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1840 1841

Thomas Henderson leaves Perth for New Zealand. (obit., NZH
28 June 1886)

19-20 April 1841 William Buckland and Thomas Henderson purchase 1 rood 40 perches section in the first Town Allotments sale. (NZ Herald & Auckland Gazette, 17 July 1841) They were both involved with the Mechanics Institute 1845-1848 at least. (NZr, 11 October 1845) Their purchase is today site of the former Auckland Gas Company building. “At the first Government land sale, Mr. Henderson and W. T. Buckland jointly bought an allotment in Wyndham-street, but it was too far removed from the business quarter, and remained idle for years. He bought another allotment, where he erected the Commercial Hotel at a cost of ₤2000, and it was the most pretentious building of the time.” (obit, NZH 28 June 1886) THOMAS HENDERSON Begs leave to inform the inhabitants of Auckland that he has commenced (illegible) Lemon Syrup, Lemonade, and Ginger Beer, and hopes by manufacturing the above of the best materials, and at reasonable prices, to meet with public support. Auckland, August 12, 1841. (NZ Herald & Auckland
Gazette, 21 August 1841)

It is proclaimed that her Majesty has directed that effectual means are to be taken to preserve the forests of koudi pine for the use of the navy. Therefore it is notified, that all persons found stealing, cutting, or destroying such timber within the Colony of New Zealand, will be prosecuted with the utmost rigour of the law; and a reward of £5 is offered to parties who may be the cause of offenders of this class being convicted.
(NZ Gazette and Wgtn Spectator, 27 November 1841)

1842

1843

“In 1842 Mr. Henderson retired in favour of Messrs. J & H Macfarlane, with the former of whom he had been in partnership, but in the succeeding year he met with reverse and had to go to work again. He ran a firewood boat from Riverhead at first. And soon afterwards engaged in the timber trade, but he lost money, and sold out his stock by auction at 2s 6d per 100 feet.” (obit, NZH 28 June 1886) (Auckland Times, 26 January 1843) BRICKS! (The best made in the Colony.) THOMAS HENDERSON

BEGS to acquaint the public of Auckland, that he can supply them with Bricks of a superior quality, for ₤1 17s. per thousand – CASH. Merchants and others who may wish to secure their property from fire, ought to avail themselves of this opportunity to erect substantial premises. Builders and others are informed that he can supply them with sawn Timber of every description at moderate prices. House blocks, shingles, palings and fire-wood also supplied. Commercial Inn, Shortland crescent, Jan. 17, 1843 18 April 1843 Thomas Henderson’s licence for the Commercial Inn renewed at annual hearing. (SC 22 April 1843) (SC 24 June 1843) T HENDERSON begs leave to intimate to all parties indebted to him that in consequence of an alteration about to take place in the arrangement of the business, unless payment of their respective accounts be made to him, or to H. Macfarlane, on or before the 1st July next, he will be under the necessity of handing them over to his Solicitor for recovery. June 22, 1843. SC 1 July 1843 EXTENSIVE TIMBER SALE BY AUCTION— Without Reserve. MESSRS. BROWN & CAMPBELL WILL SELL BY AUCTION, This Day, (July 1,) at 12 o'clock precisely, on the Beach, near the Government Store, NINE THOUSAND FEET BEST KAURI TIMBER, of all descriptions suitable for Building Purposes. SC 1 July 1843 EXTENSIVE SALE OF KAURI TIMBER BY AUCTION, Without Reserved MESSRS, NATHAN & JOSEPH WILL SELL BY AUCTION. On Wednesday, the 5th of .July, at 12 o'clock precisely, at the Corner of Mr. Broadbent's Store, in Queenstreet. TWELVE THOUSAND FEET of excellent COWRIE BOARDS and SCANTLING of all descriptions and sizes suitable for Building Purposes.— The timber may now be seen on the Ground.

SC 1 July 1843, p. 2 Canty & Co subscribe ₤5 to the Wesleyan Chapel fund. In 1848, Thomas Canty subscribes ₤1 towards erection of new Wesleyan chapel. (NZr, 28 October 1848) In 1850, Canty becomes one of the trustees of the Primitive Methodist chapel & school house in the city. (NZr, 31 August 1850) 8 September 1843 Thomas Henderson, in a return of contributions for the completion of the Auckland Total Abstinence Hall, is listed as contributing 250 feet of timber. (SC 9 September 1843) 1 December 1843 – Lucidan arrives in Auckland. SC 2 December 1843 The License of Mr. Thomas Henderson. "Commercial Inn," was transferred to Mr. Hy. M'Farlane. (SC 9 December 1843) SC 9 December 1843 MR. H. R. CRETNAY WILL SELL BY AUCTION, This Morning, at 12 o'clock, at his Rooms, Queen-street, A QUANTITY OF TIMBER, consisting of Totara Boards of all widths, suitable for the Manufacturing of Furniture, Kauri Boards, Scantling, and Battens. One Cask Beef, One ditto Pork. Without Reserve. 1844 SC 27 January 1844

February 10 1844 Lucidan, Jessup, for Russell, with passengers Proclamation 28 March 1844 - NZG Purchases of native land under the waiving of Crown preemption were liable, after Crown scrutiny, to a charge of 10 shillings per acre. SC 6 April 1844 S. ELLIOTT, Land Agent and Licensed Surveyor, Auckland, BEGS to acquaint his friends and the public that, as now the right of the Maories in Selling their Land has been conceded, he undertakes to select and lay out any assigned quantity in any form whatever, though not exactly according to the Auckland practice of doubt and difficulty and requiring extra quantities to make up deficiencies, &c, the line of MEUM and TUUM is alone determined and fixed with accuracy. A Register is opened for the Purchase and Sale of Land on Commission, which will be Published monthly. Chancery-st., April 5, 1844. (Meum and Tuum – What is mine, what is thine.) 8 October 1844 Memorandum 45/1849 “In consideration of the various circumstances connected with Mr. Henderson’s exchange of his Schooner for Land I will consider his a special case and give him a crown title to one half of the quantity claimed – upon his furnishing a sufficient description of the boundaries.” This is interesting. It appears that Henderson made his trade with Ngati Whatua before 8 October – therefore coming under the provisions of the 10 shilling charge – and he presents the circumstances of his claim at least 2 days before FitzRoy’s October Proclamation, with the charge reduced to a penny an acre. But, his claim in 1847 for the 17,784 acres can’t have been under the March Proclamation, but the October one. Reasons: his name on the later memorialists’ petition against FitzRoy’s despatch, and that only 1795 acres were claimed before the 1847 land commission under the March Proclamation, whereas 90,016 acres was claimed under the October Proclamation. (SC, 14 August 1847, p. 2) Turton (see 1882) says that Henderson approached FitzRoy first, received an agreement, and then made the trade. Lucidan probably last owned by Henderson November 1845, and still registered at Auckland 1851 (SC 18 February 1851)

Proclamation 10 October 1844 – NZG The fee reduced to a penny an acre. New Zealand Spectator and Cook's Strait Guardian, 9 November 1844 PROCLAMATION. By his Excellency Robert Fitzroy, Esq., &c. Whereas by a proclamation, bearing date the 26th day of March, 1844, it was notified to the public, that the Crown's right of pre-emption would be waived over certain portions of land in New Zealand : and whereas the terms and conditions set forth in such proclamation on. which the right of pre-emption would be so waived, have in some cases been disregarded, either by persons making purchases of land from the natives without first applying for and obtaining the Governor's consent to waive the right of pre-emption, or by much understating the quantity of land proposed to be purchased from the natives : and whereas certain persons have misrepresented the objects and intentions of Government in requiring that a fee should be paid on obtaining the Governor's consent to waive the right of preemption — on behalf of her Majesty— who, by the Treaty of Waitangi, undertook to protect the natives of New Zealand — and, in order to do so, has checked the purchase of- their lands while their value was insufficiently known to their owners. And whereas the evil consequences of misrepresenting the motives of Government, and asserting that to be a mark of oppression — even of slavery— which is in reality an effect of parental care — are already manifest, and, are certain to increase seriously if the cause be .not removed. And whereas the natives of New Zealand have become perfectly aware of the value of their lands — and are quite alive to their own. interests — however indifferent at times" to those of their children. Now, therefore, I, the Governor, acting on behalf of her Majesty the Queen, do hereby proclaim and declare that from this day no fees will be demanded on consenting to waive the right of preemption: — that the fees payable on the issue of Crown Grants, under the following regulations, will be at the rate of one penny per acre ; and that, until otherwise ordered, I will consent, on behalf of her Majesty, to waive the right of preemption over certain limited portions of land in New Zealand, on the following conditions … Nelson Examiner and New Zealand Chronicle, 16 November 1844 LAND SALES.

Since the above article was in type, in looking through the Auckland papers we have met with another proclamation on this subject, which it appears was published in the Government Gazette on the 5th of October, only five days prior to that which we printed in our last number. It recites the proclamation of the 26th of March last, and declares "that the Crown's right of preemption will in no case be waived on behalf of her Majesty the Queen in favour of any person who may have purchased, or who shall hereafter purchase, land from the natives without complying strictly with the regulations set forth in the said recited proclamation." Further, the quantity of land to be conveyed to the purchaser by the Crown grant will in no case exceed the number of acres in respect of which the right of preemption was first requested to be waived, except upon payment of double fees for the excess. The first fee of 4s. an acre must be paid within one month of the Governor's consent being obtained, or, in default of payment within that time, such consent will be cancelled." So that if his Excellency's proclamations are of any value, the sum that would purchase but a single acre on Saturday would buy 120 acres on the following Thursday! Pleasant news for landholders. The cause of this sudden change in his Excellency's views regarding the value of property is at present a mystery, which the following extract from the Auckland Times may probably throw some light upon. It is dated the 8th of October, just midway between the proclamations alluded to : "It is difficult indeed to conceive what are the real intentions of the Government in respect of Land Sales. Perhaps there never was a more extraordinary transaction than the one we are about to relate. "It has been, and it still is, asserted by the native chiefs that his Excellency the Governor has declared to them that they may sell their lands free of all restriction, and without the intervention of any tax, to any European who is willing to buy, at any price or for any consideration whatever that may be agreed upon between the parties. Upon the faith of this representation Mr. Henderson bargains with a native chief for a district of land supposed to contain about twelve sections or square miles. For this he paid to them the schooner Lucidan, which, since the recent outlay, may be valued at about £350, and the vessel is delivered; but, on the publication of Saturday's Gazette, it appears by the Governor's proclamation that Mr. Henderson has by this transaction incurred an obligation to the Government of no less a sum than about four thousand pounds! — that is to say, before he can get a Crown grant for the land he must pay that sum into her Majesty's Treasury, after the rate of ten shillings per acre purchase, or the bargain or conveyance shall be held by authority of law to

be 'utterly null and void'. As soon as Mr. Henderson reads this document, he promptly demands his vessel back from the native chief, explaining to him the nature of the transaction. The native chief honestly and quickly gives back the property, but instantly makes an appeal to the Governor, demanding his right of sale. He sets forth how earnestly he covets possession of the vessel, without insisting upon an arrangement of the system of land sales for the future and, receiving an assurance from his Excellency that the vessel shall be restored to his possession, he says 'Kapai te Kawanu' and is satisfied. But now comes the consideration, how is our countryman to reecho the 'ka pai' ? The Governor tells him that his taking back his vessel is a felony committed upon the Maori! that, if it is not restored, her Majesty's Attorney-General shall put him into — Purgatory — or some other terrible abode; but finally compromises the matter by assuring Mr. Henderson he will forgive his atrocities, and pay him liberally, if he will indulge the earnest demand of the important and importunate chief! Mr. Henderson complies, in deference to her Majesty's Representative, and the vessel is returned to the Maori buyer, upon the faith of his Excellency's threats and promises. But, after it has been so returned, what is the fulfilment? It amounts precisely to this — that Mr. Henderson may take possession with a Maorie title, not confirmed by a grant at all; but that for all the use of the land he shall not at present be disturbed, unless the original owners should find it convenient to do so, and then the Government (not waiving the right of pre-emption) of course will acknowledge no claim on their protection. Poor Mr. Henderson! Why did he not stick to his vessel till he had black and white of some sort? "It cannot escape the inquisitiveness of a very child to ask,’ Where is all this to end ?' What a labyrinth of confusion we are in. If Mr. Henderson now wisely give up his bargain, and seek legal compensation for the loss of his vessel, the following questions will be very appropriate: — What is to become of the land Mr. Henderson bargained for? Will the Government, solemnly pledged to deal in land no longer, become the possessor or the Governor personally? If the latter, will he set the example of paying the forfeit he himself imposes? Will Captain FitzRoy post the £4,000 for the benefit of the Treasury? Or will the Maori chief have the benefit of this sale and bargain, and be encouraged to make a new one tomorrow, without parting with his land at all? — and then, is the colony or the Home Government to pay for the absurdity? "P.S.— A third consideration of this matter has been made, and assurances given that no wrong, but, on the contrary, great liberality, shall be the consequence, if the surrender of the vessel (in which the natives have been triumphantly sailing

about the harbour all day, to the manifest risk of the Lucidan's keel) is silently submitted to. But the public demand a settled principle; it is not by privately hushing up a public injury that general rules of conduct can be established. Mr. Henderson has been, according to Captain FitzRoy, in the course of one day, first a felon — then a compromiser of the law,— and, lastly, a person to be rewarded by the law's chief administrator? Was there ever anything so unhappy? It will be ever the case while people (however well intentioned) act upon impulse instead of reflection." * This definition of Mr. Henderson's offence may appear strange to English readers, but it must be recollected that his Excellency is only a sea lawyer, an authority, fortunately, of very little weight with the judges.” (Nelson Examiner and New Zealand Chronicle, 21 December 1844, Page 166) “But at Auckland the natives had shown, as usual, great discontent at the stoppage of their sales of land, caused by the assertion of the Queen's right of pre-emption. In deference to them, Captain FitzRoy, in May, waived that right ; allowed them, by proclamation, to sell to whom they pleased ; but exacted a fee of 4s. per acre ready money and 6s. on credit from the purchasers. This was again changed to 10s. and double fees in certain cases. The Maories were still dissatisfied. A notable instance of the consequence of waiving the Queen's right occurred. A Mr. Henderson bargained with some natives for twelve square miles of land, giving in exchange a schooner worth £350. Government immediately let him know he had become by the transaction indebted to it to the amount of £4,000 for fees. Mr. Henderson, repentant, got back the vessel, which the Governor denounced as "felony." The Maori complained, the Governor promised its restoration. After threatening in vain, he persuaded Henderson to return it, by promising him a recompense. But, the vessel given up, the Governor refused to pay the compensation, bidding him take his chance with a Maori title he would not confirm by a Crown grant. With such troubles, the Governor resorted again to his old mode of concession; so issued another proclamation, limiting the Government charge upon land bought from Maories to one penny an acre, and thus put a stop to the operation of the Waste Lands Act in this country.” January 1845 – S. Elliott surveys “Plan of an Estate situate between the West Shore of the Estuary of the Waitemata and the top of the Kauri Forest on the Manukau Ranges, Purchased by Mr. Thos. Henderson from the Chiefs of the Nga Te Watua: Rewiti, Hira and others of Oraki.” (OLC 283, LINZ records) The survey encompasses 17,784 acres. The news report referred to 12 square miles, which is 7680 acres.

