may reflect the authority of a “scientific” worldview in contemporary society because in religion.” the priests—i.e. and the facts are. In fact.” Nietzsche.70 The Prophet as Intellectual and Vice Versa Moritz E. without it. or whether matter preceded and thus produced mind. tangible. Tangible reality seems to more firmly correspond with common sense. and the metaphysical— or abstract—reality of the philosophers. and so on. The body was an ergastulum. while obviously.500 years of philosophy that we have had in the Western world (1980: 149). with physical reality as the metaphysical one. more specifically. while those that are strong and rich are “damned” (1968 [1887]: 281). Jews—have convinced the world that they are the real children of God. but also on a conceptual toolbox in which we find instruments such Time and Mind Volume 3—Issue 1—March 2010. which is conversely higher and thus associated with the skies (note that lower signifies inferior to higher).” Spinoza (1862: 44) emphasized that “all sins were believed to proceed from the flesh … the spirit. the situation is almost perfectly inverted: religions almost universally hold in greater esteem the mental. incidentally. and Islam. The second of these questions refers to whether mind preceded and thus produced matter. a slave’s prison for the soul. with concrete reality as conceptual. with C. and therefore: what does this realm of divine knowledge stand for? I will argue that it is plausible that there is no essential difference between the divine reality that we understand as an intrinsic part of the prophetic equation. which is the position of the materialists or realists. Scientific enquiry. does not rely only on its subject of study alone. hear.

Kant says.’ ” In other words. But where do these concepts come from? As Plato emphasizes that a concept can only be thought. In this work. combined Time and Mind Volume 3—Issue 1—March 2010. The other world. This distinction runs parallel to our present understanding of the difference between concepts and objects. one more important inference to be drawn from this theory: as. the answer has to be: from the mind. God.: 31–2). While no materialist account describes where these concepts come from. Its essence lies in his distinction between essence and manifestation. Those who can not see the difference and are thus incapable of abstraction are unable to see the unchangeable essence of things. pp. To do justice to Plato’s theory. The difference between both classes of “things” is that the first can only be seen. Kant’s metaphysical space According to Jaffe (1970: 40). prior to time and space. Kant believed that there exists a metaphysical realm. is the world of ideas and unity. For example. created only one chair “the abstract type.360 BC]: 144). the other ones only thought (ibid.” It is true that there are similarities between Plato’s theory and that of Kant who. we have to realize that his “real world” is not actually a world. taxonomies. To illustrate this. one could not perceive objects that populate the material world.: 166). While an object is an entity in concrete reality.” in which we recognize concepts (ibid. ‘that which makes a chair a chair. One is what Plato would call the world of deception.Moritz E. a theory can describe an event (or predict it). only in conjunction with the mind. and its ability of abstraction. without concepts. he gives the example of the distinction between things that are beautiful.: 247).9 a concept is one in abstract reality. 63–84 . reinterpreted the great philosophical questions of the European tradition as inquiries into the rules the human mind had set up for itself (1980: 160–1). “Jung saw in Kant’s theory of categories a renascence of the Platonic spirit. which in essence underpin the ensuing philosophical confusion at the fault-line of the physical and metaphysical. Kant’s realization that time does not objectively exist.: 31). which for Plato is the real world. In essence. Bilagher The Prophet as Intellectual and Vice Versa 71 as hypotheses. however. idealism posits that they are derived from a mental or “ideal” reality. Kant’s argument begins with the notion that there are two types of human knowledge: one relating to content or sensory impressions. such as a chair. but all empirical knowledge begins with it (1990 [1781]: 1). Plato states (ibid. he distinguishes two worlds. which corresponds with sensory perception and the manifoldness (of impressions) that is its consequence. they only see its manifold manifestations (1995 [c. that all rational beings can have access to by means of their faculty of reason or Vernunft. We have no empirical knowledge of time.M. The tenets of this position are explained comprehensively by Plato in the Republic. such as time. Specifically all phenomena (objects in sensory perception) are in time but not “objects as things themselves. but it is not the event. From this. the conceptual world as it were creates the empirical one. and one that is given a priori to this content.10 according to Rorty. and beauty itself. There is. Such concepts cannot be found in empirical reality itself (Rosenthal-Schneider 1980: 88). and theories. can sense experiences actually have any meaning. he infers that time is nothing in itself but a condition of subjective consciousness (ibid.

