You are on page 1of 76

PROCEDURE IN THE COURT OF APPEALS A. RULE 46: Original Cases SECTION 1.Title of cases.

In all cases originally file in t!e Co"rt of A##eals$ t!e #arty instit"ting t!e action s!all %e calle t!e #etitioner an t!e o##osing #arty t!e res#on ent. SECTION &.To '!at actions a##lica%le. T!is R"le s!all a##ly to original actions for certiorari$ #ro!i%ition$ (an a("s an )"o 'arranto. E*ce#t as ot!er'ise #ro+i e $ t!e actions for ann"l(ent of ," g(ent s!all %e go+erne %y R"le 4-$ for certiorari$ #ro!i%ition an (an a("s %y R"le 6.$ an for )"o 'arranto %y R"le 66. SECTION /.Contents an filing of #etition0 effect of non1co(#liance 'it! re)"ire(ents. T!e #etition s!all contain t!e f"ll na(es an s!all contain t!e f"ll na(es an act"al a resses of all t!e #etitioners an res#on ents$ a concise state(ent of t!e (atters in+ol+e $ t!e fact"al %ac2gro"n of t!e case$ an t!e gro"n s relie "#on for t!e relief #raye for. It s!all %e file in se+en 3-4 clearly legi%le co#ies toget!er 'it! #roof of ser+ice t!ereof on t!e res#on ent 'it! t!e original co#y inten e for t!e co"rt in icate as s"c! %y t!e #etitioner$ an s!all %e acco(#anie %y a clearly legi%le "#licate original or certifie tr"e co#y of t!e ," g(ent$ or er$ resol"tion$ or r"ling s"%,ect t!ereof$ s"c! (aterial #ortions of t!e recor as are referre to t!erein$ an ot!er oc"(ents rele+ant or #ertinent t!ereto. T!e certification s!all %e acco(#lis!e %y t!e #ro#er cler2 of co"rt or %y !is "ly a"t!ori5e re#resentati+e$ or %y t!e #ro#er officer of t!e co"rt tri%"nal$ agency or office in+ol+e or %y !is "ly a"t!ori5e re#resentati+e. T!e ot!er re)"isite n"(%er of co#ies of t!e #etition s!all %e acco(#anie %y clearly legi%le #lain co#ies of all oc"(ents attac!e to t!e original. T!e #etitioner s!all also s"%(it toget!er 'it! t!e #etition a s'orn certification t!at !e !as not t!eretofore co((ence any ot!er action in+ol+ing t!e sa(e iss"es in t!e S"#re(e Co"rt$ t!e Co"rt of A##eals or ifferent i+isions t!ereof$ or any ot!er tri%"nal or agency0 if t!ere is s"c! ot!er action or #rocee ing$ !e ("st state t!e stat"s of t!e sa(e0 an if !e s!o"l t!ereafter learn t!at a si(ilar action or #rocee ing !as %een file or is #en ing %efore t!e S"#re(e Co"rt$ t!e Co"rt of A##eals$ or ifferent i+isions t!ereof$ or any ot!er tri%"nal or agency$ !e "n erta2es to #ro(#tly infor( t!e aforesai co"rts an ot!er tri%"nal or agency t!ereof 'it!in fi+e 3.4 ays t!erefro(. T!e #etitioner s!all #ay t!e corres#on ing oc2et an ot!er la'f"l fees to t!e cler2 of co"rt an e#osit t!e a(o"nt of 6.77.77 for costs at t!e ti(e of t!e filing of t!e #etition. T!e fail"re of t!e #etitioner to co(#ly 'it! any of t!e foregoing re)"ire(ents s!all %e s"fficient gro"n for t!e is(issal of t!e #etition. SECTION 4.8"ris iction o+er #erson of res#on ent$ !o' ac)"ire . T!e co"rt s!all ac)"ire ,"ris iction o+er t!e #erson of t!e res#on ent %y t!e ser+ice on !i( of its or er or resol"tion in icating its initial action on t!e #etition or %y !is +ol"ntary s"%(ission to s"c! ,"ris iction.

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


1 of 76

SECTION ..Action %y t!e co"rt. T!e co"rt (ay is(iss t!e #etition o"trig!t 'it! s#ecific reasons for s"c! is(issal or re)"ire t!e res#on ent to file a co((ent on t!e sa(e 'it!in ten 3174 ays fro( notice. Only #lea ings re)"ire %y t!e co"rt s!all %e allo'e . All ot!er #lea ings an #a#ers (ay %e file only 'it! lea+e of co"rt. SECTION 6.9eter(ination of fact"al iss"es. :!ene+er necessary to resol+e fact"al iss"es$ t!e co"rt itself (ay con "ct !earings t!ereon or elegate t!e rece#tion of t!e e+i ence on s"c! iss"es to any of its (e(%ers or to an a##ro#riate co"rt$ agency or office. SECTION -.Effect of fail"re to file co((ent. :!en no co((ent is file %y any of t!e res#on ents$ t!e case (ay %e eci e on t!e %asis of t!e recor $ 'it!o"t #re," ice to any isci#linary action '!ic! t!e co"rt (ay ta2e against t!e iso%e ient #arty. 9ecisional R"les: Rule 65 supplements Rule 46. In fine$ R"le 46 #ri(arily go+erns original actions for certiorari file in t!e Co"rt of A##eals %"t R"le 6. generally ser+es to s"##le(ent t!e sa(e. R"les 46 an 6. co1e*ist 'it! eac! ot!er an s!o"l %e constr"e so as to gi+e effect to e+ery #ro+ision of %ot! r"les. Un er R"le 46$ (ere "#licate originals of t!e assaile or ers are allo'e . T!e CA erre in is(issing t!e #etition on t!e gro"n t!at R"le 6. re)"ires t!e s"%(ission of certifie tr"e co#ies of t!e assaile or ers. 3Re#"%lic +. Car(el$ &77&4

B. RULE 50: Dismissal of Appeal SECTION 1.;ro"n s for is(issal of a##eal. An a##eal (ay %e is(isse %y t!e Co"rt of A##eals$ on its o'n (otion or on t!at of t!e a##ellee$ on t!e follo'ing gro"n s: 3a4 <ail"re of t!e recor on a##eal to s!o' on its face t!at t!e a##eal 'as ta2en 'it!in t!e #erio fi*e %y t!ese R"les0 3%4 <ail"re to file t!e notice of a##eal or t!e recor on a##eal 'it!in t!e #erio #rescri%e %y t!ese R"les0 3c4 <ail"re of t!e a##ellant to #ay t!e oc2et an ot!er la'f"l fees as #ro+i e in section 4 of R"le 410 3 4 Una"t!ori5e alterations$ o(issions or a itions in t!e a##ro+e recor on a##eal as #ro+i e in section 4 of R"le 440 3e4 <ail"re of t!e a##ellant to ser+e an file t!e re)"ire n"(%er of co#ies of !is %rief or (e(oran "( 'it!in t!e ti(e #ro+i e %y t!ese R"les0 3f4 A%sence of s#ecific assign(ent of errors in t!e a##ellant=s %rief$ or of #age references to t!e recor as re)"ire in section 1/$ #aragra#!s 3a4$ 3c4$ 3 4 an 3f4 of R"le 440 3g4 <ail"re of t!e a##ellant to ta2e t!e necessary ste#s for t!e correction or co(#letion of t!e recor 'it!in t!e ti(e li(ite %y t!e co"rt in its or er0 3!4 <ail"re of t!e a##ellant to a##ear at t!e #reli(inary conference "n er R"le 4> or to co(#ly 'it! or ers$ circ"lars$ or irecti+es of t!e co"rt 'it!o"t ,"stifia%le ca"se0 an 3i4 T!e fact t!at t!e or er or ," g(ent a##eale fro( is not a##eala%le. SECTION &.9is(issal of i(#ro#er a##eal to t!e Co"rt of A##eals. An a##eal "n er R"le 41 ta2en fro( t!e Regional Trial Co"rt to t!e Co"rt of

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


2 of 76

A##eals raising only )"estions of la' s!all %e is(isse $ iss"es #"rely of la' not %eing re+ie'a%le %y sai co"rt. Si(ilarly$ an a##eal %y notice of a##eal instea of %y #etition for re+ie' fro( t!e a##ellate ," g(ent of a Regional Trial Co"rt s!all %e is(isse . An a##eal erroneo"sly ta2en to t!e Co"rt of A##eals s!all not %e transferre to t!e a##ro#riate co"rt %"t s!all %e is(isse o"trig!t. SECTION /.:it! ra'al of a##eal. An a##eal (ay %e 'it! ra'n as of rig!t at any ti(e %efore t!e filing of t!e a##ellee=s %rief. T!ereafter$ t!e 'it! ra'al (ay %e allo'e in t!e iscretion of t!e co"rt. 9ecisional R"les:

Dismissal of Appeal discretionary. Contrary to #etitioners= assertion t!at$ on No+e(%er &&$ 1?66$ @it %eca(e its 3Co"rt of A##eals=4 (inisterial "ty to is(iss t!e a##eal an re(an t!e case for e*ec"tion to t!e Co"rt of origin$@ t!e Co"rt of A##eals !a $ "n er sai #ro+ision of t!e R"les of Co"rt$ discretion to is(iss or not to is(iss res#on ents= a##eal. Alt!o"g! sai iscretion ("st %e a so"n one$ to %e e*ercise in accor ance 'it! t!e tenets of ,"stice an fair #lay$ !a+ing in (in t!e circ"(stances o%taining in eac! case$ t!e #res"(#tion is t!at it !as %een so e*ercise . 36NA +. 6!ili##ine Billing$ 1?6?4 Appeal for Questions of law. 6etitioner a o#te t!e correct (o e of a##eal in ;.R. No. >>./4 %y filing 'it! t!is Co"rt a #etition to re+ie' on certiorari t!e ecision of t!e Regional Trial Co"rt of 6asig in Ci+il Case No. &..&> an raising t!erein #"rely )"estions of la'. T!e #ro#riety of t!e referral %y t!e S"#re(e Co"rt of t!e #etition in ;.R. No. >>./4 to t!e Co"rt of A##eals no' co(es to fore. :!ile it is tr"e t!at Circ"lar No. &1?7 no' #ro!i%its t!e transfer of a##eals erroneo"sly ta2en to t!e S"#re(e Co"rt or to t!e Co"rt of A##eals to '!ic!e+er of t!ese tri%"nals !as a##ro#riate a##ellate ,"ris iction$ as earlier isc"sse $ t!e instant #etition oes not in+ol+e an erroneo"s (o e of a##eal. 6aragra#! 43%4 of sai circ"lar s!o"l accor ingly a##ly. Cence$ '!ere$ as in t!e #resent case$ t!is Co"rt %elie+es t!at t!ere are fact"al iss"es '!ic! ("st %e resol+e $ it (ay$ in t!e e*ercise of its so"n iscretion an consi ering t!e atten ant circ"(stances$ eit!er itself ta2e cogni5ance of an eci e s"c! iss"es or refer t!e( to t!e Co"rt of A##eals for eter(ination. 3Atlas Consoli ate +. CA$ 1??14 Non-payment of docket fee ground for dismissal. Non#ay(ent of t!e a##ellate co"rt oc2et an ot!er la'f"l fees 'it!in t!e regle(entary #erio as #ro+i e "n er Section 4$ R"le 41$ supra, is a gro"n for t!e is(issal of an a##eal "n er Section 13c4 of R"le .7. T!is Co"rt !as in+aria%ly s"staine t!e CADs is(issal on tec!nical gro"n s "n er t!e afore)"ote #ro+ision "nless consi erations of e)"ity an s"%stantial ,"stice #resent cogent reasons to !ol ot!er'ise. Tr"e$ t!e r"les (ay %e rela*e %"t only for #ers"asi+e an 'eig!ty reasons$ to relie+e a litigant of an in,"stice co((ens"rate 'it! !is fail"re to co(#ly 'it! t!e #rescri%e #roce "re. 3C"1"n,ieng +. CA$ &7764 Cognate Rules As a general r"le$ in or inary a##eals$ e*ec"tion is staye t!e r"le or la' #ro+i es ot!er'ise. A(ong t!ese are:

"nless

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


3 of 76

314 9ecision in <orci%le Entry an Unla'f"l 9etainer$ "nless a##ellant stays i((e iate e*ec"tion %y filing a notice of a##eal$ supersedeas %on an e#ositing in co"rt a (ont!ly rental or co(#ensation for t!e occ"#ation as fi*e %y t!e co"rt '!ic! ren ere t!e ecision 3R"le -7$ Sec. 1?4 3&4 9ecision of t!e Betro#olitan$ B"nici#al or B"nici#al Circ"it Trial Co"rt or t!e Regional Trial Co"rt '!ere e*ec"tion #en ing a##eal !as %een grante %y t!e co"rt of origin or in a #ro#er case %y t!e a##ellate co"rt "#on goo reasons to %e state in t!e or er 3R"le /? Sec. &4 3/4 9ecision of t!e Regional Trial Co"rt ren ere in t!e e*ercise of its a##ellate ,"ris iction on cases trie an eci e %y t!e co"rt of origin "n er S"((ary 6roce "re 3Re+ise R"les on S"((ary 6roce "re$ Sec. &14 344 9ecision of E"asi18" icial Agencies "n er t!e R"les of Co"rt$ R"le 4/$ Section 1&$ "nless ot!er'ise #ro+i e for %y t!e Co"rt of A##eals0 3.4 9ecision in Cases of In,"nction$ Recei+ers!i#$ S"##ort an Acco"nting 3R"le /? Sec. 44 <ail"re to file a##ellantDs %rief 'it!in t!e regle(entary #erio nee not necessarily ca"se is(issal of a##eal '!ere t!e sa(e 'as "e to force (a,e"re$ i.e.$ #o'er %lac2o"ts '!ic! #re+ente co(#letion of t!e #rinting an a re)"est for e*tension 'as seasona%ly file $ 'it! t!e %rief t!ereafter act"ally file %y a##ellant !adasas "s. #A, $%&4' C. RULE 51. UD!"ENT SECTION 1. ()en case deemed su*mitted for +udgment.,A case s!all %e ee(e s"%(itte for ," g(ent: A. In or inary a##eals. 14 :!ere no !earing on t!e (erits of t!e (ain case is !el $ "#on t!e filing of t!e last #lea ing$ %rief$ or (e(oran "( re)"ire %y t!e R"les or %y t!e co"rt itself$ or t!e e*#iration of t!e #erio for its filing. &4 :!ere s"c! a !earing is !el $ "#on its ter(ination or "#on t!e filing of t!e last #lea ing or (e(oran "( as (ay %e re)"ire or #er(itte to %e file %y t!e co"rt$ or t!e e*#iration of t!e #erio for its filing. A. In original actions an #etitions for re+ie'. 14 :!ere no co((ent is file $ "#on t!e e*#iration of t!e #erio to co((ent. &4 :!ere no !earing is !el $ "#on t!e filing of t!e last #lea ing re)"ire or #er(itte to %e file %y t!e co"rt$ or t!e e*#iration of t!e #erio for its filing. /4 :!ere a !earing on t!e (erits of t!e (ain case is !el $ "#on its ter(ination or "#on t!e filing of t!e last #lea ing or

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


4 of 76

(e(oran "( as (ay %e re)"ire or #er(itte to %e file %y t!e co"rt$ or t!e e*#iration of t!e #erio for its filing. 3n4 SEC. &. -y w)om rendered.,T!e ," g(ent s!all %e ren ere %y t!e (e(%ers of t!e co"rt '!o #artici#ate in t!e eli%eration on t!e (erits of t!e case %efore its assign(ent to a (e(%er for t!e 'riting of t!e ecision. 3n4 SEC. /. Quorum and "oting in t)e court, T!e #artici#ation of all t!ree 8"stices of a i+ision s!all %e necessary at t!e eli%eration an t!e "nani(o"s +ote of t!e t!ree 8"stices s!all %e re)"ire for t!e #rono"nce(ent of a ," g(ent or final resol"tion. If t!e t!ree 8"stices o not reac! a "nani(o"s +ote$ t!e cler2 s!all enter t!e +otes of t!e issenting 8"stices in t!e recor . T!ereafter$ t!e C!air(an of t!e i+ision s!all refer t!e case$ toget!er 'it! t!e (in"tes of t!e eli%eration$ to t!e 6resi ing 8"stice '!o s!all esignate t'o 8"stices c!osen %y raffle fro( a(ong all t!e ot!er (e(%ers of t!e co"rt to sit te(#orarily 'it! t!e($ for(ing a s#ecial i+ision of fi+e 8"stices. T!e #artici#ation of all t!e fi+e (e(%ers of t!e s#ecial i+ision s!all %e necessary for t!e eli%eration re)"ire in section & of t!is R"le an t!e conc"rrence of a (a,ority of s"c! i+ision s!all %e re)"ire for t!e #rono"nce(ent of a ," g(ent or final resol"tion. 3&a4 SEC. 4. Disposition of a case.,T!e Co"rt of A##eals$ in t!e e*ercise of its a##ellate ,"ris iction$ (ay affir($ re+erse$ or (o ify t!e ," g(ent or final or er a##eale fro($ an (ay irect a ne' trial or f"rt!er #rocee ings to %e !a . 3/a4 SEC. .. .orm of decision.,E+ery ecision or final resol"tion of t!e co"rt in a##eale cases s!all clearly an istinctly state t!e fin ings of fact an t!e concl"sions of la' on '!ic! it is %ase $ '!ic! (ay %e containe in t!e ecision or final resol"tion itself$ or a o#te fro( t!ose set fort! in t!e ecision$ or er$ or resol"tion a##eale fro(. 3Sec. 47$ A6 Alg. 1&?4 3n4 SEC. 6. /armless error.,No error in eit!er t!e a (ission or t!e e*cl"sion of e+i ence an no error or efect in any r"ling or or er or in anyt!ing one or o(itte %y t!e trial co"rt or %y any of t!e #arties is gro"n for granting a ne' trial or for setting asi e$ (o ifying$ or ot!er'ise ist"r%ing a ," g(ent or or er$ "nless ref"sal to ta2e s"c! action a##ears to t!e co"rt inconsistent 'it! s"%stantial ,"stice. T!e co"rt at e+ery stage of t!e #rocee ing ("st isregar any error or efect '!ic! oes not affect t!e s"%stantial rig!ts of t!e #arties. 3.a4 SEC. -. 0udgment w)ere t)ere are se"eral parties.,In all actions or #rocee ings$ an a##eale ," g(ent (ay %e affir(e as to so(e of t!e a##ellants$ an re+erse as to ot!ers$ an t!e case s!all t!ereafter %e #rocee e 'it!$ so far as necessary$ as if se#arate actions !a %een %eg"n an #rosec"te 0 an e*ec"tion of t!e ," g(ent of affir(ance (ay %e !a accor ingly$ an costs (ay %e a ," ge in s"c! cases$ as t!e co"rt s!all ee( #ro#er. 364

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


5 of 76

SEC. >. Questions t)at may *e decided.,No error '!ic! oes not affect t!e ,"ris iction o+er t!e s"%,ect (atter or t!e +ali ity of t!e ," g(ent a##eale fro( or t!e #rocee ings t!erein 'ill %e consi ere "nless state in t!e assign(ent of errors$ or closely relate to or e#en ent on an assigne error an #ro#erly arg"e in t!e %rief$ sa+e as t!e co"rt (ay #ass "#on #lain errors an clerical errors. 3-a4 SEC. ?. !romulgation and notice of +udgment.,After t!e ," g(ent or final resol"tion an issenting or se#arate o#inions$ if any$ are signe %y t!e 8"stices ta2ing #art$ t!ey s!all %e eli+ere for filing to t!e cler2 '!o s!all in icate t!ereon t!e ate of #ro("lgation an ca"se tr"e co#ies t!ereof to %e ser+e "#on t!e #arties or t!eir co"nsel. 3n4 SEC. 17. 1ntry of +udgments and final resolutions.,If no a##eal or (otion for ne' trial or reconsi eration is file 'it!in t!e ti(e #ro+i e in t!ese R"les$ t!e ," g(ent or final resol"tion s!all fort!'it! %e entere %y t!e cler2 in t!e %oo2 of entries of ," g(ents. T!e ate '!en t!e ," g(ent or final resol"tion %eco(es e*ec"tory s!all %e ee(e as t!e ate of its entry. T!e recor s!all contain t!e is#ositi+e #art of t!e ," g(ent or final resol"tion an s!all %e signe %y t!e cler2$ 'it! a certificate t!at s"c! ," g(ent or final resol"tion !as %eco(e final an e*ec"tory. 3&a$ R/64 SEC. 11. 12ecution of ," g(ent. E*ce#t '!ere t!e ," g(ent or final or er or resol"tion$ or a #ortion t!ereof$ is or ere to %e i((e iately e*ec"tory$ t!e (otion for its e*ec"tion (ay only %e file in t!e #ro#er co"rt after its entry. In original actions in t!e Co"rt of A##eals$ its 'rit of e*ec"tion s!all %e acco(#anie %y a certifie tr"e co#y of t!e entry of ," g(ent or final resol"tion an a resse to any a##ro#riate officer for its enforce(ent. In a##eale cases$ '!ere t!e (otion for e*ec"tion #en ing a##eal is file in t!e Co"rt of A##eals at a ti(e t!at it is in #ossession of t!e original recor or t!e recor on a##eal$ t!e resol"tion granting s"c! (otion s!all %e trans(itte to t!e lo'er co"rt fro( '!ic! t!e case originate $ toget!er 'it! a certifie tr"e co#y of t!e ," g(ent or final or er to %e e*ec"te $ 'it! a irecti+e for s"c! co"rt of origin to iss"e t!e #ro#er 'rit for its enforce(ent. D. RULE 5#. "OTION FOR RECONSIDERATION

SECTION 1. !eriod for filing.,A #arty (ay file a (otion for reconsi eration of a ," g(ent or final resol"tion 'it!in fifteen 31.4 ays fro( notice t!ereof$ 'it! #roof of ser+ice on t!e a +erse #arty. 3n4 SEC. &. 3econd motion for reconsideration.,No secon (otion for reconsi eration of a ," g(ent or final resol"tion %y t!e sa(e #arty s!all %e entertaine . 3n4

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


6 of 76

SEC. /. Resolution of motion..,In t!e Co"rt of A##eals$ a (otion for reconsi eration s!all %e resol+e 'it!in ninety 3?74 ays fro($ t!e ate '!en t!e co"rt eclares it s"%(itte for resol"tion. 3n4 SEC. 4. 3tay of e2ecution.,T!e #en ency of a (otion for reconsi eration file on ti(e an %y t!e #ro#er #arty s!all stay t!e e*ec"tion of t!e ," g(ent or final resol"tion so"g!t to %e reconsi ere "nless t!e co"rt$ for goo reasons$ s!all ot!er'ise irect. 3n4 E. RULE 5$. NE% TRIAL

SECTION 1. !eriod for filing4 ground.,At any ti(e after t!e a##eal fro( t!e lo'er co"rt !as %een #erfecte an %efore t!e Co"rt of A##eals loses ,"ris iction o+er t!e case$ a #arty (ay file a (otion for a ne' trial on t!e gro"n of ne'ly isco+ere e+i ence '!ic! co"l not !a+e %een isco+ere #rior to t!e trial in t!e co"rt %elo' %y t!e e*ercise of "e iligence an '!ic! is of s"c! a c!aracter as 'o"l #ro%a%ly c!ange t!e res"lt. T!e (otion s!all %e acco(#anie %y affi a+its s!o'ing t!e facts constit"ting t!e gro"n s t!erefor an t!e ne'ly isco+ere e+i ence. 31a4 SEC. &. /earing and order.,T!e Co"rt of A##eals s!all consi er t!e ne' e+i ence toget!er 'it! t!at a "ce at t!e trial %elo'$ an (ay grant or ref"se a ne' trial$ or (ay (a2e s"c! or er$ 'it! notice to %ot! #arties$ as to t!e ta2ing of f"rt!er testi(ony$ eit!er orally in co"rt$ or %y e#ositions$ or ren er s"c! ot!er ," g(ent as o"g!t to %e ren ere "#on s"c! ter(s as it (ay ee( ,"st. 3&a4 SEC. /. Resolution of motion,5n t!e Co"rt of A##eals$ a (otion for ne' trial s!all %e resol+e 'it!in ninety 3?74 ays fro( t!e ate '!en t!e co"rt eclares it s"%(itte for resol"tion. 3n4 SEC. 4. !rocedure in new trialUnless t!e co"rt ot!er'ise irects$ t!e #roce "re in t!e ne' trial s!all %e t!e sa(e as t!at grante %y a Regional Trial Co"rt. 3/a4

F. RULE 5&. INTERNAL BUSINESS

SECTION 1. Distri*ution of cases among di"isions.,All t!e cases of t!e Co"rt of A##eals s!all %e allotte a(ong t!e ifferent i+isions t!ereof for !earing an ecision. T!e Co"rt of A##eals$ sitting en *anc, s!all (a2e #ro#er or ers or r"les to go+ern t!e allot(ent of cases a(ong t!e ifferent i+isions$ t!e constit"tion of s"c! i+isions$ t!e reg"lar rotation of 8"stices a(ong t!e($ t!e filing of +acancies occ"rring t!erein$ an ot!er (atters relating to t!e %"siness of t!e co"rt0 an s"c! r"les s!all contin"e in force "ntil re#eale or altere %y it or %y t!e S"#re(e Co"rt. 31a4 SEC. &. Quorum of t)e court.,A (a,ority of t!e act"al (e(%ers of t!e co"rt s!all constit"te a )"or"( for its sessions en *anc. T!ree

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


7 of 76

(e(%ers s!all constit"te a )"or"( for t!e sessions of a i+ision. T!e affir(ati+e +otes of t!e (a,ority of t!e (e(%ers #resent s!all %e necessary to #ass a resol"tion of t!e co"rt en *anc. T!e affir(ati+e +otes of t!ree (e(%ers of a i+ision s!all %e necessary for t!e #rono"nce(ent of a ," g(ent or final resol"tion$ '!ic! s!all %e reac!e in cons"ltation %efore t!e 'riting of t!e o#inion %y any (e(%er of t!e i+ision. 3Sec. 11$ first #ar. of A6 Alg. 1&?$ as a(en e %y Sec. 6 of EO //4. 3/a4 !. RULE 55.PUBLICATION RESOLUTIONS OF UD!"ENTS AND FINAL

SECTION 1. !u*lication.,T!e ," g(ents an final resol"tions of t!e co"rt s!all %e #"%lis!e in t!e Official ;a5ette an in t!e Re#orts officially a"t!ori5e %y t!e co"rt in t!e lang"age in '!ic! t!ey !a+e %een originally 'ritten$ toget!er 'it! t!e sylla%i t!erefor #re#are %y t!e re#orter in cons"ltation 'it! t!e 'riters t!ereof. Be(oran a of all ot!er ," g(ents an final resol"tions not so #"%lis!e s!all %e (a e %y t!e re#orter an #"%lis!e in t!e Official ;a5ette an t!e a"t!ori5e re#orts. 31a4 SEC. &. !reparation of opinions for pu*lication.,T!e re#orter s!all #re#are an #"%lis! 'it! eac! re#orte ," g(ent an final resol"tion a concise syno#sis of t!e facts necessary for a clear "n erstan ing of t!e case$ t!e na(es of co"nsel$ t!e (aterial an contro+erte #oints in+ol+e $ t!e a"t!orities cite t!erein$ an a sylla%"s '!ic! s!all %e confine to #oints of la'. 3Sec. &&a$ R.A. No. &?64 3n4 SEC. /. 6eneral make-up of "olumes.,T!e #"%lis!e ecisions an final resol"tions of t!e S"#re(e Co"rt s!all %e calle F6!ili##ine Re#orts$G '!ile t!ose of t!e Co"rt of A##eals s!all %e 2no'n as t!e FCo"rt of A##eals Re#orts.G Eac! +ol"(e t!ereof s!all contain a ta%le of t!e cases re#orte an t!e cases cite in t!e o#inions$ 'it! a co(#lete al#!a%etical in e* of t!e s"%,ect (atters of t!e +ol"(e. It s!all consist of not less t!an se+en !"n re $ #ages #rinte "#on goo #a#er$ 'ell %o"n an n"(%ere consec"ti+ely in t!e or er of t!e +ol"(es #"%lis!e . 3Sec. &/a$ R.A. No. &?64 3n4 PROCEDURE IN THE SUPRE"E COURT

A. Original Cases SECTION 1. 7riginal cases cogni8a*le.,Only #etitions for certiorari$ #ro!i%ition$ (an a("s$ )"o 'arranto$ !a%eas cor#"s$ isci#linary #rocee ings against (e(%ers of t!e ," iciary an attorneys$ an cases affecting a(%assa ors$ ot!er #"%lic (inisters an cons"ls (ay %e file originally in t!e S"#re(e Co"rt. 3n4 SEC. &. Rules applica*le.,T!e #roce "re in original cases for certiorari$ #ro!i%ition$ (an a("s$ )"o 'arranto an !a%eas cor#"s s!all %e in accor ance 'it! t!e a##lica%le #ro+isions of t!e

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


8 of 76

Constit"tion$ la's$ an R"les 46$ 4>$ 4?$ .1$ .& an t!is R"le$ s"%,ect to t!e follo'ing #ro+isions: a4 All references in sai R"les to t!e Co"rt of A##eals s!all %e "n erstoo to also a##ly to t!e S"#re(e Co"rt0 %4 T!e #ortions of sai R"les ealing strictly 'it! an s#ecifically inten e for a##eale cases in t!e Co"rt of A##eals s!all not %e a##lica%le0 an c4 Eig!teen 31>4 clearly legi%le co#ies of t!e #etition s!all %e file $ toget!er 'it! #roof of ser+ice on all a +erse #arties. T!e #rocee ings for isci#linary action against (e(%ers of t!e ," iciary s!all %e go+erne %y t!e la's an R"les #rescri%e t!erefor$ an t!ose against attorneys %y R"le 1/?1A$ as a(en e . 3n4 A. A##eale Cases SEC. /. 9ode of appeal,An a##eal to t!e S"#re(e Co"rt (ay %e ta2en only %y a #etition for re+ie' on certiorari$ e*ce#t in cri(inal cases '!ere t!e #enalty i(#ose is eat!$ reclusion perpetua or life i(#rison(ent. 3n4 SEC. 4. !rocedure.,T!e a##eal s!all %e go+erne %y an is#ose of in accor ance 'it! t!e a##lica%le #ro+isions of t!e Constit"tion$ la's$ R"les 4.$ 4>$ sections 1$ &$ an . to 11 of R"le .1$ .& an t!is R"le. 3n4 SEC. .. 6rounds for dismissal of appeal.,T!e a##eal (ay %e is(isse motu proprio or on (otion of t!e res#on ent on t!e follo'ing gro"n s: 3a4 <ail"re to ta2e t!e a##eal 'it!in t!e regle(entary

#erio 0

3%4

Lac2 of (erit in t!e #etition0

3c4 <ail"re to #ay t!e re)"isite oc2et fee an ot!er la'f"l fees or to (a2e a e#osit for costs0 3 4 <ail"re to co(#ly 'it! t!e re)"ire(ents regar ing #roof of ser+ice an contents of an t!e oc"(ents '!ic! s!o"l acco(#any t!e #etition0 3e4 <ail"re to co(#ly 'it! any circ"lar$ irecti+e or or er of t!e S"#re(e Co"rt 'it!o"t ,"stifia%le ca"se0 3f4 Error in t!e c!oice or (o e of a##eal0 an

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


9 of 76

3g4 T!e fact t!at t!e case is not a##eala%le to t!e S"#re(e Co"rt. 3n4 SEC. 6. Disposition of improper a##eal.E*ce#t as #ro+i e in section /$ R"le 1&& regar ing a##eals in cri(inal cases '!ere t!e #enalty i(#ose is eat!$ reclusion perpetua or life i(#rison(ent$ an a##eal ta2en to t!e S"#re(e Co"rt %y notice of a##eal s!all %e is(isse . An a##eal %y certiorari ta2en to t!e S"#re(e Co"rt fro( t!e Regional Trial Co"rt s"%(itting iss"es of fact (ay %e referre to t!e Co"rt of A##eals for ecision or a##ro#riate action. T!e eter(ination of t!e S"#re(e Co"rt on '!et!er or not iss"es of fact are in+ol+e s!all %e final. 3n4 SEC. -. !rocedure if opinion is e:ually di"ided.,:!ere t!e co"rt en *anc is e)"ally i+i e in o#inion$ or t!e necessary (a,ority cannot %e !a $ t!e case s!all again %e eli%erate on$ an if after s"c! eli%eration no ecision is reac!e $ t!e original action co((ence in t!e co"rt s!all %e is(isse 0 in a##eale cases$ t!e ," g(ent or or er a##eale fro( s!all stan affir(e 0 an on all inci ental (atters$ t!e #etition or (otion s!all %e enie . 311a4

&. After finality of ," g(ents or final or ers a. Relief for 8" g(ents or <inal Or ers 3R"le />4 Sec 1. 6etition for relief fro( ," g(ent$ or er$ or ot!er #rocee ings. :!en a ," g(ent or final or er is entere $ or any ot!er #rocee ing is t!ereafter ta2en against a #arty in any co"rt t!ro"g! fra" $ acci ent (ista2e$ or e*c"sa%le negligence$ !e (ay file a #etition in s"c! co"rt an in t!e sa(e case #raying t!at t!e ," g(ent$ or er or #rocee ing %e set asi e. Sec &. 6etition for relief fro( enial of a##eal. :!en a ," g(ent or final or er is ren ere %y any co"rt in a case$ an a #arty t!ereto$ %y fra" $ acci ent$ (ista2e$ or e*c"sa%le negligence$ !as %een #re+ente fro( ta2ing an a##eal$ !e (ay file a #etition in s"c! co"rt an in t!e sa(e case #raying t!at t!e a##eal %e gi+en "e co"rse. Sec /. Ti(e for filing #etition0 contents an +erification. A #etition #ro+i e for in eit!er of t!e #rece ing sections of t!is R"le ("st %e +erifie $ file 'it!in si*ty 3674 ays after t!e #etitioner learns of t!e ," g(ent$ final or er$ or ot!er #rocee ing to %e set asi e$ an not (ore t!an si* 364 (ont!s after s"c! ," g(ent or final or er 'as entere $ or s"c! #rocee ing 'as ta2en0 an ("st %e acco(#anie 'it! affi a+its s!o'ing t!e fra" $ acci ent$ (ista2e$ or e*c"sa%le negligence relie "#on$ an t!e facts constit"ting t!e #etitioner=s goo an s"%stantial ca"se of action or efense$ as t!e case (ay %e. Sec 4. Or er to file an ans'er. If t!e #etition is s"fficient in for( an s"%stance to ,"stify relief$ t!e co"rt in '!ic! it is file $ s!all iss"e an or er re)"iring t!e a +erse #arties to ans'er t!e sa(e 'it!in fifteen 31.4 ays fro( t!e recei#t t!ereof. T!e or er s!all %e ser+e in s"c!