1845

AMERICAN SAW MILL. THE Proprietor of this MACHINE will dispose of it wholly, or erect it in Co-partnership with a respectable Party. For particulars, apply to H. R. Cretnay. Auckland, January 8, 1845.( Southern Cross, 11 January 1845) NOTICE. THE Undersigned having, by agreement bearing date January 20th, 1845, purchased from the Native Chiefs belonging thereto, all the Kauri Timber, and other Wood, standing and growing on Land known as Khanghapa, on the banks of the River Kopite Nui, hereby cautions all Persons front cutting or removing any Timber, Spars, or Firewood from the said Land. JOHN MACFARLANE. 30th October, 1845. (New Zealander, 1 November 1845) August 16 1845 Lucidan, Henderson master, inward from Mangonui with gum September 5 1845 Lucidan, Jessup master, inward from Kaitaia with gum October 4 1845 Lucidan, Jessup master, inward from Kaitaia with gum November 4 1845 Lucidan, Jessup master, inward from Doubtless Bay with gum “In 1845 Mr. [H] Macfarlane left the [Commercial] hotel, and his brother John continued the business till the following year, when he and Mr. Henderson went into partnership as traders, becoming the firm so well known in after years as Henderson and Macfarlane.” (obit, NZH, 28 June 1886) FOR FREIGHT OR CHARTER, THE Schooner KATE, 80 tons burthen, Macfarlane, master. Apply to H. R. Cretnay. Jan. 20, 1846. (New Zealander, 24 January 1846) CAUTION. ALL PERSONS found cutting Timber, or trespassing on my land, known as Wai-komite, will be prosecuted according to Law. E. Constable. Kent Place, Auckland, Feb 26th.( New Zealander, 7 March 1846) NZr, 18 July 1846 The undersigned wants 200,000 feet, or upwards, of round timber, to be cut and brought to Auckland Beach, as soon as

1846

possible. The timber is situated on a fine creek above the river Waha, leading to the Waitemata River. For further particulars apply to R. THOMPSON At Mr. Cormack’s Warehouse, Shortland-street Also – Wanted to charter, a vessel of 20 to 30 tons berthen. Apply as above. Auckland, July 17, 1845. 15 June 1846 – NZG (NZr 20 June 1846) Proclamations. Those who purchased native lands after the 26 March 1844 proclamation were to send in their papers concerning the purchase by 15 September 1846. Those who purchased after the 10 October and 7 December 1844 proclamations were to do the same – but … “It is further notified that as it appears that the regulations and terms under which these certificates waiving the Crown's right of pre- emption were issued, have in many cases, been evaded, no further steps, than the examination of these claims, will be taken until the views of Her Majesty's Government upon the subject have been ascertained.” And … “Lieutenant-Governor directs attention to be called to the fact, that the Proclamation issued by His Excellency's predecessor, upon the 10th day of October, 1844, regarding the terms upon which Governor Fitz-Roy intended to waive the Crown's right of pre-emption in favor of certain individuals, has been in no way acted upon by the Lieu- tenant-Governor. His Excellency further directs it to be notified, that he will not entertain or grant any application for waiving the Crown's right of pre-emption in favor of any individual, under the terms of the aforesaid proclamation, issued by his predecessor. He will, however, not fail to endeavour to devise and introduce some system by which Lands the property of the Natives may be brought into the market, under such restrictions as are required by the interests of both races.” The Timber Trade.—This branch of commerce is in a

flourishing state. The additional buildings that are daily projected, greatly increase the demand sawn timber, and the extensive exportation of spars, give constant and lucrative employment to the settlers and the natives who inhabit the banks of the adjacent rivers where the Kauri Pine abounds. The Waitemata, owing to the number of persons employed in this trade, presents an animated scene of busy life. The rafts as they come down are quickly sold, and it is as much as the respective proprietors of five water mills, and the numerous sawyers at the different stations on the adjacent rivers, can do to meet the demand for building materials. (New Zealander, 19 September 1846) 1 October 1846 Thomas Henderson is among those who meet at Wood’s Royal Hotel to read a memorial letter to the Governor protesting that they had purchased land from the Maori owners after the 10 October 1844 FitzRoy proclamation, had expended a large amount on improvements, and expressed surprise at the information that their names were on a list sent by FitzRoy to London in a despatch dated 14 October 1844. “That your Memorialists are only just now aware of the existence of that Despatch, and of the view which your Excellency has taken of the same :— That each of your Memorialists takes this, the earliest opportunity of most unequivocally declaring that he did not at the time mentioned in the despatch referred to, or indeed at any other time, excite the natives on the subject of the Crown's right of pre-emption :— that he neither subscribed himself nor was he aware that any other person ever subscribed any sum whatever "as a reward for whomsoever should do most towards stirring up and informing the natives how to act together on this subject;" and further each of your Memorialists declares that it was not his intention (nor is he aware of such intention having existed on the part of any other person) to agitate in the northern parts of the Country, during the Governor's absence in the Southern, in order that on his Excellency's return, he might find the scream of popular feeling too strong to oppose effectually :" — Your Memorialists trust that this unequivocal denial, will at least as regards themselves, satisfy Your Excellency of the groundlessness of the statements contained in the above mentioned Despatch : but should your Excellency entertain a shadow of a doubt as to the accuracy of your Memorialists declaration, they entreat the institution of such an investigation as may be sufficient to satisfy Your Excellency of their truth :—: — And Your Memorialists pray that Your feeling the injustice of dealing with their property, on an assumption of the truth of that which is undeniably incorrect, will in conformity with the

Secretary of State’s permission, grant to your Memorialists that title to their lands, which was promised to those who purchased under the authority of the Proclamation of the 10th of October, 1844. And Your Memorialists will ever pray. Daniel Lorrigan, William Goodfellow, Chas. Ring, P. Lundon, Thomas Henderson, T. Russell, Henry McCan, William Gamble, Charles Robinson, Benjamin Smith, William Harkin, Robert White, Joseph May, Henry Hayr, Adam Chisholm, Thomas Shepherd, Henry R. Cretnay, Isaac Merrick, Edward Foley, W. Cleghorn, George Buckingham, G. O. Ormsby, Frederick Whitaker, Frederick S. Peppercorne, C. Fulton, Theophilus Heale, James Williamson, William Williams, John Brigham, John L Heyd'n, Thomas Somerville, Daniel Lynch, Thomas Henry, John Oakes, William Smithson, T. McDonald, James C. Hill, Francis Ring, James Harris, W. Hart, Clement Partridge, J. A. Langford, George Willson, Thomas Jackson, P. Donovan.” This got nowhere with Governor Grey, who insisted that no titles would be issued without proper and involved investigation. (NZr 3 October 1846) November 1846 Land Claims Bill introduced in the Legislative Council. This allowed for the appointment of a Lands Commissioner to investigate claims made under the terms of the 10 October 1844 Proclamation. (NZr, 7 November 1846)

1847

NZr 16 January 1847 Major Henry Matson, the appointed Land Commissioner, was to open his court for deciding upon the 10 October 1844 land claims on 1 February 1847. Two persons of this town, named Henderson and McFarlane, sold to the natives a vessel called Lucidan. The consideration was land, with timber on it. Not being able to obtain a crown grant, they told the natives that the land was useless to them, and that the vessel must be given back again. Kawau, the chief, went forthwith to complain to Capt. Fitzroy, who sent for Mr Henderson, and spoke to him very angrily, telling him he had made a bargain, and must abide by it. Mr. Henderson was firm, and left the room, persisting still in his original determination. The following morning, the whole of Kawau's tribe, each man with a musket in his hand, landed from canoes in Mechanic's bay, and there danced the war dance (in

celebration said Mr. Clarke, the chief protector, of their meeting a tribe they had not seen for a long time). The protector's explanation certainty seemed rather suspicious; but, be that as it may, a few days afterwards, the penny an acre proclamation was issued. (New Zealander, 12 June 1847) NZr 11 August 1847 Attorney General's Report. On the course to be pursued under the terms of Lord Grey's despatch on the subject of Claims to Land, under Governor FitzRoy’s Proclamation, I have the honor to report as follows : — The result appears to be this. That Governor FitzRoy's Proclamations are declared to have been issued by him without authority, and to be null and void ; but that the acts done under them are to be recognised so far as they were done in strict pursuance of them. That in order to entitle any claim (whether under the first or the second Proclamation,) to be entertained, two things must be proved.

1st. That Governor Fitzroy in waiving the right of pre-emption, did so, in manner, within the extent, and according to the terms of his own proclamation, — and 2ndly. That the claimant on his part, complied strictly with the requisitions of the Proclamation: in other words, that the proceedings were throughout "in strict pursuance of," and under the authority of the Proclamation. The Proclamations declared that the right of pre-emption would be waived over limited portions of land, and in the notice of the 7th Dec, 1844, Governor Fitzroy declared that by the term “limited portion" was meant “a few hundred acres." In cases where the right was waived over a greater quantity than a few hundred acres, the act not being in strict pursuance of the Proclamation, the claim would by a rigid construction of Lord Grey's despatch, be out of Court. But an interpretation more favourable to the claimant might I think, be adopted, without a violation of the fair spirit of the despatch, viz : —That the mere fact of the waiver being excessive, shall not invalidate the claim, but that if in other respects valid, the claimant may receive a grant not exceeding " a few hundred acres," (say 500 acres.) In no case whatever, can the claimant, according to Lord Grey's despatch, receive an absolute Crown Grant, in the usual form, but simply a deed, releasing in favour of the

claimant, any right which the Crown may have in the land. The course to be pursued in the investigation of a claim preferred under the Despatch would be this :— 1st. It would be examined in order to ascertain whether Governor FitzRoy's act in waiving the right was in "strict pursuance" of the Proclamation. If it should be found that the right had been waived over land reserved by the provisions of the Proclamation, or in any other manner at variance with the terms of the Proclamation, then, the claim would at once fall to the ground. If it should be found to be correct, so far as Governor FitzRoy's acts were concerned, then the inquiry would be:— has the claimant on his part complied strictly with the requisitions of the Proclamation ? If it should be found that the claimant had purchased the land from the natives before obtaining the waiver of the right of pre-emption, or wilfully understated the quantity offered, &c, &c, then the claim must fall to the ground, by reason of the claimant having on his part failed to comply strictly with the requisitions of the Proclamation. But assuming a claim to have passed the first two stages of the enquiry, then would arise the question of title. Was the land purchased from the true native owner, or owners, according to native law and custom? The necessary evidence on the point is to be produced at the expense of the claimant, and failing to be satisfactory, the claim would, after all the expense and delay incurred in the course of the investigation, fall to the ground. But assuming the evidence to prove satisfactory, then the claimant would be entitled to receive a Deed releasing the Crown's right only and in no case for a greater quantity of land than 500 acres; the remainder, if any, falling to the Crown, as part of the Royal demesne. Apart from its small intrinsic value, such a title, differing so widely from the ordinary absolute Crown Grant, would always be looked upon with suspicion in the market. The claimant under it would be liable at any time within a certain number of years, to actions and claims by native claimants, and would frequently for the sake of quiet possession, have to buy off or satisfy, native claims which had not been considered, when the purchase was originally made. W. SWAINSON, Attorney-General, August 7, 1847. 14 October 1847 The decision of the application (3 May) by H&M to occupy land to cut timber was that a license couldn’t be granted but the Government wouldn’t interfere.

On 27 October 1847, Joseph Burns, a local boat builder, murdered the Snow family on the North Shore, and made the crime scene look as if it had been a Maori attack. Witnesses pointed out at the coroner's inquest that on the night of the murders they had sighted a schooner close by resembling the Lucidan, the Maoris on board having had a sharp disagreement with Lieutenant Robert Snow two years before the murder over raupo that Snow had taken from them. This led to an initial belief in Auckland that local Maori were about to attack. However, Burns was later hanged for the crime, once the truth came out. Thomas Canty is awarded a license (for £5) to log timber on a land claim by R. Thomson, 14 July. (New Zealander, 27 October 1847) This was the same land claimed as No. 247 by R. S. Thomson, adjacent and to the east of Henderson’s land. (Roll 62c, LINZ records) Canty rafted logs to his mill at Freeman’s Bay, anchoring them there while processing them. (New Zealander, 18 August 1849) SC 6 November 1847 “For instance, we see from the Return that out of 14 applications from parties to occupy pre-emption land, in seven of these it is stated that " Government will not interfere, but a License cannot be granted ;" being equivalent therefore to a permission to occupy. [This was the case with H&M’a application] In two cases the application is refused because the land claimed was "disputed;" nor can we avoid pointing out, by the way, that an application in one of these cases so refused, was made on the 5th of May, by R. Thompson, to saw timber off the land which he had purchased, and claimed. His application however, was refused because his claim was disputed ; while on the 14th of July, we perceive that a Thomas Canty applied for liberty to cut timber off Thompson's land, and a License was granted to him on payment of £5. So that the Government, while they refuse to permit a man to cut timber off his own land because his claim to it is disputed, yet allow a different person this privilege upon paying £5. In two cases again, out of the fourteen, the application is "refused," In two instances the License applied for, is stated to be "granted." So that it seems quite impossible to detect under such apparently inconsistent conduct, the rule upon which the Government proceed. We have seen that in some instances the Government state that they " will not interfere, but cannot grant a License ; while, in other applications, and under the same circumstances, they do grant Licenses : sometimes without any fee, and in other instances a charge of £5 is made.

In applications relative to the lands in possession of the natives again : sometimes the request is granted, at other times refused ; sometimes a fee is charged, and sometimes none. In short, if we are to form an opinion from the published Return, the whole subject seems confusion and contradiction. “ Before c.1849, Henderson may simply have used his land purchase as a loading site for kauri timber brought out from the Waitakere foothills. No one knows exactly when the mill was built, but it was certainly in existence by then. Before that date, Henderson could only fill large orders for timber along with other timber merchants at the time -- such as the Wanganui Blockhouse in 1847 and fencible housing. (Southern Cross, 31
July 1847)

Blue Book, p. 12. — Desp. No. 114. Despatch of Governor Grey to Earl Grey, dated 11th November, 1847. Even within a radius of 12 miles from Auckland, but very small portions of Land which are not claimed by the 1d. an acre purchasers ; and altho' undoubtedly they will ultimately retain but a small portion of their extensive and illegal claims, still a troublesome inquiry is necessary before it can be decided to what portion of their claims they may be able to establish a valid title. (SC 6 July 1849)

1848

There is yet another case, which we have just heard of, deserving notice. Capt. Porter, chartered a small vessel to the natives four or five years ago. They hired her for purposes of trade, and while navigating the coast, had the misfortune to lose her. Actuated by principles of honesty similar to those displayed by Paora in the case of McConnochie, they signified to Captain Porter, their readiness to compensate him for his loss. Not having immediate funds at command, Kawau, the principal chief concerned, gave his promisory note for £100. Subsequently they requested Capt. Porter to accept of land in payment of the bill, to which he agreed, provided he obtained a government grant to the same. This claim has been disallowed by Governor Grey. As a natural inference, it will probably be concluded that the land reverts to the natives. Such at least would be the verdict of honesty and common sense; but Governor Grey seems to have adopted a different view, for he has not only rejected Capt. Porter's claim, but has actually granted licenses to other parties to cut timber, &c, from the land! By what species of logic can this policy be justified? By what right does Governor Grey grant occupation licenses over this land? He may certainly assume a right to disallow the claim of Captain Porter, because no one can prevent him from doing so; but he cannot on that account seize the land for the Crown.

If the land is not Captain Porter's, it is the natives', and they alone have the right to dispose of it. (Southern Cross, 16 September 1848)

1849

CIRCULAR SAW MILL. ON SALE, At the Stores of the Undersigned, THE MACHINERY for a CIRCULAR SAW MILL. Thos. Weston and Co. (New Zealander, 16 May 1849) 4 June 1849 Date of John Macfarlane’s will. (DI 7A.27, LINZ)
“ … Henderson’s Mill, which afterwards became known as the largest establishment of the kind then in the business. It was worked with moderate success till 1849, when the Californian gold diggings broke out, and the firm began to make [a profit] largely by selling timber to exporters, but becoming infected with the exporting fever, they lost all in the speculation.” (obit. NZ Herald, 28 June 1886)

1850

Henderson’s mill may have been producing large amounts of sawn timber and finished products such as shingles by early 1850, with one shipment I found in January that year being 27,000 feet of timber exported to San Francisco. (SC, 15 January
1850)

11,178 "pieces of sawn timber and 29,000 shingles" went to America two months later.(SC 29 March 1850) Southern Cross, 2 April 1850 – On the Commodore for San Francisco, 3910 pieces of timber from Gardiner & Canty, 2095 from Thomas Henderson.

1851

TIMBER. The Undersigned begs to intimate to his numerous friends and customers, that he has received large Rafts of Logs of all lengths and dimensions from the Kauri forests, and has resumed cutting, as usual, in Freeman's Bay, where he will be happy to execute any orders that he may be favoured with. He need not mention the superior quality and condition of the Timber he can supply from its entire freedom from dirt and sand of all descriptions. Thomas Canty. (New Zealander, 15 February 1851) Judging by advertisements, Canty seems to have been the most active of the Waitakere loggers at this time.

SC 18 February 1851 Aside from parliamentary debates (SC 18 June 1858), this is the last time Lucidan is referred to, on a list of ships registered at Auckland. Wanted, by the undersigned, six pair of sawyers. Henderson & Macfarlane, March 18, 1852. (Southern Cross, 19 March 1852) NZr 9 April 1852 TIMBER! TIMBER! TIMBER!! The Undersigned, in returning thanks to his numerous friends and customer's for their former favours, begs to inform them that he intends to resume cutting all lengths and dimensions of Timber, as usual (after a temporary suspension, in consequence of want of supply of Logs), and will be happy to receive orders at his house, Chapel-street, or at the Pits, Freeman's Bay, which he will be able to execute at the close of the present or the beginning of the ensuing month. Thomas Canty. N.B. Palings and' Shingles, of all lengths, as usual. - - March 21, 1852. NZr 7 April 1852 2 April – Thomas Canty married Euphemia Nicholson, daughter of John Nicholson, boat builder, at “the Wesleyan Chapel”. Thomas Henderson purchases the 222 ton British-built brig Spencer at Sydney, lately arrived from San Francisco. (New Zealander, 7 April 1852) At present several vessels are in our port rapidly filling up with New Zealand produce shipped for sale in the Australian colonies. The William Hyde's cargo includes potatoes, hams, and bacon as well as timber : the Spencer will take sawn timber, framed houses, doors, and window sashes, and also hams, bacon, pork, potatoes, flour, rope and wool-lashing… (New Zealander 8 September 1852) Per Spencer for Melbourne :— 100,000 feet sawn timber, 11,000 shingles, 10 house frames, 42 doors, 32 pair window sashes, 10 ball-boxes glass, (window) …(New Zealander, 11 September 1852)

1852

TO THE EDITOR OF THE 'SOUTHERN CROSS.' Sir, — We, the undersigned resident sawyers of the different localities in this district, beg to call your attention to our miserable and almost destitute state. We are well aware of your long sojourn in this country, and are satisfied that you have the welfare of this young but unfortunate colony much at heart; upon these grounds we have presumed to address you Timber is now at the lowest price. Our employers can give only so much a hundred, and when asked why they don't give more, they will say, I am greatly embarrassed at present; and when we inquire into that embarrassment, we find it to be merely the loss of a bullock or two, or perhaps his saddle is worn out, and it has to be renewed ; and on this account sawyers are to be kept down: but the employer never forgets to raise the provisions. What then, Mr. Editor, are sawyers to do? If we don't soon have a change, what few sawyers are left will follow their different friends and companions to the sister colony, where success and prosperity await them; and we must in faithfulness tell you, that the axe of the bushman will be a sound seldom or never heard. We hope, Mr. Editor, your voice will join ours, and let that voice be, — Raise the price of timber, keep the strong and hardy bushmen in New Zealand — and then the heavy cloud, which is hanging over this unfortunate land, will be removed, and New Zealand will then be on a level with the sister colonies, but in the present state she can only be compared to the awful calamity that lately visited Ireland. Trusting you will not neglect our appeal, we remain, &c. Thomas Larkins, and Others. September 22, 1852. (Southern Cross, 24 September 1852)