which are transferred to us by our senses. the objective coincides with the metaphysical. which is itself the basis of their humanity and why they are holy and an “end in themselves” (ibid. By submitting to the ethical law.e.M. There exists a reflection of the metaphysical realms of Plato and Kant in another concept in the history of ideas that seems particularly useful for our mission: the unconscious. they have at least one very important aspect in common: they both identify a metaphysical realm that is at the heart of meaning in the material world. Nonetheless. but also with the philosophers.: 156). realize their freedom because its source is not something external to them. According to Jung. In the Critique of Practical Reason. paradoxically.: 261). human subjects. or even earlier. the unconscious was the counterfactual of human subjectivity that was so aptly formulated in Descartes’ cogito (2005: 352–4). This ethical law.: 192) leads to the notion of human perception as a framework within which the contents of a timeless reality unfold themselves. is all that operates under laws (ibid.] that physical existence is our own conclusion because we only know anything about matter in as far as we have access to mental images. Bilagher with the notion that there exists a pure reason that is not dependent upon sensory perception (ibid. Fragment 93). Marx. while what is physical is by definition subjective (ibid. which is objective. Interestingly. according to Kant. is the realization of good and evil that gives the human being the option to do either. but something they are in direct contact with via the virtue of reason (ibid. We may as well locate the birth of abstraction in Greek thought. which.500 BC]: 58. For Foucault. Part Three: The Other World The resurrection of idealism and the understanding of the mind While the theories of Plato and Kant have their own specific emphases. with Heraclites when he noted that “we both step and do not step in the same rivers” (2006 [c. [viz.” The appearance of one of the main figures of psychoanalysis at this point is not coincidental. pp. While Time and Mind Volume 3—Issue 1—March 2010. This freedom is what distinguishes the human subject from nature. knowing that there is a right and a wrong choice—but its realization only with making the right choice (ibid. We could just as well posit the opposite. therefore. In his own words (1982: 16): “[i]t is a ridiculous prejudice that existence could only be physical.: 210). With Kant. 63–84 ..: 356) and conceptualized by Freud. first visible in the work of Hegel.72 The Prophet as Intellectual and Vice Versa Moritz E. practical reason refers to truth as it can be realized by the human subject (1996 [1788]: 242). with Plato. and Husserl (ibid. Schopenhauer. of which Bouman related the birth to the emergence of monotheism in the desert of Palestine (1998: 16).: 140).: 210). we may as well say that the mind is the source of all reality since sensory perception is always transferred through it.: 133). It thus refers to an ethical law that Kant believes to be inherent in all human beings through their faculty of reason (ibid. Kant develops this idea for human ethics. Freud describes how this notion at first encountered resistance not only with medical practitioners of his time. This transcendental realm can be recognized as the realm of abstraction. While pure reason refers to what is true. Another defence of idealism comes from Jung. for Kant the condition for freedom is given with choice— i.