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


10 of 76

(anner as t!e co"rt (ay irect$ toget!er 'it! co#ies of t!e #etition an t!e acco(#anying affi a+its. Sec .. 6reli(inary in,"nction #en ing #rocee ings. T!e co"rt in '!ic! t!e #etition is file $ (ay grant s"c! #reli(inary in,"nction as (ay %e necessary for t!e #reser+ation of t!e rig!ts of t!e #arties$ "#on t!e filing %y t!e #etitioner of a %on to t!e a +erse #arty$ con itione t!at if t!e #etition is is(isse or t!e #etitioner fails on t!e trial of t!e case "#on its (erits$ !e 'ill #ay t!e a +erse #arty all a(ages an costs t!at (ay %e a'ar e to !i( %y reason of t!e iss"ance of s"c! in,"nction or t!e ot!er #rocee ings follo'ing t!e #etition0 %"t s"c! in,"nction s!all not o#erate to isc!arge or e*ting"is! any lien '!ic! t!e a +erse #arty (ay !a+e ac)"ire "#on t!e #ro#erty of t!e #etitioner. Sec 6. 6rocee ings after ans'er is file . After t!e filing of t!e ans'er or t!e e*#iration of t!e #erio t!erefor$ t!e co"rt s!all !ear t!e #etition an if after s"c! !earing$ it fin s t!at t!e allegations t!ereof are not tr"e$ t!e #etition s!all %e is(isse 0 %"t if it fin s sai allegations to %e tr"e$ it s!all set asi e t!e ," g(ent or final or er or ot!er #rocee ing co(#laine of "#on s"c! ter(s as (ay %e ,"st. T!ereafter t!e case s!all stan as if s"c! ," g(ent$ final or er or ot!er #rocee ing !a ne+er %een ren ere $ iss"e or ta2en. T!e co"rt s!all t!en #rocee to !ear an eter(ine t!e case as if a ti(ely (otion for a ne' trial or reconsi eration !a %een grante %y it. Sec -. 6roce "re '!ere t!e enial of an a##eal is set asi e. :!ere t!e enial of an a##eal is set asi e$ t!e lo'er co"rt s!all %e re)"ire to gi+e "e co"rse to t!e a##eal an to ele+ate t!e recor of t!e a##eale case as if a ti(ely an #ro#er a##eal !a %een (a e. Cases: *** a #etition for relief is a s#ecial re(e y in '!ic! e)"ity an ,"stice ,"stify t!e grant to gi+e t!e #etitioner a last c!ance to efen !is rig!t or #rotect !is interest. It is a+aila%le only after a ecision or ," g(ent fro( '!ic! relief is so"g!t !as %eca(e final an e*ec"tory. *** #etition for relief "n er R"le /> is to %e a+aile of only in e*ce#tional cases$ an '!ere t!ere is anot!er re(e y at la'$ it s!o"l not %e allo'e to %e "se . T!e #etition for relief ("st %e acco(#anie 'it! an affi a+it s!o'ing t!e fra" $ acci ent$ (ista2e$ or e*c"sa%le negligence relie "#on$ an t!e facts constit"ting t!e #etitioner=s goo an s"%stantial ca"se of action or efense$ as t!e case (ay %e. T!e affi a+it of (erit ser+es as t!e ,"ris ictional %asis for t!e co"rt to entertain a #etition for relief. *** it is t!e affi a+it of (erit '!ic! ser+es as ,"ris ictional %asis for a co"rt to entertain a #etition for relief. A"t *** t!e r"le *** acce#ts certain e*ce#tions i.e. '!ere t!e attac!(ent of t!e affi a+it of (erit in t!e #etition for relief is "nnecessary. :e ta2e note t!at t!e affi a+it of (erit !as a 2no'n #"r#ose: co"rts s!o"l not re)"ire t!e (ac!inery of ,"stice to grin ane'$ if t!e #ros#ects of a ifferent concl"sion can not %e reasona%ly reac!e s!o"l t!e relief fro( ," g(ent %e grante . Ot!er'ise state $ t!e affi a+it of (erit is essential %eca"se a ne' trial 'o"l %e a 'aste of t!e co"rt=s ti(e if t!e co(#laint t"rne o"t to %e gro"n less or t!e efense ineffecti+e. T!"s$ '!ere t!ere 'as no ,"ris iction o+er t!e efen ant or t!e s"%,ect (atter of t!e action$ '!ere a ," g(ent 'as ta2en %y efa"lt %efore efen ant=s ti(e to ans'er !a e*#ire $ '!ere it 'as entere %y (ista2e$ or 'as

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


11 of 76

o%taine %y fra" $ an ot!er si(ilar cases$ as '!en t!e a##licant !a no notice of t!e trial$ 'e r"le t!at an affi a+it of (erit is "nnecessary. *** :!ere fra" is t!e gro"n for 6etition for Relief$ t!e fra" ("st %e e*trinsic or collateral. An t!e facts "#on '!ic! t!e e*trinsic fra" is %ase !a+e not %een contro+erte or resol+e in t!e case '!ere t!e ," g(ent so"g!t to %e ann"lle 'as ren ere . <or t!is #"r#ose$ fra" is regar e as e*trinsic or collateral '!ere it !as #re+ente a #arty fro( !a+ing a trial or fro( #resenting all of !is case to t!e co"rt. Intrinsic fra" ta2es t!e for( of acts of t!e #arty in a litigation "ring t!e trial$ s"c! as t!e "se of forge instr"(ents or #er,"re testi(ony '!ic! i not affect t!e #resentation of t!e case$ %"t i #re+ent a fair an ,"st eter(ination of t!e case. 6arcia "s. #A $%%$' T!e #etition s!o"l %e is(isse for lac2 of (erit %eca"se t!e fra" allege ly #er#etrate %y t!e #ri+ate res#on ent in AC1;.R. S6 No. 7//71 is only intrinsic in nat"re an not e*trinsic. <ra" is regar e as e*trinsic or collateral '!ere it !as #re+ente a #arty fro( !a+ing a trial or fro( #resenting all of !is case to t!e co"rt. #onde "s. 5A# $%;6' Un er Section 1$ R"le /> 3FSection 1G4$ t!e co"rt (ay grant relief fro( ," g(ent only FH'I!en a ," g(ent or final or er is entere $ or any ot!er #rocee ing is ta2en against a #arty in any co"rt t!ro"g! f'a()* a++i)e,-* mis-a.e* o' e/+(sa0le ,e1li1e,+e ***.G In t!eir #etition for relief fro( ," g(ent in t!e trial co"rt$ #etitioners conten e t!at ," g(ent 'as entere against t!e( t!ro"g! F(ista2e or fra" G %eca"se t!ey 'ere allege ly "n er t!e i(#ression t!at Atty. Ranot !a #re#are an file Ft!e necessary #lea ing.G T!is is not t!e fra" or (ista2e conte(#late "n er Section 1. As "se in t!at #ro+ision$ F(ista2eG refers to (ista2e of fact$ not of la'$ '!ic! relates to t!e case. F<ra" $G on t!e ot!er !an $ ("st %e e*trinsic or collateral$ t!at is$ t!e 2in '!ic! #re+ente t!e aggrie+e #arty fro( !a+ing a trial or #resenting !is case to t!e co"rt. Un er Section 1$ t!e FnegligenceG ("st %e e*c"sa%le an generally i(#"ta%le to t!e #arty %eca"se if it is i(#"ta%le to t!e co"nsel$ it is %in ing on t!e client. 3E"e +. CA$ &77.4 Negligence to %e e*c"sa%le ("st %e one '!ic! or inary iligence an #r" ence co"l not !a+e g"ar e against. 3LA6 +. Nati+i a $ &77.4 *** t!e relief #ro+i e for %y R"le /> *** is of e)"ita%le c!aracter an is allo'e only in e*ce#tional cases$ t!at is$ '!ere t!ere is no ot!er a+aila%le or a e)"ate re(e y. A #etition for relief is not regar e 'it! fa+or an ," g(ent 'ill not %e ist"r%e '!ere t!e #arty co(#laining !as$ or %y e*ercising #ro#er iligence 'o"l !a+e !a $ an a e)"ate re(e y at la'$ as in t!e #resent case '!ere #etitioner co"l !a+e #rocee e %y a##eal to +acate or (o ify t!e efa"lt ," g(ent. It is no cre ita%le arg"(ent t!at #etitioner s"##ose ly #referre res#on ent ," ge to correct !er o'n allege errors. Aeing a s#ecial re(e y$ a #etition for relief is a+aila%le only "n er e*ce#tional circ"(stances$ in '!ic! e)"ity an ,"stice 'ill #ro(#t t!e co"rt to gi+e t!e #etitioner a last c!ance to efen !is rig!t or to #rotect !is interest. E+en so$ t!e relief 'ill not %e grante to a #arty$ li2e t!e #etitioner$ '!en t!e loss of re(e y at la' 'as "e to !is

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


12 of 76

o'n negligence or a (ista2en (o e of #roce "re$ ot!er'ise$ t!e #etition for relief 'ill %e tanta(o"nt to re+i+ing t!e rig!t of a##eal '!ic! !a alrea y %een lost. 91RA<#7 "s. #A, $%%=' *** a #etition for relief 3fro( ," g(ent4 #res"##oses a final an "na##eala%le ," g(ent. >illa Rey ?ransit "s. .ar 1ast 9otor #o. $%&;' T!e filing of t!e #etition for relief fro( ," g(ent 'it! t!e trial co"rt 'as an "ne)"i+ocal a (ission on t!e #ri+ate res#on ent=s #art t!at !is #erio to a##eal fro( t!e ecision !a alrea y e*#ire . S"c! 'as t!e incontro+erti%le fact0 %esi es$ a #etition for relief fro( ," g(ent "n er R"le /> *** #res"##oses a final ," g(ent or loss of t!e rig!t to a##eal. Da"id "s. #A, $%%@' *** #etition for relief fro( ," g(ent 'as file o"t of ti(e. T!e r"les re)"ire t!at s"c! #etitions ("st %e file 'it!in si*ty ays after t!e #etitioner learns of t!e ," g(ent an not (ore t!an si* (ont!s after s"c! ," g(ent 'as entere 3R"le />$ Section /4. T!e #erio fi*e %y R"le /> *** is non1e*ten i%le an ne+er interr"#te . It is not s"%,ect to any con ition or contingency$ %eca"se it is itself e+ise to (eet a con ition or contingency. T!e re(e y allo'e %y R"le /> is an act of grace$ as it 'ere$ esigne to gi+e t!e aggrie+e #arty anot!er an last c!ance. Aeing in t!e #osition of one '!o %egs$ s"c! #arty=s #ri+ilege is not to i(#ose con itions$ !aggle or illy1 ally$ %"t to gra% '!at is offere !i(. .irst 5ntegrated -onding "s. /ernando, $%%$' :it! res#ect to t!e F#rocee ingsG in t!e Regional Trial Co"rts$ '!ic! can %e s"%,ect of #etitions for relief$ t!e ate '!en t!e #rocee ings 'ere ta2en controls Dirge "s. -iranya, $%66'. Also$ in ," g(ents "#on co(#ro(ise$ %eing i((e iately e*ec"tory$ #rescri#tion r"ns fro( t!e ate of its ren ition$ !ence t!e 61(ont!s #erio also r"ns t!erefro( -odiogran "s. #eni8a, $=@ !)il. &5='. As re+ise $ R"le /> ra ically e#arts fro( t!e #re+io"s r"le as it no' allo's t!e Betro#olitan or B"nici#al Trial Co"rt '!ic! eci e t!e case or iss"e t!e or er to !ear t!e #etition for relief. T!e #roce "ral c!ange in R"le /> is in line 'it! R"le .$ #rescri%ing "nifor( #roce "re for ("nici#al an regional trial co"rts an esignation of ("nici#alJ(etro#olitan trial co"rts as co"rts of recor . :!ile R"le /> "ses t!e #!rase Fany co"rtG$ it refers only to ("nici#alJ(etro#olitan an regional trial co"rts. 39esina ". 9eer, @==@' A #etition for relief is an initiatory #lea ing '!ere a #arty see2s relief %ase on gro"n s ifferent fro( t!ose in t!e original case$ na(ely$ fra" $ acci ent$ (ista2e or e*c"sa%le negligence. T!"s$ a certification against for"( s!o##ing s!o"l %e attac!e t!ereto. Norris ". !arentela, @==A' In Ser+ice S#ecialists$ Inc. +. S!eriff of Banila$ t!e Co"rt confir(e t!at @a ," g(ent or or er enying relief "n er R"le /> is final an a##eala%le$ "nli2e an or er granting s"c! relief '!ic! is interloc"tory.@ Cence$ ,"ris iction t!en #ro#erly %elonge to t!e CA. Co'e+er$ "n er t!e 1??- A(en e R"les of 6roce "re$ an or er enying a #etition for relief is no longer s"%,ect to a##eal. T!e aggrie+e #artyDs reco"rse is to file t!e a##ro#riate s#ecial ci+il action "n er R"le 6. of t!e A(en e R"les. -asco "s. #A, @===' T!ere is no (eans '!ere%y t!e efeate #arty (ay #roc"re a final an e*ec"tory ," g(ent to %e set asi e 'it! a +ie' to t!e rene'al of t!e litigation %eyon t!e #erio for see2ing relief fro( a final or er or ," g(ent "n er R"le />$ R"les of Co"rt$ "nless 3a4 t!e ," g(ent is

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


13 of 76

+oi for 'ant of ,"ris iction or for lac2 of "e #rocess of la'$ or 3%4 it !as %een o%taine %y fra" . Ramire8 "s. #A, $%%=' It is a*io(atic t!at t!ere is no ,"stification in la' an in fact for t!e reo#ening of a case '!ic! !as long %eco(e final an '!ic! !as in fact %een e*ec"te . Ti(e an again t!is Co"rt !as sai t!at t!e octrine of finality of ," g(ents is gro"n e on f"n a(ental consi eration of #"%lic #olicy an so"n #ractice t!at at t!e ris2 of occasional error t!e ," g(ents of co"rts ("st %eco(e final at so(e efinite ate fi*e %y la'. Al"enida "s. 5A# $%%=' 6etition for Certiorari 3R"le 6.$ infra4

%. c.

Ann"l(ent of 8" g(ent 3R"le 4-4 Sec 1. Co+erage. T!is R"le s!all go+ern t!e ann"l(ent %y t!e Co"rt of A##eals of ," g(ents or final or ers an resol"tions in ci+il actions of Regional Trial Co"rts for '!ic! t!e or inary re(e ies of ne' trial$ a##eal$ #etition for relief or ot!er a##ro#riate re(e ies are no longer a+aila%le t!ro"g! no fa"lt of t!e #etitioner. Sec &. ;ro"n s for ann"l(ent. T!e ann"l(ent (ay %e %ase only on t!e gro"n s of e*trinsic fra" an lac2 of ,"ris iction. E*trinsic fra" s!all not %e a +ali gro"n if it 'as a+aile of$ or co"l !a+e %een a+aile of$ in a (otion for ne' trial or #etition for relief. Sec /. 6erio for filing action. If %ase on e*trinsic fra" $ t!e action ("st %e file 'it!in fo"r 344 years fro( its isco+ery0 an if %ase on lac2 of ,"ris iction$ %efore it is %arre %y lac!es or esto##el. Sec 4. <iling an contents of #etition. T!e action s!all %e co((ence %y filing a +erifie #etition alleging t!erein 'it! #artic"larity t!e facts an t!e la' relie "#on for ann"l(ent$ as 'ell as t!ose s"##orting t!e #etitioner=s goo an s"%stantial ca"se of action or efense$ as t!e case (ay %e. T!e #etition s!all %e file in se+en 3-4 clearly legi%le co#ies$ toget!er 'it! co#ies$ toget!er 'it! s"fficient co#ies corres#on ing to t!e n"(%er of res#on ents. A certifie tr"e co#y of t!e ," g(ent or final or er or resol"tion s!all %e attac!e to t!e original co#y of t!e #etition inten e for t!e co"rt an in icate as s"c! %y t!e #etitioner. T!e #etitioner s!all also s"%(it$ toget!er 'it! t!e #etition affi a+its of 'itnesses or oc"(ents s"##orting t!e ca"se of action or efense an a s'orn certification t!at !e !as not t!erefore co((ence any ot!er action in+ol+ing t!e sa(e iss"es in t!e S"#re(e Co"rt$ t!e t!e Co"rt of A##eals or ifferent i+isions t!ereof$ or any ot!er tri%"nal or agency0 if t!ere is s"c! ot!er action or #rocee ing$ !e ("st state t!e stat"s of t!e sa(e$ an if !e s!o"l t!ereafter learn t!at a si(ilar action or #rocee ing !as %een file or is #en ing %efore t!e S"#re(e Co"rt$ t!e Co"rt of A##eals$ or ifferent i+isions t!ereof or any ot!er tri%"nal or agency$ !e "n erta2es to #ro(#tly infor( t!e aforesai co"rts an ot!er tri%"nal or agency t!ereof 'it!in fi+e 3.4 ays t!erefro(. Sec .. Action %y t!e co"rt. S!o"l t!e co"rt fin no s"%stantial (erit in t!e #etition$ t!e sa(e (ay %e is(isse o"trig!t 'it! s#ecific reasons for s"c! is(issal.

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


14 of 76

S!o"l #ri(a facie (erit %e fo"n in t!e #etition$ t!e sa(e s!all %e gi+en "e co"rse an s"((ons s!all %e ser+e on t!e res#on ent Sec 6. 6roce "re. T!e #roce "re in or inary ci+il cases s!all %e o%ser+e . S!o"l a trial %e necessary$ t!e rece#tion of t!e e+i ence (ay %e referre to a (e(%er of t!e co"rt or a ," ge of a Regional Trial Co"rt. Sec -. Effect of ," g(ent. A ," g(ent of ann"l(ent s!all set asi e t!e )"estione ," g(ent or final or er or resol"tion an ren er t!e sa(e n"ll an +oi $ 'it!o"t #re," ice to t!e original action %eing refile in t!e #ro#er co"rt. Co'e+er$ '!ere t!e ," g(ent or final or er or resol"tion is set asi e on t!e gro"n of e*trinsic fra" $ t!e co"rt (ay on (otion or er t!e trial co"rt to try t!e case as if a ti(ely (otion for ne' trial !a %een grante t!erein. Sec >. S"s#ension of #rescri#ti+e #erio . T!e #rescri#ti+e #erio for t!e refiling of t!e aforesai original action s!all %e ee(e s"s#en e fro( t!e filing of s"c! original action "ntil t!e finality of t!e ," g(ent of ann"l(ent. Co'e+er$ t!e #rescri#ti+e #erio s!all not %e s"s#en e '!ere t!e e*trinsic fra" is attri%"ta%le to t!e #laintiff in t!e original action. Sec ?. Relief a+aila%le. T!e ," g(ent of ann"l(ent (ay incl" e t!e a'ar of a(ages$ attorney=s fees an ot!er relief. If t!e )"estione ," g(ent or final or er or resol"tion !a alrea y %een e*ec"te $ t!e co"rt (ay iss"e s"c! or ers of restit"tion or ot!er relief as ,"stice an e)"ity (ay 'arrant "n er t!e circ"(stances. Sec 17. Ann"l(ent of ," g(ents or final or ers of B"nici#al Trial Co"rts. An action to ann"l a ," g(ent or final or er of a B"nici#al Trial Co"rt s!all %e file in t!e Regional Trial Co"rt !a+ing ,"ris iction o+er t!e for(er. It s!all %e treate as an or inary ci+il action an sections &$/$4$-$> an ? of t!is R"le s!all %e a##lica%le t!ereto. Cases: R"le 4- oes not a##ly to ann"l(ent of ," g(ents of t!e Co"rt of A##eals. In fact$ t!ere is no s"c! action sanctione %y t!e R"les of Co"rt. 36rande ". B!, @==6' *** alt!o"g! a #erson nee not %e a #arty to t!e ," g(ent so"g!t to %e ann"lle $ it is still essential t!at !e #ro+e !is allegation t!at t!e ," g(ent 'as o%taine %y t!e "se of fra" an coll"sion an !e 'o"l %e a +ersely affecte t!ere%y. <or fra" to ser+e as a %asis of ann"l(ent of ," g(ent$ it ("st %e e*trinsic or collateral. *** e*trinsic or collateral fra" !as %een e*#laine to (ean: @='!ere it is one t!e effect of '!ic! #re+ents a #arty fro( !a+ing a trial$ or real contest$ or fro( #resenting all of !is case to t!e co"rt$ or '!ere it o#erates "#on (atters #ertaining$ not to t!e ," g(ent itself$ %"t of t!e (anner in '!ic! it 'as #roc"re so t!at t!ere is not a fair s"%(ission of t!e contro+ersy.= In ot!er 'or s$ e*trinsic fra" refers to any fra" "lent act of t!e #re+ailing #arty in t!e litigation '!ic! is co((itte o"tsi e of t!e trial of t!e case$ '!ere%y t!e efeate #arty !as %een #re+ente fro( e*!i%iting f"lly !is si e of t!e case$ %y fra" or ece#tion #ractice on !i( %y !is o##onent.@*** Relief is grante on t!e t!eory t!at %y reason of t!e e*trinsic or collateral fra" #re+enting a #arty fro( !a+ing a trial or fro( f"lly trying !is

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


15 of 76

case$ t!ere !as ne+er %een a real contest %efore t!e co"rt of t!e s"%,ect (atter of t!e action. ?op 9anagement !rograms #o. ". #.A. $%%A' T!e r"ling of t!e lo'er co"rt t!at t!e (otion to set asi e t!e ," g(ent an t!e #etition for relief fro( ," g(ent 'ere file %eyon t!e regle(entary #erio is "ntena%le. An action to eclare t!e n"llity of a +oi ," g(ent oes not #rescri%e !aluwagan ng -ayan ". Cing, $%;%' T!e #etition for relief fro( ," g(ent 'as file %y #etitioners %eyon t!e regle(entary #erio #rescri%e %y R"le />$ Section /$ ***. Co'e+er$ inas("c! as t!e #etition 'as ai(e at ann"lling t!e <e%r"ary 1$ 1?-> ecision %ase on lac2 of ,"ris iction o+er #etitioners$ :e treat it as an action for ann"l(ent of ," g(ent. An $ an action to eclare t!e n"llity of a +oi ," g(ent oes not #rescri%e >da. De 9acoy ". #.A. $%%@' R"le 4- of t!e Re+ise R"les on Ci+il 6roce "re #ro+i es for t!e re(e y of ann"l(ent %y t!e Co"rt of A##eals of ," g(ents or final or ers an resol"tions in ci+il actions of Regional Trial Co"rts for '!ic! t!e or inary re(e ies of ne' trial$ a##eal$ #etition for relief or ot!er a##ro#riate re(e ies are no longer a+aila%le t!ro"g! no fa"lt of t!e #etitioner. T!e gro"n s for ann"l(ent are e*trinsic fra" an lac2 of ,"ris iction. Alt!o"g! #etitioners !a+e file a #etition for relief "n er R"le />$ t!ey are not %arre to file a #etition for ann"l(ent of ," g(ent %eca"se t!ey %ase t!eir action on lac2 of ,"ris iction$ not e*trinsic fra" 3See Sec. &4 Alma 0ose ". 5ntra 3trata, @==5' T!e negligence of #re+io"s co"nsel in !an ling t!e case is not$ as a general r"le$ e*trinsic fra" . De la #ru8 ". 3ison, @==5' Un er R"le 4-$ a #etition for ann"l(ent %ase on e*trinsic fra" ("st %e file 'it!in fo"r years fro( isco+ery. :!ile R"le 4- oes not e*#licitly re)"ire t!at a state(ent of (aterial ates s!o"l acco(#any t!e #etition$ ne+ert!eless$ t!ere ("st %e a (anifest s!o'ing in t!e #etition t!at it 'as file 'it!in t!e fo"r1year #erio . Conse)"ently$ t!e CA 'as rig!t in is(issing t!e #etition$ as it !a no %asis for eter(ining t!e ti(eliness of t!e filing of t!e #etition. Ramos ". #om*ong, @==5' Res#on entDs #etition for ann"l(ent is gro"n e on lac2 of ,"ris iction$ o'ing to t!e fail"re to i(#lea t!e in is#ensa%le #arties. T!e cite gro"n is a(#le %asis for ann"l(ent of ," g(ent. :e !a+e long !el t!at t!e ,oin er of all in is#ensa%le #arties is a con ition sine :ua non of t!e e*ercise of ," icial #o'er. T!e a%sence of an in is#ensa%le #arty ren ers all s"%se)"ent actions of t!e co"rt n"ll an +oi for 'ant of a"t!ority to act$ not only as to t!e a%sent #arties %"t e+en as to t!ose #resent. 7r*eta ". 3endiong, @==5' In t!is case$ t!e original #etition an t!e a(en e #etition in t!e Co"rt of A##eals$ in lig!t of t!e (aterial a+er(ents t!erein$ 'ere %ase not only on e*trinsic fra" $ %"t also on lac2 of ,"ris iction of t!e trial co"rt o+er t!e #erson of t!e #etitioner %eca"se of t!e fail"re of t!e s!eriff to ser+e on !er t!e s"((ons an a co#y of t!e co(#laint. S!e clai(e t!at t!e s"((ons an co(#laint 'ere ser+e on !er son$ Kenancio Bariano A. Anc!eta III$ '!o$ !o'e+er$ faile to gi+e !er t!e sai s"((ons an co(#laint. E+en a c"rsory rea ing of t!e (aterial a+er(ents of t!e original #etition an its anne*es 'ill s!o' t!at it is$ prima facie (eritorio"s0 !ence$ it s!o"l !a+e %een gi+en "e co"rse %y t!e Co"rt of A##eals. Anc)eta ". Anc)eta, @==4'

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


16 of 76

In a #etition for correction of entry$ t!e fail"re to i(#lea an intereste #arty is c"re %y t!e re)"ire(ent of notice %y #"%lication. Cence t!ere is no gro"n for ann"l(ent of ," g(ent a+aila%le to #etitioner. 3-arco ". #A, @==4' T!e inter#retation of t!e Re#"%lic contra+enes t!e +ery rationale of t!e restricti+e a##lication of ann"l(ent of ," g(ent. Ay see2ing to incl" e acts co((itte 'it! gra+e a%"se of iscretion$ it ten s to enlarge t!e conce#t of lac2 of ,"ris iction as a gro"n for t!e a+ail(ent of t!e re(e y. In a #etition for ann"l(ent of ," g(ent %ase on lac2 of ,"ris iction$ t!e #etitioner ("st s!o' not (erely an a%"se of ,"ris ictional iscretion %"t an a%sol"te lac2 of ,"ris iction. T!"s$ t!e conce#t of lac2 of ,"ris iction as a gro"n to ann"l a ," g(ent oes not e(%race a%"se of iscretion. 3 Repu*lic ". 6 /oldings, @==5'

2.