1853

Start of negotiations between Crown and Maori for the purchase of the Hikurangi Block. Beginning of September – wreck of the Helena at Waitakere Bay (Bethell’s/Te Henga). The survivors were conveyed “to Mr. Henderson’s Mill, at the head of the Waitemata.” (Southern Cross, 23 September 1853) Timber. — The timber trade is in a very unsettled state, so that it is impossible to quote prices with accuracy. At the timber yards the price asked is from 20s. to 23s. per 100 feet. While parcels have been bought from the sawyers during the post week at from 15s. to 18s. per 100 feet. There is no doubt but that, prices must soon come down, the demand for shipment to the Melbourne and Sydney markets having ceased; and, at present rates, it would not be remunerative to build, while at the

same time, prices are too high for speculation. (Southern Cross, 4 October 1853) Timber.— Kauri. From 14s. to 16s. per 100 feet. Timber continues slowly to lower in price, and from the quantity known to be cut at the various stations there is no doubt it will continue to do so, until it is remunerative to buy for building purposes. (Southern Cross, 6 December 1853)

1854

Electoral Roll of the Northern Division – 1854 Timothy Boyle, labourer, householder, Henderson’s Mill George Grieve Burns, farmer, householder, Henderson’s Mill William Clark, millwright, householder, Henderson’s Mill Waitemata River from Kauri Point Auckland Harbour to its sources, surveyed by Comr. B. Drury and the officers of H.M.S. Pandora 1854 (NZ Map Number 3909). Mill noted on opposite side of Opanuku Creek. Timber— Kauri. From 22s. to 24s. per 100 feet. The timber market is bare, with a great demand for building purposes: some descriptions being scarcely procurable at any price. (Southern Cross, 13 June 1854) ANY persons cutting timber on McGhee and Moon's land, at Big Muddy Creek, will be prosecuted at law. Onehunga, July 18, 1854. (Southern Cross, 21 July 1854) Building Materials, Sawn and Split Palings, Shingles, &c. The Undersigned beg respectfully to inform the Public, that their SAW MILLS are now in working order, and they are prepared to furnish every description of Sawn Timber. Orders for the same, left with John Wood- house, Esq., will have prompt attention. Roe, Street & Co. Coromandel Mills, June 15, 1854. (Southern Cross, 21 July 1854) SC 25 August 1854 Notice. MR. ELLIOT'S Surveyors being now on the Whau and, Waitemata Districts, for a limited time only, he will be happy to execute any Surveys in that neighbourhood, by immediate application to him at Parnell, or after Monday next, the 28th, at Messrs. Henderson and Macfarlane's sawmill. - Parnell, August 24, 1854. “Mr. Thomas Henderson had a small mill built by a man named

Marsden … This mill was subsequently replaced by a very superior mill, built by Mr. John McLeod, in 1854, after he and Mr. J. [sic] Haskell has completed their contract with Messrs. Roe, Street and Co. Messrs. Henderson and Macfarlane made further extensions and improvements to it in 1855, making what was familiarly known as Henderson’s Mill the best mill in the Province. The timber “harvest” was then reaped but days of depression set in, and timber fell to half its former value.” (NZ Herald 1 April 1882, p. 6) 30 November 1854 McLeod & Haskell apply for carpenters, good axemen and labourers at Henderson’s Saw Mills. (SC, 1 December 1854)

1855

James Burnett appears on the 1855 electoral roll as a farmer at Dundee Farm. (Provincial Index) 14 March 1855 Henderson & Macfarlane obtain official Crown title over their Henderson & Te Atatu North property (4D.640, LINZ records) of 5,169 acres (Flude, 1977, p. 20). Caution WHEREAS several persons have been in the habit of driving the cattle of the Under-signed from off their run, any person found doing so without the permission of Mr. Burnett, on the farm, will be prosecuted with the utmost vigor of the law. Henderson & Macfarlane. Auckland, March 19, 1855. (Southern Cross, 23 March 1855). By testimony of Charles Wood, sawyer, resident at Henderson’s Mill, before coroner’s inquest (SC, 13 November 1855) Wood first knew Marsden at Bay of Islands, 16 years before. Had lost sight of him for 11 months, during which time Marsden was in California, but returned on the Tartar in 1853. “I saw him intoxicated a day or two after that. After that he was stupid from drink. When I saw him three or four months after, he was quite right.” Seems he suffered from delirium tremens. Advertisement from McLeod & Haskell, for “a man possessing a knowledge of measuring and handling sawn timber.”( SC, 3 December 1855)

31 December 1855 McLeod & Haskell are unsuccessful tenderers for a bridge over Canty’s Creek (Prov. Gazette) Electoral Roll of the Northern Division – 1856 Charles Allen, carpenter, householder, Henderson’s Mill James Bates, sawyer, householder, Henderson’s Mill Timothy Boyle, labourer, householder, Henderson’s Mill James Burnett, farmer, leaseholder, Dundee Farm George Grieve Burns, farmer, householder, Henderson’s Mill William Chandler, sawyer, householder, Henderson’s Mill William Clark, millwright, householder, Henderson’s Mill Joseph Clarke, sawyer, householder, Henderson’s Mill Henry Clifton, sawyer, householder, Dundee Saw Mills John Cole, shipwright, householder, Henderson’s Mill John Ellis, timber feller, householder, Henderson’s bush William Hamilton, bullock, householder, Henderson’s Mill Cyrus Haskell, lumberer, leaseholder, Dundee Saw Mills George Hill, labourer, householder, Henderson’s bush Thomas Kelly, bullock driver, householder, Henderson’s Mill James Lawson, blacksmith, householder, Dundee Saw Mills Joseph McCallum, shipwright, householder, Henderson’s Mill Matthew McDonald, sawyer, householder, Dundee Saw Mills John McDougall, shipwright, householder, Henderson’s Mill John McLeod, engineer, householder, Dundee Saw Mills George Robsons, sawyer, householder, Henderson’s Mill

1856

Peter Simmons, sawyer, householder, Henderson’s bush John Smith, engineer, householder, Dundee Saw Mills John Thomas, sawyer, householder, Dundee Saw Mills Thomas Valentine, labourer, householder, Henderson’s bush Thomas Wells, carpenter, householder, Henderson’s Mill SC, 15 February 1856 – Execution of Charles Marsden As is generally known, the unfortunate man was a native of America. He was born, we have been informed, in Newbern, North Carolina, and was not 35 years of age at his death. He came to the Bay of Islands 16 years ago, in the whaleship 'New Hampden,' and has since been to the Californian and Victorian gold fields. He was a millwright by trade, and, in different parts of the country, had erected mills for native proprietors. He was an excellent workman, and a man of considerable intelligence. Had it not been for the demon intemperance, there is little doubt that, instead of coming to so dreadful and untimely an end, he would have lived and died a useful and respected member of society. SC 15 July 1856 Legal Estate in Land. Mr. Bell moved for leave to bring in a bill to provide for the vesting of Legal Estate to land in Grantees under Crown Grants. The object of this bill was to obviate the inconvenience which resulted from the length of time which frequently elapsed between a purchase of land, and the issue of the Crown Grant. Leave granted, the bill read a first time, ordered to be printed, and its second reading fixed for Tuesday next. SC 18 July 1856 (Debate in Parliament) Mr. Henderson commented upon the remark of Mr. Curtis that the man was worthless; and said that he had known Marsden for a long period of years, and his life had been the very reverse of worthless. He had been a steady, industrious man until he had gone to the diggings. WANTED, MEN accustomed to Bush work. Apply to the undersigned, at Messrs Henderson and McFarlanes Mill. John McLeod. (SC 19 August 1956)

TIMBER, TIMBER. The undersigned begs to inform the Public of Auckland, that having received from the Bush a good supply of the very best Kauri Logs, he will be happy to receive any orders at the Pits formerly occupied by Canty and Bishop, in Freemans Bay, where he will, with dispatch and punctuality, cut any description of Boards, Scantlings, or Timber required, at the cheapest possible price. He need not remind Builders of the great advantages of Timber thus cut and free from the sand and dirt, the necessary concomitant of that brought in vessels and rafted from the Coast. James McLeod. Freemans Bay, December 20, 1856. (Southern Cross, 23 December 1856) “Bishop” may have been sawyer John Bishop, living in Wellesley Street.

1857

SC, 31 March 1857 John McLeod write a letter to the editor from Dundee Saw Mills (28 March 1857), giving his opinion on Coromandel gold prospecting. “I shall soon have a small Quartz-crushing Machine completed, and in working order. If a few tons of quartz cm be got from Coromandel without difficulty I shall be able to show what the yield is.” Another letter follows (SC 18 May 1858) and another (1 June 1858) THE TIMBER TRADE. In the midst of general dullness, it is gratifying to see a continued activity in this branch of our export trade. By recent opportunities, as would be seen from our shipping list, large shipments of sawn timber have been made by our enterprising townsmen, Messrs. Henderson & Macfarlane. Within the last few days, 46,500 feet have left our shores, by the Viscount Sandon, and 33,000 feet by the Gertrude ; while, yesterday, the same firm completed the loading of the Ellen for Otago. (SC 10 April 1857) WANTED, A number of men who are thoroughly acquainted with working in a Saw Mill. Apply to John McLeod, Henderson's Mill. (Southern Cross, 19 May 1857) SC, 9 June 1857 An inquest was held on Saturday, in the Trafalgar Inn, before H. J. Andrews, Esq., coroner, and a jury, upon the body of one Joseph Burn. From the evidence, it appears that, on the

previous Thursday, the deceased and a man named John Anderson were engaged in getting logs of timber into the creek connected with Hendersons Mill. They were disengaging from a fallen tree a log about 14 feet long, 3 or 4 feet in diameter, 3 or 4 tons in weight, and which lay upon a slope : deceased had one end and Anderson another : and it would seem that it yielded rather suddenly to their efforts — technically speaking, it started. The deceased, warned by his mate that there was danger, suddenly stepped back but his foot caught a supplejack, and, horrible to relate, the log rolled over him. His body was not so much crushed as might be anticipated, but his death, of course, was all but instantaneous. The Jury returned a verdict of "accidental death.'' The parcel of timber per Gipsy, shipped by Messrs. Henderson & Macfarlane, was well liked in Batavia. It was described as light, and generally superior to American. It was likely to be purchased by the Java Government. The timber by the Vixen, shipped by the same firm, found a market in Amoy at fair prices, but, owing to the charges being heavy, the venture would show a small loss. (SC 3 July 1857) WANTED, SPLITTERS & SAWYERS Apply to J. McLeod, at Messrs. Henderson and McFarlane's. (SC 7 August 1857) WANTED. SIX BRICKMOULDERS, to work by contract. Apply to James Burnett, Dee Side Farm, Hendersons Mills. (Southern Cross, 28 August 1857) SC 18 September 1857 WANTED by the undersigned Six pairs of Sawyers to proceed to Titirangi, the best wages will be given, and constant employment. For particulars apply to Canty & Bishop at Titirangi, or for the next fourteen days to Thomas Canty, Victoria-street. Sept. 12, 1857. 5 November 1857 Thomas Henderson lodges another claim for his 1844 purchase, under the 1856 Land Claims Settlement Act. “Purchased from the Natives with the sanction of the Government. No Pre-emption Certificate was issued. The Government would not grant the land, and claimant subsequently purchased about 5000 acres under the Regulations of March 1853 within the Claim. Government subsequently promised the allowance for the survey made, but nothing was done.” (Flude, 1977, p. 14)

The March 1853 regulations, coming into force 16 April that year, were tied in with the start of the Provincial Government system. MECHANICS' INSTITUTE. The first Anniversary of the opening of the New Hall of the Mechanics' Institute was commemorated on Wednesday last, by an exhibition of Flowers, Vegetables, Minerals, Drawings, Native Carvings, and numerous other objects of interest … Messrs. Henderson & McFarlane supplied four Planks, planed, tongued, grooved, and fitted together by Machinery at their Mills. (SC 13 November 1857)

1858

SC, 26 January 1858 Partnership of John McLeod and Cyrus Haskell ended 18 January 1858. Not a lot is known about Cyrus Haskell. He was born in 1816 in New Gloucester, Cumberland, Maine, USA, his family having lived there from the 1600s. He married Ann Smith possibly in America (she was born there, around the same age as Cyrus), but she died in New Zealand around 1850. He remarried, this time to Christina Wynberg (also Wynburg) on either 9 April or 7 July 1851 at Titirangi. She died in Henderson’s bush 19 January 1859, aged around 34. Cyrus’ third wife was Anne Matheson. They married at Drake Street, Freeman’s Bay on 9 August 1859. Anne was born 1829 in the USA, and outlived Cyrus, dying 9 September 1901 at Omaha, north of Auckland. Cyrus died 26 December 1885 at Leigh, Rodney, Auckland. His son from his third wife was Alexander John Haskell (18641939), born at Omaha, and his grandson Cyrus James Haskell born 1899 at Matakana, Leigh. He died 29 May 1878 in Auckland. (Information from Haskell Family website, www.haskellfamilyhistory.com) In February 1858, his name appears on a jury list as a “bush overseer, Henderson’ bush” (SC, 16 February 1858), and in February he was a sawyer, same location. (SC, 7 February 1860) He appears to have been living in Graham Street close to Freeman’s Bay by 1865. (SC, 8 April 1865) The partnership with Haskell may have expired by as early as

August 1856 – only McLeod’s name is on an ad for bush workers then (19 August 1856), for “men who are thoroughly acquainted with working in a saw mill” (SC, 18 May 1857), for “splitters and sawyers” (SC, 7 August 1857). Flude says that McLeod left Henderson in 1859 (not long after the partnership ceased). By 1863, he had established his steam saw mill on the Kaipara. (SC, 31 March 1864) SC 16 February 1858 Jury List John Anderson, Henderson’s Bush, sawyer George Ashton, Henderson’s Bush, sawyer Jeremiah Brown, Dundee Saw Mills, sawyer James Burnett, Dundee Saw Mills, labourer Nathaniel Burnis, Henderson’s Bush, labourer Laurence Burns, Henderson’s Bush, labourer James Burnett, Henderson’s Mill, farmer John Casey, Dundee Saw Mills, sawyer John Cassels, Wai Whau whau, sawyer Henry Clarke, Dundee Saw Mills, labourer Richard Cole, Dundee Saw Mills, labourer Patrick Conolly, Henderson’s Bush, labourer James Dorothy, Henderson’s Bush, labourer Matthew Downie, Henderson’s Bush, labourer John Ellis, Henderson’s Bush, labourer James Fagan, Dundee Saw Mills, sawyer William Finlayson, Henderson’s Bush, labourer John Franklyn, Dundee Saw Mills, sawyer William Frazer, Dundee Saw Mills, sawyer

William Heaslip, Dundee Saw Mills, bricklayer Cyrus Haskell, Henderson’s Bush, bush overseer George Hughes, Dundee Saw Mills, bricklayer James Johnson, Dundee Saw Mills, sawyer Stephen Kane, Henderson’s Bush, labourer Thomas Kelly, Dundee Saw Mills, sawyer District of Upper Waitemata. South. HARDINGTON & WOOD Have the pleasure to announce that at the solicitation of many of the influential Settlers of this fast rising District, they have determined to hold PERIODICAL AUCTION SALES at the Mills of Messrs. Henderson & MacFarlane, — and that their first Sale will take place on MONDAY, 26th April next, at mid-day, when they will offer Horses, Cattle, Merchandize, &c , &c , particulars of which will appear in a future advertisement. Stables, Stockyards, and Paddocks, at the service of visitors, without charge. (SC 23 March 1858) Southern Cross, 30 April 1858 Auctioneers Hardington & Wood arranged to begin “periodical auction sales” at “the mill of Henderson & Macfarlane” to suit demand from settlers in the “District of Upper Waitemata, South”. There may only have been one attempt at such an auction, however. The items on offer are interesting: Several Plough, Draught and Saddle horses Some Milk Cows and heifers A team of Working Bullocks, with yokes, bows and chains 150,000 feet of sawn timber, 1st and 2nd quality 1 weatherboard house 18 feet by 12 1 weatherboard house 20 feet by 14 1 weatherboard shed 120 feet by 16 1 weatherboard shed 140 feet by 16 1 weatherboard shed 160 feet by 16 6 off-bearing barrows 2 crowding barrows 3 Navie barrows Spades, shovels, hoes, rakes etc. Were existing buildings at the mill site being sold off – or was Henderson & Macfarlane diversifying into the construction of simple settler cottages and sheds? Also, a “crowding barrow” is

also called a kiln barrow – used around firing kilns, as in brickworks. An “off-bearing barrow” is also used in brickmaking. Was there a simple (and very early) brickyard at or near the mill? SC 4 June 1858 – letter published from John McLeod of Dundee Sawmill regarding quartz mining and native title in the Coromandel area.