by Jacobi 1949: 34). but there are important differences (Figure 2. Freud’s model of the mind can. The psychological thus coincided with perception. as it were. The id stands for the human or animal instinct which is related to the unconscious. the more relative a role time Time and Mind Volume 3—Issue 1—March 2010. because they were used to dealing with processes in the physical body while the unconscious is immaterial. But this is founded not only on a personal unconscious. this can result in a neurosis. Jung has been able to create such a version of psychoanalytical theory that makes it possible to link this with the metaphysical realm that we identified with Plato and Kant. If it does not manage to do so. Fig 1 Freud’s architecture of the mind (author’s interpretation) Deep time What is of particular importance in Jung’s model. be represented as a diagram (Figure 1) that has at the top the super ego. chiefly. but also on a collective unconscious. in its development. pp. the expectations of the public may prevent one from doing so. the individual traverses the whole evolutionary history of the species she or he belongs to (1991: 143). is at the top. he had expected the philosophers to be more receptive to his ideas. to boundlessly eat in a restaurant. is that the lower one descends in it. the collective unconscious as a concept does not appear in the work of Freud. Freud however hypothesized that the basic idea of psychoanalysis is that the mind is essentially unconscious and that consciousness is. in the middle the ego and at the bottom the id.” It thus represents the ideals and expectations Superego Ego Id defined by culture and society. as with Freud. in their case. as passed on by the parents. “memories of the species” and is thus supraindividual. which is similar to Freud’s ego. an almost accidental property of it. These two elements (id and super ego) can conflict with each other. It would be wrong not to mention that the conditions for developing this idea were given by Freud. This is a part of the mind that collects. for example. the mental has always coincided with the direct content of consciousness (1991: 97). The ego mediates the relation between super ego and id.M.Moritz E. who asserted that. However. However. While one’s instinctive drive can be. he discovered another obstacle: for the philosophers. Jung’s model of the psyche is similar to Freud’s. The super ego. in the words of Freud (1985: 364) “is the successor and representative of the individual’s parents (and educators) … it carries on their functions almost unchanged. In Jung’s model the individual. and what links this most strongly with Kant’s theory. Bilagher The Prophet as Intellectual and Vice Versa 73 he could understand the resistance from medical practitioners. Although Jung’s theories are certainly the continuation of the work of Freud. without respect for conventions. as it were. 63–84 .

Jung identified another layer.” which counts time in millions or even billions of years (cf. This is different for the personal unconscious. pp. alternatively stated. Bilagher Fig 2 Jung’s architecture of the mind. the collective unconsciousness. life itself over millions of years. and also seems to refer to Freud’s accusation that for the philosophers. it is one with philosophical implications. To understand what it means to have access to divine knowledge. which almost equated consciousness with time (1990: 32). weeks. Time. for consciousness. as the species developed over thousands of years. For the individual. as it were. the seconds in which one reads this sentence or the minutes in which I write this page.M. is that of the here and now.74 The Prophet as Intellectual and Vice Versa Moritz E. the repository of one’s personal memories. Kroonenberg 2007: 51–2). it is also a philosophical one or. The collective unconscious is related to a concept that geologists refer to as “deep time. to which the collective unconscious is linked. not even centuries are meaningful measures of time. 63–84 . any conscious perception without time is unimaginable. That may be a psychological truth. This is equal to Kant’s view. This scale of time is again different from that of the development of the species. These are collected over years and decades. Time scales for the human mind are built on hours. which is. For this part of the mind. they color one’s perception and shape one’s identity. That is. or even months. who represents or is constituted by consciousness. according to Jacobi plays. time is crucial. what is important in Jung’s model is that under this layer of the mind. days. psyche and perception are one. This is Absolute Mind or God (layer H or the Time and Mind Volume 3—Issue 1—March 2010.