E2ECUTION OF UD!"ENTS AND FINAL ORDERS 3R(le $45 Sec 1. E*ec"tion "#on ," g(ents or final or ers. E*ec"tion s!all iss"e as a (atter of rig!t$ on (otion$ "#on a ," g(ent or or er t!at is#oses of t!e action or #rocee ing "#on t!e e*#iration of t!e #erio to a##eal t!erefro( if no a##eal !as %een "ly #erfecte . If t!e a##eal !as %een "ly #erfecte an finally resol+e $ t!e e*ec"tion (ay fort!'it! %e a##lie for in t!e co"rt of origin$ on (otion of t!e ," g(ent o%ligee$ s"%(itting t!ere'it! certifie tr"e co#ies of t!e ," g(ent or ," g(ents or final or er or or ers so"g!t to %e enforce an of t!e entry t!ereof$ 'it! notice to t!e a +erse #arty. T!e a##ellate co"rt (ay$ on (otion in t!e sa(e case$ '!en t!e interest of ,"stice so re)"ires$ irect t!e co"rt of origin to iss"e t!e 'rit of e*ec"tion. Sec &. 9iscretionary e*ec"tion. 3a4 E*ec"tion of a ," g(ent or final or er #en ing a##eal. On (otion of t!e #re+ailing #arty 'it! notice to t!e a +erse #arty file in t!e trial co"rt '!ile it !as ,"ris iction o+er t!e case an is in #ossession of eit!er t!e original recor or t!e recor on a##eal$ as t!e case (ay %e$ at t!e ti(e of t!e filing of s"c! (otion$ sai co"rt (ay$ in its iscretion$ or er e*ec"tion of a ," g(ent or final or er e+en %efore t!e e*#iration of t!e #erio to a##eal. After t!e trial co"rt !as lost ,"ris iction$ t!e (otion for e*ec"tion #en ing a##eal (ay %e file in t!e a##ellate co"rt. 9iscretionary e*ec"tion (ay only iss"e "#on goo s#ecial or er after "e !earing. 3%4 reasons to %e state in a

E*ec"tion of se+eral$ se#arate or #artial ," g(ents. A se+eral$ se#arate or #artial ," g(ent (ay %e e*ec"te "n er t!e sa(e ter(s an con itions as e*ec"tion of a ," g(ent or final or er #en ing a##eal.

Sec /. Stay of iscretionary e*ec"tion. 9iscretionary e*ec"tion iss"e "n er t!e #rece ing section (ay %e staye "#on t!e a##ro+al %y t!e #ro#er co"rt of a s"fficient s"#erse eas %on file %y t!e #arty against '!o( it is irecte $

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


17 of 76

con itione "#on t!e #erfor(ance of t!e ," g(ent or or er allo'e to %e e*ec"te in case it s!all %e finally s"staine in '!ole or in #art. T!e %on t!"s gi+en (ay %e #rocee e against on (otion 'it! notice to t!e s"rety. Sec 4. 8" g(ents not staye %y a##eal. 8" g(ents in actions for in,"nction$ recei+ers!i#$ acco"nting an s"##ort$ an s"c! ot!er ," g(ents as are no' or (ay !ereafter %e eclare to %e i((e iately e*ec"tory$ s!all %e enforcea%le after t!eir ren ition an s!all not %e staye %y an a##eal ta2en t!erefro($ "nless ot!er'ise or ere %y t!e trial co"rt. On a##eal t!erefro($ t!e a##ellate co"rt in its iscretion (ay (a2e an or er s"s#en ing$ (o ifying$ restoring or granting t!e in,"nction$ recei+ers!i#$ acco"nting$ or a'ar of s"##ort. T!e stay of e*ec"tion s!all %e "#on s"c! ter(s as to %on or ot!er'ise as (ay %e consi ere #ro#er for t!e sec"rity or #rotection of t!e rig!ts of t!e a +erse #arty. Sec .. Effect of re+ersal of e*ec"te ," g(ent. :!ere t!e e*ec"te ," g(ent is re+erse totally or #artially$ or ann"lle $ on a##eal or ot!er'ise$ t!e trial co"rt (ay$ on (otion$ iss"e s"c! or ers of restit"tion or re#aration of a(ages as e)"ity an ,"stice (ay 'arrant "n er t!e circ"(stances. Sec 6. E*ec"tion %y (otion or %y in e#en ent action. A final an e*ec"tory ," g(ent or or er (ay %e e*ec"te on (otion 'it!in fi+e 3.4 years fro( t!e ate of its entry. After t!e la#se of s"c! ti(e$ an %efore it is %arre %y t!e stat"te of li(itations$ a ," g(ent (ay %e enforce %y action. T!e re+i+e ," g(ent (ay also %e enforce %y (otion 'it!in fi+e 3.4 years fro( t!e ate of its entry an t!ereafter %y action %efore it is %arre %y t!e stat"te of li(itations. Sec -. E*ec"tion in case of eat! of #arty. In case of t!e eat! of a #arty$ e*ec"tion (ay iss"e or %e enforce in t!e follo'ing (anner: i. In case of t!e eat! of t!e ," g(ent o%ligee$ "#on t!e a##lication of !is e*ec"tor or a (inistrator$ or s"ccessor in interest0 ii. In case of t!e eat! of t!e ," g(ent o%ligor$ against !is e*ec"tor or a (inistrator or s"ccessor in interest$ if t!e ," g(ent %e for t!e reco+ery of real or #ersonal #ro#erty$ or t!e enforce(ent of a lien t!ereon0 iii. In case of t!e eat! of t!e ," g(ent o%ligor$ after e*ec"tion is act"ally le+ie "#on any of !is #ro#erty$ t!e sa(e (ay %e sol for t!e satisfaction of t!e ," g(ent o%ligation$ an t!e officer (a2ing t!e sale s!all acco"nt to t!e corres#on ing e*ec"tor or a (inistrator for any s"r#l"s in !is !an s. Sec >. Iss"ance$ for( an contents of a 'rit of e*ec"tion. T!e 'rit of e*ec"tion s!all: 314 iss"e in t!e na(e of t!e Re#"%lic of t!e 6!ili##ines fro( t!e co"rt '!ic! grante t!e (otion0 3&4 state t!e na(e of t!e co"rt$ t!e case n"(%er an title$ t!e is#ositi+e #art of t!e s"%,ect ," g(ent or or er0 an 3/4 re)"ire t!e s!eriff or ot!er #ro#er officer to '!o( it is irecte to enforce t!e 'rit accor ing to its ter(s$ in t!e (anner !ereinafter #ro+i e : 3a4 If t!e e*ec"tion %e against t!e #ro#erty of t!e ," g(ent o%ligor$ to satisfy t!e ," g(ent$ to satisfy t!e ," g(ent$ 'it! interest$ o"t of t!e real or #ersonal #ro#erty of s"c! ," g(ent o%ligor0 3%4 If it %e against real or #ersonal #ro#erty in t!e !an s of #ersonal re#resentati+es$ !eirs$ e+isees$ legatees$ tenants$ or tr"stees of t!e ," g(ent o%ligor0 to satisfy t!e ," g(ent$ 'it! interest$ o"t of s"c! #ro#erty0

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


18 of 76

3c4 If it %e for t!e sale of real or #ersonal #ro#erty$ to sell s"c! #ro#erty$ escri%ing it$ an a##ly t!e #rocee s in confor(ity 'it! t!e ," g(ent$ t!e (aterial #arts of '!ic! s!all %e recite in t!e 'rit of e*ec"tion0 3 4 If it %e for t!e eli+ery of t!e #ossession of real or #ersonal #ro#erty$ to eli+er t!e #ossession of t!e sa(e$ escri%ing it$ to t!e #arty entitle t!ereto$ an to satisfy any costs$ a(ages$ rents$ or #rofits co+ere %y t!e ," g(ent o"t of t!e #ersonal #ro#erty of t!e #erson against '!o( it 'as ren ere $ an if s"fficient #ersonal #ro#erty cannot %e fo"n $ t!en o"t of t!e real #ro#erty0 an 3e4 In all cases$ t!e 'rit of e*ec"tion s!all s#ecifically state t!e a(o"nt of t!e interest$ costs$ a(ages$ rents$ or #rofits "e as of t!e ate of t!e iss"ance of t!e 'rit$ asi e fro( t!e #rinci#al o%ligation "n er t!e ," g(ent. <or t!is #"r#ose$ t!e (otion for e*ec"tion s!all s#ecify t!e a(o"nts of t!e foregoing reliefs so"g!t %y t!e (o+ant. Sec ?. E*ec"tion of ," g(ents for (oney$ !o' enforce . 3a4 I((e iate #ay(ent on e(an . T!e officer s!all enforce an e*ec"tion of a ," g(ent for (oney %e e(an ing fro( t!e ," g(ent o%ligor t!e i((e iate #ay(ent of t!e f"ll a(o"nt state in t!e 'rit of e*ec"tion an all la'f"l fees. T!e ," g(ent o%ligor s!all #ay in cas!$ certifie %an2 c!ec2 #aya%le to t!e ," g(ent o%ligee$ or any ot!er for( of #ay(ent acce#ta%le to t!e latter$ t!e a(o"nt of t!e ," g(ent e%t "n er #ro#er recei#t irectly to t!e ," g(ent o%ligee or !is a"t!ori5e re#resentati+e if #resent at t!e ti(e of #ay(ent. T!e la'f"l fees s!all %e !an e "n er #ro#er recei#t to t!e e*ec"ting s!eriff '!o s!all t"rn o+er t!e sai a(o"nt 'it!in t!e sa(e ay to t!e cler2 of co"rt of t!e co"rt t!at iss"e t!e 'rit. If t!e ," g(ent o%ligee or !is a"t!ori5e re#resentati+e is not #resent to recei+e #ay(ent$ t!e ," g(ent o%ligor s!all eli+er t!e aforesai #ay(ent to t!e e*ec"ting s!eriff. T!e latter s!all t"rn o+er all t!e a(o"nts co(ing into !is #ossession 'it!in t!e sa(e ay to t!e cler2 of co"rt of t!e co"rt t!at iss"e t!e 'rit$ or if t!e sa(e is not #ractica%le$ e#osit sai a(o"nts to a fi "ciary acco"nt in t!e nearest go+ern(ent e#ository %an2 of t!e Regional Trial Co"rt of t!e locality. T!e cler2 of sai co"rt s!all t!ereafter arrange for t!e re(ittance of t!e e#osit to t!e acco"nt of t!e co"rt t!at iss"e t!e 'rit '!ose cler2 of co"rt s!all t!en eli+er sai #ay(ent to t!e ," g(ent o%ligee in satisfaction of t!e ," g(ent. T!e e*cess$ if any$ s!all %e eli+ere to t!e ," g(ent o%ligor '!ile t!e la'f"l fees s!all %e retaine %y t!e cler2 of co"rt for is#osition as #ro+i e %y la'. In no case s!all t!e e*ec"ting s!eriff e(an t!at any #ay(ent %y c!ec2 %e (a e #aya%le to !i(. 3%4 Satisfaction %y le+y. If t!e ," g(ent o%ligor cannot #ay all or #art of t!e o%ligation in cas!$ certifie %an2 c!ec2 or ot!er (o e of #ay(ent acce#ta%le to t!e ," g(ent o%ligee$ t!e officer s!all le+y "#on t!e #ro#erties of t!e ," g(ent o%ligor of e+ery 2in an nat"re '!atsoe+er '!ic! (ay %e is#ose of for +al"e an not ot!er'ise e*e(#t fro( e*ec"tion gi+ing t!e latter t!e o#tion to i((e iately c!oose '!ic! #ro#erty or #art t!ereof (ay %e le+ie "#on$ s"fficient to satisfy t!e ," g(ent. If t!e ," g(ent o%ligor oes not e*ercise t!e o#tion t!e officer s!all first le+y on t!e #ersonal #ro#erties$ it any$ an t!en on t!e real #ro#erties if t!e #ersonal #ro#erties are ins"fficient to ans'er for t!e ," g(ent. T!e s!eriff s!all sell only a s"fficient #ortion of t!e #ersonal or real #ro#erty of t!e ," g(ent o%ligor '!ic! !as %een le+ie "#on.

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


19 of 76

:!en t!ere is (ore #ro#erty of t!e ," g(ent o%ligor t!an is s"fficient to satisfy t!e ," g(ent an la'f"l fees$ !e ("st sell only so ("c! of t!e #ersonal or real #ro#erty as is s"fficient to satisfy t!e ," g(ent an la'f"l fees. Real #ro#erty$ stoc2s$ s!ares$ e%ts$ cre its$ an ot!er #ersonal #ro#erty$ or any interest in eit!er real or #ersonal #ro#erty$ (ay %e le+ie "#on in li2e (anner an 'it! li2e effects as "n er a 'rit of attac!(ent. 3c4 ;arnis!(ent of e%ts an cre its. T!e officer (ay le+y on e%ts "e t!e ," g(ent o%ligor an ot!er cre its$ incl" ing %an2 e#osits$ financial interests$ royalties$ co((issions an ot!er #ersonal #ro#erty not ca#a%le of (an"al eli+ery in t!e #ossession or control of t!ir #arties. Le+y s!all %e (a e %y ser+ing notice "#on t!e #erson o'ing s"c! e%ts or !a+ing in !is #ossession or control s"c! cre its to '!ic! t!e ," g(ent o%ligor is entitle . T!e garnis!(ent s!all co+er only s"c! a(o"nt as 'ill satisfy t!e ," g(ent an all la'f"l fees. T!e garnis!ee s!all (a2e a 'ritten re#ort to t!e co"rt 'it!in fi+e 3.4 ays fro( ser+ice of t!e notice of garnis!(ent stating '!et!er or not t!e ," g(ent o%ligor !as s"fficient f"n s or cre its to satisfy t!e a(o"nt of t!e ," g(ent. If not$ t!e re#ort s!all state !o' ("c! f"n s or cre its t!e garnis!ee !ol s for t!e ," g(ent o%ligor. T!e garnis!e a(o"nt in cas!$ or certifie %an2 c!ec2 iss"e in t!e na(e of t!e ," g(ent o%ligee$ s!all %e eli+ere irectly to t!e ," g(ent o%ligee 'it!in ten 3174 'or2ing ays fro( ser+ice of notice on sai garnis!ee re)"iring s"c! eli+ery$ e*ce#t t!e la'f"l fees '!ic! s!all %e #ai irectly to t!e co"rt. In t!e e+ent t!ere are t'o or (ore garnis!ees !ol ing e#osits s"fficient to satisfy t!e ," g(ent$ t!e ," g(ent o%ligor$ if a+aila%le$ t!e rig!t to in icate t!e garnis!ee or garnis!ees '!o s!all %e re)"ire t!e a(o"nt "e0 ot!er'ise$ t!e c!oice s!all %e (a e %y t!e ," g(ent or cre its s!all !a+e to eli+er o%ligee.

T!e e*ec"ting s!eriff s!all o%ser+e t!e sa(e #roce "re "n er #aragra#! 3a4 'it! res#ect to eli+ery of #ay(ent to t!e ," g(ent o%ligee. Sec 17. E*ec"tion of ," g(ents for s#ecific act. 3a4 Con+eyance$ eli+ery of ee s$ or ot!er s#ecific acts0 +esting title. If a ," g(ent irects a #arty to e*ec"te a con+eyance of lan or #ersonal #ro#erty$ or to eli+er ee s or ot!er oc"(ents$ or to #erfor( any ot!er s#ecific act in connection t!ere'it!$ an t!e #arty fails to co(#ly 'it!in t!e ti(e s#ecifie $ t!e co"rt (ay irect t!e act to %e one at t!e cost of t!e iso%e ient #arty %y so(e ot!er #erson a##ointe %y t!e co"rt an t!e act '!en so one s!all !a+e li2e effects as if one %y t!e #arty. If real or #ersonal #ro#erty is sit"ate 'it!in t!e 6!ili##ines$ t!e co"rt in lie" of irecting a con+eyance t!ereof (ay %y an or er i+est t!e title of any #arty an +est it in ot!ers$ '!ic! s!all !a+e t!e force an effect of a con+eyance e*ec"te in "e for( of la'. 3%4 Sale of real or #ersonal #ro#erty. If t!e ," g(ent %e for t!e sale of real or #ersonal #ro#erty$ to sell s"c! #ro#erty$ escri%ing it$ an a##ly t!e #rocee s in confor(ity 'it! t!e ," g(ent. 3c4 9eli+ery or restit"tion of real #ro#erty. T!e officer s!all e(an of t!e #erson against '!o( t!e ," g(ent for t!e eli+ery or restit"tion of real #ro#erty is ren ere an all #ersons clai(ing rig!ts "n er !i( to #eacea%ly +acate t!e #ro#erty 'it!in t!ree 3/4 'or2ing ays$ an restore #ossession t!ereof to t!e ," g(ent o%ligee0 ot!er'ise$ t!e officer s!all o"st all s"c! #ersons t!erefro( 'it! t!e assistance$ if necessary$ of a##ro#riate #eace officers$ an e(#loying

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


20 of 76

s"c! (eans as (ay %e reasona%ly necessary to reta2e #ossession$ an #lace t!e ," g(ent o%ligee in #ossession of s"c! #ro#erty. Any costs$ a(ages$ rents or #rofits a'ar e %y t!e ," g(ent s!all %e satisfie in t!e sa(e (anner as a ," g(ent for (oney. 3 4 Re(o+al of i(#ro+e(ents on #ro#erty s"%,ect of e*ec"tion. :!en t!e #ro#erty s"%,ect of t!e e*ec"tion contains i(#ro+e(ents constr"cte or #lante %y t!e ," g(ent o%ligor or !is agent$ t!e officer s!all not estroy$ e(olis! or re(o+e sai i(#ro+e(ents e*ce#t "#on s#ecial or er of t!e co"rt$ iss"e "#on (otion of t!e ," g(ent o%ligee after "e !earing an after t!e for(er !as faile to re(o+e t!e sa(e 'it!in a reasona%le ti(e fi*e %y t!e co"rt. 3e4 9eli+ery of #ersonal #ro#erty. In ," g(ents for t!e eli+ery of #ersonal #ro#erty$ t!e officer s!all ta2e #ossession of t!e sa(e an fort!'it! eli+er it to t!e #arty entitle t!ereto an satisfy any ," g(ent for (oney as t!erein #ro+i e . Sec 11. E*ec"tion of s#ecial ," g(ents. :!en a ," g(ent re)"ires t!e #erfor(ance of any act ot!er t!an t!ose (entione in t!e t'o #rece ing sections$ a certifie co#y of t!e ," g(ent s!all %e attac!e to t!e 'rit of e*ec"tion an s!all %e ser+e %y t!e officer "#on t!e #arty against '!o( t!e sa(e is ren ere $ or "#on any ot!er #erson re)"ire t!ere%y$ or %y la'$ to o%ey t!e sa(e$ an s"c! #arty or #erson (ay %e #"nis!e for conte(#t if !e iso%eys s"c! ," g(ent. Sec 1&. Effect of le+y on e*ec"tion as to t!ir #ersons. T!e le+y on e*ec"tion s!all create a lien in fa+or of t!e ," g(ent o%ligee o+er t!e rig!t$ title an interest of t!e ," g(ent o%ligor in s"c! #ro#erty at t!e ti(e of t!e le+y$ s"%,ect to liens an enc"(%rances t!en e*isting. Sec 1/. 6ro#erty e*e(#t fro( e*ec"tion. E*ce#t as ot!er'ise e*#ressly #ro+i e %y la'$ t!e follo'ing #ro#erty$ an no ot!er$ s!all %e e*e(#t fro( e*ec"tion: 3a4 T!e ," g(ent o%ligor=s fa(ily !o(e as #ro+i e %y la'$ or t!e !o(estea in '!ic! !e resi es$ an lan necessarily "se in connection t!ere'it!0 3%4 Or inary tools an i(#le(ents #ersonally "se %y !i( in !is tra e$ e(#loy(ent$ or li+eli!oo 0 3c4 T!ree !orses$ or t!ree co's$ or t!ree cara%aos$ or ot!er %easts of %"r en$ s"c! as t!e ," g(ent o%ligor (ay select necessarily "se %y !i( in !is or inary occ"#ation0 3 4 Cis necessary clot!ing$ an articles for or inary #ersonal "se$ e*cl" ing ,e'elry0 3e4 Co"se!ol f"rnit"re an "tensils necessary for !o"se2ee#ing$ an "se for t!at #"r#ose %y t!e ," g(ent o%ligor an !is fa(ily$ s"c! as t!e ," g(ent o%ligor (ay select of a +al"e not e*cee ing one !"n re t!o"san #esos0 3f4 6ro+isions for in i+i "al or fa(ily "se s"fficient for fo"r (ont!s0 3g4 T!e #rofessional li%raries an e)"i#(ent of ," ges$ la'yers$ #!ysicians$ #!ar(acists$ entists$ engineers$ s"r+eyors$ clergy(en$ teac!ers$ an ot!er #rofessionals$ not e*cee ing t!ree t!o"san #esos in +al"e0 3!4 One fis!ing %oat an accessories not e*cee ing t!e total +al"e of one !"n re t!o"san #esos o'ne %y a fis!er(an an %y t!e la'f"l "se of '!ic! !e earns !is li+eli!oo 0 3i4 So ("c! of t!e salaries$ 'ages$ or earnings of t!e ," g(ent o%ligor for !is #ersonal ser+ices 'it!in t!e fo"r (ont!s #rece ing t!e le+y as are necessary for t!e s"##ort of !is fa(ily0

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


21 of 76

3,4 Lettere gra+estones0 324 Bonies$ %enefits$ #ri+ileges$ or ann"ities accr"ing or in any (anner gro'ing o"t of any life ins"rance0 3l4 T!e rig!t to recei+e legal s"##ort$ or (oney or #ro#erty o%taine as s"c! s"##ort$ or any #ension or grat"ity fro( t!e ;o+ern(ent0 3(4 6ro#erties es#ecially e*e(#te %y la'. A"t no article or s#ecies of #ro#erty (entione in t!is section s!all %e e*e(#t fro( e*ec"tion iss"e "#on a ," g(ent reco+ere for its #rice or "#on a ," g(ent of foreclos"re of a (ortgage t!ereon. Sec 14. Ret"rn of 'rit of e*ec"tion. T!e 'rit of e*ec"tion s!all %e ret"rna%le to t!e co"rt iss"ing it i((e iately after t!e ," g(ent !as %een satisfie in #art or in f"ll. If t!e ," g(ent cannot %e satisfie in f"ll 'it!in t!irty 3/74 ays after !is recei#t of t!e 'rit$ t!e officer s!all re#ort to t!e co"rt an state t!e reason t!erefor. S"c! 'rit s!all contin"e in effect "ring t!e #erio 'it!in '!ic! t!e ," g(ent (ay %e enforce %y (otion. T!e officer s!all (a2e a re#ort to t!e co"rt e+ery t!irty 3/74 ays on t!e #rocee ings ta2en t!ereon "ntil t!e ," g(ent is satisfie in f"ll$ or its effecti+ity e*#ires. T!e ret"rns or #erio ic re#orts s!all set fort! t!e '!ole of t!e #rocee ings ta2en$ an s!all %e file 'it! t!e co"rt an co#ies t!ereof #ro(#tly f"rnis!e t!e #arties. Sec 1.. Notice of sale of #ro#erty on e*ec"tion. Aefore t!e sale of #ro#erty on e*ec"tion$ notice t!ereof ("st %e gi+en as follo's: 3a4 In case of #eris!a%le #ro#erty$ %y #osting 'ritten notice of t!e ti(e an #lace of t!e sale in t!ree 3/4 #"%lic #laces$ #refera%ly in cons#ic"o"s areas of ("nici#al or city !all$ #ost office an #"%lic (ar2et in t!e ("nici#ality or city '!ere t!e sale is to ta2e #lace$ for s"c! ti(e as (ay %e reasona%le$ consi ering t!e c!aracter an con ition of t!e #ro#erty0 3%4 In case of ot!er #ersonal #ro#erty$ %y #osting a si(ilar notice in t!e t!ree 3/4 #"%lic #laces a%o+e1(entione for not less t!an fi+e 3.4 ays0 3c4 In case of real #ro#erty$ %y #osting for t'enty 3&74 ays in t!ree 3/4 #"%lic #laces a%o+e1(entione a si(ilar notice #artic"larly escri%ing t!e #ro#erty an stating '!ere t!e #ro#erty is to %e sol $ an if t!e assesse +al"e of t!e #ro#erty e*cee s fifty t!o"san 36.7$777.774 #esos$ %y #"%lis!ing a co#y of t!e notice once a 'ee2 for t'o 3&4 consec"ti+e 'ee2s in one ne's#a#er selecte %y raffle$ '!et!er in Englis!$ <ili#ino$ or any (a,or regional lang"age #"%lis!e $ e ite an circ"late or$ in t!e a%sence t!ereof$ !a+ing general circ"lation in t!e #ro+ince or city0 3 4 In all cases$ 'ritten notice of t!e sale s!all %e gi+en to t!e ," g(ent o%ligor$ at least t!ree 3/4 ays %efore t!e sale$ e*ce#t as #ro+i e in #aragra#! 3a4 !ereof '!ere notice s!all %e gi+en at any ti(e %efore t!e sale$ in t!e sa(e (anner as #ersonal ser+ice of #lea ings an ot!er #a#ers as #ro+i e %y section 6 of R"le 1/. T!e notice s!all s#ecify t!e #lace$ ate an e*act ti(e of t!e sale '!ic! s!o"l not %e earlier t!an nine o=cloc2 in t!e (orning an not later t!an t'o o=cloc2 in t!e afternoon. T!e #lace of t!e sale (ay %e agree "#on %y t!e #arties. In t!e a%sence of s"c! agree(ent$ t!e sale of real #ro#erty or #ersonal #ro#erty not ca#a%le of (an"al eli+ery s!all %e !el in t!e office of t!e cler2 of co"rt of t!e Regional Trial Co"rt or t!e B"nici#al Trial Co"rt '!ic! iss"e t!e 'rit or '!ic! 'as esignate %y t!e a##ellate co"rt. In t!e

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


22 of 76

case of #ersonal #ro#erty ca#a%le of (an"al in t!e #lace '!ere t!e #ro#erty is locate .

eli+ery$ t!e sale s!all %e !el

Sec 16. 6rocee ings '!ere #ro#erty clai(e %y t!ir #erson. If t!e #ro#erty le+ie on is clai(e %y any #erson ot!er t!an t!e ," g(ent o%ligor or !is agent$ an s"c! #erson (a2es an affi a+it of !is title t!ereto or rig!t to t!e #ossession t!ereof$ stating t!e gro"n s of s"c! rig!t or title$ an ser+es t!e sa(e "#on t!e officer (a2ing t!e le+y an a co#y t!ereof "#on t!e ," g(ent o%ligee$ t!e officer s!all not %e %o"n to 2ee# t!e #ro#erty$ "nless s"c! ," g(ent o%ligee$ on e(an of t!e officer$ files a %on a##ro+e %y t!e co"rt to in e(nify t!e t!ir 1#arty clai(ant in a s"( not less t!an t!e +al"e of t!e #ro#erty le+ie on. In case of isagree(ent as to s"c! +al"e$ t!e sa(e s!all %e eter(ine %y t!e co"rt iss"ing t!e 'rit of e*ec"tion. No clai( for a(ages for t!e ta2ing or 2ee#ing of t!e #ro#erty (ay %e enforce against t!e %on "nless t!e action t!erefor is file 'it!in one !"n re t'enty 31&74 ays fro( t!e ate of t!e filing of t!e %on . T!e officer s!all not %e lia%le for a(ages for t!e ta2ing or 2ee#ing of t!e #ro#erty$ to any t!ir 1#arty clai(ant if s"c! %on is file . Not!ing !erein containe s!all #re+ent s"c! clai(ant or any t!ir #erson fro( +in icating !is clai( to t!e #ro#erty in a se#arate action$ or #re+ent t!e ," g(ent o%ligee fro( clai(ing a(ages in t!e sa(e or a se#arate action against a t!ir 1#arty clai(ant '!o file a fri+olo"s or #lainly s#"rio"s clai(. :!en t!e 'rit of e*ec"tion is iss"e in fa+or of t!e Re#"%lic of t!e 6!ili##ines$ or any officer "ly re#resenting it$ t!e filing of s"c! %on s!all not %e re)"ire $ an in case t!e s!eriff or le+ying officer is s"e for a(ages as a res"lt of t!e le+y$ !e s!all %e re#resente %y t!e Solicitor ;eneral an if !el lia%le t!erefor$ t!e act"al a(ages a ," ge %y t!e co"rt s!all %e #ai %y t!e National Treas"rer o"t of s"c! f"n s as (ay %e a##ro#riate for t!e #"r#ose. SECTION 1-. 6enalty for selling 'it!o"t notice$ or re(o+ing or efacing notice. An officer selling 'it!o"t t!e notice #rescri%e %y section 1. of t!is R"le s!all %e lia%le to #ay #"niti+e a(ages in t!e a(o"nt of fi+e t!o"san 36.$777.774 #ersons to any #erson in,"re t!ere%y$ in a ition to !is act"al a(ages$ %ot! to %e reco+ere %y (otion in t!e sa(e action0 an a #erson 'illf"lly re(o+ing a efacing t!e notice #oste $ if one %efore t!e sale$ or %efore t!e satisfaction of t!e ," g(ent if it %e satisfie %efore t!e sale$ s!all %e lia%le to #ay fi+e t!o"san 36.$777.774 #esos to any #erson in,"re %y reason t!ereof$ in a ition to !is act"al a(ages$ to %e reco+ere %y (otion in t!e sa(e action. Sec 1>. No sale if ," g(ent an costs #ai . At any ti(e %efore t!e sale of #ro#erty on e*ec"tion$ t!e ," g(ent o%ligor (ay #re+ent t!e sale %y #aying t!e a(o"nt re)"ire %y t!e e*ec"tion an t!e costs t!at !a+e %een inc"rre t!erein. Sec 1?. Co' #ro#erty sol on e*ec"tion0 '!o (ay irect (anner an or er of sale. All sales of #ro#erty "n er e*ec"tion ("st %e (a e at #"%lic a"ction$ to t!e !ig!est %i er$ to start at t!e e*act ti(e fi*e in t!e notice. After s"fficient #ro#erty !as %een sol to satisfy t!e e*ec"tion$ no (ore s!all %e sol an any e*cess #ro#erty or #rocee s of t!e sale s!all %e #ro(#tly eli+ere to t!e ," g(ent o%ligor or !is a"t!ori5e re#resentati+e$ "nless ot!er'ise irecte %y t!e ," g(ent or or er of t!e co"rt. :!en t!e sale is of real #ro#erty$ consisting of se+eral 2no'n lots$ t!ey ("st %e sol se#arately0