1859

“ … in the immediate vicinity of Henderson’s Mill, Mr. Burnett has a large farm containing some excellent land, which he is treating like a true agriculturalist; that Mr. McLeod, the enterprising manager of the mill, has productive gardens – showing what can be done even with indifferent-looking land by spade cultivation and deep sub-soiling … It is true that both Mr. McLeod and Mr. Burnett are hospitable in the true sense of that word; but a regular “house of call”, where travellers could pay for what they have and where horses and cattle could be taken in for food and rest as a matter of business, would, we believe, soon greatly increase the amount of traffic as well as the public knowledge of the actual capabilities of this district, and from hence to the West Coast. We trust soon to hear of this want being supplied. “The extent of business carried on at Henderson’s Mill is pretty accurately known to older settlers, and may be guessed at by more recent comers from the fact that last year upwards of 2,500,000 feet of timber were sent away from this mill …” (New Zealander, 16 February 1859)

(Melb. Argus, 7 May 1859)

1860

SC 7 February 1860 Jury List

John Anderson, Henderson’s Bush, contractor Jeremiah Brown, Dundee Saw Mills, labourer William Buchanan, Henderson’s Bush, labourer James Burnett, Henderson’s Bush, farmer Alexander Cameron, Dundee Saw Mills, sawyer James Campbell, Henderson’s Bush, labourer Samuel Davenport, Henderson’s Bush, sawyer Edward Doneyan, Dundee Saw Mills, sawyer John Ellis, Henderson’s Bush, contractor William Garrison, Dundee Saw Mills, sawyer Cyrus Haskell, Henderson’s Bush, sawyer Peter Lynch, Dundee Side Mills, labourer Duncan McKay, Henderson’s Bush, bushman John McLeod, Henderson’s Bush, mill owner Owen Murray, Henderson’s Bush, sawyer John O’Brien, Henderson’s Bush, labourer Henry Parsons, Dundee Saw Mills, sawyer William Pollard, Dundee Saw Mills, saw hammerer Peter Simmonds, Dundee Saw Mills, sawyer Archibald Smith, Henderson’s Bush, bushman Nicholas Stevenson, Dundee Side Mills, clerk Edward Swords, Henderson’s Bush, labourer John Trotter, Henderson’s Bush, contractor Edward Tyson, Henderson’s Bush, bushman Jerry Wafer, Dundee Side Mills, sawyer

Thomas Wells, Dundee Side Mills, carpenter Henry Wilcox, Henderson’s bush, labourer Henry Williams, Henderson’s Bush, labourer William Wilson, Henderson’s Bush, labourer SC 9 March 1860 March 1860 – sale of St Andrews township. Apparently unsuccessful. The Township of St. Andrew's. CONN ELL & RIDINGS Have been instructed by the Proprietor, R. S. Thomson, Esq., to sell by Auction, To-Morrow, 10th March, at 12 o'clock, WITHOUT RESERVE, THE Township of ST. ANDREW'S, situated in the entrance of the RIVER WHAU , and running back to the Great North Road. This Township is beautifully situated on a gentle slope on the western bank of the river — is about six miles from Auckland by water, and nine miles by the Great North Road. The proposed canal across the portage will enhance the importance of St. Andrew's materially, as all the trade to and from the Manukau and Waitemata will have to pass close to it. TERMS : All sums under £20, Cash : over £20 and under £50, one-third Cash, the residue by Promissory Notes at 3 and 6 months ; over £50, one-third Cash, the residue by Promissory Notes at 6 and 12 months. The Promissory Notes to bear 8 per cent interest. Luncheon will be provided. Plans are being prepared, and will be ready in a few days. (At this point, it was another 5 months, 8 August, before Thomson obtained crown grant over his claim – and even then, only around half, the part between one of the Oratia Stream’s tributaries and the Whau River. It was in August also when the few who purchased land at his St Andrews subdivision started to obtain their own titles. The township was on the northwestern quadrant of his land, and divided into gridded paper roads – Princes, Napier, Hanover for example. LINZ records.) By 1860, it appears Henderson & Macfarlane had a mill near the bottom of Drake Street at Freeman’s Bay. They sold stock at this mill by auction in May 1860 (SC, 29 May 1860), including “pollard, bran etc., and the whole collected Mill stuff and feeding material.” 1861, J. G. Soppet leased the “Wyndhamstreet Corn Mill”. (SC, 22 January 1861), converted to a bone mill by 1865. His advertising always included reference to Henderson & Macfarlane’s stores.

Might be coincidence – Thomas Canty’s sawmill was at Freeman’s Bay as well, in the early 1850s until c.1856. SC 7 September 1860 “We have never chronicled a death more regretfully than that which appears in our obituary of this day. Mr. John Macfarlane, of the firm of Henderson and Macfarlane, was one of our early settlers, having arrived in the year 1842, since when he and his partner have been the greatest employers of labour in the Province. They have done more towards production of exports than any firm in the town; while the existence of our Auckland shipping fleet, which exceeds in tonnage that of all the rest of the colony put together, is mainly attributable to their exertions. Mr. Macfarlane was an especial favourite in the place — liberal in all private matters, universally respected, and personally liked in all Social relations. The funeral will take place this day, with masonic honours.” He died 5 September at Princes Street, aged 44. (In Macfarlane’s will in the LINZ deed index, a number of properties are detailed as belonging to him at the time of his death, including the West Auckland properties Thomas Henderson had crown grant for in 1855. Among these is a property on West Queen Street, adjacent to Canty, which – according to Vercoe & Harding, 1866 – was a dwelling house.) 1 October 1860 John Stewart begins to lease a farm from Thomas Henderson, the agreement for a term of seven years. (Deed 14D/882, LINZ) Burnett is probably no longer at Henderson’s Mill. The farm is at the delta between the Opanuku and Oratia Creeks.

1861

By February 1861, Francis Phair was at Henderson’s Mill. He was interviewed 18 February as he tried to pursue a land claim in lieu of the cost of his passage from England in 1855. (Interim Report No 3, Immigration Claims Committee, Auckland Provincial Council session 13) SC, 29 March 1861, p. 3 In a report on potential water supply for Auckland, Canty’s Creek is described as falling into Henderson’s Creek “a short distance below the saw-mills.”

New Zealander – J C Loch letter 27 April 1861 …soon from an adjacent height Henderson’s mills and busy station burst upon our view. The lovely valley and glistening stream, the rolling wheel and snorting engine, the parent mill, with the little town of heaths and homes that it has given birth to and nursed into comfortable condition, the pleasing hum of active industry – all strongly recalled to mind the manufacturing homes and valleys of our native Yorkshire. Here we witnessed the monarch of the forest, after being treated to a ride on a rail, and a float on the river, dragged with a bulldog grape up to the inevitable saw, and there halved and quartered, like traitors on Tower-hill, at the rapid pace of about five thousand yards per hour. A man in Tyson’s employment, Samuel Gray, fell and drowned in Henderson’s Creek, June 1861. (SC, 21 June 1861) SC, 21 June 1861 Thomas MacFarlane taken on as partner in the renewed firm of Henderson & Macfarlane, 1 June 1861. SC 21 June 1861 Advertisement. Dundee Saw Mills, June 13th, 1861 -: To the Editor of the Southern Cross. Sir, Allow us through the columns of your paper - to call the attention of parties using steam-power to the fact that we have got our boiler repaired in the most satisfactory manner, by Mr. William Thomas , boiler-maker, who has fitted it with the safety plug, by which means an accident which happened to us, cannot again occur; and we strongly recommend all parties using steam power, to have their boilers fitted with the safety plug, in order to avoid danger to life and property. All information concerning the same can be obtained from Mr. William Thomas, at Mr. Chapman’s Library, Queen-street. We are Sir, yours truly, Henderson & Phair. 16 November 1861 – George Henderson arrived in Auckland from San Francisco on H&M owned ship Constance (351 tons). Accompanying were Mrs. H. Macfarlane and 4 children,

Mitchell & Parr. (SC 19 November 1861) THE SOUTHERN CROSS. Tuesday, December 17, 1861. Desirable Settlers A private letter has been received in town from Mr. John McLeod, late of Auckland, intimating his approaching departure from Picton, with emigrants for Auckland. We have been put in possession of the Eastern Chronicle (Picton, Nova Scotia), August 22, 1861, which advertises " the first class clipper schooner ' Sea Gull,' 257 tons burthen," to "sail from Picton with passengers for Auckland, New Zealand, on the 25th September next." This advertisement is signed by Mr. John McLeod. We shall heartily welcome the addition to our numbers which Mr. McLeod will be the means of making. No more useful settler was in this community than. Mr. McLeod ; and the Nova Scotians have hitherto shown themselves the best pioneers of civilization in the New Zealand bush. The men best suited for the colony would no doubt be most influenced by our old fellow settler, whose safe arrival in the Waitemata will gratify his many friends.

1862

John McKay gazetted as postmaster at Henderson’s Mill. (NZG) He was in partnership with David Henderson at one point, employing staff to cut flax. Later, he became a manager for Henderson & Macfarlane. (SC, 16 July 1869) On 4 January 1862, the first known horse races in Henderson were staged and called the Dundee Saw Mill Races, after the name given to Henderson's saw mill. This was held, according to Ben, in a paddock at the back of what is now the Methodist Church, close to the corner of Swanson and Lincoln Roads. Henderson's horse racing history got off to a lively start. The Pony Race was run in heats, and was for "ponies that never ran for public money. The first heat was disputed, but was finally given to Tubby, who came in 3rd. Second heat Tubby threw his rider twice, and was distanced, as were also Gipsy and Boomerang, both of whom bolted off the course." (SC, 14 January 1862) SC 7 March 1862 Ad refers to [Shepherd] John McLeod, Henderson’s Mills.

SC 6 May 1862 Publication of objections to list of voters for Northern Division roll, 3 May 1862: Burnett, James, Dundee Farm, leasehold – lease expired, and he has left the colony. Franklin, Joseph, Henderson’s Mill, household – Does not possess a household qualification. Forsaith, William, Henderson’s Mill, household – Has no household qualification. Haskell, Cyrus, Henderson’s bush, household – Has no household qualification. Holland, James, Henderson’s Mill, household – Does not reside in the district Horn, Thomas, Henderson’s Mill, household – Does not reside in the district Hussey, Anthony, Henderson’s Mill, household – Does not reside in the district Lynch, Peter, Henderson’s Mill, freehold – Has no freehold in the property for which he claims McLeod, John, Henderson’s Mill, household – Does not reside in the district McLeod, John, Henderson’s Mill, leasehold – Has no leasehold in the property for which he claims Parsons, Henry, Henderson’s Mill, household – Has no household qualification Phlardy, Louis, Henderson’s bush, household – Has no household qualification Robertson, William, Henderson’s Mill, household – Does not reside in the district Ross, Adam John, Henderson’s Mill, household – Does not reside in the district Simmonds, Peter, Henderson’s Mill, household – Does not reside in the district

Trotter, John, Henderson’s Mill, household – Does not reside in the district SC 10 May 1862 FOR SALE, The Freehold of 104 acres of good Land situated within 2 miles of Hendersons Mill, Great North Road, and adjoining Messrs. Furley's and McCloud's [sic] cultivated Farms; having a fresh water creek, and 20 acres of bush. Terms — Easy. (Lot 14 – Clement Partridge’s section – out Swanson way). SC 3 June 1862 IMPORTANT SALE OF THE LANDED PROPERTIES OF R. S. THOMSON, ESQ. COCHRANE,BROTHER, & CO. Have been instructed by R. S. Thomson, Esq., to Sell at Auction, ON WEDNESDAY, 18th JUNE, At their Stores, THE UNDERNEATH VALUABLE City, Suburban, and Rural Properties, the greater part of which are early Grants direct from the Crown. Suburban Estate, 1,144 acres, Whau, Auckland. This very valuable Estate is six miles west from the City by water, and about seven by land. The increase of settlers in this district, and the great advance of the City in its direction, may well warrant a high estimate of value for this property. It is situated on the West side of the creek, commencing at its entrance, and possesses all the creek frontage opposite to the residences and properties of D. Pollen, Esq., and Dr. Aicken. The Great North Road runs through it, and the Estate of Thomas Henderson, Esq, is close at hand. Having an immense extent of frontage to the creek and the Auckland North Road, this property will subdivide advantageously into fifty acre Lots; but if the increase of the Colony, and rapid spread of the City Westwards, should induce a buyer for the whole, a deposit will be taken, part cash, and part promissory notes, at 8 percent., and the balance of Six Thousand Pounds can remain on the property at the same low rate of interest. Plans, Grants, &c, can be seen at the Stores, Fore-street, and SALE WILL TAKE PLACE WEDNESDAY, 18th JUNE, 12 O'CLOCK. ' COCHRANE, BROTHER, & CO. [Description ties in with Robert Simpson Thomson’s earlier St Andrews Township sale, and the Resolis Sale later.]

23 February 1864 Sale of “Resolis” (Deed Whau 9, LINZ records) Much of this was later Waari Hamlet in the early 20th century. July 1862 John Stewart competes in ploughing championship, as a farmer from Henderson’s Mill. (SC 6 August 1862) 8 October 1862 “Shepherd” John McLeod marries Agnes Lindsay at McLeod’s house at Henderson’s Mill, the marriage witnessed by George Henderson (clerk of Auckland) and Thomas Macfarlane (merchant of Auckland). Officiating minister was David Bruce, Presbyterian (Marriage certificate, via Ben Copedo) SC, 17 November 1862 (Long John McLeod) CATTLE RUN, WAITAKERIE. To LET, THE WELL KNOWN CATTLE RUN in the above district, the property of John McLeod, Esq., containing nearly TWO THOUSAND ACRES, having upwards of three miles frontage to a fresh water river, and about one hundred acres laid down in English grasses. The distance is only fifteen miles from Auckland, and a good road all the way. — Further particulars may be had on application to H. P. STARK, Land Agent, Queen-street (Lot 9, 1751 acres – river frontage against Waitakere River) (Possibly taken over by Brown & Campbell later – Ben Copedo) David Henderson, Thomas Henderson’s brother, referred to as “engineer” at Dundee Saw Mill, John McKay a clerk at the Dundee Saw Mill. Possibly the Henderson of Henderson & Phair, earlier? (Marriage Certificate for Robert Webb and Mary Ann Glenn, 25 December 1862, via Ben Copedo)

1863

Henderson races. Heartened by their success, the organisers had another meeting the following year. This too went well, even though the Hack Race provided some drama: "The first heat was won by Mr. Coyle's Miss Grizzle, and the second would to all appearance have secured the prize to her owner, but that shortly after the start the rider was thrown, and the mare bolted across the country. She was, however, caught after a gallop of

four miles, and brought up to the starting post in time to contest the third heat, which she won easily." (SC, 5 January 1863) SC 19 February 1863 FATAL ACCIDENT AT HENDERSONS BUSH.— INQUEST. Yesterday, at noon, an inquest was held, at the Royal Hotel, before T. M. Philson, Esq., coroner and a respectable jury, Mr. Charles Williamson, foreman, on view of the body of John Smith, aged 33 years, bushman, who was killed by the falling of a tree, at Hendersons bush, on Monday last. Deceased had formerly been a seaman on board the ' Queen of the North.' The jury having inspected the body proceeded to hear the following evidence : — Richard Wilmott was the first witness called. He said : I am a bushman, working at Henderson's Mill Bush, about five miles from the Dundee saw mills. I was employed by Mr. Henderson to fell timber. I was felling timber on Monday last. The deceased, John Smith, worked about twenty yards from me. He was a bushman, but had formerly been a seaman. He had been employed felling timber about four months. I believe he would be 33 or 34 years of age. There were two others working with Smith and myself at the time of the accident. About half-past 1 o'clock on the day stated, the deceased and myself were felling a rimu tree, about 3 feet 6 inches through, and about 60 feet high, with large branches. I was cutting the tree through with an axe, and had almost cut it through, when I cried out for the other men to get away. The deceased immediately ran to the opposite side to whore I stood, but had not gone far enough when one of the branches of the tree struck him on the left shoulder, and he was crushed to the ground. He was struck by a branch limb. Myself and the two other men immediately ran to deceased, and assisted him up. He was lying on his left side across another piece of rimu, about two feet thick. Possibly the rimu he was knocked over broke his ribs. I saw his left arm was broken; and noticed scratches about the wrist. He was not sensible when we picked him up, but recovered in about a quarter of an hour. He said he was killed. "We made a stretcher, and removed him to Mr. Henderson’s, where we gave him some wine. He complained all the way down to the mill — a distance of five miles. He drank a great deal of water whilst we were conveying him to Mr. Henderson's. He did not vomit, nor spit blood. After a short stay at Mr. Henderson's, we procured a boat, with the intention of bringing him to the hospital. When about five miles from the mill, on our way to the city, the deceased expired. This would be about seven o'clock, he told to me he was going to die. I had my arm under his head, and he told me not to

withdraw it, as he was going to die. I don't know anything of his friends. He came out as a seaman on board the ' Queen of the North.' He was a sober man whilst at work in the bush. No drink is to be obtained where we were working. We reached Auckland with the body about eleven o'clock the same evening, and placed it in charge of the police. I have been in the dead-house this morning, and can identify the body lying there as that of John Smith. I took every possible care in felling the tree to prevent an accident. There is a person superintending the men felling the trees. I believe the deceased met his death quite accidentally. By the Jury : The deceased was not working with me in felling the tree. I was working by day work. The deceased and myself were on perfectly good terms ; we were mates. William Eynon, bushman, said : I am employed at Hendersons Bush, and was working there last Monday. I was employed "jacking” timber along with three others. Deceased was at work on the road near the spot we were working — perhaps about forty yards off. I. did not see the last witness cutting the tree. About half-past one o'clock I heard some one call out for the men to keep clear of the falling tree. I looked up to see which way the tree was falling. It fell in an opposite direction to where I stood. I saw deceased running across the road as the tree was falling, but he did not run far enough, and was struck. We all ran up — perhaps ten or twelve of us, and assisted him up. He was lying half on his side across another piece or timber. I noticed that he had a bruise on the left shoulder and on his wrist. He was not bleeding except a little on the wrist, where the skin was off. He was groaning. I got some water and bathed his forehead. A stretcher was afterwards made and I helped to bring him down to the mill, and afterwards assisted to row him in the boat to Auckland. I knew his arm was broken. I heard him say that he knew he should die. He complained of his inside being crushed to pieces. No medical man saw the deceased after he was injured. We were bringing him to the hospital. He died about five minutes past 1 o'clock. I think sufficient care was taken in felling the tree. From the way the deceased ran the accident could not have been avoided. The roots of the tree twisted it quite round as it was falling. I have not known another accident of the nature in question happen in the bush whilst I, have been working there. We are superintended, and advised to be cautious. Richard Johnson, deposed : I am a bushman, working at Henderson’s Bush. I was employed there on Monday last, making a road, about five miles from the mill. The deceased

and three others were working with me. I saw Wilmott felling a rimu tree with an axe, about two yards from where, we were at work. I heard Wilmott cry out to "clear," and heard the tree cracking. Myself and another man ran down the gully ; but the deceased ran another way, and was struck by the tree. He ran into danger. I saw the tree fall upon deceased. I have never known a man killed that way before. I don't think Wilmott is to blame in the matter. By the Jury : The tree was 60, feet high, and we were working 20 yards away. The deceased ran towards the tree — towards the butt — and was caught by a branch. P. C. Negus said : The body of deceased was handed over to my charge on Monday night, about half-past 11 o'clock, by Richard Wilmott and a party of men. They brought it in a boat from Hendersons Mill. I placed the body in the dead-house, I did not know the deceased. There were marks of injury on the left shoulder and wrist. I did not observe any fractures. The men were sober who handed the body to me. They stated that the man had died on the passage down. I have known two or three accidents of a like nature happen before. No property was found upon his person. The jury after a short consultation returned the following verdict : — " That the said John Smith accidentally met his death, on Monday, 16th February, 1863, by the falling of a tree, at Henderson’s Bush." SC 26 March 1863 NOTICE. THE CO-PARTNERSHIP hitherto subsisting between us, under the style or firm of CANTY AND McLEOD, Timber Merchants, has been DISSOLVED BY MUTUAL CONSENT THIS DAY. Debtors to the late firm are requested to pay their amounts, so due, to Mr. James McLeod forthwith ; to whom also Creditors are requested to send in their claims.THOMAS CANTY. JAMES McLEOD. Witness— J. Waymouth, Accountant, Fraser's Buildings. Auckland, March 25th, 1863 A DARK BROWN BULLOCK, horned, both ears slit, branded like W on near rump, has been running about my place nearly nine months. If not claimed within fourteen days from this date, it will be sold to defray expenses. JOHN STEWART, Deeside Farm, Hendersons Mill. November 20, 1863. (SC 23 November 1863)