M. of metaphysics. its identity as Mittelwesen (Heinisch 1960: 235) with ambiguous loyalties. as Wittgenstein said. as time and consciousness seem interdependent entities (Kant 1990: 30). Jung links individual conscious experience (Plato’s world of sensory perception. the more one is wise.” Part Four:The Intellectual as Prophet Convergence of understandings One of the central theses of this article is that this reality described by the philosophers as a metaphysical realm and by Jung as Absolute Mind12 or central force is the same realm of divine knowledge that prophets have access to. at its bottom.Moritz E. which stands out of time. the inherently paradoxical nature of the human subject itself: its living in two worlds (Mumford 1923: 13). Access to this realm is what it means to “stand in a special relation with God. Bilagher The Prophet as Intellectual and Vice Versa 75 central force in Figure 2).” This means that in this realm the central concepts of a number of realities or disciplines converge: that of psychoanalysis. and the origin of the tension between universals and particulars itself. Time and Mind Volume 3—Issue 1—March 2010. Christianity. the bottom of the mind. axiom 6:4311). as the activity concerned with this paradox. Conversely. who said that in the infinite opposites coincide (1993 [1453]: 67–8). by analogy with the regularity we identified that time becomes more relative the deeper one descends into the mind. or part of the mind that is supra-individual and present in all other minds. Time seems to be the pivotal notion by means of which one can gain a deep understanding of the essential difference between consciousness and the realm beyond. pp.11 Moreover. as Jung (1970: 67) formulates: “only the paradox is capable of encapsulating by approximation the fullness of life. With this notion. or more in general philosophy. or Plato’s world of unity that one participates in. Absolute Mind is timeless (understood by consciousness as eternity) and nonlocal (omnipresent). 63–84 . Thus. we find what we could call eternity—which. and Islam or more generally religion. is not infinite time but timelessness (1969: 81. because it is nowhere. or more in general psychology. the Absolute Mind must by necessity seem paradoxical to consciousness because its laws are precisely the inversion of those of consciousness itself: where consciousness exists by the grace of a priori knowledge such as time and space. We can then easily recognize in this state of affairs the existence of two “times” (the eternity of Absolute Mind and the here and now of consciousness).14 This was already predicted by Cusanus. And.13 It is a realm where the multiplicity of sensory perceptions coincides into the oneness or unity that a monotheistic religion envisions to characterize the root of reality. and of Judaism. He added. This must then necessarily express itself paradoxically because. The common elements seem too striking not to associate these with Kant’s metaphysical realm that can be accessed via reason. This coincides with Kant’s realm. we can perceive religion as the institutional attempt at a resolution of this tension. it is everywhere. the unambiguous and uncontradictory by contrast are onesided and therefore unfit to express the incomprehensible. and also holds for Plato’s world of ideas. Kant’s consciousness) to a mind. paradoxically.

As Leavitt says. The role of the active intellect seems reminiscent of Kant’s reason or Plato’s intelligence. as Kant predicted. but all human beings. differs substantially. there. this divine realm is other-worldly. it is not only prophets who have access to this realm of divine knowledge.: 73). the degree to which this ability is exerted. Bilagher however. in Peters 2006: 374) plays a main role. “later and earlier and final goal and beginning coincide” (ibid. can be a dangerous place. We can now also understand how we can refer to Absolute Mind as our Creator: as we can only recognize objects with concepts. For Christian theologians. it seems. but also an ethical law. The routine answer is that this is unknowable. but with the explicit aim to heal persons affected by psychosomatic afflictions. for Radin those that were not priest-thinkers belonged to a group for which monotony “holds no terror” (Radin 1938. 63–84 . Faculties of prophecy What it is that makes certain people have greater access to the realm of divine knowledge has historically been a subject of debate. Relevant to this. and the domain where we encounter it. the fact that this land is there to be explored by anyone in principle does not mean that it actually is explored by anyone. The reader of this article may now object to my argumentation that if we take all of what has been said to be true. that rational understanding— i. but the paradoxical. Therefore. For Spinoza. However. This. He emphasizes that one is especially susceptible to this when sensory stimulation is reduced (1963: 370). Spinoza vividly illustrates that some men of great learning were not considered prophets while some persons that were regarded as prophets did not have an intellectual background.76 The Prophet as Intellectual and Vice Versa Moritz E. however. the unconscious. This realm is also a realm where we find not only truth. This was always emphasized by Freud (1991: 41–2). the difference between prophet and lunatic is one of degree (1997: 130).M. our knowledge of concepts creates our perception of things as objects at all and thus empirical reality as a whole. while anyone in principle can have access to this realm. only transfers our problem.. This was also the position of the Sufi Muslim – – scholar Ibn ‘Arabı (Diyab 1999: 70). As Peters mentioned. the “infinite distance between God and man” (Tillich 1959: 68. Plato’s imperative to look for unity in diversity has its own ethical implications. For Maimonides. It is not a coincidence that the psychoanalytical model of the mind is developed not for the sake of some philosophical exploration per se. she or he also has to engage in the pastoral task of guiding the community through this newly discovered world (Peters 2006: 375). to whom revelation is truths “transmitted from Divinity Time and Mind Volume 3—Issue 1—March 2010. and therefore whether one has access to this realm becomes a question of divine grace. because it raises the question of what divine grace should be understood to be. pp.e. in Bauman 1987: 15). unknown land of the unconscious probably does. and after the priest has engaged in his prophetic task of proclaiming the other reality. prophecy was an overflow from the active intellect into the imagination. One reason for this is that the paradoxical. access to divine knowledge is a question of imagination. the understanding based on the laws of consciousness—could not reach that conclusion because in that other realm its laws do not hold. This is true.