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


23 of 76

or$ '!en a #ortion of s"c! real #ro#erty is clai(e %y a t!ir #erson$ !e (ay re)"ire it to %e sol se#arately. :!en t!e sale is of #ersonal #ro#erty ca#a%le of (an"al eli+ery$ it ("st %e sol 'it!in +ie' of t!ose atten ing t!e sa(e an in s"c! #arcels as are li2ely to %ring t!e !ig!est #rice. T!e ," g(ent o%ligor$ if #resent at t!e sale$ (ay irect t!e or er in '!ic! #ro#erty$ real or #ersonal$ s!all %e sol $ '!en s"c! #ro#erty consists of se+eral 2no'n lots or #arcels '!ic! can %e sol to a +antage se#arately. Neit!er t!e officer con "cting t!e e*ec"tion sale$ nor !is e#"ties$ can %eco(e a #"rc!aser$ nor %e intereste irectly or in irectly in any #"rc!ase at s"c! sale. Sec &7. Ref"sal of #"rc!aser to #ay. If a #"rc!aser ref"ses to #ay t!e a(o"nt %i %y !i( for #ro#erty str"c2 off to !i( at a sale "n er e*ec"tion$ t!e officer (ay again sell t!e #ro#erty to t!e !ig!est %i er an s!all not %e res#onsi%le for any loss occasione t!ere%y0 %"t t!e co"rt (ay or er t!e ref"sing #"rc!aser to #ay into t!e co"rt t!e a(o"nt of s"c! loss$ 'it! costs$ an (ay #"nis! !i( for conte(#t if !e iso%eys t!e or er. T!e a(o"nt of s"c! #ay(ent s!all %e for t!e %enefit of t!e #erson entitle to t!e #rocee s of t!e e*ec"tion$ "nless t!e e*ec"tion !as %een f"lly satisfie $ in '!ic! e+ent s"c! #rocee s s!all %e for t!e %enefit of t!e ," g(ent o%ligor. T!e officer (ay t!ereafter re,ect any s"%se)"ent %i of s"c! #"rc!aser '!o ref"ses to #ay. Sec &1. 8" g(ent o%ligee as #"rc!aser. :!en t!e #"rc!aser is t!e ," g(ent o%ligee$ an no t!ir 1#arty clai( !as %een file $ !e nee not #ay t!e a(o"nt of t!e %i if it oes not e*cee t!e a(o"nt of !is ," g(ent. If it oes$ !e s!all #ay only t!e e*cess. Sec &&. A ,o"rn(ent of sale. Ay 'ritten consent of t!e ," g(ent o%ligor an o%ligee$ or t!eir "ly a"t!ori5e re#resentati+es$ t!e officer (ay a ,o"rn t!e sale to any ate an ti(e agree "#on %y t!e(. :it!o"t s"c! agree(ent$ !e (ay a ,o"rn t!e sale fro( ay to ay if it %eco(es necessary to o so for lac2 of ti(e to co(#lete t!e sale on t!e ay fi*e in t!e notice or t!e ay to '!ic! it 'as a ,o"rne . Sec &/. Con+eyance to #"rc!aser of #ersonal #ro#erty ca#a%le of (an"al eli+ery. :!en t!e #"rc!aser of any #ersonal #ro#erty$ ca#a%le of (an"al eli+ery$ #ays t!e #"rc!ase #rice$ t!e officer (a2ing t!e sale ("st eli+er t!e #ro#erty to t!e #"rc!aser an $ if esire $ e*ec"te an eli+er to !i( a certificate of sale. T!e sale con+eys to t!e #"rc!aser all t!e rig!ts '!ic! t!e ," g(ent o%ligor !a in s"c! #ro#erty as of t!e ate of t!e le+y on e*ec"tion or #reli(inary attac!(ent . Sec &4. Con+eyance to #"rc!aser of #ersonal #ro#erty not ca#a%le of (an"al eli+ery. :!en t!e #"rc!aser of any #ersonal #ro#erty$ not ca#a%le of (an"al eli+ery$ #ays t!e #"rc!ase #rice$ t!e officer (a2ing t!e sale ("st e*ec"te an eli+er to t!e #"rc!aser a certificate of sale. S"c! certificate con+eys to t!e #"rc!aser all t!e rig!ts '!ic! t!e ," g(ent o%ligor !a in s"c! #ro#erty as of t!e ate of t!e le+y on e*ec"tion or #reli(inary attac!(ent. Sec &.. Con+eyance of real #ro#erty0 certificate t!ereof gi+en to #"rc!aser an file 'it! registry of ee s. U#on a sale of real #ro#erty$ t!e officer ("st gi+e to t!e #"rc!aser a certificate of sale containing: 3a4 A #artic"lar escri#tion of t!e real #ro#erty sol 0 3%4 T!e #rice #ai for eac! istinct lot or #arcel0

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


24 of 76

3c4 T!e '!ole #rice #ai %y !i( 0 3 4 A state(ent t!at t!e rig!t of re e(#tion e*#ires one 314 year fro( t!e ate of t!e registration of t!e certificate of sale. S"c! certificate ("st %e registere '!ere t!e #ro#erty is sit"ate . in t!e registry of ee s of t!e #lace

Sec &6. Certificate of sale '!ere #ro#erty clai(e %y t!ir #erson. :!en a #ro#erty sol %y +irt"e of a 'rit of e*ec"tion !as %een clai(e %y a t!ir #erson$ t!e certificate of sale to %e iss"e %y t!e s!eriff #"rs"ant to section &/$ &4 an &. of t!is R"le s!all (a2e e*#ress (ention of t!e e*istence of s"c! t!ir 1#arty clai(. Sec &-. :!o (ay re ee( real #ro#erty so sol . Real #ro#erty sol as #ro+i e in t!e last #rece ing section$ or any #art t!ereof sol se#arately$ (ay %e re ee(e in t!e (anner !ereinafter #ro+i e $ %y t!e follo'ing #ersons: 3a4 T!e ," g(ent o%ligor$ or !is s"ccessor in interest in t!e '!ole or any #art of t!e #ro#erty0 3%4 A cre itor !a+ing a lien %y +irt"e of an attac!(ent$ ," g(ent or (ortgage on t!e #ro#erty sol $ or on so(e #art t!ereof$ s"%se)"ent to t!e lien "n er '!ic! t!e #ro#erty 'as sol . S"c! re ee(ing cre itor is ter(e a re e(#tioner. Sec &>. Ti(e an (anner of$ an a(o"nts #aya%le on$ s"ccessi+e re e(#tions0 notice to %e gi+en an file . T!e ," g(ent o%ligor$ or re e(#tioner$ (ay re ee( t!e #ro#erty fro( t!e #"rc!aser$ at any ti(e 'it!in one 314 year fro( t!e ate of t!e registration of t!e certificate of sale$ %y #aying t!e #"rc!aser t!e a(o"nt of !is #"rc!ase$ 'it! one #er cent"( #er (ont! interest t!ereon in a ition$ "# to t!e ti(e of re e(#tion$ toget!er 'it! t!e a(o"nt of any assess(ents or ta*es '!ic! t!e #"rc!aser (ay !a+e #ai t!ereon after #"rc!ase$ an interest on s"c! last na(e a(o"nt at t!e sa(e rate0 an if t!e #"rc!aser %e also a cre itor !a+ing a #rior lien to t!at of t!e re e(#tioner$ ot!er t!an t!e ," g(ent "n er '!ic! s"c! #"rc!ase 'as (a e$ t!e a(o"nt of s"c! ot!er lien$ 'it! interest. 6ro#erty so re ee(e (ay again %e re ee(e 'it!in si*ty 3674 ays after t!e last re e(#tion "#on #ay(ent of t!e s"( #ai on t!e last re e(#tion$ 'it! t'o #er cent"( t!ereon in a ition$ an t!e a(o"nt of any assess(ents or ta*es '!ic! t!e last re e(#tioner (ay !a+e #ai t!ereon after re e(#tion %y !i($ 'it! interest on s"c! last1na(e a(o"nt$ an in a ition$ t!e a(o"nt of any liens !el %y sai last re e(#tioner #rior to !is o'n$ 'it! interest. T!e #ro#erty (ay %e again$ an as often as a re e(#tioner is so is#ose $ re ee(e fro( any #re+io"s re e(#tioner 'it!in si*ty 3674 ays after t!e last re e(#tion$ on #aying t!e s"( #ai on t!e last #re+io"s re e(#tion$ 'it! t'o #er cent"( t!ereon in a ition$ an t!e a(o"nts of any assess(ents or ta*es '!ic! t!e last #re+io"s re e(#tioner #ai after t!e re e(#tion t!ereon$ 'it! interest t!ereon$ an t!e a(o"nt of any liens !el %y t!e last re e(#tioner #rior to !is o'n$ 'it! interest. :ritten notice of any re e(#tion ("st %e gi+en to t!e officer '!o (a e t!e sale an a "#licate file 'it! t!e registry of ee s of t!e #lace$ an if any assess(ents or ta*es are #ai %y t!e re e(#tioner or if !e !as or ac)"ires any lien ot!er t!an t!at "#on '!ic! t!e re e(#tion 'as (a e$ notice t!ereof ("st in li2e (anner %e gi+en to t!e officer an file 'it! t!e registry

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


25 of 76

of ee s0 if s"c! notice %e not file $ t!e #ro#erty (ay %e re ee(e #aying s"c! assess(ents$ ta*es$ or liens.

'it!o"t

Sec &?. Effect of re e(#tion %y ," g(ent o%ligor$ an a certificate to %e eli+ere an recor e t!ere"#on0 to '!o( #ay(ents on re e(#tion (a e. If t!e ," g(ent o%ligor re ee(s$ !e ("st (a2e t!e sa(e #ay(ents as are re)"ire to effect a re e(#tion %y a re e(#tioner$ '!ere"#on$ no f"rt!er re e(#tion s!all %e allo'e an !e is restore to !is estate. T!e #erson to '!o( t!e re e(#tion #ay(ent is (a e ("st e*ec"te an eli+er to !i( a certificate of re e(#tion ac2no'le ge %efore a notary #"%lic or ot!er officer a"t!ori5e to ta2e ac2no'le g(ents of con+eyances of real #ro#erty. S"c! certificate ("st %e file an recor e in t!e registry of ee s of t!e #lace in '!ic! t!e #ro#erty is sit"ate $ an t!e registrar of ee s ("st note t!e recor t!ereof on t!e (argin of t!e recor of t!e certificate of sale. T!e #ay(ents (entione in t!is an t!e last #rece ing sections (ay %e (a e to t!e #"rc!aser or re e(#tioner$ or for !i( to t!e officer '!o (a e t!e sale. Sec /7. 6roof re)"ire of re e(#tioner. A re e(#tioner ("st #ro "ce to t!e officer$ or #erson fro( '!o( !e see2s to re ee($ an ser+e 'it! !is notice to t!e officer a co#y of t!e ," g(ent or final or er "n er '!ic! !e clai(s t!e rig!t to re ee($ certifie %y t!e cler2 of t!e co"rt '!erein t!e ," g(ent or final or er is entere 0 or$ if !e re ee(s "#on a (ortgage or ot!er lien$ a (e(oran "( of t!e recor t!ereof$ certifie %y t!e registrar of ee s0 or an original or certifie co#y of any assign(ent necessary to esta%lis! !is clai(0 an an affi a+it e*ec"te %y !i( or !is agent$ s!o'ing t!e a(o"nt t!en act"ally "e on t!e lien. Sec /1. Banner of "sing #re(ises #en ing re e(#tion0 'aste restraine . Until t!e e*#iration of t!e ti(e allo'e for re e(#tion$ t!e co"rt (ay$ as in ot!er #ro#er cases$ restrain t!e co((ission of 'aste on t!e #ro#erty %y in,"nction$ on t!e a##lication of t!e #"rc!aser or t!e ," g(ent o%ligee$ 'it! or 'it!o"t notice0 %"t it is not 'aste for a #erson in #ossession of t!e #ro#erty at t!e ti(e of t!e sale$ or entitle to #ossession after'ar s$ "ring t!e #erio allo'e for re e(#tion$ to contin"e to "se it in t!e sa(e (anner in '!ic! it 'as #re+io"sly "se 0 or to "se it in t!e or inary co"rse of !"s%an ry0 or to (a2e t!e necessary re#airs to %"il ings t!ereon '!ile !e occ"#ies t!e #ro#erty. Sec /&. Rents$ earnings an inco(e of #ro#erty #en ing re e(#tion. T!e #"rc!aser or a re e(#tioner s!all not %e entitle to recei+e t!e rents$ earnings an inco(e of t!e #ro#erty sol on e*ec"tion$ or t!e +al"e of t!e "se an occ"#ation t!ereof '!en s"c! #ro#erty is in t!e #ossession of a tenant. All rents$ earnings an inco(e eri+e fro( t!e #ro#erty #en ing re e(#tion s!all %elong to t!e ," g(ent o%ligor "ntil t!e e*#iration of !is #erio of re e(#tion. Sec //. 9ee an #ossession to %e gi+en at e*#iration of re e(#tion #erio 0 %y '!o( e*ec"te or gi+en. If no re e(#tion %e (a e 'it!in one 314 year fro( t!e ate of t!e registration of t!e certificate of sale$ t!e #"rc!aser is entitle to a con+eyance an #ossession of t!e #ro#erty0 or$ if so re ee(e '!ene+er si*ty 3674 ays !a+e ela#se an no ot!er re e(#tion !as %een (a e$ an notice t!ereof gi+en$ an t!e ti(e for re e(#tion !as e*#ire $ t!e last re e(#tioner is entitle to t!e con+eyance an #ossession0 %"t in all cases t!e ," g(ent o%ligor s!all !a+e t!e entire #erio of one 314 year fro( t!e ate of t!e registration of t!e sale to re ee( t!e #ro#erty. T!e

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


26 of 76

ee s!all %e e*ec"te %y t!e officer (a2ing t!e sale or %y !is s"ccessor in office$ an in t!e latter case s!all !a+e t!e sa(e +ali ity as t!o"g! t!e officer (a2ing t!e sale !a contin"e in office an e*ec"te it. U#on t!e e*#iration of t!e rig!t of re e(#tion$ t!e #"rc!aser or re e(#tioner s!all %e s"%stit"te to an ac)"ire all t!e rig!ts$ title$ interest an clai( of t!e ," g(ent o%ligor to t!e #ro#erty as of t!e ti(e of t!e le+y. T!e #ossession of t!e #ro#erty s!all %e gi+en to t!e #"rc!aser or last re e(#tioner %y t!e sa(e officer "nless a t!ir #arty is act"ally !ol ing t!e #ro#erty a +ersely to t!e ," g(ent o%ligor. Sec /4. Reco+ery of #rice if sale not effecti+e0 re+i+al of ," g(ent. If t!e #"rc!aser of real #ro#erty sol on e*ec"tion$ or !is s"ccessor in interest$ fails to reco+er t!e #ossession t!ereof$ or is e+icte t!erefro($ in conse)"ence of irreg"larities in t!e #rocee ings concerning t!e sale$ or %eca"se t!e ," g(ent !as %een re+erse or set asi e$ or %eca"se t!e #ro#erty sol 'as e*e(#t fro( e*ec"tion$ or %eca"se a t!ir #erson !as +in icate !is clai( to t!e #ro#erty$ !e (ay on (otion in t!e sa(e action or in a se#arate action reco+er fro( t!e ," g(ent o%ligee t!e #rice #ai $ 'it! interest$ or so ("c! t!ereof as !as not %een eli+ere to t!e ," g(ent o%ligor0 or !e (ay$ on (otion$ !a+e t!e original ," g(ent re+i+e in !is na(e for t!e '!ole #rice 'it! interest$ or so ("c! t!ereof as !as %een eli+ere to t!e ," g(ent o%ligor. T!e ," g(ent so re+i+e s!all !a+e t!e sa(e force an effect as an original ," g(ent 'o"l !a+e as of t!e ate of t!e re+i+al an no (ore. Sec /.. Rig!t to contri%"tion or rei(%"rse(ent. :!en #ro#erty lia%le to an e*ec"tion against se+eral #ersons is sol t!ereon$ an (ore t!an a "e #ro#ortion of t!e ," g(ent is satisfie o"t of t!e #rocee s of t!e sale of t!e #ro#erty of one of t!e($ or one of t!e( #ays$ 'it!o"t a sale$ (ore t!an !is #ro#ortion$ !e (ay co(#el a contri%"tion fro( t!e ot!ers0 an '!en a ," g(ent is "#on an o%ligation of one of t!e($ as sec"rity for anot!er$ an t!e s"rety #ays t!e a(o"nt$ or any #art t!ereof$ eit!er %y sale of !is #ro#erty or %efore sale$ !e (ay co(#el re#ay(ent fro( t!e #rinci#al. Sec /6. E*a(ination of ," g(ent o%ligor '!en ," g(ent "nsatisfie . :!en t!e ret"rn of a 'rit of e*ec"tion iss"e against #ro#erty of a ," g(ent o%ligor$ or any one of se+eral o%ligors in t!e sa(e ," g(ent$ s!o's t!at t!e ," g(ent re(ains "nsatisfie $ in '!ole or in #art$ t!e ," g(ent o%ligee$ at any ti(e after s"c! ret"rn is (a e$ s!all %e entitle to an or er fro( t!e co"rt '!ic! ren ere t!e sai ," g(ent$ re)"iring s"c! ," g(ent o%ligor to a##ear an %e e*a(ine concerning !is #ro#erty an inco(e %efore s"c! co"rt or %efore a co((issioner a##ointe %y it$ at a s#ecifie ti(e an #lace0 an #rocee ings (ay t!ere"#on %e !a for t!e a##lication of t!e #ro#erty an inco(e of t!e ," g(ent o%ligor to'ar s t!e satisfaction of t!e ," g(ent. A"t no ," g(ent o%ligor s!all %e so re)"ire to a##ear %efore a co"rt or co((issioner o"tsi e t!e #ro+ince or city in '!ic! s"c! o%ligor resi es or is fo"n . Sec /-. E*a(ination of o%ligor of ," g(ent o%ligor. :!en t!e ret"rn of a 'rit of e*ec"tion against t!e #ro#erty of a ," g(ent o%ligor s!o's t!at t!e ," g(ent re(ains "nsatisfie $ in '!ole or in #art$ an "#on #roof to t!e satisfaction of t!e co"rt '!ic! iss"e t!e 'rit$ t!at a #erson$ cor#oration$ or ot!er ,"ri ical entity !as #ro#erty of s"c! ," g(ent o%ligor or is in e%te to !i($ t!e co"rt (ay$ %y an or er$ re)"ire s"c! #erson$ cor#oration$ or ot!er ," icial entity$ or any officer or (e(%er t!ereof$ to a##ear %efore t!e co"rt

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


27 of 76

or a co((issioner a##ointe %y it$ at a ti(e an #lace 'it!in t!e #ro+ince or city '!ere s"c! e%tor resi es or is fo"n $ an %e e*a(ine concerning t!e sa(e. T!e ser+ice of t!e or er s!all %in all cre its "e t!e ," g(ent o%ligor an all (oney an #ro#erty of t!e ," g(ent o%ligor in t!e #ossession or in t!e control of s"c! #erson$ cor#oration$ or ,"ri ical entity fro( t!e ti(e of ser+ice0 an t!e co"rt (ay also re)"ire notice of s"c! #rocee ings to %e gi+en to any #arty to t!e action in s"c! (anner as it (ay ee( #ro#er. Sec />. Enforce(ent of atten ance an con "ct of e*a(ination. A #arty or ot!er #erson (ay %e co(#elle $ %y an or er or s"%#oena$ to atten %efore t!e co"rt or co((issioner to testify as #ro+i e in t!e t'o #rece ing sections$ an "#on fail"re to o%ey s"c! or er or s"%#oena or to %e s'orn $ or to ans'er as a 'itness or to s"%scri%e !is e#osition$ (ay %e #"nis!e for conte(#t as in ot!er cases. E*a(inations s!all not %e "n "ly #rolonge $ %"t t!e #rocee ings (ay %e a ,o"rne fro( ti(e to ti(e$ "ntil t!ey are co(#lete . If t!e e*a(ination is %efore a co((issioner$ !e ("st ta2e it in 'riting an certify it to t!e co"rt. All e*a(inations an ans'ers %efore a co"rt or co((issioner ("st %e "n er oat!$ an '!en a cor#oration or ot!er ," icial entity ans'ers$ it ("st %e on t!e oat! of an a"t!ori5e officer or agent t!ereof. Sec /?. O%ligor (ay #ay e*ec"tion against o%ligee. After a 'rit of e*ec"tion against #ro#erty !as iss"e $ a #erson in e%te to t!e ," g(ent o%ligor (ay #ay to t!e s!eriff !ol ing t!e 'rit of e*ec"tion t!e a(o"nt of !is e%t or so ("c! t!ereof as (ay %e necessary to satisfy t!e ," g(ent$ in t!e (anner #rescri%e in section ? of t!is R"le an t!e s!eriff=s recei#t s!all %e a s"fficient isc!arge for t!e a(o"nt so #ai or irecte to %e cre ite %y t!e ," g(ent o%ligee on t!e e*ec"tion. Sec 47. Or er for a##lication of #ro#erty an inco(e to satisfaction of ," g(ent. T!e co"rt (ay or er any #ro#erty of t!e ," g(ent o%ligor$ or (oney "e !i($ not e*e(#t fro( e*ec"tion$ in t!e !an s of eit!er !i(self or anot!er #erson$ or of a cor#oration or ot!er ,"ri ical entity$ to %e a##lie to t!e satisfaction of t!e ," g(ent$ s"%,ect to any #rior rig!ts o+er s"c! #ro#erty. If$ "#on in+estigation of !is c"rrent inco(e an e*#enses$ it a##ears t!at t!e earnings of t!e ," g(ent o%ligor for !is #ersonal ser+ices are (ore t!an necessary for t!e s"##ort of !is fa(ily$ t!e co"rt (ay or er t!at !e #ay t!e ," g(ent in fi*e (ont!ly install(ents$ an "#on !is fail"re to #ay any s"c! install(ent '!en "e 'it!o"t goo e*c"se$ (ay #"nis! !i( for conte(#t. Sec 41. A##oint(ent of recei+er. T!e co"rt (ay a##oint a recei+er of t!e #ro#erty of t!e ," g(ent o%ligor0 an it (ay also for%i a transfer or ot!er is#osition of$ or any interference 'it!$ t!e #ro#erty of t!e ," g(ent o%ligor not e*e(#t fro( e*ec"tion. Sec 4&. Sale of ascertaina%le interest of ," g(ent o%ligor in real estate. If it a##ears t!at t!e ," g(ent o%ligor !as an interest in real estate in t!e #lace in '!ic! #rocee ings are !a $ as (ortgagor or (ortgagee or ot!er'ise$ an !is interest t!erein can %e ascertaine 'it!o"t contro+ersy$ t!e recei+er (ay %e or ere to sell an con+ey s"c! real estate or t!e interest of t!e o%ligor t!erein0 an s"c! sale s!all %e con "cte in all res#ects in t!e sa(e (anner as is #ro+i e for t!e sale of real estate "#on e*ec"tion$ an t!e #rocee ings t!ereon s!all %e a##ro+e %y t!e co"rt %efore t!e e*ec"tion of t!e ee .

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


28 of 76

Sec 4/. 6rocee ings '!en in e%te ness enie or anot!er #erson clai(s t!e #ro#erty. If it a##ears t!at a #erson or cor#oration$ allege to !a+e #ro#erty of t!e ," g(ent o%ligor or to %e in e%te to !i($ clai(s an interest in t!e #ro#erty a +erse to !i( or enies t!e e%t$ t!e co"rt (ay a"t!ori5e$ %y an or er (a e to t!at effect$ t!e ," g(ent o%ligee to instit"te an action against s"c! #erson or cor#oration for t!e reco+ery of s"c! interest or e%t$ for%i a transfer or ot!er is#osition of s"c! interest or e%t 'it!in one !"n re t'enty 31&74 ays fro( notice of t!e or er$ an (ay #"nis! iso%e ience of s"c! or er as for conte(#t. S"c! or er (ay %e (o ifie or +acate at any ti(e %y t!e co"rt '!ic! iss"e it$ or %y t!e co"rt in '!ic! t!e action is %ro"g!t$ "#on s"c! ter(s as (ay %e ,"st. Sec 44. Entry of satisfaction of ," g(ent %y cler2 of co"rt. Satisfaction of a ," g(ent s!all %e entere %y t!e cler2 of co"rt in t!e co"rt oc2et$ an in t!e e*ec"tion %oo2$ "#on t!e ret"rn of a 'rit of e*ec"tion s!o'ing t!e f"ll satisfaction of t!e ," g(ent or "#on t!e filing of an a (ission to t!e satisfaction of t!e ," g(ent e*ec"te an ac2no'le ge in t!e sa(e (anner as a con+eyance of real #ro#erty %y t!e ," g(ent o%ligee or %y !is co"nsel "nless a re+ocation of !is a"t!ority is file $ or "#on t!e en orse(ent of s"c! a (ission %y t!e ," g(ent o%ligee or !is co"nsel on t!e face of t!e recor of t!e ," g(ent. Sec 4.. Entry of satisfaction 'it! or 'it!o"t a (ission. :!ene+er a ," g(ent is satisfie in fact$ or ot!er'ise t!an "#on an e*ec"tion$ on e(an of t!e ," g(ent o%ligor$ t!e ," g(ent o%ligee or !is co"nsel ("st e*ec"te an ac2no'le ge$ or in orse$ an a (ission of t!e satisfaction as #ro+i e in t!e last #rece ing section$ an after notice an "#on (otion t!e co"rt (ay or er eit!er t!e ," g(ent o%ligee or !is co"nsel to o so$ or (ay or er t!e entry of satisfaction to %e (a e 'it!o"t s"c! a (ission. Sec 46. :!en #rinci#al %o"n %y ," g(ent against s"rety. :!en a ," g(ent is ren ere against a #arty '!o stan s as s"rety for anot!er$ t!e latter is also %o"n fro( t!e ti(e t!at !e !as notice of t!e action or #rocee ing$ an an o##ort"nity at t!e s"rety=s re)"est to ,oin in t!e efense. Sec 4-. Effect of ," g(ents or final or ers. T!e effect of a ," g(ent or final or er ren ere %y a co"rt or of t!e 6!ili##ines$ !a+ing ,"ris iction to #rono"nce t!e ," g(ent or or er$ (ay %e as follo's: 3a4 In case of a ," g(ent or final or er against a s#ecific t!ing$ or in res#ect to t!e #ro%ate of a 'ill$ or t!e a (inistration of t!e estate of a ecease #erson$ or in res#ect to t!e #ersonal$ #olitical$ or legal con ition or stat"s of a #artic"lar #erson or !is relations!i# to anot!er$ t!e ," g(ent or final or er is concl"si+e "#on t!e title to t!e t!ing$ t!e 'ill or a (inistration$ or t!e con ition$ stat"s or relations!i# of t!e #erson0 !o'e+er$ t!e #ro%ate of a 'ill or granting of letters of a (inistration s!all only %e #ri(a facie e+i ence of t!e eat! of t!e testator or intestate0 3%4 In ot!er cases$ t!e ," g(ent or final or er is$ 'it! res#ect to t!e (atter irectly a ," ge or as to any ot!er (atter t!at co"l !a+e %een raise in relation t!ereto$ concl"si+e %et'een t!e #arties an t!eir s"ccessors in interest %y title s"%se)"ent to t!e co((ence(ent of t!e action or s#ecial #rocee ing$ litigating for t!e sa(e t!ing an "n er t!e sa(e title an in t!e sa(e ca#acity0 an 3c4 In any ot!er litigation %et'een t!e sa(e #arties or t!eir s"ccessors in interest$ t!at only is ee(e to !a+e %een a ," ge in a for(er

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


29 of 76

," g(ent or final or er '!ic! a##ears "#on its face to !a+e %een so a ," ge $ or '!ic! 'as act"ally an necessarily incl" e t!erein or necessary t!ereto. Sec 4>. Effect of foreign ," g(ents or final or ers. T!e effect of a ," g(ent or final or er of a tri%"nal of a foreign co"ntry$ !a+ing ,"ris iction to ren er t!e ," g(ent or final or er is as follo's: 3a4 In case of a ," g(ent or final or er "#on a s#ecific t!ing$ t!e ," g(ent or final or er is concl"si+e "#on t!e title to t!e t!ing0 an 3%4 In case of a ," g(ent or final or er against a #erson$ t!e ," g(ent or final or er is #res"(#ti+e e+i ence of a rig!t as %et'een t!e #arties an t!eir s"ccessors in interest %y a s"%se)"ent title. In eit!er case$ t!e ," g(ent or final or er (ay %e re#elle %y e+i ence of a 'ant or ,"ris iction$ 'ant of notice to t!e #arty$ coll"sion$ fra" $ or clear (ista2e of la' or fact. A. Aasic Conce#ts an 9octrines 1. 9efinition E*ec"tion is a legal re(e y for t!e enforce(ent of a ," g(ent. 3 !ele+o "s. #A, $%;@4 &. Lin s of e*ec"tion 1 9iscretionary e*ec"tion 3also calle e*ec"tion #en ing a##eal4 is t!e e*ec"tion of a ," g(ent or final or er %efore it attains finality. T!e co"rt '!ic! ren ere t!e ecision can grant an e*ec"tion #en ing a##eal if it still retains ,"ris iction o+er t!e case an is in #ossession of t!e recor s at t!e ti(e of t!e filing of t!e (otion0 ot!er'ise$ t!e (otion s!all %e acte "#on %y t!e a##ellate co"rt. To %e +ali $ t!ere s!o"l %e a goo reason to ,"stify t!e e*ec"tion of t!e ," g(ent #en ing a##eal$ t!e sa(e to %e state in t!e or er granting it. 1 E*ec"tion as a (atter of rig!t or (inisterial e*ec"tion is e*ec"tion of a final ," g(ent or final or er '!ic! !as attaine finality. :!en a ," g(ent or or er !as %eco(e final$ t!e co"rt cannot ref"se to iss"e a 'rit of e*ec"tion e*ce#t: 314 :!en s"%se)"ent facts an circ"(stances trans#ire '!ic! ren er s"c! e*ec"tion "n,"st$ or i(#ossi%le$ s"c! as a s"#er+ening ca"se li2e t!e act of t!e Co((issioner of Ci+il Ser+ice fin ing t!e #laintiff a (inistrati+ely g"ilty an '!ic! constit"te a %ar to !is reinstate(ent as or ere %y t!e trial co"rt in a ci+il case 3#ity of -utuan "s. 7rti8, $%6% 40 or '!ere t!e efen ant %an2 'as #lace "n er recei+ers!i# 3 <ipana "s. De"elopment -ank of Ri8al, 3ept. @4, $%;&40 3&4 On e)"ita%le gro"n s$ as '!en t!ere !as %een a c!ange in t!e sit"ation of t!e #arties '!ic! (a2es e*ec"tion ine)"ita%le 3<una "s. 5A#, $%;54 3/4 :!ere t!e ," g(ent !as %een no+ate %y t!e #arties 33al"ante "s. #ru8, $%5$4 344 :!en a #etition for relief or an action to en,oin t!e ," g(ent is file an a #reli(inary in,"nction is #raye for an grante 3R"le />$ Sec. .4 3.4 :!ere t!e ," g(ent !as %eco(e or(ant$ t!e fi+e 3.4 year #erio "n er R"le /?$ Section 6 !a+ing e*#ire 'it!o"t t!e ," g(ent !a+ing %een re+i+e 3#uanan "s. #A, $%6;4 or