Col. Kenny, Capt. Hardington and four men of Auckland Cavalry Voluntary Corps stationed at Henderson’s Mill during scare caused by murder of Mrs Thompson at Kaipara. (SC 24 December 1863)

1864

SC 30 April 1864 On April 14, at the William Denny Hotel, after a short illness, Francis Phair, formerly of Cork, Ireland, aged 49 years. (Francis Phair was one of the two witnesses to the dissolution of McLeod & Haskell’s partnership early in 1858 -- SC 22 January 1858) (He was clerk at the Huia Saw Mills in September 1856 – SC, 12 September 1856) SC 6 May 1864 Electoral roll, Northern Division Phair, Francis, Henderson’s Bush, household dwelling, dead, objected to by Henry Vernon, Hobson-street. SC 20 July 1864 TOUR THROUGH THE KAIPARA COUNTRY. (FROM OUR SPECIAL CORRESPONDENT ) The first sight of Messrs Henderson and Macfarlane's sawing station is an agreeable surprise after a monotonous ride amongst starved fern and tea-tree. … The busy scene at the mill drives sleep out of one's head…
(SC, 2 August 1864)

The mill was up for sale in August 1864, along with 10,000 acres of land, including the saw mill (suitable either water or steam power), suitable residence for manager, house accommodation for 100 workmen, store, farm buildings, granary, stables, cowsheds, stockyards, and numerous outbuildings. Hard to see how they could have thought to sell 10,000, when there was only title for just over half that amount.

“Shepherd” John McLeod of Henderson’s Mill purchased pt Allot 258 Parish of Waikomiti. for £500 (1864, August 10, Record Book 17D 317; LINZ – via Audrey Lange) He mortgaged this property at New Lynn, borrowing from James Laurie, £400 Waitakerei East Highway District established (SC, 19 October 1864) “Matchless”, cart-horse sire, standing at John McLeod’s Henderson’s Mill, October 1864 (SC, 26 October 1864)

1865

January – Thomas Macffarlane convenor of Presbyteryappointed committee “to wait on all the leading proprietors in that [Whau] and the adjacent districts, to ascertain what aid they might be prepared to give towards the regular maintenance of divine service amongst the people there residing.” (SC 13 January 1865) Alexander Brothers, timber merchants – SC 27 February 1865, p. 6 Samuel Elliott dies 15 April 1865, in his 81st year. (SC, 29 April 1865)

1866

SC 28 February 1866 Son of John McKay born Feb 6 at Henderson’s Mill SC, 28 April 1866 NO PHEASANT SHOOTING this season will be ALLOWED on my property. THOMAS HENDERSON. P.S. Messrs. Alexander Brothers and John McLeod are authorised to see the above enforced. All Dogs found Trespassing will be Shot. Thomas Bishop gazetted as postmaster 1 May 1866 at Henderson’s Mill (NZG). SC, 8 May 1866 DUNDEE SAW MILLS STORE. DRAPERY, GOODS, PROVISIONS, ETC., supplied to settlers and others at Town Prices ALEXANDER BROTHERS.

5 June 1866 Thomas Henderson sells 250 acres at the confluence of the Taikata and the Huruhuru Creeks to John Shortt for ₤500. (Deed 21D/55, LINZ records) SC, 16 June 1866 “Wanted, a competent Ploughman, to make himself otherwise generally useful – John McLeod, Henderson’s Mill.” SC 16 June 1866 FIVE POUNDS REWARD. WHEREAS- some evil-disposed Person or Persons did SHOOT and LAME one of my CATTLE, the above Reward will be paid on Conviction. JOHN STEWART, Hendersons Mill. 30 June 1866 – On Thomas Henderson’s retirement from business, George Henderson and Gustav Von Der Heyde accepted as partners to the firm. (SC, 2 July 1866) SC, 4 August 1866 PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. The following is the report of moneys raised for the year 1865, in the districts of Whau, Kaipara, Manukau, and the intermediate stations, for the support of the Gospel under the ministrations of the Rev. A. Anderson : —Whau, £36 15s. Id. ; Kaipara, £34 3s. Bd. ; Dundee Mills, £20 10s. ; Cornwallis, £1410 . ; Riverhead, £10 7s. 7d. , Titirangi, £7 6s. 4d. Huia, £5 ; Ararimu, £3 14s. 10d.— Total, £132175. 6d. Collected for Home Mission :—Kaipara, £115s. ; Dundee Mills, £1 6d. ; Whau, £1 7s. ; other subscriptions, 12s.—Total, £5. Grant from Home Mission Committee, Auckland, £64.—General total, £201 17s. 6d. ; by stipend for 1865, £200; balance carried to 1866, £1 17s. 6d. The subscription from Huia is only for one quarter, the former time having been occupied at Mill Bay, for which no money was collected. In addition to the above sum £2 was collected at Dundee Mills for a manse. During the year 1865 public worship has been celebrated once every eighth Sabbath at Ararimu and Riverhead, three times in eight Sabbaths at Kaipara, once every fourth Sabbath at Cornwallis and Mill Bay or Huia, once every second Sabbath at Dundee Mills and Titirangi, and. three out of every four Sabbaths at Whau, besides weekday meetings as opportunity offered. As the Home Mission Committee decline further aid to the districts, considering they should be self-sustaining, it is earnestly hoped that the friends will exert themselves to supply the deficiency,

and make up the minimum stipend of £200 and a manse. (Signed) Thos. Aickin, M.D., Whau. Alexander Unthank, Kaipara. Alexander Brothers, Dundee Mills. James Clarke, Cornwallis. John Lamb, Riverhead. David Cable, Titirangi. Henry O. Gillespie, Huia. SC 12 September 1866 Buckland advertises for “quantity of post and rail fencing, for cattle yards, at Henderson’s Mill.” SC 29 September 1866 Buckland advertises that, “having made arrangements with Mr. John McLeod”, he intends to hold monthly cattle sales at Henderson’s Mill on 2nd Wednesday of each month, first auction to be held 12 October 1866. SC, 11 October 1866 Lincoln ram hoggets purchased by John McLeod of Henderson’s Mill at Buckland’s sheep fair. SC 27 October 1866 Draught horse Major standing at J. McLeod’s stables, Henderson’s Mill. SC 10 November 1866 Hunter & Co sale at Henderson’s Mill 30 head quiet hand-fed heifers & steers SC 1 December 1866 Presbyterian Rev. J. Wallis providing Sunday service for Henderson’s Mill at 11 am, and the Whau at 3.30 pm. SC, 11 December 1869 Haymarket wool sale John McLeod’s wool branded ML Henderson & McLeod’s wool branded HM over S

SC 17 December 1866 JOTTINGS OF A JOURNEY TO KAIPARA AND ALBERTLAND. Leaving the Whau, we ascend the rising ground, and come in view of the Dundee Saw Mills, better known as Hendersons Mill, now leased by Alexander Brothers, of Messrs. Henderson and Macfarlane, and forming a compact settlement. There we halt, joined by another excursionist, to attend to the necessities of man and beast, receiving a hearty welcome from Mrs. McLeod, such as country people only know how to give. Another meeting of the Dundee Saw Mill Races was held in December 1866 -- then, it vanishes from the record “ … I knew Henderson’s Mill in 1867. I cannot give any information as to when the mill was started, but when I knew it they were drawing their supply of logs from Smyth’s Bush, up what was known as Prior’s Creek. I remember seeing the last lot of logs come down into the dam that was built where the creek joined the tide. Just after that the mill was turned into a flaxmill. I cut and delivered the flax to the mill by boat. It was not run very long, for there was a slump in the flax market. I was at the sale held in McCloud’s [sic] yards, near the mill, when Henderson’s bullock team was sold. Old Dick was nearly in tears when he was told to bring out the team to show them to the buyers, for he knew it was the last time he was to lay his whip over the team. Mr. McKay was manager at the time I speak of. We bought the timber for the first house we built in New Zealand from Henderson’s mill and rafted it back to close by the dam where we built our house.” (A. H. Maunder letter, NZ Herald, 8 October 1930) SC 6 March 1867 William Bodenay new postmaster from 1 January 1867 at Henderson’s Mill. SC 9 February 1867 James Sweeney (a notorious character) and James Sullivan were given in custody to constable Timmins yesterday by Messrs. Alexander Brothers, timber merchants, on a charge of stealing a quantity of pork from their offices in Customhousestreet. He will be brought up before the Resident Magistrate today. SC 28 March 1867 SATURDAY, MARCH 30. 35,000 FEET PRIME TIMBER. The

1867

subscriber has received instructions from Messrs, Alexander Brothers to sell on Custom-house- street, on Saturday, 30th inst. (the hour will be mentioned in Saturday's paper), 35,000 FEET FIRST-CLASS TIMBER, consisting of TONGUED and GROOVED BOARDS and SCANTLING, nearly all Heart of Kauri. SAMUEL COOHRANE, AUCTIONEER. One poss. Neil (Ryrie?) Alexander (timber yard, Custom-house wharf, SC 11 February 1867). Another: George Ryrie Alexander, timber merchant. (SC 25 September 1865) SC 4 November 1867 John MacKay postmaster from 1 July 1867. He was gazetted as such 28 October 1967. SC 2 August 1867 John MacKay’s wife gives birth to a daughter at Waipu. He’s at Henderson’s Mill. SC 5 October 1867 BURGLARY AT HENDERSONS MILL. On Wednesday night last, the store of Messrs. Henderson and Macfarlane, adjoining the mill, was broken into by means of a crowbar, which had been taken from one of the outbuildings. It was found that a large quantity of articles had been abstracted— such as coals, boots, trousers, and, indeed, all kinds of clothing, to the amount of £50. Information of the robbery was given at the Police-office on Thursday morning, and detective O’Hara immediately went out to the mill to investigate into the matter. Upon inquiry it was found that three men had been seen going towards town, and upon them suspicion was fixed. No trace of them was found till yesterday afternoon, when O’Hara paid a visit to 'Enterprise No. 2,' and there found three men dressed from top to toe in articles stolen from the store. They had taken out their passages for the Thames, and had each an immense swag composed also of stolen goods. Two of them, who, it is stated, wore liberated from the Stockade only on Tuesday last, are named John Kearns and John Warrington, the third gives his name as William Barlow, but is suspected to have an alias. They will be brought up before his Worship this morning. SC 7 October 1867 The three men charged with breaking into Henderson and Macfarlane's store, at Hendersons Mill, were brought up and

remanded till Tuesday. In this case it will be necessary to bring some witnesses from the Stockade, as the prisoners had given to them some part of the stolen property. SC 9 October 1867 HOUSE-BREAKING. John Kearns, John Warrington, and Edward Standring were again placed at the bar on the charge of breaking into Messrs. Henderson and Macfarlane's store. John McKay deposed : l am the manager of Messrs. Henderson and Macfarlane's mills, and of their store adjoining. On the 2nd of October, at six at night, I locked and secured the store, which contained a quantity of drapery and provisions. Between six and seven o'clock on the following morning, when I went to the store, I found the doors broken open, and the crowbar produced on my office table. It should have been in the mill, where it was left on the previous night. (Witness here went over the articles stolen, amounting in value to £44 17s 6 d. A great number of articles were produced by detective O’Hara; and boots, shawls, flannels, socks, serge vests, braces, and other articles were identified by the witness.) Cross-examined by Kearns : I can identify the flannel shirts in this bundle. One of them is slightly moth-eaten. James Cooper, gate-keeper at Mount Eden Stockade, deposed: All three prisoners have been imprisoned in the Stockade under sentence. They worked in separate gangs. On Thursday afternoon last, Kearns came to the Stockade, bringing a parcel, which was wrapped in the paper produced. The parcel was to be forwarded to one of the prisoners named Boyle. I afterwards gave it to detective O'Hara. Kearns had been discharged under a pardon during the early part of the week that he brought the clothes. Cross-examined by Kearns : Mr. Naughton was in the gaol when the parcel was given to me by you. Detective O’Hara deposed : On Friday last I went on board the steamer “Enterprise No. 2,” lying alongside the Queen-street Wharf. I saw the prisoners on board between decks. Kearns had a swag in his hand, which I now produce. He refused to give it to me, and I had to take it by force. (Swag produced, containing a number of the articles which had been identified by McKay.) On Kearns's person were a Crimean shirt, belt, wide-awake hat, box of matches, stick of tobacco, pair of moleskin trousers, boots, also 13s. 6d. in money. (Witness also identified the swag carried by Warrington, and the articles he had on.) Standring told me he had nothing. I brought the prisoners up to the office. I went down again to the steamer,

and found a swag in one of the bunks, I showed it to Standring , but he denied having it. On Standring's person were a pair of moleskin trousers, blucher boots, a serge shirt, Crimean shirt, wide-awake hat. One of the bundles I got from James Cooper, warder at the Stockade. John McKay was recalled, and deposed that he had no doubt that the belt worn by the prisoner Standring was one of those taken from the store. He could not swear positively to the other articles. The prisoners were then cautioned. Kearns said: When I was coming out of Mount Eden Gaol, a man named Boyle in the gaol requested me to buy those things for him. I bought them and gave them to Mr. Cooper. Mr. Naughton was there at the time, and saw me. (Witness then was going into the whole matter, with the view of showing to his Worship, as he said, "that the evidence was not sufficient to send him to trial.") Standring, who belongs to the 12th Regiment, said : I was in bed at the Albert Barracks when the robbery was committed. I did not leave the Barracks till seven o'clock the next evening. I can prove that I have been wearing the belt that has been sworn to all the time I have been in barracks. Warrington declined to say anything. A soldier named Lynass, belonging to the 18th Regiment, was called by Standring. He deposed : I have known Standring for about a month. I was in the habit of sleeping in the same room as the prisoner. I went to bed at half-past eight on the night of the 2nd. I did not see Standring that night nor next day. Detective Ternahan was called by Standring, and deposed : I went up to the barracks,and found that Standring had been cooking on the 3rd October. I did not inquire as to where he was on the night of the 2nd. Prisoners were then committed to trial for larceny, Kearns remarking as he was leaving the box that it was very easy to convict people when they had got men in the police that would swear anything that was wanted. This concluded the business. SC 26 November 1867 Mr. Boyce, a settler living near Hendersons Mill, showed us samples of prepared flax yesterday, which are of fair average quality. He has not yet satisfied himself regarding the best method of cleaning the flax; but no doubt Mr. Griffin's plan will be communicated to him, when he will have little difficulty in

preparing a marketable article. SC 3 December 1867 John Kearns, Edwin Standring, and John Warrington were tried on a charge of breaking into the warehouse of Messrs. Henderson and Macfarlane, and stealing a large quantity of clothing, &c. The jury found them guilty of larceny, and. they were each sentenced to two years' imprisonment with hard labour.

1868

7 February 1868 – George Henderson inserts notice about a cow (branded HM, conjoined) which had strayed into his paddocks at Henderson’s Mill. (SC, 7 Feb 1868) 3 March 1868 – George Henderson sails for San Francisco on the Circular Saw Line barque Alice Cameron. (SC, 4/3/1868) SC 20 March 1868 We believe we are correct in stating that active operations have been carried on for some time part in the erection of extensive flax-dressing, machinery on the most improved principle at Hendersons Mill, in the vicinity of which a very large extent of flax is procurable. The erection of the machinery is so far advanced that work is expected to be commenced in a few days. The small parties of flax-dressers who made Riverhead and neighbourhood the scene of their operations do not seem to have made much headway in forwarding large supplies to Auckland, and it appears their numbers are being gradually diminished — owing to the attraction of the Thames goldfields, and the near approach of winter. 22 March 1868 -- Mrs. George Henderson gives birth to a daughter at Karangahape Road. (SC, 2/4/1868) SC 4 April 1868 Tartar, cutter, 10 tons, Woods, from Hendersons Mill, with sawn timber. Hawke’s Bay Weekly Times, 22 June 1868 We receive from various quarters advices of the progress being made in flax cleaning. We were informed by a gentleman from Waiuku, only two days ago, that in his neighbourhood this industry is prosperous, and that average hands can make 25s. a week, and good ones from 30s. to £2. We understand that Mr Price has more orders for his flax machines than he can

execute for some time, and lately we heard the same from the head of an engineering firm in Auckland. The last phase which this industry has assumed gives additional promise of success and usefulness. Mr T. Macfarlane, of the firm of Henderson and Macfarlane, has resolved to make the experiment of giving employment to a number of women and children, providing them of course with the necessary implements and house accommodation, rent free. The circumstances are in the highest degree favourable to test the efficacy of this new industry in absorbing either, the surplus or the infirm labour in the market. Six families have been recommended by the Relieving Officer to Mr Macfarlane, and these will proceed at once to Henderson's Mill. Should these be enabled to employ themselves profitably, there should be an end to any system of poor relief, except for sick, or totally destitute, or aged persons. Mr Macfarlane, we think, deserves the thanks of, the public for the suggestion he has made. The most efficacious charity is that which enables the poor man to work out his own deliverance from poverty. — New Zealand Herald, 12th June.