63–84 . according to Salim. This reflects the basic principle of monotheism: that the source.” Numbers 12:6 also mentions visions. viz. On the basis of Numbers 12:6. it is interesting to note that the prophetic vocabulary is similar to that of the psychoanalysts. and unitary. while the principles from which rules are derived may be timeless and independent of culture. pp. Freud 1985: 176). Time and Mind Volume 3—Issue 1—March 2010. St. The present and the eternal It would be wrong to think of prophets as people who only received visions. In this respect Maimonides (1963: 370) seems strangely visionary when he observed that “a matter that occupies a man greatly … while he is awake … is the one with regard to which the imaginative faculty acts while he is asleep. This. Maimonides (1963: 370) says that “in vision and dream. she argues (2003: 95). Hebrew prophets were originally called seers or ro’eh (‫ . 22:35. Thus.M. Bilagher The Prophet as Intellectual and Vice Versa 77 to a certain prophet. Scholem 1974: 4–7). 22:68). or visions” (1862: 39). According to Hirsch.” from a world that is unchangeable. The significance of the role of the dream in prophecy is only matched by its capacity to express the contents of the unconscious (cf. undivided. signs. If the first condition were met. The Qur’an indicates that the testimony of two women is worth that of one man. We have before identified the prophets as individuals with privileged access to a realm of transcendental knowledge and who actively engaged with the social issues of their times. they would merely be mystics (cf. but not the second one. What the prophets thus did was to formulate rules and regulations based on universal principles as a response to the particular needs and circumstances of their times and places. These can be thought of as glimpses of the world beyond the immanent one. however. now that women practice professions in many Islamic countries the rule should adapt to reflect changed circumstances in order to continue to reflect timeless principles such as justice. warning. that the interpretation of dreams is not immune to error (ibid. can be explained from the historical context in which the Qur’an was conceived.” Whatever the faculty via which prophets were in contact with the realm we have identified. However. where women often did not have the same chances of social development as men.: 69).)האר‬and Spinoza says that divine revelations are normally received “by the aid or medium of imagination.” which “therefore must have passed through the concretizing process of the prophetic imagination. although the truth itself is eternal. by means of words. it gives to every time its own regulations (1985 [398]: 72) and the Qur’an also contains a number of verses to this effect (cf.” The dream as a vehicle of prophecy is also mentioned by Spinoza (1862: 35) – and Ibn ‘Arabı has referred to a Hadith reporting that Mohammad received his first revelation through a “veridical dream” – (Diyab 1999: 70). this does not mean that the rules themselves are timeless. Salim gives an interesting example of where a religious regulation does not anymore match the principle behind it. which indicate how we should understand the sacred texts of religion: as messages from an “other side. is what matters. all the degrees of prophecy are included. not the manifestation.Moritz E. Augustine already recognized that. 13:39.