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


30 of 76

364 :!ere t!e ," g(ent t"rns o"t to %e inco(#lete 3 Del Rosario "s. >illegas, $%@64 or is con itional 3#u Bn+ieng e /i+os "s. 9a*alacat 3ugar, $%4= 4 since$ as a (atter of la'$ s"c! ," g(ent cannot %eco(e final. /. :!en 'rit of e*ec"tion (ay %e )"as!e 314 '!en it 'as i(#ro+i ently iss"e 0 3&4 '!en it is efecti+e in s"%stance0 3/4 '!en it is iss"e against t!e 'rong #arty0 344 '!ere t!e ," g(ent 'as alrea y satisfie 0 3.4 '!en it 'as iss"e 'it!o"t a"t!ority0 364 '!en a c!ange in t!e sit"ation of t!e #arties ren ers e*ec"tion ine)"ita%le0 an 3-4 '!en t!e contro+ersy 'as ne+er +ali ly s"%(itte to t!e co"rt. 33andico 3r. "s. !iguing, $%&$4 3>4 '!en 'rit of e*ec"tion +aries t!e ter(s of t!e ," g(ent 3?4 '!ere it is so"g!t to %e enforce against #ro#erty e*e(#t fro( e*ec"tion 3174 '!ere t!ere is a(%ig"ity in t!e ter(s of t!e ," g(ent. T!ese efects (ay %e c!allenge on a##eal or in certiorari$ #ro!i%ition or (an a("s actions. <impin "s. 5A#, $%;&' E*ec"tion of final ," g(ents an or ers T!ere are t'o 3&4 'ays of sec"ring e*ec"tion of final ," g(ents an or ers: e*ec"tion %y (otion an e*ec"tion %y action. E*ec"tion %y (otion is an e*ec"tion o%taine t!ro"g! a (otion for e*ec"tion file 'it!in fi+e 3.4 years fro( t!e ate of its entry. E*ec"tion %y action is o%taine t!ro"g! t!e s"%stit"tion of an action to enforce a ," g(ent or or er after t!e la#se of fi+e 3.4 years fro( its entry an %efore it is %arre %y t!e stat"te of li(itations. 3R"le /? Sec. 64 E*ce#tions a4 ," g(ents for s"##ort '!ic! o not %eco(e or(ant an '!ic! can al'ays %e e*ec"te %y (otion #anoni8ado "s. -enite8, $%;4' e*ce#t t!ose in arrears %eyon 17 years fro( t!e ate t!ey %eco(e "e >elayo "s. >elayo, $%6&' %4 conte(#t or ers %y reason of "na"t!ori5e reentry on t!e lan %y t!e e,ecte efen ant A8otes "s. -lanco, ;5 !)il. %=' c4 iss"ance of 'rits of #ossession in foreclos"re cases 'it!in t!e stat"te of li(itations Ramos "s. 9analac, ;% !)il. @&=' 4 s#ecial #rocee ings$ s"c! as lan registration cases Rodil "s. -enedicto, $%;=' .. <inal an E*ec"tory 8" g(ents i(("ta%le As a general r"le$ t!erefore$ final an e*ec"tory ," g(ents are i(("ta%le an "naltera%le e*ce#t "n er t!e t!ree e*ce#tions: a4 clerical errors0 %4 nunc pro tunc entries '!ic! ca"se no #re," ice to any #arty0 an c4 +oi ," g(ents. 4 S"#er+ening e+ents

4.

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


31 of 76

T!e o%,ect of a ," g(ent nunc pro tunc is not t!e ren ering of a ne' ," g(ent an t!e ascertain(ent an eter(ination of ne' rig!ts$ %"t is one #lacing in #ro#er for( on t!e recor $ t!e ," g(ent t!at !a %een #re+io"sly ren ere $ to (a2e it s#ea2 t!e tr"t!$ so as to (a2e it s!o' '!at t!e ," icial action really 'as$ not to correct ," icial errors$ s"c! as to ren er a ," g(ent '!ic! t!e co"rt o"g!t to !a+e ren ere $ in #lace of t!e one it i erroneo"sly ren er$ nor to s"##ly nonaction %y t!e co"rt$ !o'e+er erroneo"s t!e ," g(ent (ay !a+e %een. -riones->as:ue8 "s. #A, @==5' One of t!e e*ce#tions to t!e #rinci#le of i(("ta%ility of final ," g(ents is t!e e*istence of s"#er+ening e+ents. S"#er+ening e+ents refer to facts '!ic! trans#ire after ," g(ent !as %eco(e final an e*ec"tory or to ne' circ"(stances '!ic! e+elo#e after t!e ," g(ent !as ac)"ire finality$ incl" ing (atters '!ic! t!e #arties 'ere not a'are of #rior to or "ring t!e trial as t!ey 'ere not yet in e*istence at t!at ti(e. In t!e case at %ar$ t!e ne' circ"(stance '!ic! e+elo#e after t!e finality of t!e ," g(ent in t!e forci%le entry is t!e fact t!at t!e ecision in t!e case for )"ieting of title !a also attaine finality an concl"si+ely resol+e t!e iss"e of o'ners!i# o+er t!e s"%,ect lan $ an t!e conco(itant rig!t of #ossession t!ereof. Kerily$ to grant e*ec"tion of t!e ," g(ent in t!e forci%le entry case 'o"l 'or2 in,"stice on res#on ents '!o !a %een concl"si+ely eclare t!e o'ners an rig!tf"l #ossessors of t!e is#"te lan . 3Roman #at)olic Arc)*is)op ". /eirs of A*ella, @==5' 6. S#ecific r"les on E*ec"tion 314 E*ec"tion of ," g(ent can only %e iss"e against a #arty to t!e action 33t. Dominic "s. 5A#, $%;&4 an t!eir #ri+ies '!o are t!ose %et'een '!o( an action is ee(e %in ing alt!o"g! t!ey are not literally #arties to t!e sai action 3 #a*resos "s. ?iro, $%;;4 or to an inter+enor 3<ising "s. !lan, $%;44 3&4 A ," g(ent %eco(es final an e*ec"tory %y o#eration of la'$ not %y ," icial eclaration. T!e #re+ailing #arty is entitle as a (atter of rig!t to a 'rit of e*ec"tion$ an t!e iss"ance t!ereof is a (inisterial "ty an co(#ella%le %y mandamus. 3#ity of 9anila "s. #A, $%%$ 4 T!ere ("st$ !o'e+er$ %e a (otion 3R"le /?$ Sec. 14 3/4 T!e Co"rt of A##eals$ !as no a"t!ority to iss"e i((e iate e*ec"tion #en ing a##eal of its o'n ecisions t!erein. 9iscretionary e*ec"tion is allo'e #en ing a##eal of a ," g(ent or final or er of t!e trial co"rt$ "#on goo reasons to %e state in a s#ecial or er. A ," g(ent of t!e Co"rt of A##eals cannot %e e*ec"te #en ing a##eal. Once final an e*ec"tory$ t!e ," g(ent on a##eal ("st %e re(an e to t!e lo'er co"rt$ '!ere a (otion for e*ec"tion (ay %e file only after its entry. /eirs of 0ustice 0-< Reyes "s. #A, @===' 344 T!ere are t!ree re)"isites for t!e e*ec"tion of a ," g(ent #en ing a##eal: a4 a (otion ("st %e file %y t!e #re+ailing #arty 'it! notice to t!e a +erse #arty0 %4 t!ere ("st %e goo reasons for e*ec"tion #en ing a##eal0 an c4 t!e goo reasons ("st %e state in a s#ecial or er. ;oo reasons consist of co(#elling circ"(stances t!at ,"stify t!e i((e iate e*ec"tion of a ," g(ent$ lest it %eco(e ill"sory0 or t!e #re+ailing #arty %e "na%le to en,oy it after t!e la#se of ti(e$ consi ering t!e tactics of t!e a +erse #arty '!o (ay !a+e no reco"rse %"t to elay. 3#ity of 5ligan ". !rincipal 9anagement, @==A' 3.4 R"le on e*ec"tion in case of t!e eat! of a #arty If t!e ," g(ent e%tor ies after entry of ," g(ent$ e*ec"tion e#en s "#on t!e nat"re of t!e ," g(ent. T!"s: 3a4 <or reco+ery of

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


32 of 76

real or #ersonal #ro#erty or t!e enforce(ent of a lien t!ereon$ e*ec"tion (ay %e one against e*ec"tor$ a (inistrator or s"ccessor1 in1interest0 3%4 <or (oney ," g(ents, t!e ," g(ent s!o"l %e #resente as clai( for #ay(ent against t!e estate in a s#ecial #rocee ing. S"c! a clai( nee no longer %e #ro+e $ since t!e ," g(ent itself is concl"si+e. 3 1"angelista "s. <a !ro"eedora, 5nc, $%&$4 364 :!en t!e #ro#erty s"%,ect of t!e e*ec"tion contains i(#ro+e(ents constr"cte or #lante %y t!e ," g(ent e%tor or !is agent$ t!e officer s!all not estroy$ e(olis! or re(o+e sai i(#ro+e(ents e*ce#t "#on s#ecial or er of t!e co"rt$ iss"e "#on #etition of t!e ," g(ent cre itor after "e !earing an after t!e for(er !as faile to re(o+e t!e sa(e 'it!in a reasona%le ti(e fi*e %y t!e co"rt. 3R"le /?$ Sec. 144 T!e s#ecial or er of e(olition (ay %e grante only "#on #etition of t!e #laintiff after "e !earing$ an "#on t!e efeate #artyDs fail"re to re(o+e t!e i(#ro+e(ents$ 'it!in reasona%le ti(e gi+en !i( %y t!e co"rt. 3.uentes "s. <e"iste, $%;@4 T!e notice re)"ire %efore e(olition of t!e i(#ro+e(ents on t!e #ro#erty s"%,ect of t!e e*ec"tion is notice to t!e ," g(ent e%tor$ an not to a stranger or t!ir #arty to t!e case. 3 <oren8ana "s. #ayetano, $%&&4. T!e or er of e(olition is not a##eala%le 3 #ua "s. <ecaros, $%;;4 T!e s!eriff an t!e iss"ing #arty s!o"l carry o"t t!e e(olition of t!e i(#ro+e(ent of t!e efeate #arty on t!e #re(ises in is#"te in a (anner consistent 'it! ,"stice an goo fait!. 3 Al*elt8 5n"estments 5nc "s. #A, $%&&4 :!ere t!e #re(ises 'as #a loc2e an no one 'as t!erein at t!e ti(e e*ec"tion 'as carrie into effect$ t!ere 'as no nee for t!e s!eriffs an t!e #laintiff to sec"re a =%rea21o#en= or er inas("c! as t!e c!aracter of t!e 'rit in t!eir !an s a"t!ori5e t!e( to %rea2 o#en t!e sai #re(ises if t!ey co"l not ot!er'ise e*ec"te its co((an . 3Arcadio "s Dlagan, $%;64 3-4 :!ile it is tr"e t!at t!e fa(ily !o(e is constit"te on a !o"se an lot fro( t!e ti(e it is occ"#ie as a fa(ily resi ence an is e*e(#t fro( e*ec"tion or force sale "n er Article 1./ of t!e <a(ily Co e$ s"c! clai( for e*e(#tion s!o"l %e set "# an #ro+e to t!e S!eriff %efore t!e sale of t!e #ro#erty at #"%lic a"ction. <ail"re to o so 'o"l esto# t!e #arty fro( later clai(ing t!e e*e(#tion. /onrado ". #A, @==54 see Rule A% 3ection $A for list of property e2empt from e2ecution' 3>4 T!e co"rt (ay stay i((e iate e*ec"tion of a ," g(ent '!en s"#er+ening e+ents$ occ"rring s"%se)"ent to t!e ," g(ent$ %ring a%o"t a (aterial c!ange in t!e sit"ation of t!e #arties. To ,"stify t!e stay of i((e iate e*ec"tion$ t!e s"#er+ening e+ents ("st !a+e a irect effect on t!e (atter alrea y litigate an settle . Or$ t!e s"#er+ening e+ents ("st create a s"%stantial c!ange in t!e rig!ts or relations of t!e #arties '!ic! 'o"l ren er e*ec"tion of a final ," g(ent "n,"st$ i(#ossi%le or ine)"ita%le (a2ing it i(#erati+e to stay i((e iate e*ec"tion in t!e interest of ,"stice. In t!is case$ t!e c!ange of (anage(ent of t!e o'ner1 cor#oration i not affect or %ar e*ec"tion of t!e ," g(ent in t!e e,ect(ent case. A8cueta ". <B?7R#7, @==6' -. Le+y an garnis!(ent

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


33 of 76

Le+y is t!e sei5"re of #ro#erty$ #ersonal an Jor real$ %elonging to t!e ," g(ent e%tor for s"%se)"ent e*ec"tion sale to satisfy ," g(ent. ;arnis!(ent is t!e #rocess of notifying a t!ir #erson calle t!e garnis!ee to retain an attac! t!e #ro#erty !e !as in !is #ossession or "n er !is control %elonging to t!e ," g(ent e%tor$ to (a2e isclos"re to t!e co"rt concerning t!e sa(e$ an to is#ose of t!e sa(e as t!e co"rt s!all irect to satisfy t!e ," g(ent. 3R"le /?$ Sec ?4 314 A +ali le+y is essential to t!e +ali ity of an e*ec"tion sale$ an le+y is in+ali if t!e notice of le+y of real #ro#erty is not file 'it! t!e office of t!e register of ee s$ t!e #"r#ose of '!ic! is to notify t!ir #arties '!o (ay %e affecte in t!eir ealings 'it! res#ect to s"c! #ro#erty. >alen8uela "s De Aguilar, $%6A' . :!ere a #arcel of lan le+ie "#on e*ec"tion is occ"#ie %y a #arty ot!er t!an a ," g(ent e%tor$ t!e #roce "re is for t!e co"rt to or er a !earing to eter(ine t!e nat"re of sai a +erse #ossession. 6ue"ara "s. Ramos, $%&$' 3&4 To effect a le+y "#on real #ro#erty$ t!e s!eriff is re)"ire to o t'o s#ecific t!ings: 3a4 file 'it! t!e register of ee s$ a co#y of t!e or er an escri#tion of t!e attac!e #ro#erty an notice of attac!(ent0 an 3%4 lea+e 'it! t!e occ"#ant of t!e #ro#erty a co#y of t!e sa(e or er$ escri#tion an notice Delta 9otors #orp "s #A, $%;;' Note t!at notice to t!e o'ner '!o is not t!e occ"#ant oes not constit"te co(#liance 'it! t!e stat"te 3!)il 3urety and 5nsurance #o. 5nc, "s. Ea*al, $%6&' It is not necessary to ser+e "#on s"((ons "#on t!e garnis!ee in or er t!at t!e trial co"rt (ay ac)"ire ,"ris iction to %in !i(. Ce nee not %e i(#lea e as a #arty to t!e case. All t!at is necessary is t!e ser+ice "#on !i( of t!e 'rit of garnis!(ent as a conse)"ence of '!ic! !e %eco(es a +irt"al #arty or force inter+enor in t!e case an t!e trial co"rt t!ere%y ac)"ires ,"ris iction to re)"ire co(#liance %y !i( 'it! all its or ers an #rocesses. 6erla a##lies only '!en t!e e%tor oes not eny t!e e%t. If t!e garnis!ee oes not a (it t!e in e%te ness or !e clai(s t!e #ro#erty$ t!e contro+ersy ("st %e eter(ine in an in e#en ent action. !erla #ompania "s. Ramolete, $%%$' 3/4 Real #ro#erty$ stoc2s$ s!ares$ e%ts$ cre its an ot!er #ersonal #ro#erty$ (ay %e le+ie on in li2e (anner an 'it! li2e effect as "n er a 'rit of attac!(ent. 3R"le /?$ Sec 1.4 344 T!e le+y on e*ec"tion s!all create a lien in fa+or of t!e ," g(ent cre itor o+er t!e rig!t$ title an interest of t!e ," g(ent e%tor in s"c! #ro#erty at t!e ti(e of t!e le+y$ s"%,ect to liens an enc"(%rances t!en e*isting. 3R"le /?$ Sec 1&4 3.4 Le+y or attac!(ent o+er #ro#erties t!e(sel+es is s"#erior t!an le+y on t!e +en orDs e)"ity of re e(#tion o+er sai #ro#erties. 3?op Rate 5nternational 3er"ices 5nc "s 5A#, $%;6 4 364 T!e garnis!(ent of #ro#erty to satisfy a 'rit of e*ec"tion o#erates as an attac!(ent an fastens "#on t!e #ro#erty a lien %y '!ic! t!e #ro#erty is %ro"g!t "n er t!e ,"ris iction of t!e co"rt iss"ing t!e 'rit. It is %ro"g!t into custodia legis, "n er t!e sole

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


34 of 76

control of s"c! co"rt. 3 De <eon "s. 3al"ador, $%&= 4 It is also 2no'n as attac!(ent e*ec"tion. 3-4 Boney ," g(ents are enforcea%le only against #ro#erty "n)"estiona%ly %elonging to t!e ," g(ent e%tor. One (anDs goo s s!all not %e sol for anot!er (anDs e%ts$ as t!e saying goes. 37ng "s. ?ating, $%;&4 3>4 T!e #ro!i%ition against e*a(ination or an in)"iry into a %an2 e#osit "n er Re#. Act No. 147. oes not #recl" e its %eing garnis!e to ins"re satisfaction of ," g(ent. 3 #)ina -anking #orp "s 7rtega, $%&A4 3?4 ;o+ern(ent1o'ne 1an 1controlle cor#orations !a+e a #ersonality of t!eir o'n$ se#arate an istinct fro( t!e go+ern(ent0 t!eir f"n s$ t!erefore$ alt!o"g! consi ere to %e #"%lic in c!aracter$ are not e*e(#t fro( garnis!(ent. !N- "s !a*alan, <-AA$$@, $%&;' >. T!ir 16arty Clai( on 6ro#erty Le+ie 314 :!ere a t!ir 1#arty clai( !as %een file in "e for($ t!e #re+ailing #arty can co(#el t!e s!eriff to #rocee %y t!e filing of a %on to ans'er for a(ages t!at (ay %e inc"rre as a conse)"ence of t!e e*ec"tion. On t!e ot!er !an $ if t!e s!eriff #rocee s 'it! t!e sale 'it!o"t s"c! %on $ !e 'ill %e #ersonally lia%le for s"c! a(ages as (ay %e s"staine %y an a'ar e to t!e t!ir 1 #arty clai(ant. -ayer !)il., 5nc., et al. "s. Agana, $%&5' 3&4 :!en a t!ir 1#arty clai( is conteste $ t!e co"rt !as t!e #o'er to fi* t!e +al"e of t!e #ro#erty clai(e %y t!e t!ir #erson$ so t!at a %on e)"al to s"c! +al"e (ay %e #oste %y t!e ," g(ent cre itor to in e(nify t!e s!eriff against lia%ility for a(ages0 or e*a(ine t!e e%tor an ot!er'ise #erfor( s"c! ot!er acts necessary or inci ental to carrying o"t its ," g(ent. 7ng "s. ?ating, $%;&' 3/4 T!e re(e ies of a t!ir 1#arty clai(aint$ t!at is$ a s"((ary !earing %efore t!e co"rt '!ic! a"t!ori5e t!e e*ec"tion$ or a FterceriaG or t!ir 1#arty clai( file 'it! t!e s!eriff$ or an action for a(ages on t!e %on #oste %y t!e ," g(ent cre itor$ or an in e#en ent rein+i icatory action$ are c"("lati+e re(e ies an (ay %e resorte to %y a t!ir 1#arty clai(ant in e#en ently of or se#arately fro( an 'it!o"t nee of a+ailing of t!e ot!ers. If !e o#te to file a #ro#er action to +in icate !is clai( of o'ners!i#$ !e ("st instit"te an action$ istinct an se#arate fro( t!at in '!ic! t!e ," g(ent is %eing enforce $ 'it! a co(#etent co"rt e+en %efore or 'it!o"t filing a clai( in t!e co"rt '!ic! iss"e t!e 'rit$ t!e latter not %eing a con ition sine :ua non for t!e for(er. T!e #ro#er action 'o"l !a+e for its o%,ect t!e reco+ery of o'ners!i# or #ossession of t!e #ro#erty sei5e %y t!e s!eriff$ as 'ell as a(ages against t!e s!eriff an ot!er #ersons res#onsi%le for t!e illegal sei5"re or etention of t!e #ro#erty. T!e +ali ity of t!e title of t!e t!ir 1#arty clai(ant s!all %e resol+e in sai action an a 'rit of #reli(inary in,"nction (ay %e iss"e against t!e s!eriff. 3y "s. Discaya, $%%=' ?. R"les on re e(#tion 314 :!o (ay re ee( 8" g(ent e%tor0

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


35 of 76

%.

S"ccessor1in1interest s"c! as a #erson to '!o( t!e e%tor !as con+eye !is interest in t!e #ro#erty0 #erson to '!o( a stat"tory rig!t of re e(#tion !as %een transferre 0 #erson '!o s"ccee s to t!e interest of t!e e%tor %y o#eration of la'0 one or (ore ,oint o'ners of t!e #ro#erty0 'ife as regar s !er !"s%an Ds !o(estea 0 an attorney '!o agree to i+i e t!e #ro#erty in litigation 3!alicte "s. Ramolete, $%;&4 an Re e(#tioner$ '!ic! is a cre itor !a+ing a lien %y +irt"e of an attac!(ent$ ," g(ent or (ortgage on t!e #ro#erty sol $ or on so(e #art t!ereof$ s"%se)"ent to t!e lien "n er '!ic! t!e #ro#erty 'as sol . 3R"le /?$ Sec. &- 3%44 A(o"nts to %e #ai in case of re e(#tion 6"rc!ase #rice 'it! 1M #er (ont! interest0 Assess(ents or ta*es #ai 'it! 1M interest: A(o"nt of #rior lien if also a cre itor !a+ing a #rior lien to t!at of re e(#tion ot!er t!an t!e ," g(ent "n er '!ic! #"rc!ase 'as (a e 'it! interest. Note t!at t!e foregoing oes not a##ly if t!e one '!o re ee(s is t!e ," g(ent e%tor "nless !e re ee(s fro( a re e(#tioner in '!ic! case$ !e ("st (a2e t!e sa(e #ay(ents as re e(#tioner. 3& Boran /&? 31?-?4

c.

8"ris#r" ential r"les on re e(#tion T!ere is no rig!t of re e(#tion '!ere t!e #ro#erty sol at ," icial sale is #ersonal #ro#erty. :!ere t!e #ro#erty sol is real #ro#erty$ t!e #erio of re e(#tion is one year fro( an after t!e registration of t!e certificate of sale Reyes "s. 9anas, $%6%'. If sai certificate of sale is not registere $ t!e #erio for re e(#tion oes not r"n 6arcia "s. 7campo'. A"t '!ere #arties agree on t!e ate of re e(#tion$ t!e stat"tory #erio for legal re e(#tion 'as con+erte into one of con+entional re e(#tion an t!e #erio %in ing on t!e( is t!at agree "#on <a8o "s. Repu*lic 3urety F 5nsurance #o., 5nc, $%&=' . T!e certificate of sale or real #ro#erty is (erely a (e(orial of t!e fact of sale an oes not confer any rig!t to t!e #ossession$ ("c! less o'ners!i#$ of t!e real #ro#erty #"rc!ase . It is t!e ee of sale e*ec"te %y t!e s!eriff at t!e e*#iration of t!e #erio of re e(#tion '!ic! constit"tes effecti+e con+eyance of t!e #ro#erty sol an entitles t!e #"rc!aser to t!e #ossession of t!e #ro#erty sol 6on8ales "s. #alim*as, 5$ !)il. A5;'. T!e rig!t of re e(#tion is transfera%le an (ay %e +ol"ntarily sol 6ome8 "s. <a 6erminal, A& !)il. 6$' %"t sai rig!t cannot %e le+ie "#on %y t!e ," g(ent cre itor so as to e#ri+e t!e ," g(ent e%tor of any f"rt!er rig!ts to t!e #ro#erty <ic)auco "s. 7legario, 4A !)il. 54='. 6iece(eal re e(#tion is allo'e in re e(#tion of #ro#erties sol at an e*ec"tion sale since t!e a(o"nt #aya%le is no longer t!e ," g(ent e%t %"t t!e #"rc!ase #rice Dulay "s. #arriaga, $%;A'. T!e r"le is ifferent in t!e re e(#tion of #ro#erties (ortgage 'it! t!e 6NA or t!e 9A6 an in foreclos"res %y %an2ing instit"tions '!ere re e(#tioner ("st #ay all t!e a(o"nts o'e %y t!e e%tor on sai (ortgages D-! "s. 9irang, $%&54 !once de <eon "s. R.#, $%&='. :!at is t!e re e(#tionerDs o#tion t!erefore '!en t!e re e(#tion #erio is a%o"t to e*#ire an t!e re e(#tion

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


36 of 76

cannot ta2e #lace on acco"nt of isagree(ent o+er t!e re e(#tion #riceN Accor ing to ,"ris#r" ence$ t!e re e(#tioner face 'it! s"c! a #ro%le( (ay #reser+e !is rig!t of re e(#tion t!ro"g! +udicial action '!ic! in e+ery case ("st %e file 'it!in t!e one1year #erio of re e(#tion. T!e filing of t!e co"rt action to enforce re e(#tion$ %eing e)"i+alent to a for(al offer to re ee($ 'o"l !a+e t!e effect of #reser+ing !is re e(#ti+e rig!ts an Ffree5ingG t!e e*#iration of t!e one1year #erio . T!is is a fair inter#retation #ro+i e t!e action is file on ti(e an in goo fait!$ t!e re e(#tion #rice is finally eter(ine an #ai 'it!in a reasona%le ti(e$ an t!e rig!ts of t!e #arties are res#ecte . State ot!er'ise$ t!e foregoing inter#retation$ as a##lie to t!e case at %ar$ !as t!ree critical i(ensions: 314 ti(ely re e(#tion or re e(#tion %y e*#iration ate 3or$ as '!at !a##ene in t!is case$ t!e re e(#tioner 'as force to resort to ," icial action to Ffree5eG t!e e*#iration of t!e re e(#tion #erio 40 3&4 goo fait! as al'ays$ (eaning$ t!e filing of t!e #ri+ate res#on entDs action on A"g"st 1/$ 1??/ ("st !a+e %een for t!e sole #"r#ose of eter(ining t!e re e(#tion #rice an not to stretc! t!e re e(#ti+e #erio in efinitely0 an 3/4 once t!e re e(#tion #rice is eter(ine 'it!in a reasona%le ti(e$ t!e re e(#tioner ("st (a2e #ro(#t #ay(ent in f"ll. /i Dield Realty ". #A, @==@'

17. R"les in ee of #ossession 314 After t!e ee of sale !as %een e*ec"te $ t!e +en ee t!erein is entitle to a 'rit of #ossession %"t t!e sa(e s!all iss"e only '!ere it is t!e ," g(ent e%tor or !is s"ccessors1in1interest '!o are in #ossession of t!e #re(ises. :!ere t!e lan is occ"#ie %y a t!ir #arty$ t!e co"rt s!o"l or er a !earing to eter(ine t!e nat"re of !is a +erse #ossession 3Bnc)uan "s #A, $%;;4 T!e 'rit s!all iss"e '!en t!e #erio of re e(#tion !as e*#ire . 3&4 A 'rit of #ossession (ay %e iss"e only in a lan registration #rocee ing$ in e*tra," icial foreclos"re of a real estate (ortgage an in ," icial foreclos"re if t!e e%tor is in #ossession an no t!ir #erson$ not a #arty to t!e s"it$ !a inter+ene . 6atc)alian "s Arlegui, $%&&' It !as %een !el $ !o'e+er$ t!at a 'rit of #ossession is a co(#le(ent of t!e 'rit of e*ec"tion. Cence$ if "n er a final ," g(ent t!e #re+ailing #arty ac)"ires a%sol"te o'ners!i# o+er t!e real #ro#erty in+ol+e $ t!e 'rit (ay %e iss"e for !i( to o%tain #ossession 'it!o"t t!e nee of filing a se#arate action against t!e #ossessor. 7lego "s. Re*uena, $%&5' A 'rit of #ossession (ay also %e so"g!t fro( an iss"e %y t!e co"rt "nless a t!ir #arty is !ol ing t!e #ro#erty a +ersely to t!e ," g(ent e%tor Ro2as "s -uan, $%;;' 11. Res 8" icata an Concl"si+eness of 8" g(ent 9istinction Res 0udicataJ 9octrine on 6recl"sion of Clai(s O t!e #arties an t!e ca"ses of action in %ot! actions are i entical or s"%stantially t!e sa(e. T!e ," g(ent in t!e first action is concl"si+e as to e+ery (atter offere an recei+e t!erein an as to any ot!er (atter a (issi%le t!erein an '!ic! (ig!t !a+e %een offere for t!at

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


37 of 76

#"r#ose$ !ence it is an a%sol"te %ar to a s"%se)"ent action for t!e sa(e ca"se. >ergara "s. Ro:ue, $%&&' Concl"si+eness of 8" g(ent J Auter Action !endant O t!e #arties in %ot! actions (ay %e t!e sa(e %"t t!e ca"ses of action are ifferent. Cence$ t!e ," g(ent in t!e first is %in ing only 'it! res#ect to t!e (atters act"ally raise an a ," ge t!erein an is not a %ar to anot!er action %et'een t!e sa(e #arties %"t on a ifferent ca"se of action. >iray "s. 9arinas, $%&;'

Re)"isites for res +udicata T!e for(er ," g(ent or or er ("st %e final 3an e*ec"tory4 %4 It ("st %e a ," g(ent or or er on t!e (erits c4 It ("st !a+e %een ren ere %y a co"rt$ !a+ing ,"ris iction o+er t!e s"%,ect1(atter an t!e #arties 4 T!ere ("st %e$ %et'een t!e first an secon actions$ i entity of #arties$ of s"%,ect1(atter an of ca"ses of action a4 a. %. c. final ecisions of )"asi1," icial agencies Amistoso "s. 7ng, et al., $%;4' #ro%ate #rocee ings 3y Coo, et al. "s. #A, et al., $%;4' lan registration #rocee ings >alisno, et al. "s. !lan, et al., $%;6' R"lings An Agree(ent %et'een #arties a##ro+e %y t!e <upon$ if not re#" iate $ !as t!e force an effect of a final ," g(ent. T!e Agree(ent (ay %e enforce %y t!e <upon, t!ro"g! t!e punong *arangay, 'it!in 6 (ont!s0 an if t!e settle(ent is not enforce after t!e la#se of sai #erio $ %y an action in t!e #ro#er city or ("nici#al co"rt. Instea of enforcing t!e agree(ent t!ro"g! t!e <upon or t!e BTC$ Aer%a file an action for "nla'f"l etainer against 6a%lo. S"c! action is %arre %y t!e Agree(ent -er*a "s. !a*lo, @==5'. T!e r"le is t!at a #arty (ay not e+a e t!e a##lication of res ," icata %y si(#ly incl" ing a itional #arties in s"%se)"ent litigation or %y e*cl" ing #arties in t!e later case certain #arties in t!e #re+io"s s"it. T!is Co"rt !as r"le t!at FHAIt!o"g! in t!e secon action$ t!ere are ,oine #arties '!o 'ere not ,oine in t!e first action$ t!ere is still res ," icata if t!e #arty against '!o( t!e ," g(ent is offere in e+i ence 'as a #arty in t!e first actionG 3!eGalosa ". ?uason$ && 6!il. /7/4. Ot!er'ise$ no (atter !o' often a case %e eci e $ t!e #arties (ig!t rene' t!e litigation %y si(#ly ,oining ne' #arties 3Al8ua and Arnalot ". 0o)nson$ &1 6!il. /7>4. :it! res#ect to i entity of s"%,ect (atter$ t!is is incl" e in i entity of ca"ses of action. :!en t!ere is i entity of t!e ca"se or ca"ses of action$ t!ere is necessarily i entity of s"%,ect A##lica%ility of res +udicata

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


38 of 76

(atter. A"t t!e con+erse is not tr"e$ for ifferent ca"ses of action (ay e*ist regar ing t!e sa(e s"%,ect (atter$ in '!ic! case$ t!e concl"si+eness of ," g(ent s!all %e only 'it! regar to t!e )"estions irectly an act"ally #"t in iss"e an eci e in t!e first case. T!e test to eter(ine t!e i entity of ca"ses of action is to consi er '!et!er t!e sa(e e+i ence 'o"l s"stain %ot! ca"ses of action 7rope8a "s. Allied -ank, @==@'.