1869

20 February 1869 – George Henderson returns to Auckland on the H&M ship Dominga from San Francisco. (SC, 22/2/1869) 20 March and 18 September 1869 – Thomas Henderson enters into a mortgage with the Bank of Australasia for his land at Henderson’s Mill. (LINZ records) SC 5 May 1869 A few facts in connection with flax preparation in this province may be of interest to our readers, and we have been at some pains to obtain the following, which, may be relied upon:— Messrs. Henderson and Macfarlane already have five machines in operation, and which are worked by water-power. 3 July 1869 Commissioner of Lands awards H&M 5,000 acres in compensation. (OLC 284, LINZ records) 6 July 1869 Charles Heaphy draws up “A Plan showing compilation of surveys in the land originally purchased from the natives, by Messrs Henderson & McFarlane, at Taikata Creek, Waitemata”, compiled “from the best data available in Wellington.” (OLC 284, LINZ records

SC 23 July 1869 FLAX AND FLAX MACHINES. The following extracts from a letter on the above subject from Mr. Charles Brown to the Superintendent of Taranaki may prove of interest to some of our readers :—": — " The cabbage tree (ti parae) is stated to yield from two to three times as much fibre as the same quantity of flax, and this is reported worth about £22 per ton in Sydney. The process is a simple one, and is, I think, capable of great improvement. One fault of the machines I saw in use in Auckland was that they were not of strong enough construction, Mr. Henderson, at the mill of Messrs. Henderson and Macfarlane, is remedying for himself this defect in the machine, and is endeavouring to obviate the rinsing of the fibre in the stream, as he considers this might be effected in the machine, and so dispense with part of the manipulation. HANDS WANTED. FAMILIES REQUIRED for a FLAX-MILL, where constant employment can be had. — Apply at once to Mr. T. Macfarlane, Wyndham Chambers, Auckland. (SC 4 October 1869) 26 October 1869 – George Henderson leaves partnership of H&M. H&M now run by Thomas Macfarlane and Gustav Von Der Heyde. (SC, 28/10/1869) SC 10 December 1869 WAITAKERE.-CATTLE-STEAL (FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT.) Waitakere and the neighbourhood have during the last two years, gained an unenviable notoriety for the number of cases of cattle-lifting, horse-stealing, &c, which have been perpetrated, and hitherto with impunity to the parties engaged, who have certainly displayed a degree of skill which is sufficient to stamp them as ornaments to the peculiar branch of industry they have selected. I have now to report another case of cattle stealing, which for its great and successful carrying out eclipses all precedents. Messrs. Henderson and Macfarlane have, or rather had, two bullocks teams engaged in carrying flax from Mr. Robert Lamb's, Waitakere, to Henderson’s mill. About ten days since, the driver of one of these teams was unable to find six of his bullocks, when looking them up as usual. For some reason or another he did not report his loss for some time, probably expecting to find them on a future search ; but, after seeking them in every direction, he has been compelled to arrive at the conclusion that they have been driven away, and

probably ere this safely disposed of. A reward has been offered by the owner for their discovery, but I suppose the perpetrators of the act will escape with the same good fortune which has hitherto favoured them. 30 December 1869 – George Henderson places ad for two farm servants (no location given) SC

1870

“Some interesting particulars concerning [Henderson’s Mill] … were given on Saturday by Mr. A. Morton … whose father, the late Mr. George Henry Morton, had a contract for drying the flax as it was produced from the mill. “’I remember the mill as it was in 1870,’ said Mr. Morton. ‘I was only a child of five at the time, so naturally any information I can give will not be very enlightening …’ Mr. Morton said that in 1870 flax grew abundantly all round the salt and fresh water creeks in the Henderson district. The land where grapes were growing now was then swamp ground covered with flax, which was cut and conveyed to the mill by bullock drays and cutters rowed up the creeks. Sledges took the partly-finished product from the mill to the drying paddocks and after that it was sent to Auckland by boat. “Of old Henderson Mr. Morton is able to recall the store, which was owned by Mr. Dan Stewart, the hotel, a very small place managed by Mr. McLeod … Mr Trewheela was manager of Henderson’s mill …” (NZ Herald, 20 October 1930) SC 3 January 1870, p. 4 “The men employed for cutting flax at Henderson’s mill have been struck off work this week in consequence of the firm having received a much larger amount than they could manufacture. The result is that two settlers who, a few weeks since, at the urgent request of Messrs. Henderson & Macfarlane, made all the necessary arrangements for carting flax to the mill, are put to the inconvenience of keeping their teams idle.” SC 15 February 1870 WAITAKERE EAST. —DEPUTATION TO THE SUPERINTENDENT. Yesterday morning Messrs. Probert and Alexander waited upon his Honor the Superintendent, as a deputation from the Highway Board and the settlers of Waitakere East, respecting certain improvements much required in the district. The

deputation requested his Honor to grant a small sum for the construction of a bridge on a road running from Henderson's Creek across several blocks of land claimed by Messrs. Potter, Henderson and Macfarlane, and others, to the district of Waitakere East. His Honor said the Provincial Government would be glad to contribute something towards the construction of the bridge, but it appeared that the road was in dispute. It was explained that some two years ago the settlers of Waitakere East complained of having no outlet from the district in the direction of Henderson's Creek. Mr. Hardinge was accordingly sent up by the late Superintendent, and he surveyed the road at present used, which starts from Lot 31 (Mr. Helitt), and, passing through several blocks of land claimed by Henderson and Macfarlane, Potter, and others, crosses two branches of Henderson's Creek. Upon this road the Waitakere East Highway Board has expended a large sum. Last year, about ₤319 was collected in the shape of rates, and expended upon the road, and this year the Board was prepared to expend a like sum, and with assistance from the Provincial Government, to construct a bridge at one part of it. It appears, however, that recently Mr. Henderson has warned the trustees to desist from taking the wood, as the land claims have not yet been settled, though offers have been made by the Provincial Government, and Crown grants of the land offered in compensation are now lying at the Land Office awaiting W. Henderson's consent. The deputation stated that Mr. Macfarlane had consented to the trustees continuing the construction of the road, and that great inconvenience would be suffered by the settlers should Mr. Henderson continue to oppose it. — Mr. Probert remarked that the land at Waitakere East was as good as any in the province, and that the whole district, with the improvements that had been made upon it, would be absolutely useless should the road be stopped up. — After a conversation his Honor requested the deputation to call upon Mr. Henderson, and to endeavour to come to an arrangement; and Messrs. Probert and Alexander, having thanked his Honor, withdrew. SC 18 February 1870 Yesterday, at 1 o'clock p.m., pursuant to arrangement, a deputation, consisting of Messrs. Henry Probert, George Turrell, and Francis White, chairman to Board of Trustees, district of Waitakere East, waited on Thomas Henderson, Esq., at his office, to ascertain from him on what conditions a bridge and other works on the surveyed line from the Great North Road to the Waitakere block could be proceeded with. The deputation were most happy to hear from Mr. Henderson that

he saw the great importance of the road being opened, and that the Board might depend upon it that he would not stand in the way of the settlers getting to their land ; that so far as he was concerned he would give his consent at once, but he must first see Mr. McLeod at the mill, as lessee of some of the land through which apart of the road goes. After consulting him he would give an answer on Monday next, in writing, to the chairman of the Board. SC 17 February 1870 Thomas Macfarlane was chairman of the Flax Commission? No wonder he set up flax milling at Henderson’s Mill. He was also Chairman of the Chamber of Commerce. (SC 4 March 1870) SC 10 March 1870 John and George Clunes were apprehended yesterday by Detective Murphy and Constable Greene, charged with stealing, from a store at Hendersons Mill, 2G3lb. of kauri gum, valued at £3 10s., the property of Daniel Stewart. (One lad sentenced to a month in Mt Eden, the other seven days.) Stewart—Lamb.-—At Riverhead, on the 29th inst., by the Rev. R. F. MacNicol, Mr. Daniel Stewart, of Henderson's Mills, to Jane Shaw, eldest daughter of John Lamb, Esq., of Waitemata Mills. (Auck Star 2 May 1870) 23 May 1870 Thomas Henderson sells 67 acres, bordering on Mill Creek, to John Kemsley for ₤135, the payment made to the Bank of Australasia in part-payment of a mortgage Henderson had with them. (Deed 23D/490, LINZ) SC 5 September 1870 Mr. James Wallace's double - furrow plough will be tried at breaking -up on Wednesday, the 14th, at the farm of J. McLeod, Esq., Hendersons Mill. SC, 12 September 1870 HENDERSONS MILL. TWO ACCIDENTS : A MAN GORED BY A COW. (FROM A CORRESPONDENT.) There is very little doing here at present. The mill is almost at a standstill, owing to a scarcity of flax. Gum-digging is also on a decline, the diggers being hardly able to make a living, through the late heavy rains. —Two accidents occurred on Saturday,

the first at about 1 o'clock, when the scutcher connected with the flax dressing burst, some of the pieces striking a Mrs. Griffiths (who was standing near), and rendering her insensible. On being removed to her home, it was found that she had received a few bruises. She is now progressing favourably. The other accident occurred about nine in the evening, when the people near the mill were startled by cries of "Murder,” and "Help." On proceeding to the spot whence the cries appeared to proceed, it was found that a man named Burns, on his way to town from Kaukapakapa, had been gored by a cow, the infuriated animal knocking him down no less than three times. She then turned, and rushed every person that came near to help the poor man. He was afterwards brought in, and, though the animal did not succeed in wounding him, it is feared that some of his ribs are broken, or that he is otherwise internally injured, He will be taken into town to the Hospital to-day. SC 22 September 1870 Our Hendersons Mill correspondent, writing on the 20th, says :—" Since writing my last, things are looking a little better up here. The flax mill, having a plentiful supply of flax, is now in full work, there being a large quantity of the material brought from the Tamaki, from whence the mill is now being principally supplied." FARM and Store at Henderson's Mill. The farm contains 67 acres, 15 of which are in good grass There is a first-class orchard, and a business in good working order – 70a (Auckland Star 1 October 1870) SC, 3 October 1870 -- George Henderson’s name appears with John McLeod regarding standing Northern Hero at stud. SC 4 October 1870 Draught horse Northern Hero standing at McLeod’s, Henderson’s Mill. SC 28 October 1870 There were many much older land claims than Mr. Busby's. He knew of several himself, and he believed that at next session of the [Provincial] Council there would be shoals of land claims brought before them, and then the waste lands of the province would be more locked up than before. The precedent now given fixed all these claims upon the province of Auckland instead of the colony at large. He recognised the fact that Mr. Busby had a grievance, but it was a grievance caused by the colony, not by the province of Auckland. After the decision

come to by the Provincial Government, the land claim of Mr. Macfarlane, and all the other claims in the country — and their name was Legion — would have to be faced.

"A fire occurred at Henderson's Mill on Friday last, which resulted in the total destruction of the residence of Mr Albert Potter. When first discovered the fire was in the kitchen, but had obtained too much of a hold to be put out. There was hardly anything saved, as the inmates had barely time to escape before the place was in flames. One of the men who was helping to put out the fire nearly lost his life. Whilst inside the house a considerable rush of smoke took place, and the door being shut he was nearly suffocated. When pulled out his hair was all singed off, and he was severely burnt. We have not heard whether the building was insured or not." (NZ Herald, 26 December 1870) "... A correspondent informs us that the range of buildings destroyed consisted of three houses, occupied by Mr Potter, who was absent at the time in Auckland. It is supposed that some of the ashes from the fireplace had been blown into the lining of the house by the strong wind which was prevailing at the time. No warning was given, but a flame sprang up suddenly, and in 20 minutes the buildings were levelled. Amongst other losses were a library of 200 volumes, bedding, furniture, and a large quantity of wearing apparel, and provisions. By immense exertions, some neighbours managed to save the boxes and bedding of Mr Potter's parents, very aged persons. We are sorry to learn that nothing was insured." (NZ Herald, 28 December 1870)

1871

SC 18 January 1871 We are informed by a correspondent that Hendersons Mill (flax) is to be reopened very shortly. Three enterprising young men have made arrangements for leasing the mill for a term, and no doubt will have employment to a number of men. They intend working on the mill themselves, and superintending the manufacturing of the flax. They have had considerable experience in the preparation of flax. We heartily wish them success in their undertaking ; and we have no doubt they will succeed, as flax, well prepared, at the present time commands a good price. It would be a good thing if we had a few more of

this enterprising spirit amongst us. Taranaki Herald, 4 November 1871 Alfred Buckland reported on success of cattle sale at Henderson’s Mill, 31 October 1871 SC 22 November 1871 WAITAKERE EAST HIGH WAY BOARD. TO THE Editor, Sir, — In the Cross of Monday last an article appears giving report of a deputation that waited on his Honor the Deputy-Superintendent on Saturday ,from Waitakere East Highway Board. May I ask the favour of giving, for the information of those interested in Highway Boards in as condensed. form as possible, a history of the matter to which your reporter refers? On the 18th of July last the annual meeting of the above district was held at the Thistle Hotel, Queen-street and, being a ratepayer, I was present. A chairman was to be elected. I was proposed and seconded, as was also Mr. Von der Heyde. I declined to take the chair in favour of Mr. Von der Heyde, who was elected to the chair. The first business of the meeting was to elect two scrutineers. Mr. Thomas George and Mr. William Wasty were elected. The next business was to strike a rate. A 6d. rate was proposed by Mr. Henry Probert, and seconded by myself ; a 3d. rate was also proposed and seconded ; and Mr. Von der Heyde distinctly said, " I shall vote for the 3d. rate," and exercised six votes in doing so. I refer your readers to the sixth clause of the Highways Act, that they may see for themselves the law on that point — as to the number of votes a chairman of general meetings can give. The next business for the meeting was to elect five persons eligible for trustees. Mr. Henry Probert then asked Mr. Von der Heyde if he was eligible, to which he replied, " Yes,", no one doubting the correctness of his answer. The meeting proceeded to elect five persons as trustees, when Mr. Von der Heyde voted,and exercised 39 votes— six votes for each person. About this stage of the meeting Mr. John McLeod, of Hendersons Mill, came from the other end of the room, took me by the left arm, and said, " White, can you tell me [pointing to Mr. Von der Heyde] what business that fellow has here?” I replied by saying, "I cannot. No doubt it is all right." I had concluded that Mr. Von der Heyde would not have been at the meeting unless he had a right to be there. I again refer your readers to the 6th clause of the Highways Act as to the

number of votes a chairman of any general meeting can exercise. Five persons were elected as trustees, of which I was one, and at the close of the general meeting I requested the newly elected members to stop and hold our first meeting, to elect a chairman of the Board. We did stop. Mr. Thomas George was proposed and seconded ; as was also Mr. Bethell, and each one wanted and urged the other to take it. This went on for a little time, when Mr. Von der Heyde put an end to it by turning round to a table behind him and tearing two pieces of paper from the margin of a newspaper, and putting one piece between the fore and second finger and the other piece between the second and third finger of his right hand; held it out to Mr. George and Mr. Bethell ; they drew the papers, and Mr. Bethell became chairman. I again refer your readers to the 11th clause of the Highways Act. Who was to be chairman was never put to the vote. The facts of the whole case are as follow :—: — Mr. Von der Heyde has no ratable property, either freehold or leasehold, in the district of Waitakere East ; nor has the firm of Henderson and Macfarlane, of which Mr. Von der Heyde is a partner. Mr. Thomas Henderson is the sole owner of all ratable property in the district of Waitakere East. Mr. Von der Heyde did not exhibit any proxy from Mr. Thomas Henderson or anyone else, nor can I ascertain on whatever pretext Mr. Von der Heyde has any proper standing as a ratepayer. On the 2nd of last month, the day the mail steamer left Auckland for Honolulu, Mr. Ewington, the appointed collector for the above district, asked me if I could tell him on what grounds Mr. Von der Heyde claimed the right to take action as a trustee, or in any other matter in connection with the district of Waitakere East. I replied I could not tell, and the same day I went to Mr. Von der Heyde, and asked him if he had any leasehold property in the above district, to which he answered No. - Had he any freehold property ? The answer was, No. Had he brought a proxy to the general meeting ? No. But he said he was one of the firm of Henderson and Macfarlane. I at once doubted his claim to taking any part in connection with Waitakere East district. He at the same time said he had seen Mr. Hesketh, and he was aware that he was liable to a fine of £20. Afterwards he took Mr. John Russell's advice (their own solicitor), and hence he has resigned any further connection with the Board. My own impression is that Mr. Von der Heyde took part in the general meeting under the idea that he was properly qualified, and when I saw him in the general meeting I thought that it was all right, and that he had a right to be there; his whole character and standing in society quite satisfied me that such was the case,— I am, &c., Francis White.