acknowledges that intellectuals are usually understood to be persons that do intellectual work. to realize that we can also learn from persons of a more recent age. A 2005-ranking. This idea is encapsulated in Marx’s thesis that philosophers should not only interpret the world.: 35). judgement and taste of the time” (1987: 2). one role of the present that seems very similar to that of the historical prophet: the intellectual (see also Hoffer 1964: 44). the way they see themselves. who showed that Descartes’ attempt to arrive at a truth that is equally valid for all of mankind. thus. Consequently.” their authority “has rested on the claim to be acting and speaking on behalf of society as a whole. Intellectuals are defined according to “the manner in which they act. Herman (2005) defends the validity of the choices of the participants in the poll with a reference Time and Mind Volume 3—Issue 1—March 2010. being “an intellectual implies social engagement” (ibid. It is only logical to think that intellectuals should provide this. This idea also appears in Bauman: “[t]he intentional meaning of ‘being an intellectual’ is to rise above the partial preoccupation of one’s own profession … and engage with the global issues of truth. instead.15 The importance of the comparison between these groups is twofold: first.: 31). and the values that they uphold” (ibid. Furedi (2004: 31). based on a poll by Foreign Policy and Prospect Magazine identified as the world’s top intellectuals Noam Chomsky. but also change it (CohnSherbok 2007: 147). “Their sense of identity as an intellectual derives. Secondly.78 The Prophet as Intellectual and Vice Versa Moritz E. We can reread and reinterpret more key texts than only the Bible.500 years ago. the contrary seems more plausible. in part. and engagement with the social issues of the day on the other. Today’s intellectuals These considerations raise the question of who today’s intellectuals are. as did Toulmin. for example. the roles of intellectual and prophet coincide in the practice of exploring and identifying universal. In essence. Bilagher Contemporary prophets Hirsch vigorously resisted any comparison between the role of the prophets of the past and any roles of the present. it can help us not to make an idol of the Biblical past and. but adds to this that for being an intellectual this is not enough. as the challenges that the world is faced with nowadays seem to require leadership of certainly “prophetic” dimensions. In an analysis. the fundamental truth of cogito ergo sum. Like the prophet. Both conditions must be met for someone to be called an intellectual. 63–84 . It would be wrong to think that the present world needs this less than the world of around 3. There is. was in fact a reaction to the horrors of the Thirty Years’ War (1992: 62)—a war between Protestants and Catholics in the heart of Europe that left entire areas depopulated. pp. however. timeless principles and applying these to actual situations with a view of solving these. he stated that at present there are no prophets (1842: 590. Umberto Eco. from participating in a project that transcends any particular occupation or interest. and Richard Dawkins. the essence of the intellectual seems defined by a double role: access to a realm of privileged knowledge on the one hand.000 to 1. see also Spinoza 1862: 33) rejecting the equation of prophets with philosophers or poets (Hirsch 1842: 603).M. In fact.” and. it indicates that the time of prophetic work is not over.

comparable to the contributions of other peoples. In these cases it is again the intellectuals. This cannot please everyone as. Bilagher The Prophet as Intellectual and Vice Versa 79 to the “intellectual range” of the winners: “Havel [who ended in fourth place] was a playwright and statesman. many of these changes seem to be conditioned by technological developments. and Ellul who develop new laws from “eternal principles. have played the role of unique deliverers of divine messages. These individuals have socially fulfilled the same function as the prophet in the past: they acted as the conscience of society (Furedi 2004: 35).” such as respect for life. saying it is not. The question Spinoza poses is of the extent to which prophecy is an intrinsically Jewish phenomenon. 63–84 . For the nineteenth century. then what are the implications of this? Are we then denying the Holy Book its uniqueness and stature? In this regard. the psychologist among physicists and famously anti-racist. Sloterdijk. we are. Saïd was a literary critic but also criticized the neo-colonial view of eastern cultures. Popper was a philosopher of science but also engaged with the idea of an open society. he said. Cuvier. religion is all the Jewish people have. the intellectuals are understood to be intellectuals because they engage in intellectual work but also in work of some social significance. Currently.Moritz E. according to Hirsch. such as the art of the Greeks. Heschel). developing visions of ideal futures. whose character of Zarathustra resembles the archetypal prophet. Foucault a historian but he also became (albeit largely unwittingly) a leader of the 1968 Paris student revolt. according to many Jewish thinkers (Geiger.” In all these cases. Russell and Sartre: a major thinker or writer who speaks out on the great public issues of his time. it is interesting to note that the two chapters preceding the one on the election of the Jewish people in Spinoza’s Tractatus (the text with which we opened this article). and new rules based on timeless principles for a present that is intrinsically changing. Nietzsche. as did Martin Luther King. Chosen to what? If we relate a phenomenon that claims roots in the supernatural to a scientific theory. who. opposing his government on questions of conscience rather than the fine print of policy. Roman law (1842: Time and Mind Volume 3—Issue 1—March 2010. and writes on huge issues ranging over a great time span.M. If we persist in our idea that the prophets of ancient times were similar to our contemporary intellectuals. clearly. and many others. Rosenzweig. Eco a literary critic and bestselling author. pp. deal with prophecy and prophets respectively. This is for a reason. the natural historian and historian of culture. we could mention Mach. Herman endorses Chomsky’s victory in particular by noting that he “belongs to a tradition which goes back to Zola. by placing prophecy on a rational foundation we are not only breaking the spell of prophecy as we know it from the Bible but. breaking some of the spell associated with the Jewish people. such as Jonas. Therefore. It is. their contribution to world history. Marcuse was a sociologist but also criticized the “logic of oppression” of the elites.” The same characteristics used to describe the intellectuals of the twenty-first century apply to those of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries: for example. mainly in biotechnology and information technology. also. [Jared] Diamond was a professor of physiology and now has a chair in geography at UCLA.