6lantiff coo#erati+e 3!erein res#on ent4 cannot %e %o"n %y #re+io"s e,ect(ent case eclaring A"a5on t!e o'ner of t!e conteste t!ree1 oor one1storey %"il ing %eca"se 14 coo#erati+e 'as not a #arty to t!e e,ect(ent case 3eit!er as efen ant$ t!ir 1#arty efen ant$ efen ant on a co"nterclai( or on cross clai($ or inter+enor4 an neit!er is it a s"ccessor1in1interest of a #arty t!erein nor a real #arty in interest0 an &4 ," g(ent in e,ect(ent s"it is concl"si+e only 'it! res#ect to t!e iss"e of (aterial #ossession of t!e #re(ises %"t not 'it! res#ect to o'ners!i# an ot!er facts. As t!"s$ res ," icata oes not %ar t!e filing of "nla'f"l etainer case %y coo#erati+e against A"a5on -ua8on "s. <ope8, $%%A'.

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


39 of 76

RULES O< CIKIL 6ROCE9URE 6ART T:O 6ROKISIONAL REBE9IES I. Conce#t 6ro+isional re(e ies are: 314 T!ose to '!ic! #arties litigant (ay resort for t!e #reser+ation or #rotection of t!eir rig!ts or interest$ an for no ot!er #"r#ose "ring t!e #en ency of t!e action. (2) T!ey are a##lie to a #en ing litigation$ for t!e #"r#ose of sec"ring t!e ," g(ent or #reser+ing t!e status :uo$ an in so(e cases after ," g(ent$ for t!e #"r#ose of #reser+ing or is#osing of t!e s"%,ect (atter. 3 #alo "s. Roldan, $%464 6ro+isional Re(e ies A. Attac!(ent O R"le .Sec 1. ;ro"n s "#on '!ic! attac!(ent (ay iss"e. At t!e co((ence(ent of t!e action or at any ti(e %efore entry of ," g(ent$ a #laintiff or any #ro#er #arty (ay !a+e t!e #ro#erty of t!e a +erse #arty attac!e as sec"rity for t!e satisfaction of any ," g(ent t!at (ay %e reco+ere in t!e follo'ing cases: ii. In an action for t!e reco+ery of a s#ecifie a(o"nt of (oney or a(ages$ ot!er t!an (oral an e*e(#lary$ on a ca"se of action arising fro( la'$ contract$ )"asi1contract$ elict or )"asi1 elict against a #arty '!o is a%o"t to e#art fro( t!e 6!ili##ines 'it! intent to efra" !is cre itors0 iii. In an action for (oney or #ro#erty e(%e55le or fra" "lently (isa##lie or con+erte to !is o'n "se %y a #"%lic officer$ or an officer of a cor#oration$ or an attorney$ factor$ %ro2er$ agent$ or cler2$ in t!e co"rse of !is e(#loy(ent as s"c!$ or %y any ot!er #erson in a fi "ciary ca#acity$ or for a 'illf"l +iolation of "ty0 i+. In an action to reco+er t!e #ossession of #ro#erty "n,"stly or fra" "lently ta2en$ etaine or con+erte $ '!en t!e #ro#erty$ or any #art t!ereof$ !as %een conceale $ re(o+e $ or is#ose of to #re+ent its %eing fo"n or ta2en %y t!e a##licant or an a"t!ori5e #erson0 +. In an action against a #arty '!o !as %een g"ilty of a fra" in contracting t!e e%t or inc"rring t!e o%ligation "#on '!ic! t!e action is %ro"g!t$ or in t!e #erfor(ance t!ereof0 +i. In an action against a #arty '!o !as re(o+e or is#ose of !is #ro#erty$ or is a%o"t to o so$ 'it! intent to efra" !is cre itors0 or +ii. In an action against a #arty '!o oes not resi e an is not fo"n in t!e 6!ili##ines$ or on '!o( s"((ons (ay %e ser+e %y #"%lication. Sec &. Iss"ance an contents of or er. An or er of attac!(ent (ay %e iss"e e* #arte "#on (otion 'it! notice an !earing %y t!e co"rt in '!ic! t!e action is #en ing$ or %y t!e Co"rt of A##eals or t!e S"#re(e Co"rt$ an ("st re)"ire t!e s!eriff of t!e co"rt to attac! so ("c! of t!e #ro#erty in t!e 6!ili##ines of t!e #arty against '!o( it is iss"e $ not e*e(#t fro( e*ec"tion$ as (ay %e s"fficient to satisfy t!e a##licant=s e(an $ "nless s"c! #arty (a2es e#osit or gi+es %on as !ereinafter #ro+i e in an a(o"nt e)"al to t!at fi*e in t!e or er$ '!ic! (ay %e t!e a(o"nt s"fficient to satisfy t!e a##licant=s e(an or t!e +al"e of t!e #ro#erty to %e

II.

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


40 of 76

attac!e as state %y t!e a##licant$ e*cl"si+e of costs. Se+eral 'rits (ay %e iss"e at t!e sa(e ti(e to t!e s!eriffs of t!e co"rts of ifferent ," icial regions. Sec /. Affi a+it an %on re)"ire . An or er of attac!(ent s!all %e grante only '!en it a##ears %y t!e affi a+it of t!e a##licant$ or of so(e ot!er #erson '!o #ersonally 2no's t!e facts$ t!at a s"fficient ca"se of action e*ists$ t!at t!e case is one of t!ose (entione in section 1 !ereof$ t!at t!ere is no ot!er s"fficient sec"rity for t!e clai( so"g!t to %e enforce %y t!e action$ an t!at t!e a(o"nt "e to t!e a##licant$ or t!e +al"e of t!e #ro#erty t!e #ossession of '!ic! !e is entitle to reco+er$ is as ("c! as t!e s"( for '!ic! t!e or er is grante a%o+e all legal co"nterclai(s. T!e affi a+it$ an t!e %on re)"ire %y t!e ne*t s"ccee ing section$ ("st %e "ly file 'it! t!e co"rt %efore t!e or er iss"es. Sec 4. Con ition of a##licant=s %on . T!e #arty a##lying for t!e or er ("st t!ereafter gi+e a %on e*ec"te to t!e a +erse #arty in t!e a(o"nt fi*e %y t!e co"rt in its or er granting t!e iss"ance of t!e 'rit$ con itione t!at t!e latter 'ill #ay all t!e costs '!ic! (ay %e a ," ge to t!e a +erse #arty an all a(ages '!ic! !e (ay s"stain %y reason of t!e attac!(ent$ if t!e co"rt s!all finally a ," ge t!at t!e a##licant 'as not entitle t!ereto. Sec .. Banner of attac!ing #ro#erty. T!e s!eriff enforcing t!e 'rit s!all 'it!o"t elay an 'it! all reasona%le iligence attac!$ to a'ait ," g(ent an e*ec"tion in t!e action$ only so ("c! of t!e #ro#erty in t!e 6!ili##ines of t!e #arty against '!o( t!e 'rit is iss"e $ not e*e(#t fro( e*ec"tion$ as (ay %e s"fficient to satisfy t!e a##licant=s e(an $ "nless t!e for(er (a2es a e#osit 'it! t!e co"rt fro( '!ic! t!e 'rit is iss"e $ or gi+es a co"nter1%on e*ec"te to t!e a##licant$ in an a(o"nt e)"al to t!e %on fi*e %y t!e co"rt in t!e or er of attac!(ent or to t!e +al"e of t!e #ro#erty to %e attac!e $ e*cl"si+e of costs. No le+y on attac!(ent #"rs"ant to t!e 'rit iss"e "n er section & !ereof s!all %e enforce "nless it is #rece e $ or conte(#oraneo"sly acco(#anie $ %y ser+ice of s"((ons$ toget!er 'it! a co#y of t!e co(#laint$ t!e a##lication for attac!(ent$ t!e a##licant=s affi a+it an %on $ an t!e or er an 'rit of attac!(ent$ on t!e efen ant 'it!in t!e 6!ili##ines. T!e re)"ire(ent of #rior or conte(#oraneo"s ser+ice of s"((ons s!all not a##ly '!ere t!e s"((ons co"l not %e ser+e #ersonally or %y s"%stit"te ser+ice es#ite iligent efforts$ or t!e efen ant is a resi ent of t!e 6!ili##ines te(#orarily a%sent t!erefro($ or t!e efen ant is a non1resi ent of t!e 6!ili##ines$ or t!e action is one in re( or )"asi in re(. Sec 6. S!eriff=s ret"rn. After enforcing t!e 'rit$ t!e s!eriff ("st li2e'ise 'it!o"t elay (a2e a ret"rn t!ereon to t!e co"rt fro( '!ic! t!e 'rit iss"e $ 'it! a f"ll state(ent of !is #rocee ings "n er t!e 'rit0 an a co(#lete in+entory of t!e #ro#erty attac!e $ toget!er 'it! any co"nter1%on gi+en %y t!e #arty against '!o( attac!(ent is iss"e $ an ser+e co#ies t!ereof on t!e a##licant. Sec -. Attac!(ent of real an #ersonal #ro#erty0 recor ing t!ereof . Real an #ersonal #ro#erty s!all %e attac!e %y t!e s!eriff e*ec"ting t!e 'rit in t!e follo'ing (anner: 3a4 Real #ro#erty$ or gro'ing cro#s t!ereon$ or any interest t!erein$ stan ing "#on t!e recor of t!e registry of ee s of t!e #ro+ince in t!e na(e of t!e #arty against '!o( attac!(ent is iss"e $ or not a##earing at all "#on s"c! recor s$ or %elonging to t!e #arty against '!o( attac!(ent is iss"e an !el %y any ot!er #erson$ or stan ing on t!e recor s of t!e registry of ee s a co#y of t!e or er$ toget!er 'it! a escri#tion of t!e #ro#erty attac!e $ an a notice t!at it is attac!e $ or t!at s"c! real #ro#erty an any interest t!erein !el %y or stan ing in t!e na(e of s"c! ot!er #erson are attac!e $ an %y lea+ing a co#y of s"c!

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


41 of 76

or er$ escri#tion$ an notice 'it! t!e occ"#ant of t!e #ro#erty$ if any$ or 'it! s"c! ot!er #erson or !is agent if fo"n 'it!in t!e #ro+ince. :!ere t!e #ro#erty !as %een %ro"g!t "n er t!e o#eration of eit!er t!e Lan Registration Act or t!e 6ro#erty Registration 9ecree$ t!e notice s!all contain a reference to t!e n"(%er of t!e certificate of title$ t!e +ol"(e an #age in t!e registration %oo2 '!ere t!e certificate is registere $ an t!e registere o'ner or o'ners t!ereof. T!e registrar of ee s ("st in e* attac!(ents file "n er t!is section in t!e na(es of t!e a##licant$ t!e a +erse #arty$ or t!e #erson %y '!o( t!e #ro#erty is !el or in '!ose na(e it stan s in t!e recor s. If t!e attac!(ent is not clai(e on t!e entire area of t!e lan co+ere %y t!e certificate of title$ a escri#tion s"fficiently acc"rate for t!e i entification of t!e lan or interest to %e affecte s!all %e incl" e in t!e registration of s"c! attac!(ent0 3%4 6ersonal #ro#erty ca#a%le of (an"al eli+ery$ %y ta2ing an safely 2ee#ing it in !is c"sto y$ after iss"ing t!e corres#on ing recei#t t!erefor0 3c4 Stoc2s or s!ares$ or an interest in stoc2s or s!ares$ of any cor#oration or co(#any$ %y lea+ing 'it! t!e #resi ent or (anaging agent t!ereof$ a co#y of t!e 'rit$ an a notice stating t!at t!e stoc2 or interest of t!e #arty against '!o( t!e attac!(ent is iss"e is attac!e in #"rs"ance of s"c! 'rit0 3 4 9e%ts an cre its$ incl" ing %an2 e#osits$ financial interest$ royalties$ co((issions an ot!er #ersonal #ro#erty not ca#a%le of (an"al eli+ery$ %y lea+ing 'it! t!e #erson o'ing s"c! e%ts$ or !a+ing in !is #ossession or "n er !is control$ s"c! cre its or ot!er #ersonal #ro#erty$ or 'it! !is agent$ a co#y of t!e 'rit$ an notice t!at t!e e%ts o'ing %y !i( to t!e #arty against '!o( attac!(ent is iss"e $ an t!e cre its an ot!er #ersonal #ro#erty in !is #ossession$ or "n er !is control$ %elonging to sai #arty$ are attac!e in #"rs"ance of s"c! 'rit0 3e4 T!e interest of t!e #arty against '!o( attac!(ent is iss"e in #ro#erty %elonging to t!e estate of t!e ece ent$ '!et!er as !eir$ legatee$ or e+isee$ %y ser+ing t!e e*ec"tor or a (inistrator or ot!er #ersonal re#resentati+e of t!e ece ent 'it! a co#y of t!e 'rit an notice t!at sai interest is attac!e . A co# of sai 'rit of attac!(ent an of sai notice s!all also %e file in t!e office of t!e cler2 of t!e co"rt in '!ic! sai estate is %eing settle an ser+e "#on t!e !eir$ legatee or e+isee concerne . If t!e #ro#erty so"g!t to %e attac!e in c"sto ia legis$ a co#y of t!e 'rit of attac!(ent s!all %e file 'it! t!e #ro#er co"rt or )"asi1," icial agency$ an notice of t!e attac!(ent ser+e "#on t!e c"sto ian of s"c! #ro#erty. Sec >. Effect of attac!(ent of e%ts$ cre its an all ot!er si(ilar #ro#erty. All #ersons !a+ing in t!eir #ossession or "n er t!eir control any cre its or ot!er si(ilar #ersonal #ro#erty %elonging to t!e #arty against '!o( attac!(ent is iss"e $ or o'ing any e%ts to !i($ at t!e ti(e of ser+ice "#on t!e( of t!e co#y of t!e 'rit of attac!(ent an notice as #ro+i e in t!e last #rece ing section$ s!all %e lia%le to t!e a##licant for t!e a(o"nt of s"c! cre its$ e%ts or ot!er si(ilar #ersonal #ro#erty$ "ntil t!e attac!(ent is isc!arge $ or any ," g(ent reco+ere %y !i( is satisfie $ "nless s"c! #ro#erty is eli+ere or transferre $ or s"c! e%ts are #ai $ to t!e cler2$ s!eriff$ or ot!er #ro#er officer of t!e co"rt iss"ing t!e attac!(ent. Sec ?. Effect of attac!(ent of interest in #ro#erty %elonging to t!e estate of a ece ent. T!e attac!(ent of t!e interest of an !eir$ legatee$ or e+isee in t!e #ro#erty %elonging to t!e estate of a ece ent$ s!all not i(#air t!e #o'ers of t!e

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


42 of 76

e*ec"tor$ a (inistrator$ or ot!er #ersonal re#resentati+e of t!e ece ent o+er s"c! #ro#erty for t!e #"r#ose of a (inistration. S"c! #ersonal re#resentati+e$ !o'e+er$ s!all re#ort t!e attac!(ent to t!e co"rt '!en any #etition for istri%"tion is file $ an in t!e or er (a e "#on s"c! #etition$ istri%"tion (ay %e a'ar e to s"c! !eir$ legatee$ or e+isee$ %"t t!e #ro#erty attac!e s!all %e or ere eli+ere to t!e s!eriff (a2ing t!e le+y$ s"%,ect to t!e clai( of s"c! !eir$ legatee$ or e+isee$ or any #erson clai(ing "n er !i(. Sec 17. E*a(ination of #arty '!ose #ro#erty is attac!e an #ersons in e%te to !i( or controlling !is #ro#erty0 eli+ery of #ro#erty to s!eriff . Any #erson o'ing e%ts to t!e #arty '!ose #ro#erty is attac!e or !a+ing in !is #ossession or "n er !is control any cre it or ot!er #ersonal #ro#erty %elonging to s"c! #arty$ (ay %e re)"ire to atten %efore t!e co"rt in '!ic! t!e action is #en ing$ or %efore a co((issioner a##ointe %y t!e co"rt$ an %e e*a(ine on oat! res#ecting t!e sa(e. T!e #arty '!ose #ro#erty is attac!e (ay also %e re)"ire to atten for t!e #"r#ose of gi+ing infor(ation res#ecting !is #ro#erty$ an (ay %e e*a(ine on oat!. T!e co"rt (ay$ after s"c! e*a(ination$ or er #ersonal #ro#erty ca#a%le of (an"al eli+ery %elonging to !i($ in t!e #ossession of t!e #erson so re)"ire to atten %efore t!e co"rt$ to %e eli+ere to t!e cler2 of t!e co"rt or s!eriff on s"c! ter(s as (ay %e ,"st$ !a+ing reference to any lien t!ereon or clai( against t!e sa(e$ to a'ait t!e ," g(ent in t!e action. Sec 11. :!en attac!e #ro#erty (ay %e sol after le+y on attac!(ent an %efore entry of ," g(ent. :!ene+er it s!all %e (a e to a##ear to t!e co"rt in '!ic! t!e action is #en ing$ "#on !earing 'it! notice to %ot! #arties$ t!at t!e #ro#erty attac!e is #eris!a%le$ or t!at t!e interests of all t!e #arties to t!e action 'ill %e s"%ser+e %y t!e sale t!ereof$ t!e co"rt (ay or er s"c! #ro#erty to %e sol at #"%lic a"ction in s"c! (anner as it (ay irect$ an t!e #rocee s of s"c! sale to %e e#osite in co"rt to a%i e t!e ," g(ent in t!e action. Sec 1&. 9isc!arge of attac!(ent "#on gi+ing co"nter1%on . After a 'rit of attac!(ent !as %een enforce $ t!e #arty '!ose #ro#erty !as %een attac!e $ or t!e #erson a##earing on !is %e!alf$ (ay (o+e for t!e isc!arge of t!e attac!(ent '!olly or in #art on t!e sec"rity gi+en. T!e co"rt s!all$ after "e notice an !earing$ or er t!e isc!arge of t!e attac!(ent if t!e (o+ant (a2es a cas! e#osit$ or files a co"nter1%on e*ec"te to t!e attac!ing #arty 'it! t!e cler2 of t!e co"rt '!ere t!e a##lication is (a e$ in an a(o"nt e)"al to t!at fi*e %y t!e co"rt in t!e or er of attac!(ent$ e*cl"si+e of costs. A"t if t!e attac!(ent is so"g!t to %e isc!arge 'it! res#ect to a #artic"lar #ro#erty$ t!e co"nter1%on s!all %e e)"al to t!e +al"e of t!at #ro#erty as eter(ine %y t!e co"rt. In eit!er case$ t!e cas! e#osit or t!e co"nter1 %on s!all sec"re t!e #ay(ent of any ," g(ent t!at t!e attac!ing #arty (ay reco+er in t!e action. A notice of t!e e#osit s!all fort!'it! %e ser+e on t!e attac!ing #arty. U#on t!e isc!arge of an attac!(ent in accor ance 'it! t!e #ro+isions of t!is section$ t!e #ro#erty attac!e $ or t!e #rocee s of any sale t!ereof$ s!all %e eli+ere to t!e #arty (a2ing t!e e#osit or gi+ing t!e co"nter1%on $ or to t!e #erson a##earing on !is %e!alf$ t!e e#osit or co"nter1%on aforesai stan ing in #lace of t!e #ro#erty to release . S!o"l s"c! co"nter1%on for any reason %e fo"n to %e or %eco(e ins"fficient$ an t!e #arty f"rnis!ing t!e sa(e fail to file an a itional co"nter1%on $ t!e attac!ing #arty (ay a##ly for a ne' or er of attac!(ent. Sec 1/. 9isc!arge of attac!(ent on ot!er gro"n s. T!e #arty '!ose #ro#erty !as %een or ere attac!e (ay file a (otion 'it! t!e co"rt in '!ic! t!e action is #en ing$ %efore or after le+y or e+en after t!e release of t!e attac!e #ro#erty$ for an or er to set asi e or isc!arge t!e attac!(ent on t!e gro"n t!at t!e sa(e 'as i(#ro#erly or irreg"larly iss"e or enforce $ or t!at t!e %on is ins"fficient. If t!e attac!(ent is e*cessi+e$ t!e isc!arge s!all %e li(ite to t!e e*cess. If t!e (otion

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


43 of 76

%e (a e on affi a+its on t!e #art of t!e (o+ant %"t not ot!er'ise$ t!e attac!ing #arty (ay o##ose t!e (otion %y co"nter1affi a+its or ot!er e+i ence in a ition to t!at on '!ic! t!e attac!(ent 'as (a e. After "e notice an !earing$ t!e co"rt s!all or er t!e setting asi e or t!e corres#on ing isc!arge of t!e attac!(ent if it a##ears t!at it 'as i(#ro#erly or irreg"larly iss"e or enforce $ or t!at t!e %on is ins"fficient$ or t!at t!e attac!(ent is e*cessi+e$ an t!e efect is not c"re fort!'it!. Sec 14. 6rocee ings '!ere #ro#erty clai(e %y t!ir #erson. If #ro#erty attac!e is clai(e %y any #erson ot!er t!an t!e #arty against '!o( attac!(ent !a %een iss"e or !is agent$ an s"c! #erson (a2es an affi a+it of !is title t!ereto$ or rig!t to t!e #ossession t!ereof$ stating t!e gro"n s of s"c! rig!t or title$ an ser+es s"c! affi a+it "#on t!e s!eriff '!ile t!e latter !as #ossession of t!e attac!e #ro#erty$ an a co#y t!ereof "#on t!e attac!ing #arty$ t!e s!eriff s!all not %e %o"n to 2ee# t!e #ro#erty "n er attac!(ent$ "nless t!e attac!ing #arty or !is agent$ on e(an of t!e s!eriff$ s!all file a %on a##ro+e %y t!e co"rt to in e(nify t!e t!ir 1#arty clai(ant in a s"( not less t!an t!e +al"e of t!e #ro#erty le+ie "#on. In case of isagree(ent as to s"c! +al"e$ t!e sa(e s!all %e eci e %y t!e co"rt iss"ing t!e 'rit of attac!(ent. No clai( for a(ages for t!e ta2ing or 2ee#ing of t!e #ro#erty (ay %e enforce against t!e %on "nless t!e action t!erefor is file 'it!in one !"n re t'enty 31&74 ays fro( t!e ate of t!e filing of t!e %on . T!e s!eriff s!all not %e lia%le for a(ages for t!e ta2ing or 2ee#ing of s"c! #ro#erty$ to any s"c! t!ir 1#arty clai(ant$ if s"c! t!ir 1#arty clai(ant$ if s"c! %on s!all %e file . Not!ing !erein containe s!all #re+ent s"c! clai(ant or any t!ir #erson fro( +in icating !is clai( to t!e #ro#erty$ or #re+ent t!e attac!ing #arty fro( clai(ing a(ages against a t!ir 1#arty clai(ant '!o file a fri+olo"s or #lainly s#"rio"s clai($ in t!e sa(e or a se#arate action. :!en t!e 'rit of attac!(ent is iss"e in fa+or of t!e Re#"%lic of t!e 6!ili##ines$ or any officer "ly re#resenting it$ t!e filing of s"c! %on s!all not %e re)"ire $ an in case t!e s!eriff is s"e for a(ages as a res"lt of t!e attac!(ent$ !e s!all %e re#resente %y t!e Solicitor ;eneral$ an if !el lia%le t!erefor$ t!e act"al a(ages a ," ge %y t!e co"rt s!all %e #ai %y t!e National Treas"rer o"t of t!e f"n s to %e a##ro#riate for t!e #"r#ose. Sec 1.. Satisfaction of ," g(ent o"t of #ro#erty attac!e 0 ret"rn of officer. If ," g(ent %e reco+ere %y t!e attac!ing #arty an e*ec"tion iss"e t!ereon$ t!e s!eriff (ay ca"se t!e ," g(ent to %e satisfie o"t of t!e #ro#erty attac!e $ if it %e s"fficient for t!at #"r#ose$ in t!e follo'ing (anner: 3a4 Ay #aying to t!e ," g(ent o%ligee t!e #rocee s of all sales of #eris!a%le or ot!er #ro#erty sol in #"rs"ance of t!e or er of t!e co"rt$ or so ("c! as s!all %e necessary to satisfy t!e ," g(ent0 3%4 If any %alance re(ains "e$ %y selling so ("c! of t!e #ro#erty$ real or #ersonal$ as (ay %e necessary to satisfy t!e %alance$ if eno"g! for t!at #"r#ose re(ain in t!e s!eriff=s !an s$ or in t!ose of t!e cler2 of t!e co"rt0 3c4 Ay collecting fro( all #ersons !a+ing in t!eir #ossession cre its %elonging to t!e ," g(ent o%ligor$ or o'ing e%ts to t!e latter at t!e ti(e of t!e attac!(ent of s"c! cre its or e%ts$ t!e a(o"nt of s"c! cre its an e%ts as eter(ine %y t!e co"rt in t!e action$ an state in t!e ," g(ent$ an #aying t!e #rocee s of s"c! collection o+er to t!e ," g(ent o%ligee. T!e s!eriff s!all fort!'it! (a2e a ret"rn in 'riting to t!e co"rt of !is #rocee ings "n er t!is section an f"rnis! t!e #arties 'it! co#ies t!ereof.