1872

SC 18 March 1872 Advert for a “good farm servant”, J. McLeod, at Henderson & Macfarlane’s. 22 July 1872 – Meeting of the Waitakere East Highway District ratepayers, at J. McLeod’s, Henderson’s Mill. Thomas, George and Henry Henderson and John McLeod were disqualified from taking part in the proceedings due to not paying rates for a year or more. George Henderson with the highest number of votes one of five elected onto the board. (SC, 24 July 1872) SC 24 August 1872 A FLAT CONTRADICTION. To the Editor : Sir, — I noticed in yesterday's Cross a letter from "An Old settler” (or one who professes to be) vindicating Mr. and Mrs Furley in the late sad tragedy of Frances M. I should not be doing my duty as a settler in the district, if I did hot give that letter a flat contradiction. Who the "Old Settler" is we are left to imagine, and many of us have made a pretty safe guess. If he felt in his heart he was writing the truth, why did he not manfully sign his name ? But the fact is, Mr. Editor, there is not one word of truth from beginning to end, save his assertion that they are two well known settlers of thirty years' standing. That they are, as he says, universally respected in the district, I, in common with the mass of parties living in or adjoining Waitakere East, simply deny. "Old Settler" states that Mrs. Lamb had received no liquor from Furley's after the Wednesday prior to her death, when she left their place perfectly sober. This is incorrect, and, further, the unfortunate woman had not been sober one day for a month prior to her death. What humanity did they show the wretched creature on the Saturday? Mrs. Furley went to see her, but to send a couple of old blankets, and to again supply her with that damnable liquor "Old Settler" calls comforts, which had brought her to a premature deathbed? I firmly believe that if Waitakere East and its surroundings were canvassed not one respectable settler would hesitate in signing a memorial for the extinction of that bush public-house where Mrs. Lamb obtained the drink from. — I am, &c, John McLeod, Hendersons Mill. [We have been compelled to omit some very strong expressions of opinion from our correspondent's letter. —Ed.] Samuel & Matilda Furley kept a bush-license called “The Sportsmen’s Arms”, about half a mile from Prior’s Creek. Used by gumdiggers. The coroner’s jury found the Furleys, and Mrs.

Lamb’s lover, culpable in her death. (SC August 1872) Furley was then charged with a breach of the licensing act for supplying brandy to Martin Breen, associated with Mrs. Lamb’s death, when he was neither a bona fide traveller, or residing at the hotel or sleeping there. This charge was dismissed. (SC 26 August 1872) Samuel Furley had a hotel, the Royal Exchange, at Onehunga, until around the end of 1865. (Sc 13 November 1865) Inn 1870, there’s a reference to S. Furley as proprietor of the Sportsman’s Hotel (SC 8 June 1870), but he still owned the Royal Exchange at Onehunga, where there was a fire in 1871. (SC 15 December 1871) His application to renew his licence for the Sportsman’s Arms was refused in 1872 (SC 17 April 1872) as there was only one room inn public use, the stables were dirty, and the house inn a state of disorder. Furley may have given up for a time – he had the license for the Royal Exchange at Onehunga transferred to him in July that year. (SC, 12 July 1872). But – no. He was back again in March 1873 for a license “for premises at Waitakere West not previously licensed.” (SC 13 March 1873) In April, this application was refused (and it was indeed for the Sportsman’s Arms) … “found it a very miserable place.” It was at that meeting that a petition of residents was presented supporting McLeod’s application for a hotel license. (SC 16 April 1873) It is possible that the original Oratia Hotel partly came about to stop the Furleys. Samuel Furley died of heart disease in 1878. His wife Matilda outlived him, dying in 1899.( Mogford, Janice C. 'Furley, Matilda 1813 - 1899'. Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, updated 22 June 2007 URL: http://www.dnzb.govt.nz/) SC 27 August 1872 – George and David Henderson in a group fined in the Police Court for drunkenness. 14 November 1872. A tracing of the S. Elliott survey of Henderson’s 1844 claim and Heaphy’s 1869 plan of Thomas Macfarlane’s 5,000 acre claim are forwarded to the Inspector of Surveys in Auckland. (OLC 283 & 284, LINZ records)

1873

SC 29 January 1873 Richardson, Public Works Minister, visits Henderson’s Mill, and he and his part are hospitably received and entertained by Mr. McLeod. 21 February 1873

Thomas Henderson sells a 117 acre farm to the east of the Opanuku to Mark Woodward of Mt Albert for ₤187 18s 3d – again to be paid direct to the Bank of Australasia towards the mortgage debt. (Deed 25D/861, LINZ) “Long” John McLeod We understand that Mr. John McLeod, MHR , has secured the Tairua Saw-mill. Mr. McLeod has long been connected with the timber trade m this province. He was the first, some 20 years or more ago, who succeeded in cutting the kauri timber by machinery, and as he has again entered upon the timber business, the same ingenuity which he employed in overcoming difficulties in former years will no doubt be employed in still making improvements where improvements are possible. There is a large area of bush attached to this mill, which will keep its machinery employed for many years. (SC 21 March 1873) March J& J Soppet are selling bone dust from their Freeman’s Bay mill, or at Henderson & Macfarlane’s. (SC, 27 March 1873) Tenders called by H&M for erection of a two storied building at Henderson’s Mill (March 27 1873, Southern Cross) (SC 5 April 1873, WN 12 April 1873) CUTTING KAURI TIMBER BY MACHINERY. To the Editor: Sir, -Within the last few days my attention has been called to a letter by a party styling himself "A Bushman of Thirty Years’ Standing." The writer of that letter wishes to make it appear that I ought to contradict a paragraph which appeared in the CROSS, and which implied that I was the first to succeed many years ago in successfully cutting kauri timber by machinery. It is with much reluctance I refer to this subject in any way that may savour of egotism, but as "Bushman" challenges me to speak on a subject which has cost me the study and labour of many years, and that without the protection of the Patent Office, which did not exist here in those times, I trust I may be pardoned for referring to the matter. Some of "Bushman's" remarks are wrong, but I presume not intentionally so. He makes far too much of the fact that there were saw-mills at work in this province before my arrival, without showing at the same time that the difficulty of cutting kauri successfully was overcome by the introduction of any system of machinery before my time. I think I may justly infer that success in that line of business means the working of a system of machinery that

does its work well and profitably. I admit that there were a number of mills at work before my arrival here, &c, but "Bushman" might say the same of flaxmills. There were a number of them both, but were either of them successful? I think "Bushman" will admit they were not and I think he must remember that (apart from the usual remark made so often about those mills at that time that one or two pairs of sawyers could cut more and better timber than any of them) the timber cut by them ranged about 2s. 6d. per l00ft. lower than hand cut stuff of the same dimensions. In short those mills were considered failures, owing to the gum and spring of the timber and its unusual large and unwieldy size. When attempting to overcome these difficulties, I was told by every mill owner and engineer I met with that the cutting of a single log, or even of a flitch, could not be depended on, as the saws were likely to become unmanageable at any time, and to cut every way but the way required. With reference to the old mill, which was on the estate of Henderson and Macfarlane, and in which "Bushman" says "I earned my reputation," &c, — that mill was built 12 or 13 years before I saw it; and, although it may have worked as well as if not better than, any of the first mills built here, yet the fact is that when I leased that mill, privilege, and bush, the old mill was a ruin, and it was with the greatest difficulty that I got it braced up so as to cut by it a small portion of the stuff necessary for the new mill and dams I built there. I was in Auckland over one year, when the Gibbonses were landed, with goods and machinery, in the Manukau by Captain McKenzie; and at that time my plans were matured, and my patterns, castings, and machinery were being finished in the foundry of the late William Bourne, of Auckland. This was long before the mill of Rowe, Street, and Co was finished at Coromandel ; yet it was not till I built a foundry of my own that I was able to finish in a workmanlike manner that system of breaking down and circular-saw machinery which is now often called the New Zealand system, and which differs from the English and American systems of saw - mill machinery. If "Bushman" has any doubts upon this matter he will find my old circular bench, with most of its machinery and appliances, at the works of Cousin and Atkin, where it is still being worked occasionally, and if he will compare it with the machinery in use in the best and most successful mills in this province at present, he will find the system, or plan, exactly the same— whether those mills have been got up here, or imported and afterwards altered and adapted to the system in question. There is one very complete mill here, and much of its machinery was manufactured in Glasgow on this plan. The

drag toothed cross cut saw, which I introduced in Canada in 1848 and here in 1852-3, is now also manufactured at home and sent out here ready for use. There is one matter more which I think I can refer to with a degree of pride, and that the large number of saw-mill men and bushmen whom I have trained in to that work, many of whom are now filling good positions as mill and bush managers throughout the province. —Yours, &c, John McLeod. Annual licensing meeting held at Police Court. John McLeod granted license for hotel at Henderson’s Mill. (April 16 1873, Southern Cross) John McLeod, McLeod's hotel, Henderson's Mill. . Mr Beveridge appeared for the applicant, and produced a numerously and influentially signed memorial. The Chairman asked if Mr John Lamb had signed it. Mr Beveridge replied that if His Worship; was to ask whether Mr Lamb had taken a dose of arsenic he should not have been more surprised. j His Worship remarked that he asked the question in all sincerity. He was not aware of the geography of the place. The Inspector did not oppose the application, which was entertained by the Bench. The license fee was fixed at twenty pounds per annum. [The Chairman was Thomas Beckham, RM.](Auck Star 15 April 1873) SC 10 May 1873 A number of names removed from electoral roll for Waitemata as having left their dwellings at Henderson’s Mill: Robert Adams Thomas Bishop William Boms Edward Callnan Joseph Castles (Prior’s Bush) Henry Benjamin Clark William Drever Richard Eddestone

William Forsyth William Fraser Matthew McDonald James McKenzie James McKeowin William McLeod William Minchell Hugh Murdoch George Peace William Pollard John Stewart Robert Webb Thomas Well

12 May 1873 After the Henderson’s Mill Educational District is gazetted, a meeting for the election of the school committee was held 12 May 1873, “in the Church at Henderson’s Mill, at 3 pm.” (NZG) SC 6 June 1873 A proposal was received from Mr. T. Henderson, offering a site of two acres for school purposes and the temporary use of the building hitherto used as a church, with an empty house as a teacher's residence. — The offer was accepted, and the Secretary instructed to thank Mr. Henderson for his liberality. SC 20 June 1873 Henderson’s Mill— The committee to be informed that the Board have no objection to a reserve for the site of a school, it being understood that the Board are not committed thereby to putting up a building. The school to be carried on for the present time in the building set apart for the purpose by Mr.

Henderson. SC, 26 June 1873 Police Court case (not concerning McLeod). John McLeod described as “who rented a farm from the firm at Henderson’s Mill.” SC 28 June 1873, p2 Sale of land by Samuel Cochrane Cultivated farm of 76 acres at Henderson’s Mill. Brickworks, Elliott’s Point, near Henderson’s Mill SC 26 September 1873 Another successful sale (Buckland’s) at Henderson’s Mill. In 1873, the "Henderson's Mill Races" were advertised to take place on Boxing Day. Now, there was a grandstand, refreshment booths, stewards and clerks of the course. The organisers were taking the Sport of Kings in Henderson very seriously now, and may have made their move to the second site, off Henderson Valley Road, opposite and just a bit to the south of today's railway station. The grandstand faced Keeling Road, looking south-west. SC, 9 January 1874 Ad for “good farm servant, a married man preferred,” by Henderson and McLeod, Henderson’s Mill (possibly George Henderson, a recent partner with McLeod in the horse breeding) SC 2 February 1874 John McLeod is co-contact for cattle sellers with Buckland. “When leaving the North Road for the Mill or School, you first saw on your left a long row of small cottages extending from about 150 yards from behind the Anglican Church for about a quarter of a mile … On the right was the School, then a cookhouse (a fairly large building with a brick baker’s oven attached.) Then down the steep hill to the dam and the Mill adjoining (there was an easier route around the foot of the hill where you struck the tram-line – wooden rails –leading to the landing from the Mill where the boats received and discharged cargoes.) Milling of timber had ceased years before I can remember , but I can remember the dam, Mill, and waterwheel

1874

(15 or 18 feet in diameter) were in quite good order and fit for work.” (A. W. Hepburn, 1933) James McLeod, Henderson's Mill. Mr Sheehan, on the part of Mr McLeod, asked the Bench for a reduction of his license on certain conditions. Mr McLeod's house was one of great accommodation to persons travelling in the neighbourhood of Henderson's Mill, and although in the bush was well conducted. The Bench remarked that it could only ask for a lower fee by way of recommending it, as it was in the power of the Executive alone' to fix the amount. Mr Sheehan informed the Bench that the sum they would recommend must be stated. The Chairman said the Bench were disposed to fix the fee at £15 as the license at Lucas’s Creek, which was a less frequented place, was £10. (Auck Star 21 May 1874) Rather a curious application was made to his Honor the Superintendent by eight ratepayers in the Waitakerei East district, residing in Auckland. These eight, the majority of whom had never attended a meting before, desired his Honor to remove the place of meeting from Henderson's mill to Auckland, as they object to paying the expense of horse hire. The fact that the great majority of the settlers live in the district, and would be put to the cost of horse-hire and loss of time is of no consequence to the noble absentees. Howbeit the Provincial Government thought otherwise and the application was politely refused. (Auck Star 2 July 1874)

1875

20 January 1875 John McLeod an unsuccessful tenderer for the cutting and forming of part of Great North Road, near Henderson’s Mill. (NZG) Waikato Times, 18 March 1875 11 March – Euphemia Canty marries William Robert Stevenson Kerr at the Black Bull Inn, Auckland. SC, 20 March 1875 An unoccupied hut at Henderson’s Mill was burned down on Tuesday last. It was formerly in the occupation of Mr. Murdoch, blacksmith. The building was uninsured; and the fire was originated by some careless person setting fire to the fern in the neighbourhood.

7 April 1875 Henderson & McLeod sell farm stock and gear at auction. (SC 2 April 1875) SC 23 April 1875 H&M advertise for an experienced man to take charge of a farm about twelve miles from Auckland. SC 29 April 1875 H&M advertise the Oratia Hotel up for lease. SC 22 May 1875 J. McLeod leaves Henderson’s Mill SC, 29 May 1875 A complimentary dinner was given to Mr. McLeod, late hotelkeeper at Henderson's Mill, on Monday afternoon, the 24th instant; prior to that gentleman' removal from the district. Mr. McLeod has been a resident in that locality for many years, and has always done what he could to further the interests of the district in every good work. He has made a large number of friends, both Europeans and natives, many of whom tendered a complimentary dinner, at 2 o'clock in the hotel; so as to express their regret at his leaving, and wish him good-bye. Mr. Bollard was in the chair. Although the weather was unpropitious a number of footraces and other games were indulged in, in a paddock adjoining the hotel. — The horseracing that was to have taken place at Henderson's Mill that day, was postponed until the 19th June, on which occasion the children attending the school in that district will have a feast given to them; when about £4 or £3 worth of books will be distributed and run for as prizes. WANTED, Teacher for Henderson's Milt School—Apply at the office of the Board of Education, on or before the. 24th inst. FREDERICK J. MOSS. Secretary. (Auck Star 17 July 1875) SC 31 July 1875 J. McLeod (late of Henderson’s Mill) sets himself up as a butcher in the Whau (New Lynn) district. “All meat sold at town prices, and all meat guaranteed, as McLeod knows a good bullock when he sees one.”

1876

(Henderson’s Mill School District – SC, 28 January 1876) The appointment of the old committee as commissioners for 1876 was agreed to, with the exception of Mr. McLeod, who had left the district. Mr. Vercoe's name was substituted for that of Mr. McLeod. SC 12 May 1876, p. 1 John McLeod deleted from Waitemata electoral roll as his “lease expired” at Henderson’s Mill and he’d left the mill farm in his occupation. 7 June 1876, a Mr. McLeod (farmer) of Great North Road purchases 100 acres of land from Thomas Henderson and the Bank of Australasia (DI 7A.27) for ₤300 (payment direct to the bank) of part of Lot 8, bordering on the creeks. (Edmonton Road/ McLeod Road & Chilcott Brae). On 16 June 1876, McLeod enters into a mortgage agreement for the purchase price with John Malam. (Deed 30D/479, LINZ) The steam launch Eclipse is to make two trips a week to Lucas' Creek, one to Henderson's Mill and two to Riverhead. (Auck Star 5 December 1876) SC 11 December 1876 J. McLeod clerk of scales at Henderson’s Mill races

1877

Martin O'Brien, recently the lessee of the Wairnaku Hotel, Henderson's Mill, a bankrupt, appeared yesterday at a meeting of creditors, in the Supreme Court Buildings. Bankrupt's liabilities were a little over £100. The trustees brought up the report, and the creditors agreed to the bankrupt's discharge. (Auck Star 12 April 1877) BOARD OF EDUCATION. The adjourned meeting of the Board of Education was held yesterday afternoon … Closing of Schools.—It was agreed that the Henderson's Mill School should be closed on the 31st December. (Auck Star 27 November 1877) On Saturday last a meeting was held at the Oratea Hotel, Henderson's mill, for the purpose of forming a racing club, under the title of the "Henderson's Mill Turf Club." The meeting

was well attended, and the project met with general support. The following officers were elected : —President, T. Henderson; Judge, A. Dilworth ; Committee, J. Smyth, J. Dignan, R. J. Vercoe, W. J. Suiter, T. Henderson, jun. ; starter, J. Archibald : handicapper, G, Lendrum ; clerk of scales, H. Hays; clerk of course, J. Foster. A code of rules was agreed upon, and the subscription fixed at one guinea per annum. The next meeting is likely to be held in the month of February, and under the new organisation is likely to be a great success. (Auck Star 28 November 1877) WAITEMATA COUNCIL It was decided to erect a public pound at Henderson's Mill, on a site to be made over by the Council, at a cost of £10. (Auck Star 28 November 1877)

1878

HENDERSON'S MILL RACES This popular country race meeting came off to-day at Henderson's Mill on the Great North Road. The weather being as fine as could be wished, the attendance was larger than usual. From ten o'clock, omnibuses and cabs kept leaving Queen-street laden with excursionists bent upon enjoying the drive and the sport. The arrangements were as usual firstclass, and much credit is reflected upon the committee of management and the other officials connected with the venture. The course was in excellent order, and the sport turned out better than the paucity of acceptances for the principal race caused people to expect. Since last meeting the course has been much improved, and a splendid view of the racing was afforded. The grandstand is also a new structure, and presents a favourable contrast when compared with the old four posted arrangement. The races began rather behind time, but punctuality was worked up to by the time the cup was reached. (Auck Star 23 February 1878) “Long” John McLeod possibly the John McLeod, engineer, who took out a patent, 13 September 1878, for an improved timber jack. (NZG) List of School Buildings Required. —Devonport, present building old and unsuitable; £1,700; Parnell, hired room unsuitable, £3,000 ; Henderson's Mill, school held in a house, £300 …. (Auck Star 26 July 1879) Map showing “Sawmill” at Mill Cottage approximate location. Henderson's Mill. Friday last was a great day at "the Mill." It marked an era in the