Job 38:10 should be read in conjunction with 38:11. Kroonenberg points out that the unpredictability of the weather is. who explicitly mentions Job 38:10. When quoted from. 4 However. in the expression of Jung. Psalms 104:9. but of superstition. to an extent. pp. the translations of the original text to English are mine. as an Egyptian high priest wrote: “they [the Jews] keep as much apart from us as though we were lepers. which underlies the world Notes * The Qur’an used for this article is the translation from Arabic to Dutch of the Ahmadiyya movement (1994. 8 In this regard. 5 For example. although we may not know whether the climate will change this century. Marx’s relations with Judaism have always been fraught. 6 Marx. 7 As a side note. Rabwah: The Oriental & Religious Publishing Corporation). of verses (ayat) can differ slightly from the numbering of verses in other translations. magic spells are rarely uniformly positive. because this version counts the opening formula of every sura as a separate verse. is a good example of how this particular aspect of prophecy has often been considered its central element (see e. Kwa refers to Zilsel (1942). To assert otherwise would not be a manifestation of faith. The Italian monk Tommaso Campanella. is said to have said the same.g. The numbering Time and Mind Volume 3—Issue 1—March 2010. in front of “terror-struck witnesses” (Manuel and Manuel 1982: 266). 2 In this context. What the Bible testifies of may be one expression of an eternal and all-pervasive idea that we find in a very special form in this Holy Book. However. However that may be. It may also be present in w the Hindu concept of atma n among others. The original proceedings in Latin can be found in Amabile (1882: 195). This mechanism finds an interesting explanation in the work of Freud (1985: 351. for example. we know that in a few centuries we will have another ice age. by Festinger et al. who explains how the perception of Jews as lepers in antiquity may have been a case of projection. Bilagher 616). the perception of the people as superior (Freud 1985: 351–2. but by no means only there. and German “speculative depth of knowledge” (ibid. This is because we are aware of greater regularities. in respect of the abolition of the family and of private property. Proverbs 8:29. a whole realm of divinity. a question of scale. 3 Spinoza was not the first. He argues that. Scholem mentions “a sphere. one of the classical utopians.M. and Jeremiah 5:22. Cohn-Sherbok (2007: 148) indicates that.: 602). incidentally. This does not mean that we dethrone any people of a special status. and Job 38:12 may also be mentioned. and the perception of the uniqueness of a specific people has. However. 1956: 5). but it does mean that knowledge of a divine reality is not the prerogative of any specific group. Spinoza 1862: 48) seems to evoke its potential opposite. the mere maintenance of spells is not our aim. Labrie (1989: 211) argues that in the twentieth century there is a stronger trend toward dystopias than toward utopias.” A universal law may reveal itself here. such as Milankovic ´ cyclicity (2007: 15).. and the assertion that Biblical revelation is definitive is not founded on assumptions in line with our observations. borrows from many others: the ideals formulated in the Communist Manifesto bear striking resemblance to Plato’s Republic and More’s Utopia. This idea may require a shift in thinking about revelation in general. had strikingly enantiodromic properties (1946: 541–2): that is. 1 The book When Prophecy Fails. although Jewish. 63–84 . note 1). † Some non-English language works (mainly in German and Dutch) were consulted for this article.80 The Prophet as Intellectual and Vice Versa Moritz E.