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


44 of 76

Sec 16. Aalance "e collecte "#on an e*ec"tion0 e*cess eli+ere to ," g(ent o%ligor. If after reali5ing "#on all t!e #ro#erty attac!e $ incl" ing t!e #rocee s of any e%ts or cre its collecte $ an a##lying t!e #rocee s to t!e satisfaction of t!e ," g(ent$ less t!e e*#enses of #rocee ings "#on t!e ," g(ent$ any %alance s!all re(ain "e$ t!e s!eriff ("st #rocee to collect s"c! %alance as "#on or inary e*ec"tion. :!ene+er t!e ," g(ent s!all !a+e %een #ai $ t!e s!eriff$ "#on reasona%le e(an $ ("st ret"rn to t!e ," g(ent o%ligor t!e attac!e #ro#erty re(aining in !is !an s$ an any #rocee s of t!e sale of t!e #ro#erty attac!e not a##lie to t!e ," g(ent. Sec 1-. Reco+ery "#on t!e co"nter1%on . :!en t!e ," g(ent !as %eco(e e*ec"tory$ t!e s"rety or s"reties on any co"nter1%on gi+en #"rs"ant to t!e #ro+isions of t!is R"le to sec"re t!e #ay(ent of t!e ," g(ent s!all %eco(e c!arge on s"c! co"nter1%on $ an %o"n to #ay to t!e ," g(ent o%ligee "#on e(an t!e a(o"nt "e "n er t!e ," g(ent$ '!ic! a(o"nt (ay %e reco+ere for( s"c! s"rety or s"reties after notice an s"((ary !earing in t!e sa(e action. Sec 1>. 9is#osition of (oney e#osite . :!ere t!e #arty against '!o( attac!(ent !a %een iss"e !as e#osite (oney instea of gi+ing co"nter1%on $ it s!all %e a##lie "n er t!e irection of t!e co"rt to t!e satisfaction of any ," g(ent ren ere in fa+or of t!e attac!ing #arty$ an after satisfying t!e ," g(ent t!e %alance s!all %e ref"n e to t!e e#ositor or !is assignee. If t!e ," g(ent is in fa+or of t!e #arty against '!o( attac!(ent 'as iss"e $ t!e '!ole s"( e#osite ("st %e ref"n e to !i( or !is assignee. Sec 1?. 9is#osition of attac!e #ro#erty '!ere ," g(ent is for #arty against '!o( attac!(ent 'as iss"e . If ," g(ent %e ren ere against t!e attac!ing #arty$ all t!e #rocee s of sales an (oney collecte or recei+e %y s!eriff$ "n er t!e or er of attac!(ent$ an all #ro#erty attac!e re(aining in any s"c! officer=s !an s$ s!all %e eli+ere to t!e #arty against '!o( attac!(ent 'as iss"e $ an t!e or er of attac!(ent isc!arge . Sec &7. Clai( for a(ages on acco"nt of i(#ro#er$ irreg"lar or e*cessi+e attac!(ent. An a##lication for a(ages on acco"nt of i(#ro#er$ irreg"lar or e*cessi+e attac!(ent ("st %e file %efore t!e trial or %efore a##eal is #erfecte or %efore t!e ," g(ent %eco(es e*ec"tory$ 'it! "e notice to t!e attac!ing #arty an !is s"rety or s"reties$ setting fort! t!e facts s!o'ing !is rig!t to a(ages an t!e a(o"nt t!ereof. S"c! a(ages (ay %e a'ar e only after #ro#er !earing an s!all %e incl" e in t!e ," g(ent on t!e (ain case. If t!e ," g(ent on t!e a##ellate co"rt %e fa+ora%le to t!e #arty against '!o( t!e attac!(ent 'as iss"e $ !e ("st clai( a(ages s"staine "ring t!e #en ency of t!e a##eal %y filing an a##lication in t!e a##ellate co"rt$ 'it! notice to t!e #arty in '!ose fa+or t!e attac!(ent 'as iss"e or !is s"rety or s"reties$ %efore t!e ," g(ent of t!e a##ellate co"rt %eco(es e*ec"tory. T!e a##ellate co"rt (ay allo' t!e a##lication to %e !ear an eci e %y t!e trial co"rt. Not!ing !erein containe s!all #re+ent t!e #arty against '!o( t!e attac!(ent 'as iss"e fro( reco+ering in t!e sa(e action t!e a(ages a'ar e to !i( fro( any #ro#erty of t!e attac!ing #arty not e*e(#t fro( e*ec"tion s!o"l t!e %on or e#osit gi+en %y t!e latter %e ins"fficient or fail to f"lly satisfy t!e a'ar . 1. 9efinition A 'rit of #reli(inary attac!(ent is a #ro+isional re(e y iss"e "#on or er of t!e co"rt '!ere an action is #en ing to %e le+ie "#on t!e #ro#erty or #ro#erties of t!e efen ant t!erein$ t!e sa(e to %e !el t!ereafter %y t!e

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


45 of 76

s!eriff as sec"rity for t!e satisfaction of '!ate+er ," g(ent (ig!t %e sec"re in sai action %y t!e attac!ing cre itor against t!e efen ant. 3#uartero "s. #A, $%%@4 &. Conce#t an #"r#ose Attac!(ent is a ,"ri ical instit"tion '!ic! !as for its #"r#ose to sec"re t!e o"tco(e of t!e trial$ t!at is$ t!e satisfaction of t!e #ec"niary o%ligation really contracte %y a #erson or %elie+e to !a+e %een contracte %y !i($ eit!er %y +irt"e of a ci+il o%ligation e(anating fro( contract or fro( la'$ or %y +irt"e of so(e cri(e or (is e(eanor t!at !e (ig!t !a+e co((itte $ an t!e 'rit iss"e $ grante it$ is e*ec"te %y attac!ing an safely 2ee#ing all t!e (o+a%le #ro#erty of t!e efen ant$ or so ("c! t!ereof as (ay %e s"fficient to satisfy t!e #laintiffDs e(an s. 36ruen*erg "s #A, $%;54 T!e c!ief #"r#ose of t!e re(e y of attac!(ent is to secure a contingent lien on defendantHs property until plaintiff can, *y appropriate proceedings, o*tain a +udgment and )a"e suc) property applied to its satisfaction, or to (a2e so(e #ro+ision for "nsec"re e%ts in cases '!ere t!e (eans of satisfaction t!ereof are lia%le to %e re(o+e %eyon t!e ,"ris iction$ or i(#ro#erly is#ose of or conceale $ or ot!er'ise #lace %eyon t!e reac! of cre itors. 33ps 3algado "s. #A, $%;44 /. Nat"re an sco#e Attac!(ent is not a istinct #rocee ing in t!e nat"re of an action in rem %"t it is a #rocee ing to an action of la'$ esigne to sec"re t!e #ay(ent of any ," g(ent t!e #laintiff (ay o%tain. Attac!(ent$ as a #ro+isional re(e y$ is #"rely a stat"tory one. It oes not e*ist "nless e*#ressly grante %y t!e stat"te. It is t!erefore not a+aila%le e*ce#t in t!ose cases '!ere t!e stat"te e*#ressly #er(its. 3 B3 "s. Namit, $%$;4 <or t!is #"r#ose$ t!e #arty see2ing an attac!(ent ("st s!o' t!at a s"fficient ca"se of action e*ists an t!at t!e a(o"nt "e !i( as ("c! as t!e s"( for '!ic! t!e or er of attac!(ent is so"g!t. 3 6eneral "s De >enecia, $%4&4 4. ;ro"n s Pt!e %are allegations in t!e a##licantDs affi a+itPare ins"fficient to #ro+e t!at #etitioner 'as g"ilty of fra" in contracting t!e e%t or inc"rring t!e o%ligation. T!e affi a+it oes not contain state(ents of ot!er fact"al circ"(stances to s!o' t!at #etitioner$ at t!e ti(e of contracting t!e o%ligation$ !a a #reconcei+e #lan or intention not to #ay. Kerily$ in t!is case$ t!e (ere fact t!at #etitioner faile to #ay its #"rc!ases "#on falling "e an es#ite se+eral e(an s (a e %y #ri+ate res#on ent$ is not eno"g! to 'arrant t!e iss"ance of t!e !ars! #ro+isional re(e y of #reli(inary attac!(ent. !#< 5ndustries "s. #A, @==6' Strict co(#liance 'it! t!e r"le T!e r"le on t!e iss"e of a 'rit of attac!(ent ("st %e constr"e strictly in fa+or of t!e efen ant. If all t!e re)"isites for t!e iss"ance of t!e 'rit are not #resent$ t!e co"rt$ '!ic! iss"es it acts in e*cess of ,"ris iction. 36ruen*erg "s #A4 It s!o"l %e iss"e only on concrete an s#ecific gro"n s. 3Dy "s. 1nage, $%&64 Attac!(ent to ac)"ire ,"ris iction o+er t!e res

..

6.

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


46 of 76

Attac!(ent is inten e to confer ,"ris iction %y t!e co"rt o+er t!e res. :!en real #ro#erty of a non1resi ent efen ant locate in 6!ili##ines is attac!e to ans'er for t!e clai( of t!e #laintiff$ t!e co"rt ac)"ires ,"ris iction o+er t!e res an in t!at e+ent$ t!e ,"ris iction o+er t!e #erson of sai efen ant is not essential. 39a*anag "s. 6allemore, $%4;4 -. Stages in t!e iss"ance of t!e 'rit T!e grant of t!e #ro+isional re(e y of attac!(ent #ractically in+ol+es t!ree 3/4 stages: first$ t!e co"rt iss"es t!e or er granting t!e a##lication0 secon $ t!e 'rit of attac!(ent iss"es #"rs"ant to t!e or er granting t!e 'rit0 an t!ir $ t!e 'rit is i(#le(ente . <or t!e initial t'o stages$ it is not necessary t!at ,"ris iction o+er t!e #erson of t!e efen ant s!o"l first %e o%taine . Co'e+er$ once t!e i(#le(entation co((ences$ it is re)"ire t!at t!e co"rt ("st !a+e ac)"ire ,"ris iction o+er t!e efen ant for 'it!o"t s"c! ,"ris iction$ t!e co"rt !as no #o'er an a"t!ority to act in any (anner against t!e efen ant. Any or er iss"ing fro( t!e co"rt 'ill not %in t!e efen ant. 3#uartero "s. #A, $%%@4 A #reli(inary attac!(ent is a rigoro"s re(e y '!ic! e*#oses t!e e%tor to !"(iliation an annoyance$ s"c! t!at it s!o"l not %e a%"se to ca"se "nnecessary #re," ice. It is$ t!erefore$ t!e "ty of t!e co"rt$ %efore iss"ing t!e 'rit$ to ens"re t!at all t!e re)"isites of t!e la' !a+e %een co(#lie 'it!0 ot!er'ise$ t!e ," ge acts in e*cess of its ,"ris iction an t!e 'rit so iss"e s!all %e n"ll an +oi . 33ps 3algado "s #A4 T!e affi a+it ("st esta%lis! t!at: 14 a s"fficient ca"se of action e*ists0 &4 t!e case is one of t!ose (entione in R"le .-$ Section 10 /4 t!ere is no s"fficient sec"rity for t!e clai( so"g!t to %e enforce %y t!e action0 44 t!e a(o"nt "e to t!e a##licant is as ("c! as t!e s"( for '!ic! t!e or er is grante a%o+e all legal co"nterclai(s. <ail"re of t!e affi a+it to s!o' t!at t!ere is no ot!er s"fficient sec"rity for t!e clai( so"g!t to %e enforce %y t!e action$ t!at t!e sai a(o"nt "e to t!e #laintiff a%o+e all legal set1offs or co"nterclai( is as ("c! as t!e s"( for '!ic! t!e or er is so"g!t ren ers t!at a##lication fatally efecti+e. 3 0ardine 9anila .inance 5nc. "s #A, $%;%4 :!et!er or not t!e affi a+it s"fficiently esta%lis!e facts t!erein state is a )"estion to %e eter(ine %y t!e co"rt in t!e e*ercise of so"n iscretion. T!e (ere filing of an affi a+it reciting t!e facts re)"ire %y t!e a%o+e #ro+ision is not s"fficient to co(#el t!e ," ge to grant t!e 'rit. It all e#en s "#on t!e a(o"nt of cre it gi+en it %y t!e ," ge '!o (ay acce#t or re,ect it in t!e e*ercise of !is iscretion. 3<a 6ran+a 5nc. "s. 3amson, $%AA4 >. 12 parte Iss"ance of :rit of 6reli(inary Attac!(ent P'rits of attac!(ent (ay #ro#erly iss"e e2 parte #ro+i e t!at t!e Co"rt is satisfie t!at t!e rele+ant re)"isites t!erefor !a+e %een f"lfille %y t!e a##licant$ alt!o"g! it (ay$ in its iscretion$ re)"ire #rior !earing on t!e a##lication 'it! notice to t!e efen ant0 %"t t!at le+y on #ro#erty #"rs"ant to t!e 'rit t!"s iss"e (ay not %e +ali ly effecte "nless #rece e $ or conte(#oraneo"sly acco(#anie $ %y ser+ice on t!e efen ant of s"((ons$ a co#y of t!e co(#laint 3an of t!e a##oint(ent of g"ar ian ad litem, if any4$ t!e a##lication for attac!(ent 3if not incor#orate in %"t s"%(itte

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


47 of 76

se#arately fro( t!e co(#laint4$ t!e or er of attac!(ent$ an t!e #laintiffDs attac!(ent %on . Da"ao <ig)t F !ower #o., 5nc. "s. #A, $%%$' *** a 'rit of #reli(inary attac!(ent (ay %e +ali ly a##lie for an grante e+en %efore t!e efen ant is s"((one or is !ear fro(. *** after an action is #ro#erly co((ence %y t!e filing of t!e co(#laint an t!e #ay(ent of all re)"isite oc2et an ot!er fees t!e #laintiff (ay a##ly for an o%tain a 'rit of #reli(inary attac!(ent "#on f"lfill(ent of t!e #ertinent re)"isites lai o'n %y la'$ an t!at !e (ay o so at any ti(e$ eit!er %efore or after ser+ice of s"((ons on t!e efen ant. *** t!is *** !as %een t!e i((e(orial #ractice sanctione %y t!e co"rts: for t!e #laintiff or ot!er #ro#er #arty to incor#orate t!e a##lication for attac!(ent in t!e co(#laint or ot!er a##ro#riate #lea ing 3co"nterclai( cross1clai($ t!ir 1#arty clai(4 an for t!e TC to iss"e t!e 'rit e*1#arte at t!e co((ence(ent of t!e action if it fin s t!e a##lication ot!er'ise s"fficient in for( an s"%stance. 6etitioners t!en conten t!at t!e 'rit s!o"l !a+e %een isc!arge since t!e gro"n on '!ic! it 'as iss"e fra" in contracting t!e o%ligation 'as not #resent. T!is cannot %e consi ere a gro"n for lifting t!e 'rit since t!is el+es into t!e +ery co(#laint *** an attac!(ent (ay not %e issol+e %y a s!o'ing of its irreg"lar or i(#ro#er iss"ance if it is "#on a gro"n '!ic! is at t!e sa(e ti(e t!e a##licant=s ca"se of action in t!e (ain case since an ano(alo"s sit"ation 'o"l res"lt if t!e iss"es of t!e (ain case 'o"l %e +entilate an resol+e in a (ere !earing of t!e (otion 7Gate ". A*rogar, $%%5' ?. Or ers in #ro+isional re(e ies Or ers granting or enying #ro+isional re(e ies are (erely interloc"tory an cannot %e t!e s"%,ect of an a##eal. T!ey (ay !o'e+er %e c!allenge %efore a s"#erior co"rt t!ro"g! a #etition for certiorari "n er R"le 6.. :!en 6reli(inary Attac!(ent 9isc!arge 3a4 T!e e%tor !as #oste a co"nter1%on or !as (a e t!e re)"isite cas! e#osit 3ec. $@' . . . T!e filing of t!e co"nter1attac!(ent %on %y #etitioner Killal"5 !as isc!arge t!e attac!(ent on t!e #ro#erties an (a e t!e #etitioner cor#oration lia%le on t!e co"nter1attac!(ent %on . *** PT!e #etitioner cor#oration cannot esca#e lia%ility %y stating t!at a co"rt a##ro+al is nee e %efore it can %e (a e lia%le. T!is efense can only %e a+aile %y #etitioner cor#oration against #etitioner Killal"5 %"t not against t!ir #ersons '!o are not #arties to t!e contract of s"rety. T!e #etitioners !ol t!e(sel+es o"t as ,ointly an se+erally lia%le 'it!o"t any con itions in t!e co"nter1attac!(ent %on . 3ecurity !acific Assurance "s. /on. ?ria-5nfante, @==5' It!e a(o"nt of t!e co"nter1attac!(ent %on is$ "n er t!e ter(s ofP sec. 1&$ to %e (eas"re against t!e +al"e of t!e attac!e #ro#erty$ as eter(ine %y t!e ," ge to sec"re t!e #ay(ent of any ," g(ent t!at t!e attac!ing cre itor (ay reco+er in t!e action. Al%eit not e*#licitly state in t!e sa(e section an 'it!o"t necessarily i(inis!ing t!e so"n iscretion of t!e iss"ing ," ge on (atters of %on a##ro+al$ t!ere can %e no serio"s o%,ection$ in t"rn$ to t!e #ro#osition t!at t!e attac!e #ro#ert an logically t!e co"nter1%on necessary to isc!arge t!e lien on s"c! #ro#ertys!o"l as ("c! as #ossi%le corres#on in +al"e to$ or a##ro*i(ately (atc! t!e attac!ing cre itorDs #rinci#al clai(. Else$

17.

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


48 of 76

3%4 3c4 3 4 3e4 11.

e*cessi+e attac!(ent$ '!ic! o"g!t to %e a+oi e at all ti(es$ s!all ens"e. 5nsular 3a"ings -ank "s. #A, @==5' T!e attac!(ent 'as i(#ro#erly or irreg"larly iss"e 3ec. $A' as '!ere t!ere is no gro"n for attac!(ent 3ec. $'$ or t!e affi a+it an Jor %on file t!erefore are efecti+e or ins"fficient 3ec. A' T!e attac!(ent is e*cessi+e$ %"t t!e isc!arge s!all %e li(ite to t!e e*cess 3ec. $A' T!e #ro#erty attac!e is e*e(#t fro( e*ec"tion$ !ence e*e(#t fro( #reli(inary attac!(ent 3ecs. @ and 5' T!e ," g(ent is ren ere against t!e attac!ing cre itor 3ec. $%'

8"ris#r" ential r"les T!e #"r#oses of #reli(inary attac!(ent are: 14 to sei5e t!e #ro#erty of t!e e%tor in a +ance of final ," g(ent an to !ol it for #"r#oses of satisfying t!e sai ," g(ent0 or &4 to ena%le t!e co"rt to ac)"ire ,"ris iction o+er t!e action %y t!e act"al or constr"cti+e sei5"re of t!e #ro#erty in t!ose instances '!ere #ersonal ser+ice of s"((ons on t!e cre itor cannot %e effecte . 3 Quas)a "s. 0uan, $%;@4 T!"s$ a #rocee ing in attac!(ent is in rem '!ere t!e efen ant oes not a##ear$ an in personam '!ere !e a##ears in t!e action.3-anco 1spanol-.ilipino "s !alanca, $%$;4 :!ere a lien alrea y e*ists$ e.g. a (ariti(e lien$ t!e sa(e is e)"i+alent to an attac!(ent$ 3 Quas)a "s. 0uan4 ,"st li2e t!at "n er a real estate (ortgage.

R"le on 6rior or Conte(#oraneo"s 8"ris iction Alt!o"g! a 'rit of #reli(inary attac!(ent (ay %e iss"e e2-parte or e+en %efore ser+ice of s"((ons on t!e efen ant$ it cannot !o'e+er %e i(#le(ente "ntil t!e co"rt !as ac)"ire ,"ris iction o+er t!e #erson of t!e efen ant. 3R"le .-$ Sec. .4 :!en t!e gro"n relie "#on in as2ing for #reli(inary attac!(ent is i(#en ing fra" "lent re(o+al$ conceal(ent an is#osition of efen antDs #ro#erty "n er #aragra#!s 3 4 an 3e4 of Section 1$ R"le .-$ t!e co"rt s!o"l eit!er con "ct a !earing or re)"ire t!e s"%(ission of co"nter1affi a+its fro( t!e efen ant to gat!er facts in s"##ort of t!e allegations of fra" 3Adlawan "s ?orres, $%%44 6reli(inary attac!(ent (ay %e grante in an action for a s#ecifie a(o"nt e+en '!en t!e clai( is "nli)"i ate ot!er t!an for (oral an e*e(#lary a(ages. 3R"le .-$ Sec. . 13a44 If a #ro#erty !as %een le+ie attac!(ent$ it %eco(es one e*tra," icial foreclos"re of sai not affect t!e lien create %y ?rust #orp. "s 5A#, $%;&4 "#on %y +irt"e of a 'rit of #reli(inary "n er custodia legis an a s"%se)"ent #ro#erty %y a t!ir 1#arty (ortgagee oes t!e attac!(ent. 3 #onsolidated -ank and

A foreign cor#oration "ly license to o %"siness in t!e 6!ili##ines is not a non1resi ent 'it!in t!e (eaning of Section 13f4$ R"le .-0 !ence$ its #ro#erty !ere (ay not %e attac!e on t!e (ere gro"n t!at it is a non1 resi ent. 3#laude Neon <ig)ts .ed., 5nc. "s. !)ilippine Ad"ertising #orp. $%A@4. Insol+ency of t!e efen ant e%tor is not a gro"n for t!e iss"ance of a 'rit of #reli(inary attac!(ent. 3 A*oiti8 and #o. 5nc. "s

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


49 of 76

!ro"incial 3)eriff, $%;$' Section 13f4$ concerning s"((ons #"%lication$ refers to t!ose cases in Sections 14 an 16 of R"le 14.

%y

6ro#erty e*e(#t fro( e*ec"tion is also e*e(#t fro( #reli(inary attac!(ent or garnis!(ent. 3R"le .-$ Sec. .4 ;arnis!(ent oes not lie against t!e f"n s of t!e reg"lar e#art(ents or offices of t!e ;o+ern(ent$ %"t f"n s of #"%lic cor#orations are not e*e(#t fro( garnis!(ent. 3!N- "s. !a*alan, $%&;4 :!ere t!ere is no s!o'ing$ ("c! less an allegation$ t!at t!e efen ant is a%o"t to e#art fro( t!e 6!ili##ines 'it! intent to efra" !is cre itor$ or t!at !e is a non1resi ent alien$ t!e attac!(ent of !is #ro#erties is not ,"stifie . In t!e case at %ar$ #laintiff (erely state in !is co(#laint t!at t!e efen ant is a foreigner$ %"t !e i not allege t!at t!e efen ant @is a foreigner 3'!o4 (ay$ at any ti(e$ e#art fro( t!e 6!ili##ines 'it! intent to efra" !is cre itors incl" ing t!e #laintiff.@ *** T!e fail"re to allege in t!e affi a+it t!e re)"isites #rescri%e in Section /$ R"le .- *** for t!e iss"ance of a 'rit of #reli(inary attac!(ent$ ren ers t!e 'rit iss"e against t!e #ro#erty of t!e efen ant fatally efecti+e$ an t!e ," ge iss"ing it is ee(e to !a+e acte in e*cess of !is ,"ris iction. In t!e instant case$ '!ile #laintiff (ay !a+e state in !is affi a+it t!at a s"fficient ca"se of action e*ists against t!e efen ant$ !e i not state t!erein t!at @t!e case is one of t!ose (entione in Section 1 !ereof0 t!at t!ere is no ot!er s"fficient sec"rity for t!e clai( so"g!t to %e enforce %y t!e action0 an t!at t!e a(o"nt "e to t!e a##licant is as ("c! as t!e s"( for '!ic! t!e or er grante a%o+e all legal co"nterclai(s.@ *** :!ere it a##ears t!at #etitioner !as file a co"nter1%on to ans'er for any ," g(ent t!at (ay !e ren ere against t!e efen ant$ res#on ent ," ge$ "#on recei#t of t!e co"nter1%on $ s!o"l !a+e isc!arge t!e attac!(ent #"rs"ant to Section 1&$ R"le .- ***. T!e filing of t!e co"nter1%on 'ill ser+e t!e #"r#ose of #reser+ing t!e efen ant=s #ro#erty an at t!e sa(e ti(e gi+e t!e #laintiff sec"rity for any ," g(ent t!at (ay %e o%taine against t!e efen ant. C.7. 6lass #onstruction ". >alen8uela $%;@' T!ir 16arty Clai( :!ere t!e #ro#erty of a efen ant !as %een attac!e $ a t!ir #arty clai(ing an interest t!erein can (aintain a se#arate action to +in icate !is interest o+er t!e #ro#erty an t!e in,"ncti+e relief grante in t!e latter case oes not constit"te an interference 'it! t!e 'rit of attac!(ent iss"e %y t!e ot!er co"rt as t!is #roce "re is sanctione %y Sec. 14 of R"le .-. ?raders Royal -ank "s. 5A#, $%;4' ;arnis!(ent !as %een efine as a s#ecies of attac!(ent for reac!ing any #ro#erty or cre its #ertaining or #aya%le to a ," g(ent e%tor. In legal conte(#lation$ it is a force no+ation %y t!e s"%stit"tion of cre itors: t!e ," g(ent e%tor$ '!o is t!e original cre itor of t!e garnis!ee is$ t!ro"g! ser+ice of t!e 'rit of garnis!(ent$ s"%stit"te %y t!e ," g(ent cre itor '!o t!ere%y %eco(es cre itor of t!e garnis!ee. ;arnis!(ent !as also %een escri%e as a 'arning to a #erson !a+ing in !is #ossession #ro#erty or cre its of t!e ," g(ent e%tor$ not to #ay t!e (oney or eli+er t!e #ro#erty to t!e latter$ %"t rat!er to a##ear an ans'er t!e #laintiff=s s"it

&.

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


50 of 76

In or er t!at t!e trial co"rt (ay +ali ly ac)"ire ,"ris iction to %in t!e #erson of t!e garnis!ee$ it is not necessary t!at s"((ons %e ser+e "#on !i(. T!e garnis!ee nee not %e i(#lea e as a #arty to t!e case. All t!at is necessary for t!e trial co"rt la'f"lly to %in t!e #erson of t!e garnis!ee or any #erson '!o !as in !is #ossession cre its %elonging to t!e ," g(ent e%tor is ser+ice "#on !i( of t!e 'rit of garnis!(ent. T!e R"les of Co"rt t!e(sel+es o not re)"ire t!at t!e garnis!ee %e ser+e 'it! s"((ons or i(#lea e in t!e case in or er to (a2e !i( lia%le. T!ro"g! ser+ice of t!e 'rit of garnis!(ent$ t!e garnis!ee %eco(es a @+irt"al #arty@ to$ or a @force inter+enor@ in$ t!e case an t!e trial co"rt t!ere%y ac)"ires ,"ris iction to %in !i( to co(#liance 'it! all or ers an #rocesses of t!e trial co"rt 'it! a +ie' to t!e co(#lete satisfaction of t!e ," g(ent of t!e co"rt. @T!e garnis!(ent of #ro#erty to satisfy a 'rit of e*ec"tion o#erates as an attac!(ent an fastens "#on t!e #ro#erty a lien %y '!ic! t!e #ro#erty is %ro"g!t "n er t!e ,"ris iction of t!e co"rt iss"ing t!e 'rit. It is %ro"g!t into c"sto ia legis$ "n er t!e sole control of s"c! co"rt.@ *** E+ery interest '!ic! t!e ," g(ent e%tor (ay !a+e in #ro#erty (ay %e s"%,ecte to e*ec"tion. !erla #ompania de 3eguros ". Ramolete, $%%$'

Pit is clear t!at 6KTA !as %een en o'e 'it! a #ersonality istinct an se#arate fro( t!e go+ern(ent '!ic! o'ns an controls it. Accor ingly$ t!is Co"rt !as !eretofore eclare t!at t!e f"n s of t!e 6KTA can %e garnis!e since Ff"n s of #"%lic cor#orations '!ic! can s"e an %e s"e 'ere not e*e(#t fro( garnis!(ent.G R#-# "s. De #astro, $%;;' *** '!en t!e attac!(ent is c!allenge for !a+ing %een illegally or i(#ro#erly iss"e $ t!ere ("st %e a !earing 'it! t!e %"r en of #roof to s"stain t!e 'rit %eing on t!e attac!ing cre itor. T!at !earing e(%races not only t!e rig!t to #resent e+i ence %"t also a reasona%le o##ort"nity to 2no' t!e clai(s of t!e o##osing #arties an (eet t!e(. T!e rig!t to s"%(it arg"(ents i(#lies t!at o##ort"nity$ ot!er'ise t!e rig!t 'o"l %e a %arren one. It (eans a fair an o#en !earing. An $ as #ro+i e %y t!e aforecite Section 1/ of R"le .-$ t!e attac!ing cre itor s!o"l %e allo'e to o##ose t!e a##lication for t!e isc!arge of t!e attac!(ent %y co"nter1 affi a+it or ot!er e+i ence$ in a ition to t!at on '!ic! t!e attac!(ent 'as (a e. *** T!e #rocee ing in t!e iss"ance of a 'rit of #reli(inary attac!(ent$ as a (ere #ro+isional re(e y$ is ancillary to an action co((ence at or %efore t!e ti(e '!en t!e attac!(ent is s"e o"t. Accor ingly$ t!e attac!(ent oes not affect t!e ecision of t!e case on t!e (erits$ t!e rig!t to reco+er ," g(ent on t!e allege in e%te ness an t!e rig!t to attac! t!e #ro#erty of t!e e%tor %eing entirely se#arate an istinct. As a r"le$ t!e ," g(ent in t!e (ain action neit!er c!anges t!e nat"re nor eter(ines t!e +ali ity of t!e attac!(ent. At any rate$ '!et!er sai #etitioners are g"arantors or s"reties$ t!ere e*ists a +ali ca"se of action against t!e( an t!eir #ro#erties 'ere #ro#erly attac!e on t!e %asis of t!at in "%ita%le circ"(stance. !ero2ide !)ilippines #o. ". #A, $%%$' Sec. 1. ;ro"n s "#on '!ic! t!e attac!(ent (ay iss"e. A #laintiff or any #ro#er #arty (ay at t!e co((ence(ent of t!e action or at any ti(e t!ereafter !a+e t!e #ro#erty of t!e a +erse #arty attac!e as sec"rity for t!e satisfaction of any 8" g(ent t!at (ay %e reco+ere in t!e follo'ing cases: . . . 3%4 In an action for (oney or #ro#erty e(%e55le or fra" "lently (isa##lie or con+erte to !is o'n "se %y a #"%lic officer$ or

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


51 of 76

an officer of a cor#oration$ or an attorney$ factor$ %ro2er$ agent or cler2$ in t!e co"rse of !is e(#loy(ent as s"c!$ or %y any ot!er #erson in a fi "ciary ca#acity$ or for a 'illf"l +iolation of "ty0 :!en t!e e(%e55le(ent of (oney or #ro#erty is co((itte %y a efen ant '!o is a #"%lic officer$ or an officer of a cor#oration$ or is an attorney$ factor$ %ro2er or agent or cler2 of t!e #laintiff$ it is not necessary to esta%lis! !is fi "ciary ca#acity as t!is is ass"(e fro( t!e nat"re of !is #osition. *** it is only '!en t!e (isa##ro#riation 'as co((itte %y any ot!er #erson 3i.e.$ ot!er t!an t!ose (entione a%o+e4 t!at !is fi "ciary relations!i# 'it! t!e #laintiff 'ill !a+e to %e esta%lis!e . It is 'ort! noting t!at a 'rit of attac!(ent (ay %e or ere iss"e e+en e* #arte$ #ro+i e t!at t!ere is co(#liance 'it! Sec. / of R"le .*** T!e a%sence of notice or !earing is allo'e on t!e gro"n t!at t!e efen ant (ig!t a%scon or is#ose of !is #ro#erty %efore a 'rit of attac!(ent is act"ally iss"e . T!e ," ge %efore '!o( t!e a##lication is (a e !as f"ll iscretion in consi ering t!e s"##orting e+i ence #roferre %y t!e a##licant. T!e s"fficiency or ins"fficiency of an affi a+it e#en s "#on t!e a(o"nt of cre it gi+en to it %y t!e ," ge$ an its acce#tance or re,ection is left to !is so"n iscretion *** *** T!e allege fra" 'as t!e reason '!y 3 efen ant4 U6L<C 'as "na%le to re(it t!e collection. Consi ering t!at t!is gro"n for t!e iss"ance of t!e 'rit of attac!(ent is t!e +ery %asis of t!e co(#laint itself$ 'e feel t!at a trial on t!e (erits of t!is iss"e is necessary. T!e isc!arge t!e attac!(ent or er on t!e gro"n t!at no s"c! fra" 'as co((itte 'o"l !a+e t!e effect of eci ing or #re," ging t!e #rinci#al action. T!e (erits of t!e co(#laint are not tria%le in a (otion to isc!arge an attac!(ent0 ot!er'ise$ an a##licant for t!e issol"tion of t!e 'rit co"l force a trial of t!e (erits of t!e case on t!e strengt! alone of t!e (otion. #onsolidated -ank and ?rust #ompany ". #.A., $%%$'