1879

1880

history of this scattered district, and brought joy to many an anxious heart. The new school-room, towards the erection of which the settlers contributed liberally, was opened by a soiree n the evening of that day. Although hurriedly got up it was an imposing affair, and caused astonishment to many who had come from distant parts to witness, and enjoy the first soiree that ever was held in the district. The room was gaily decorated with flags, ferns, and flowers, and the seven tables groaned under a rich and superabundant spread of buns, cakes, and the finest products of the confectioners' shop, together with apples, plums, peaches, &c. The tables were provided by Mesdames Duncan, Heuston, Malam, Lawrie, J. M. Hepburn, A. Hepburn, and Miss Hanson, and presided over by those ladies. A large and efficient choir, under the charge of Mr Bell, was driven up from Whau in a 'bus. Several traps and many horsemen went from the same direction, and with those who gathered from the opposite direction, filled the school-room far beyond its sitting capacity. The Rev. R. Sommervillc, who had been asked to preside, gave out the last verse of the Evening Hymn, and asked a blessing. Tea was then partaken of, and when the tables had been cleared the Chairman called upon the choir to sing the glee, "See our Oars with Feathered Spray." He then delivered an address in which he explained the reason of his being called upon to preside, and related his first experience many years ago, on the road to "the Mill," when by acting upon instructions and giving the horse the reins he was landed in the middle of Muddy Creek. He congratulated the meeting on the possession of such a fine school-house as that in which they met. It was centrally situated, commodious, and comfortable, and a great credit and convenience to the district. He hoped the very efficient teacher would send from under that roof many boys and girls, thoroughly equipped for fighting life's battles, and performing honourable parts on the great stage of life. The following was the programme: —Solo, "Apart," Miss Archibald; duet, Mr and Miss Hanna; solo, Mr Chain; reading, Mr Owen ; solo, " Beautiful Star," Miss Thomas. The Hon. T. Henderson addressed the meeting. He said that thirty five years ago, when near that spot, he was glad of the comfort afforded by a fern covering, and tea boiled in a “billey” ; he could not have pictured to himself such a fine house, filled with such a large and respectable audience. He was both astonished and pleased. He was glad to see the attention now paid to the cause of education, and he hoped no parent would deny his children as much education as they could get, for it was it that made the man and the woman. He was pleased to notice the signs of progress in the district, and he hoped to live long enough to see all that valley and the adjoining country waving with rich pastures, and blossoming like the rose. Glee, Choir ; duet, pianoforte, Mrs Turner and Miss Laurie ; solo, Mr Bell; pianoforte solo, Miss l)akin; duct, Mr Manna and Miss

Buchanan ; solo, Miss Dakin ; solo, Mr Hanna ; pianoforte duet, Misses Duncan ; reading, Mr Owen; solo, Mr Hanna; recitation, Mr Bell; solo, Mr Henderson ; duct, Messrs Bell and Thain. Miss Buchan played the accompaniments and Mr Bell led the choir. Votes of thanks to the ladies, choir, and chairman having been accorded, the National Anthem was sung, and so ended a most pleasant and successful soiree. Of course, when the soiree ended, the dance began, and it was so agreeable that the dancer forgot the rapidity with which time was flying till reminded of the fact by the gradually increasing brightness of the eastern sky. (Auck Star 4 February 1880)

1881

1882

Mr Beetham, proprietor and manufacturer of the original Olson's tomato sauce, has had an immense crop of tomatoes on his land at Henderson's Mill this year. He has already gathered four tons, and is now brewing three brews of twelve cwt. each per week. The supply, like the demand, of this most excellent table condiment is therefore on the increase. (Auckland Star, 24 March 1881) H. H. Turton, “Part III.—The Special Cases Remaining Unsettled - (3.) Land Claims not belonging to the Old Series, or Pre-emption Series”, Maori Deeds of Old Private Land Purchases in New Zealand, From the Year 1815 to 1840, with Pre-Emptive and Other Claims, 1882

“The only case I shall take in this class is that of Messrs. Henderson and Macfarlane, to which I referred particularly in addressing the House on Mr. Carleton's Bill of last session. The circumstances were these:—

“The claimants had a schooner, which the Natives wanted, and for which they offered a block of land at the Whau (one of the estuaries of Waitemata Harbour). Governor Fitzroy made the following Minute sanctioning the transaction: "In consideration of the various circumstances connected with Mr. Henderson's exchange of his schooner for land, I will consider his a special case and give him a Crown title to one-half the quantity claimed, upon his furnishing a sufficient description of the boundaries.—R. F.—October 8, 1844."

“The claimants thereupon concluded the arrangement with the Natives, gave them the vessel, had the land surveyed, sent in the survey to the Government, and claimed their grant. The plan was referred to the Surveyor-General on the 2nd March, 1846, with directions, if he was satisfied with its correctness, to prepare a grant in compliance with Governor Fitzroy's minute. The Surveyor-General required certain things to be done, lines cut, and so forth; this was obeyed and the plan sent in again, the contents as finally shown being 17,784 acres. The Surveyor-General pronounced the survey a very good one; and as to the extinguishment of the Native title it has never been disputed to this day.

“But the grant, nevertheless, was not issued. In 1853 the claimants—apparently getting tired of waiting—asked that the claim might be settled by repaying them their mere outlay. The Government agreed to have the outlay ascertained, but in the meanwhile took possession of the land and proceeded to sell nearly 7,000 acres of it at 10s. an acre; the claimants having themselves to buy upwards of 5,000 acres to secure large property they had placed on the land. Some months afterwards the Surveyor General sent in his estimate of their outlay, amounting to £970; but the money was never paid.

“When the claim came before me I tried various ways to settle it, but I gave it up at last. The claimants were always willing to accede to anything I might decide, and to submit to an award whatever it might be. But I could not satisfy myself that the Act would enable a fair award to be made. Although it did not in strictness belong to the "Pre-emptive Claims " (no actual certificate of waiver having been issued under Governor Fitzroy's Proclamations of 1844), and might therefore have been heard under section 33 without coming within the letter of the restrictive words above mentioned, in reality such a course would have been a mere evasion of the restriction, the claim being virtually one arising out of the waiver of the Crown's right of pre-emption, though under a special agreement with the Governor instead of under his Proclamations. The Governor in fact enters into a specific agreement with private persons eighteen years ago, that if they extinguish the Native title to a certain piece of land and survey the boundaries, they shall have a grant for half of it. The conditions are fulfilled by one party, but instead of the Government fulfilling its part it seizes the-land and sells all the best of it. It appears to me clear that

this transaction cannot be fairly settled by the provisions now in force relating to either Old Claims or Pre-emptive Claims.”

We notice in Mr Leech's window, Shortland-street, two new paintings, one by Mr Blomfield, representing the Auckland Harbour and North Shore, sketched from Grafton Road, the other by Mr Gibb, of Christchurch, entitled "On the Bealey, West Coast Road." Both paintings are portrayed with skill and fidelity to nature. Mr Bloomficld's list of subscribers to his art union of six oil paintings is nearly completed, and the event will take place at an early date. The prizes are valuable and the subjects of much local interest. (1) Home of the Kauri, (2) Scene at Henderson's Mill, (3) Auckland Harbour (4) Roto Iti, (5) Great Boiling Cauldron, Tikitiro, (6) Roto Ehu. (Auck Star 8 February 1882)

1885

AUCKLAND RIFLE ASSOCIATION PRIZE COMPETITIONS. Henderson, 1.30. The annual prize competitions held under the auspices of the Auckland Rifle Association were commenced at 9 o'clock this morning, on the new range on the Henderson Racecourse … (Auckland Star 3 January 1885)

1888

Of late increased attention has been paid by the townspeople to the necessity of fostering country industries, as it is recognised that commercial prosperity is largely contingent upon having the land opened up, and settled thereon a thrifty and industrious population … Perhaps the most novel feature is the forming of associations of city tradespeople for the purchase of land exclusively for fruit growing and fruit preserving. It is believed with the experience now gained, and the improved appliances for fruit preserving, that this may become one of the most thriving industries of the province. One such block has thus been taken up by city tradesmen, some 15 miles from Auckland, on the Kaipara railway line, containing 1000 acres, and named Pomaria. Active steps are being taken for fencing and planting with fruit trees. In the event of the experiment proving successful, private parties adjacent and the Government intend to open up some thousands of acres for fruit culture on somewhat similar lines. The founders of Pomaria are going upon the lines recommended by Mr Alderton and by Mr Federli. They are looking less to benefitting themselves as a commercial

speculation than in initiating for the benefit of' the province a new and more excellent way of dealing with our northern lands, not specially suited for agriculture. The experiment is being watched with great interest by the small orchardists and horticulturists generally. (Otago Daily Times 27 September 1888)

1889 1893

Long John McLeod dies at Rhode island, heart attack, a harness maker. (Sheffield, Men Came Voyaging, p. 86, 1986) PROGRESS OF HENDERSON. The polling day at Henderson marked a very large increase in voters. Last election ten persons recorded their votes at this place for the Waitemata county. This year 75 people voted. If we allow that half these voters are women, and that more people have exercised their privileges, there still remains a large increase. The real fact is Henderson has been going ahead rapidly during the last few years. People are finding out the advantages of the place —its proximity to town—only an hour's run by rail, three trains in, three trains out; the pleasant drive of twelve miles by road, pleasant anyhow when Nature makes County Council roads good enough to travel on ; the safe and easy communication with Auckland by water, the quality of the soil, and the general cheapness of the land. Sections of the Bank of New Zealand property lying between the Great North Road and the railway are being bought for farming purposes. Mr J. Platt, the well known tailor of Karangahape Road, has purchased 50 acres, including a section of the Pomaria estate. Mr Peterson, a good stamp of settler, has also secured land, and has put up a very comfortable house. The Messrs Marsh have also purchased from the same source, and several other persons have either purchased, or are making terms of purchase with the Estates Company. Most of the now settlers are already improving their properties—burning off the ti-tree scrub, ploughing, putting in grass, planting trees. The soil is of very fair quality, and can be made really good with proper working. Much of it is an old swamp deposit, deep, black and easily cultivated. With cultivation and a dressing of lime it grows clover and other grasses remarkably well. Some of the older settlers have also increased their estates. Mr Roberts, of the Henderson Valley Farm, has purchased the old racecourse, and Mr Hougham has purchased the favourite picnicking ground known as Baillie's paddock. Mr S. Vaile's estate on the peninsula between the Henderson

and Swanson sea creeks, is being taken up in sections for fruitgrowing. A Canterbury man has taken up 44 acres, and has planted an extensive orchard. Mr L. Goodfellow has taken up a portion of the same country, and intends going in largely for poultry, whilst an Auckland gentleman is thinking of taking the remainder of the block. The Henderson district is well adapted for fruits of all kinds. The apples from Mr Hougham's orchard are famous for their colour and flavour, outdoor grapes, lemons, oranges, figs, and the better known English fruits, do remarkably well. The White Muscal of Alexandra grape seems only to have been tried in one place out of doors, and has proved quite a success, which suggests the possibility of a big industry in raisin drying. Green house grapes reach a great state of perfection here. Grapes from Mr Jane's vinery have been admired even by critical Australians. Last year his vines, which are quite young, produced 1,800lb of grapes, which were sold in one lot at 1s per Ib. Mr Jane has been very successful as a viticulturalist. He tells me that the varieties which seem to do best in every particular are Muscal Hamburg, Black Hamburg, Black Alicante, Gross Colman, Mrs Pearson. One of the greatest features in Henderson is, of course, the Pomaria estate. It has an excellent position, being tapped by road, railway and navigable water. The owners of this estate, besides planting large orchards on their own account, have sold a good many sections to smaller settlers. The sections run from eight acres upwards. Several of them have water frontages to an arm of the Waitemata Harbour. Mr R. Cranwell occupies a large portion of the Pomaria estate. He has recently erected a very handsome house on his property and has settled there with his family. A Canterbury man tells me that he saw on Mr Cranwell's estate a crop of oats which would more than satisfy a farmer on the richest lands of the premier grain province and I learn from another source that the crop is not so good as one grown on the same ground last year. Some of the higher and cheaper land between Swanson Creek and Riverhead is being taken up for sheep farming. It is open, undulating country, sloping to the Waitemata Harbour. The soil can be described as clay loam and sandy loam resting on clay subsoil. Much of the land belongs to the Crown and can be had on easy terms. The gum from the ground should pay for ploughing, and the various grasses spreading naturally over the diggings show how easy it will be to get good rough feed in a

very short time. It has often been said that the great drawback to Auckland is its lack of agricultural lands. It is certain that the vast extent of open country lying about the Waitemata and the Manukau and stretching northwards for scores of miles is not like the easily worked volcanic land, but there are plenty of proofs in the Henderson district, and in every other district for that matter, that with intelligent work and a little patience, the gum lands can be turned into vary useful farms. In fact the transformation of the much-abused gumfields into pastures and orchards began long ago, and is continuing to-day at a rate which would surprise the gum land grumblers.— (Henderson Correspondent) (Auckland Star 7 December 1893)

1894

HENDERSON PUBLIC SCHOOL. REPORT BY THE CHIEF INSPECTOR. For some time past there has been a certain amount of friction in connection with. the Henderson Public School, and considerable interest was taken at the last annual election of Committeemen. At a recent meeting of the Board of Education it was decided to remove the teacher from the Henderson school as soon as a suitable vacancy occurred. At the meeting of the Board to-day the following report was read from Mr D. Petrie, Chief Inspector of Schools : — I beg to submit for the Board's information the following report on the inquiry held by me at Henderson Public School yesterday :—"About a dozen householders were present; but the members of the School Committee were absent except the Chairman (Mr Hougham), who, however, explained that he did not appear in his capacity of Chairman of the School Committee, or as in any way representative of the School Committee, but simply as a householder. A good deal of evidence was taken, and the inquiry lasted, from nine a.m. to 1 p.m. Herewith are submitted brief notes of the evidence signed by the various witnesses, and a few (7) documents handed in by Mrs La Trobe. Of the latter, the most important are two statements certifying that the signatories are satisfied with the progress their children are making under the present teacher, and do not wish the Board of Education to make any change. These statements are signed by twelve parents or guardians of twenty-eight pupils now attending the school. As the roll number for the month of August last was forty-three, it is evident that a considerable majority of the householders more immediately interested in the school have no sympathy with the proposal to substitute a male teacher for the present female teacher. The evidence given did not in any way challenge Mrs La Trobe's competency as a

teacher, or her success in conducting the school. It was stated in evidence that now and in past years some of the elder pupils had been removed and were sent to other schools. In any district situated on the railway line and at no great distance from a city like Auckland, this is sure to happen to a greater or less extent, as the attractions of the daily journey by rail and of attendance at a new and larger school, appeal strongly to most young people brought up in the country. A very few of these pupils have gone, not to town schools, but to neighbouring country ones; but there was nothing to show that their transference from Henderson public school to a neighbouring one was due to dissatisfaction with Mrs La Trobe's management; moreover, so few were thus removed that I cannot attach any importance to the fact. The evidence showed conclusively that some of the members of the present School Committee, in canvassing for election, led householders to believe that they would not attempt to get Mrs La Trobe removed from the school; and I consider that on the strength of this belief they may easily have gained support that would otherwise have been withheld. The general conclusion to which a careful consideration of the case has led me, is this :—The School Committee's request for the removal of Mrs La Trobe, and the appointment of a male teacher in her stead, is not due to any real or widespread dissatisfaction with her management and teaching, of the school, but, so far as I could gather, to the fact that her husband carries on a store in the district, and to her own association with the local party to which the present School Committee is opposed. I largely failed to elicit from the witnesses examined any clear or distinct reasons for preferring a male teacher to a female; and the deliberate abstention of the School Committee from all share in the inquiry inclines me to think that good reasons would be hard to find. In these circumstances I cannot advise the Board to accede to the application for the removal of Mrs La Trobe for the purpose of appointing a mala teacher in her place. I would, besides, suggest that Mrs La Trobe be informed that the inquiry did not disclose any reason for dissatisfaction with her management of the Henderson public school. —(Signed), D. Petrie, Chief Inspector." . Mr Muir said he did not think there was any real inquiry held. He held that there was really no inquiry. He dissented from the idea that the Committee had no right to ask for a change of teacher. The evidence having been read, Mr Wilding remarked that the report appeared to be a full one, and he would therefore move: “That this Board having considered the report of the Chief Inspector cannot see sufficient reason for the removal of Mrs La Trobe from the Henderson school." Mr Wilding said he

considered that anyone who listened impartially to that report must be of that opinion. Mr Luke supported the motion Mr Muir pointed out that there was already a resolution on the books that Mrs La Trobe should be removed when a suitable position was vacant. Mr Wilding said he would then give notice to rescind that resolution, and it could be added on to the one he had moved, but which must now be deferred, Mr Theo. Cooper said he did not oppose the resolution, but he must note the fact that Mrs La Trobe was a married woman, and that her husband was the local storekeeper. He did not hesitate to express the opinion that a married woman whose husband was a storekeeper should not be in charge of the school in the same district. However good a teacher she might be, trade interests were bound to create rivalry. He thought that was a matter which should not be lost sight of. Taking the report they could exculpate Mrs La Trobe from any insinuation of incompetence as a teacher, but, for all that, he did think she ought to be removed from that district as soon as possible, or else that her husband should give up the store in that particular locality. He would support Mr Wilding's motion, but at the same time he considered it should be pointed out to Mrs La Trobe that she should either elect to remain in the service of the Board, or her husband should give up business in the district. Mrs La Trobe was a valuable teacher, but while in the same district as her husband's store there must be trouble. Mr Lamb said he had noted the same objection. The Chairman here ruled that the discussion must be adjourned until next meeting, when Mr Wilding's motion would be brought forward. (Auckland Star 11 September 1894)