M. 1999.. F. 10 Kant discussed Plato’s theory of ideas in the Critique of Pure Reason (1990: 197–201). 1992. De gebroeders Karamazow. The Order of Things. Amsterdam: G. nor will it ever be. F.. S. The End of History and the Last Man. 1882. 1960. Antonio Morano. Cohn-Sherbok. 1985. F. 12 This expression itself is derived from Von Baader (1851: 194). 13 After having written a first draft of this article I came across Benny Shanon’s speculation about a connection between use of certain mind-altering plants in the ancient Middle East and the rise of Israelitic religion (2008: 51).. Heraclites (c. – Diya b. Belijdenissen. Heinisch. 11 This idea seems implicit in Rorty’s classification of “the physical [as] spatio-temporal. speaks about “the encounter with the absolute Being in the depths of one’s soul” (1974: 15). 1998.. 1851. Furedi. 1991. [and] the meta-physical [as] neither spatial nor temporal” (1980: 20). London: Penguin. Kapellen: Pelckmans. Amsterdam: Athenaeum/Polak & Van Gennep. Time and Mind Volume 3—Issue 1—March 2010. Het zien van God. The Preaching of the Gospel. 1992.N. Riecken. Groningen: Historische uitgeverij. Augustinus. in Jung (1950: 615).. References Alighieri. Barth. Foucault.. L.. as he explains his point with a reference to a substance of “cattiness. Zelfportret. 1993 [1453]. 1972. London: Routledge. Freud. The Divine Comedy. the main characteristic of Plato’s metaphysical world is explicitly that it is immaterial. D. The Origins of Religion. and that there are no substances in it. 1956. 2006. i suoi processi e la sua pazzia. Fra Tommaso Campanella: La sua congiura. Baader. 15 Interestingly. to create a new world. J. S. A. London: Penguin. pp.. 1985. London: Routledge. Goldberg... Z. for example. A. Naples: Cav. 1987. Der Utopische Staat. 14 Scholem. Bilagher The Prophet as Intellectual and Vice Versa 81 of our sense-data and which is present and active in all that exists” (1974: 11).. K. H.” Al-Shajarah. Fifty Key Jewish Thinkers. ı Journal of the International Institute of Islamic Thought and Civilization 4(1): 53–74. S. Where Have all the Intellectuals Gone? London: Continuum. Het vraagstuk van de lekenanalyse.” However.A. Fukuyama. philosophy has come to realize that its business has never been. Louisville. Bauman. but only to understand the actual world” (603). F. 1989. S. Cambridge: Polity. Israël contra Zion. 63–84 . 1963. D. Dostoyevsky. D. 2007. M. and Rayner. Cusa.W.. von.500 BC). Amabile. London: Penguin. Leipzig: Publisher unknown. The Jewish People: Their History and their Religion. Amsterdam: Uitgeverij Jan Mets. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. KY: Westminster/John Knox Press.. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt. It is well known that certain hallucinogenic substances can afford access to “deeper” layers of the mind. Aldus sprak Heraclitus.. Festinger.. N. Bouman. 2004. Minneapolis. When Prophecy Fails. Fermenta cognitionis. the psychological [as] non-spatial but temporal. 2005. 9 Russell’s classical example of the concept of a cat (2007: 123) seems to miss the mark to an extent. “Intellect and Imagination in Ibn ‘Arab–’s Anthropological Epistemology.. in 1842 Hirsch wrote: “With Schelling and Hegel... De weerstanden tegen de psychoanalyse. MN: University of Minnesota Press. Freud.Moritz E. K. van Oorschot. and Schachter. Legislators and Interpreters. L. van. Meppel/Amsterdam: Boom.J.

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