:e !ol t!at t!e lo'er co"rt acte 'it! gra+e a%"se of iscretion in iss"ing a 'rit of e*ec"tion against t!e s"rety 'it!o"t first gi+ing it an o##ort"nity to %e !ear as re)"ire in R"le .- of t!e R"les of Co"rt '!ic! #ro+i es: @SEC. 1-. *** Un er section 1-$ in or er t!at t!e ," g(ent cre itor (ig!t reco+er fro( t!e s"rety on t!e co"nter%on $ it is necessary 314 t!at e*ec"tion %e first iss"e against t!e #rinci#al e%tor an t!at s"c! e*ec"tion 'as ret"rne "nsatisfie in '!ole or in #art0 3&4 t!at t!e cre itor (a e a e(an "#on t!e s"rety for t!e satisfaction of t!e ," g(ent$ an 3/4 t!at t!e s"rety %e gi+en notice an a s"((ary !earing in t!e sa(e action as to !is lia%ility for t!e ," g(ent "n er !is co"nter%on . T!e first re)"isite (entione a%o+e is not a##lica%le to t!is case %eca"se To'ers Ass"rance Cor#oration ass"(e a soli ary lia%ility for t!e satisfaction of t!e ," g(ent. A s"rety is not entitle to t!e e*!a"stion of t!e #ro#erties of t!e #rinci#al e%tor. A"t certainly$ t!e s"rety is entitle to %e$ !ear %efore an e*ec"tion can %e iss"e against !i( since !e is not a #arty in t!e case in+ol+ing !is #rinci#al. Notice an !earing constit"te t!e essence of #roce "ral "e #rocess ?owers Assurance #o. ". 7rorama 3upermart, $%&&' On t!e iss"e of ,"ris iction$ it is to %e recalle t!at$ '!en res#on ent=s tractor 'as le+ie "#on$ it 'as not a #arty in Ci+il Case No. &41$ an alt!o"g! an a(en e co(#laint 'as file $ no ne' 'rit of attac!(ent 'as iss"e so as to co+er res#on ent=s #ro#erties. It is also significant t!at Ci+il Case &41 'as is(isse %y t!e C<I Cota%ato for lac2 of ,"ris iction. :e !a+e no !esitancy in eclaring t!at t!e C<I Banila

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


52 of 76

correctly too2 cogni5ance of Ci+il Case 1/-->$ %eca"se t!e res#on ent so"g!t a(ages$ not on t!e allegation t!at t!e 'rit of attac!(ent 'as illegally or 'rongf"lly iss"e %y t!e C<I Cota%ato in Ci+il Case &41$ %"t on t!eory t!at sai 'rit 'as ca"se %y t!e #etitioner to %e le+ie "#on t!e tractor of t!e res#on ent '!ic! 'as not a #arty efen ant. T!e filing of t!e a(en e co(#laint i not c"re t!e efect$ since t!e sei5"re contin"e to %e in +irt"e of t!e original 'rit$ none !a+ing %een iss"e "n er t!e a(en e co(#laint. 3antos ". #.A.' A. 6reli(inary In,"nction an Te(#orary Restraining Or er 3R"le .>4 Sec 1. 6reli(inary in,"nction efine 0 classes. A #reli(inary in,"nction is an or er grante at any stage of an action or #rocee ing #rior to t!e ," g(ent or final or er$ re)"iring a #arty or a co"rt$ agency or a #erson to refrain fro( a #artic"lar act or acts. It (ay also re)"ire t!e #erfor(ance of a #artic"lar act or acts$ in '!ic! case it s!all %e 2no'n as a #reli(inary (an atory in,"nction. Sec &. :!o (ay grant #reli(inary in,"nction. A #reli(inary in,"nction (ay %e grante %y t!e co"rt '!ere t!e action or #rocee ing is #en ing. If t!e action or #rocee ing is #en ing in t!e Co"rt of A##eals or in t!e S"#re(e Co"rt$ it (ay %e iss"e %y sai co"rt or any (e(%er t!ereof. Sec /. ;ro"n s for iss"ance of #reli(inary in,"nction. A #reli(inary in,"nction (ay %e grante '!en it is esta%lis!e 0 3a4 T!at t!e a##licant is entitle to t!e relief e(an e $ an t!e '!ole or #art of s"c! relief consists in restraining t!e co((ission or contin"ance of t!e acts or acts co(#laine of$ or in re)"iring #erfor(ance of an act or acts$ eit!er for a li(ite #erio or #er#et"ally0 3%4 T!at t!e co((ission$ contin"ance or non1#erfor(ance of t!e acts co(#laine of "ring t!e litigation 'o"l #ro%a%ly 'or2 in,"stice to t!e a##licant0 or 3c4 T!at a #arty$ co"rt$ agency or a #erson is oing$ t!reatening$ or is atte(#ting to o$ or is #roc"ring or s"ffering to %e one$ so(e act or acts #ro%a%ly in +iolation of t!e rig!ts of t!e a##licant res#ecting t!e s"%,ect of t!e action or #rocee ing$ an ten ing to ren er t!e ," g(ent ineffect"al. Sec 4. Kerifie a##lication an %on for #reli(inary in,"nction or te(#orary restraining or er. A #reli(inary in,"nction or te(#orary restraining or er (ay %e grante only '!en: 3a4 T!e a##lication in t!e action or #rocee ing is +erifie $ an s!o's facts entitling t!e a##licant to t!e relief e(an e 0 an 3%4 Unless e*e(#te %y t!e co"rt$ t!e a##licant files 'it! t!e co"rt$ t!e a##licant files 'it! t!e co"rt '!ere t!e action or #rocee ing is #en ing$ a %on e*ec"te to t!e #arty or #erson en,oine $ in an a(o"nt to %e fi*e %y t!e co"rt$ to t!e effect t!at t!e a##licant 'ill #ay to s"c! #arty or #erson all a(ages '!ic! !e (ay s"stain %y reason of t!e in,"nction or te(#orary restraining or er if t!e co"rt s!o"l finally eci e t!at t!e a##licant 'as not entitle t!ereto. U#on a##ro+al of t!e re)"isite %on $ a 'rit of #reli(inary in,"nction s!all %e iss"e . 3c4 :!en an a##lication for a 'rit of #reli(inary in,"nction or a te(#orary restraining or er is incl" e in a co(#laint or any initiatory #lea ing$ t!e case$ if file in a ("lti#le1sala co"rt$ s!all %e raffle only after notice to an in t!e #resence of t!e a +erse #arty or t!e #erson to %e en,oine . In any e+ent$ s"c! notice s!all %e #rece e $ or conte(#oraneo"sly acco(#anie $ %y ser+ice of s"((ons$ toget!er 'it! a co#y of t!e

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


53 of 76

co(#laint or initiatory #lea ing an t!e a##licant=s affi a+it an "#on t!e a +erse #arty in t!e 6!ili##ines.

%on $

Co'e+er$ '!ere t!e s"((ons co"l not %e ser+e #ersonally or %y s"%stit"te ser+ice es#ite iligent efforts$ or t!e a +erse #arty is a resi ent of t!e 6!ili##ines te(#orarily a%sent t!erefro( or is a nonresi ent t!ereof$ t!e re)"ire(ent of #rior or conte(#oraneo"s ser+ice of s"((ons s!all not a##ly. 3 4 T!e a##lication for a te(#orary restraining or er s!all t!ereafter %e acte "#on only after all #arties are !ear in a s"((ary !earing '!ic! s!all %e con "cte 'it!in t'enty1fo"r 3&44 !o"rs after t!e s!eriff=s ret"rn of ser+ice an Jor t!e recor s are recei+e %y t!e %ranc! selecte %y raffle an to '!ic! t!e recor s s!all %e trans(itte i((e iately. Sec .. 6reli(inary in,"nction not grante 'it!o"t notice0 e*ce#tion. No #reli(inary in,"nction s!all %e grante 'it!o"t !earing an #rior notice to t!e #arty or #erson so"g!t to %e a ,oine . If it s!all a##ear fro( facts s!o'n %y affi a+its or %y t!e +erifie a##lication t!at great or irre#ara%le in,"ry 'o"l res"lt to t!e a##licant %efore t!e (atter can %e !ear on notice$ t!e co"rt to '!ic! t!e a##lication for #reli(inary in,"nction 'as (a e$ (ay iss"e a te(#orary restraining or er to %e effecti+e only for a #erio of t'enty 3&74 ays fro( ser+ice on t!e #arty or #erson so"g!t to %e en,oine $ e*ce#t as !erein #ro+i e . :it!in t!e sai t'enty1 ay #erio $ t!e co"rt ("st or er sai #arty or #erson to s!o' ca"se$ at a s#ecifie ti(e an #lace$ '!y t!e in,"nction s!o"l not %e grante $ eter(ine 'it!in t!e sa(e #erio '!et!er or not t!e #reli(inary in,"nction s!all %e grante $ an accor ingly iss"e t!e corres#on ing or er. Co'e+er$ an s"%,ect to t!e #ro+isions of t!e #rece ing sections$ if t!e (atter is of e*tre(e "rgency an t!e a##licant 'ill s"ffer gra+e in,"stice an irre#ara%le in,"ry$ t!e e*ec"ti+e ," ge of a ("lti#le1sala co"rt or t!e #resi ing ," ge of a single1sala co"rt (ay iss"e e*1#arte a te(#orary restraining or er effecti+e for only se+enty1t'o 3-&4 !o"rs fro( iss"ance %"t !e s!all i((e iately co(#ly 'it! t!e #ro+isions of t!e ne*t #rece ing section as to ser+ice of s"((ons an t!e oc"(ents to %e ser+e t!ere'it!. T!ereafter$ 'it!in t!e aforesai se+enty1t'o 3-&4 !o"rs$ t!e ," ge %efore '!o( t!e case is #en ing s!all con "ct a s"((ary !earing to eter(ine '!et!er t!e te(#orary restraining or er s!all %e e*ten e "ntil t!e a##lication for #reli(inary in,"nction can %e !ear . In no case s!all t!e total #erio of effecti+ity of t!e te(#orary restraining or er e*cee t'enty 3&74 ays$ incl" ing t!e original se+enty1t'o !o"rs #ro+i e !erein. In t!e e+ent t!at t!e a##lication for #reli(inary in,"nction is enie or not resol+e 'it!in t!e sai #erio $ t!e te(#orary restraining or er is ee(e a"to(atically +acate . T!e effecti+ity of a te(#orary restraining or er is not e*ten i%le 'it!o"t nee of any ," icial eclaration to t!at effect an no co"rt s!all !a+e a"t!ority to e*ten or rene' t!e sa(e on t!e sa(e gro"n for '!ic! it 'as iss"e . Co'e+er$ if iss"e %y t!e Co"rt of A##eals or a (e(%er t!ereof$ t!e te(#orary restraining or er s!all %e effecti+e for si*ty 3674 ays fro( ser+ice on t!e #arty or #erson so"g!t to %e en,oine . A restraining or er iss"e %y t!e S"#re(e Co"rt or a (e(%er t!ereof s!all %e effecti+e "ntil f"rt!er or ers.

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


54 of 76

Sec 6. ;ro"n s for o%,ection to$ or for (otion of issol"tion of$ in,"nction or restraining or er. T!e a##lication for in,"nction or restraining or er (ay %e enie $ "#on a s!o'ing of its ins"fficiency. T!e in,"nction or restraining or er (ay also %e enie $ or$ if grante $ (ay %e issol+e $ on ot!er gro"n s "#on affi a+its of t!e #arty or #erson en,oine $ '!ic! (ay %e o##ose %y t!e a##licant also %y affi a+its. It (ay f"rt!er %e enie $ or$ if grante $ (ay %e issol+e $ if it a##ears after !earing t!at alt!o"g! t!e a##licant is entitle to t!e in,"nction or restraining or er$ t!e iss"ance or contin"ance t!ereof$ as t!e case (ay %e$ 'o"l ca"se irre#ara%le a(age to t!e #arty or #erson en,oine '!ile t!e a##licant can %e f"lly co(#ensate for s"c! a(ages as !e (ay s"ffer$ an t!e for(er files a %on in an a(o"nt fi*e %y t!e co"rt con itione t!at !e 'ill #ay all a(ages '!ic! t!e a##licant (ay s"ffer %y t!e enial or t!e issol"tion of t!e in,"nction or restraining or er. If it a##ears t!at t!e e*tent of t!e #reli(inary in,"nction grante is too great$ it (ay %e (o ifie . Sec -. Ser+ice of co#ies of %on s0 effect of isa##ro+al of sa(e. T!e #arty filing a %on in accor ance 'it! t!e #ro+isions of t!is R"le s!all fort!'it! ser+e a co#y of s"c! %on on t!e ot!er #arty$ '!o (ay e*ce#t to t!e s"fficiency of t!e %on $ or of t!e s"rety or s"reties t!ereon. If t!e a##licant=s %on is fo"n to %e ins"fficient in a(o"nt$ or if t!e s"reties or s"reties t!ereon fail to ,"stify$ an a %on s"fficient in a(o"nt 'it! s"fficient s"reties a##ro+e after ,"stification is not file fort!'it!$ t!e in,"nction s!all %e issol+e . If t!e %on of t!e a +erse #arty is fo"n to %e ins"fficient in a(o"nt$ or t!e s"rety or s"reties t!ereon fail to ,"stify a %on s"fficient in a(o"nt 'it! s"fficient s"reties as a##ro+e after ,"stification is not file fort!'it!$ t!e in,"nction s!all %e grante or restore $ as t!e case (ay %e. Sec >. 8" g(ent to incl" e a(ages against #arty an s"reties. At t!e trial$ t!e a(o"nt of a(ages to %e a'ar e to eit!er #arty$ "#on t!e %on of t!e a +erse #arty$ s!all %e clai(e $ ascertaine $ an a'ar e "n er t!e sa(e #roce "re as #rescri%e in section &7 of R"le .-. Sec ?. :!en final in,"nction grante . If after t!e trial of t!e action it a##ears t!at t!e a##licant is entitle to !a+e t!e act or acts co(#laine of #er(anently en,oine $ t!e co"rt s!all grant a final in,"nction #er#et"ally restraining t!e #arty or #erson en,oine fro( t!e co((ission or contin"ance of t!e act or acts or confir(ing t!e #reli(inary (an atory in,"nction. 1. T'o 2in s of #reli(inary in,"nction 314 6reli(inary 6ro!i%itory In,"nction '!ic! re)"ires a #erson to refrain fro( a #artic"lar act0 an 3&4 6reli(inary Ban atory In,"nction '!ic! re)"ires a #erson to #erfor( a #artic"lar act. &. 6"r#ose 314 To #re+ent f"t"re in,"ry an (aintain t!e status :uo t!e last act"al$ #eacea%le$ "nconteste stat"s '!ic! #rece e t!e #en ing contro+ersy. 3Cenc)t "s #A,, $%%A4 3&4 T!e sole o%,ect of #reli(inary in,"nction is to (aintain t!e status :uo "ntil t!e (erits can %e !ear 33eart) #ommodities #orp. "s. #A, $%%@4 3/4 S"s#ension of or ers is e)"i+alent to in,"nction 3 !N- "s. Adil, $%;@4

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


55 of 76

344 A 'rit of #reli(inary in,"nction$ as an ancillary or #re+enti+e re(e y$ (ay only %e resorte to %y a litigant to #rotect or #reser+e !is rig!ts or interest an for no ot!er #"r#ose "ring t!e #en ency of t!e #rinci#al action 3-eng8on "s #A, $%;;4 -ataclan "s. #A $%;%4

/.

9efinition of stat"s )"o T!e status :uo is t!e last act"al #eacea%le "nconteste stat"s t!at #rece e t!e #en ing contro+ersy. 33eart) #ommodities #orp. "s. #A4 :!en #arties are or ere to (aintain t!e status :uo in a TRO$ %"t t!e #re+ailing con ition at t!e ti(e of its iss"ance is alrea y t!at res"lting fro( acts of "s"r#ation %y one of t!e #arties$ '!ic! acts of "s"r#ation are clearly esta%lis!e in t!e #lea ings$ t!at TRO a(o"nts to a #er#et"ation of t!e in,"rio"s effects of s"c! acts of "s"r#ation0 s"c! a state of t!ings cannot clearly %e allo'e $ for t!e office of t!e 'rit of in,"nction is to restrain t!e 'rong oer$ not to #rotect !i(. 3>illanue"a "s #A, $%%64 A #reli(inary in,"nction is (erely a #ro+isional re(e y$ an a ,"nct to t!e (ain case s"%,ect to t!e latterDs o"tco(e. Its sole o%,ecti+e is to #reser+e t!e status :uo "ntil t!e trial co"rt !ears f"lly t!e (erits of t!e case. T!e status :uo is t!e last act"al$ #eacea%le an "nconteste sit"ation '!ic! #rece es a contro+ersy. T!e status :uo s!o"l %e t!at e*isting at t!e ti(e of t!e filing of t!e case. A #reli(inary in,"nction s!o"l not esta%lis! ne' relations %et'een t!e #arties$ %"t (erely (aintain or re1esta%lis! t!e #re1 e*isting relations!i# %et'een t!e(. *** Co"rts s!o"l a+oi iss"ing a 'rit of #reli(inary in,"nction '!ic! 'o"l in effect is#ose of t!e (ain case 'it!o"t trial. In iss"ing t!e 'rit of #reli(inary in,"nction$ t!e trial co"rt i not (aintain t!e status :uo %"t restore t!e sit"ation %efore t!e status :uo$ t!at is$ t!e sit"ation %efore t!e iss"ance of t!e RTAOs. In effect$ t!e trial co"rt acce#te res#on entsD #re(ise a%o"t an "nla'f"l reorgani5ation an #re," ge t!e constit"tionality of t!e )"estione iss"ances. Rualo "s. !itargue, @==5' T!e lease contracts all e*#ire on 9ece(%er /1$ 1???. Res#on ent so"g!t to rene' t!e sa(e for anot!er t'o years$ fro( 9ece(%er /1$ 1??? to 9ece(%er /1$ &771. T!e Banila RTC iss"e a 'rit of #reli(inary in,"nction to (aintain t!e stat"s :uo #en ing t!e eter(ination of '!et!er t!e lease contracts s!o"l %e rene'e or not. T!erefore$ on 9ece(%er /1$ &771$ t!e ate '!ic! (ar2e t!e en of t!e t'o1year e*tension %eing so"g!t$ t!e 'rit lost its "sef"lness. B1 "s. (ong, @==6'

4.

Clear Legal Rig!t :e !a+e r"le t!at '!en t!e #etitioner assailing a stat"te !as (a e o"t a case of "nconstit"tionality strong eno"g! to o+erco(e$ in t!e (in of t!e ," ge$ t!e #res"(#tion of +ali ity$ in a ition to a s!o'ing of a clear legal rig!t to t!e re(e y so"g!t$ t!e co"rt s!o"l iss"e a 'rit of #reli(inary in,"nction. *** In t!is case$ #etitioners !a+e e(onstrate a clear rig!t t!reatene %y t!e )"estione safeg"ar (eas"res. Aeing in a %"siness !ea+ily e#en ent on i(#ortation of steel$ t!ey 'o"l %e se+erely a(age once safeg"ar (eas"res are a##lie against steel i(#orts. 6etitioners !a+e s!o'n$ to t!e satisfaction of t!e trial co"rt an t!is Co"rt t!at any increase in tariffs or )"antitati+e restriction on i(#orts 'ill force t!e( to close o'n t!eir

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


56 of 76

res#ecti+e %"sinesses an 3ecretary of ?rade, @==5'

lay off t!eir e(#loyees.

.ilipino 9etals "s.

Un er t!e cite #ro+ision 3Section /$ R"le .>4$ a clear an #ositi+e rig!t es#ecially calling for ," icial #rotection ("st %e s!o'n. In,"nction is not a re(e y to #rotect or enforce contingent$ a%stract$ or f"t"re rig!ts0 it 'ill not iss"e to #rotect a rig!t not in esse an '!ic! (ay ne+er arise$ or to restrain an act '!ic! oes not gi+e rise to a ca"se of action. T!ere ("st e*ist an act"al rig!t. T!ere ("st %e a #atent s!o'ing %y t!e co(#laint t!at t!ere e*ists a rig!t to %e #rotecte an t!at t!e acts against '!ic! t!e 'rit is to %e irecte are +iolati+e of sai rig!t. *** ;i+en t!e single registration of t!e tra e(ar2 F9oc2ers an 9esignG an consi ering t!at res#on ent only "ses t!e assaile e+ice %"t a ifferent 'or (ar2$ t!e rig!t to #re+ent t!e latter fro( "sing t!e c!allenge F6a oc2sG e+ice is far fro( clear. <e"i 3trauss "s. #linton, @==5' .. 6. In e#en ent action to o%tain #reli(inary in,"nction not allo'e In e#en ent action (erely to o%tain #reli(inary in,"nction is not allo'e . So(e s"%stanti+e relief ("st %e so"g!t. 3-uayan "s Quintillan,$%;44 Essential re)"isites for iss"ance of #reli(inary in,"nction 314 T!ere ("st %e rig!t in esse or t!e e*istence of a rig!t to %e #rotecte . 3&4 T!e act against '!ic! t!e in,"nction is to %e s"c! rig!t 3Arcega "s #A, $%%&4. -. irecte is a +iolation of

R"lings 314 As a general r"le$ co"rts s!o"l a+oi iss"ing a 'rit of #reli(inary in,"nction '!ic! in effect is#oses of t!e (ain case 'it!o"t trial. Ot!er'ise$ if t!e (ain #rayer of t!e co(#laint !as %een grante t!ro"g! a 'rit of #reli(inary (an atory in,"nction$ t!ere 'ill #ractically %e not!ing left for t!e lo'er co"rt to try e*ce#t t!e #laintiffDs clai( for a(ages 37rtigas F #o. <imited !artners)ip "s. #A, et al., $%;; 4. 3&4 A 'rit of #reli(inary in,"nction$ as an ancillary or #re+enti+e re(e y$ (ay only %e resorte to %y a litigant to #rotect or #reser+e !is rig!ts or interests an for no ot!er #"r#ose "ring t!e #en ency of t!e action. 3#)ina -anking #orp "s #A, $%%6 4. It s!o"l only %e grante if t!e #arty as2ing for it is clearly entitle t!ereto. 3#apitol 9edical #enter 5nc "s #A, $%;%4. 3/4 An in,"nction 'ill not iss"e to #rotect a rig!t not in esse an '!ic! (ay ne+er arise or to restrain an act '!ic! oes not gi+e rise to a ca"se of action. T!ere ("st e*ist an act"al rig!t. 3-uayan "s Quintillan4 (4) T!e %"r en of #roof 'as on t!e #laintiff Central$ to s!o' t!at all t!e *** stat"tory #recon itions e*ist an !a+ing faile in t!is regar $ t!e iss"ance of a #reli(inary in,"nction %eca(e i(#ro+i ent an ar%itrary$ for t!e first con ition for t!e granting of t!e 'rit is @t!at t!e #laintiff is entitle to t!e relief e(an e @ 3Sec /HaI$ R"le .> ***4$ an @t!at t!e co(#laint in t!e action is +erifie $ an s!o's facts entitling t!e #laintiff to t!e relief e(an e @ 3sec. 4HaI$ R"le .>4. In,"nction$ '!et!er #reli(inary or final$ is not esigne to #rotect contingent or f"t"re rig!t. T!e #ossi%ility of irre#ara%le a(age$ 'it!o"t #roof or +iolation of an act"ally e*isting rig!t$ %eing (ere a(n"( a%s)"e is no gro"n for an in,"nction. -acolod-9urcia 9illing ". #apitol, $%66' (5) Co"rts "s"ally grant an in,"nction '!ere t!e #rofits of t!e in,"re #erson are eri+e fro( !is contract"al relations 'it! a large an

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


57 of 76

in efinite n"(%er of in i+i "als$ t!"s re "cing !i( to t!e necessity of #ro+ing in an action against t!e tort1feasor t!at t!e latter is res#onsi%le in eac! case for t!e %ro2en contract$ or else o%liging !i( to instit"te in i+i "al s"its against eac! contracting #arty$ an so e*#osing !i( to a ("lti#licity of s"its. 6ilc)rist ". #uddy, $%$5' 364 9a(ages are irre#ara%le 'it!in t!e (eaning of t!e r"le relati+e to t!e iss"ance of in,"nction '!ere t!ere is no stan ar %y '!ic! t!eir a(o"nt can %e (eas"re 'it! reasona%le acc"racy. An irre#ara%le in,"ry '!ic! a co"rt of e)"ity 'ill en,oin incl" es t!at egree of 'rong of a re#eate an contin"ing 2in '!ic! #ro "ce !"rt$ incon+enience$ or a(age t!at can %e esti(ate only %y con,ect"re$ an not %y any acc"rate stan ar of (eas"re(ent. An irre#ara%le in,"ry to a"t!ori5e an in,"nction consists of @a serio"s c!arge of$ or is estr"cti+e to$ t!e #ro#erty it affects$ eit!er #!ysically or in t!e c!aracter in '!ic! it !as %een !el an en,oine $ or '!en t!e #ro#erty !as so(e #ec"liar )"ality or "se$ so t!at its #ec"niary +al"e 'ill not fairly reco(#ense t!e o'ner of t!e loss t!ereof@. It oes not !a+e reference to t!e a(o"nt of a(ages t!at (ay %e ca"se %"t rat!er to t!e iffic"lty of (eas"ring t!e a(ages inflicte . If f"ll co(#ensation can %e o%taine %y 'ay of a(ages$ e)"ity 'ill not a##ly t!e re(e y of in,"nction. 3ocial 3ecurity #ommission ". -ayona, $%6@' >. Ban atory in,"nction: Re)"isites A (an atory in,"nction is grante only on a s!o'ing t!at: 314 T!e in+asion of t!e rig!t is (aterial an s"%stantial0 3&4 T!e rig!t of a co(#lainant is clear an "n(ista2a%le0 3/4 T!ere is an "rgent an #er(anent necessity for t!e 'rit to #re+ent serio"s a(age. Ri"era ". .lorendo, $%;6' 344 T!e effect of t!e (an atory in,"nction 'o"l not %e to create a ne' relation %et'een t!e #arties '!ic! 'as ar%itrarily interr"#te %y t!e efen ant. <emi "s. >alencia, $%6A' R"lings: 314 A #reli(inary (an atory in,"nction is not a #ro#er re(e y to ta2e #ro#erty$ #ossession of '!ic! is %eing is#"te $ o"t of t!e #ossession an control of one #arty an to eli+er t!e sa(e to t!e ot!er #arty. It (ay iss"e #en ente lite only is case of e*tre(e "rgency$ '!ere t!e rig!t to t!e #ossession$ "ring t!e #en ency of t!e (ain case$ of t!e #ro#erty in+ol+e is +ery clear0 '!ere consi erations of relati+e incon+enience %ear strongly in fa+or of t!e co(#lainant see2ing t!e #ossession #en ente lite0 '!ere t!ere 'as 'illf"l an "nla'f"l in+asion of #laintiff=s rig!ts$ o+er !is #rotest an re(onstrance$ t!e in,"ry %eing a contin"ing one0 '!ere t!e effect of t!e #reli(inary (an atory in,"nction is to re1esta%lis! an (aintain a #re1e*isting an contin"ing relations!i# %et'een t!e #arties$ recently an ar%itrarily interr"#te %y t!e efen ant$ rat!er t!an to esta%lis! a ne' relations!i# "ring t!e #en ency of t!e #rinci#al case. O%+io"sly$ it is for t!e #arty re)"esting t!e 'rit to e(onstrate clearly t!e #resence of one or (ore of t!e a%o+e gro"n s. 9er"ille !ark /omeowners Association 5nc. ". >ele8, $%%$' 3&4 *** in,"nction is not grante to ta2e #ro#erty o"t of t!e #ossession or control of one #arty to %e #lace into t!at of anot!er '!ose title !as not %een clearly esta%lis!e %y la'. <or t!e iss"ance of t!e 'rit of #reli(inary in,"nction to %e #ro#er$ it ("st %e s!o'n t!at t!e in+asion of t!e rig!t so"g!t to. %e #rotecte is (aterial an s"%stantial$ t!at t!e rig!t of co(#lainant is clear an "n(ista2a%le an t!at t!ere is an "rgent an #ara(o"nt necessity for t!e 'rit to #re+ent serio"s a(age.

?.

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


58 of 76

*** t!e re(e y of in,"nction co"l no longer %e a+aile of '!ere t!e act to %e #re+ente !a long %een cons"((ate . *** Co"rts cannot en,oin an agency fro( #erfor(ing an act 'it!in its #rerogati+e$ e*ce#t '!en in t!e e*ercise of its a"t!ority it gra+ely a%"se or1e*cee e its ,"ris iction. A (inistrati+e ecisions on (atters 'it!in t!e e*ec"ti+e ,"ris iction can only %e set asi e on #roof of gra+e a%"se of iscretion$ fra" $ or error of la'. A%sent t!ese %a ges of e*ec"ti+e e*cesses$ no in,"nction (ay %e grante . *** Boreo+er$ t!e long #erio '!ic! !as ela#se $ fro( t!e ti(e of t!e a'ar of t!e lot to t!e Ba"ris *** to t!e ti(e #etitioners file t!eir co(#laint for in,"nction *** !as (a e #etitioners= clai( "#on t!e s"%,ect lot a stale e(an . Lac!es alrea y set in. Ea*al ". #ourt of Appeals, @===' 17. Cases '!ere (an atory in,"nction not grante Ban atory in,"nction 'as not grante in t!e follo'ing instances: 314 to co(#el co!a%itation0 Arroyo ". >as:ue8,$%@$' 3&4 in cancellation of attac!(ent0 <e"y /ermanos ". <acson, $%4=' an 3/4 in release of i(#orte goo s #en ing !earing %efore Co((issioner of C"sto(s. #ommissioner of #ustoms ". #lori*el, $%6&' 344 In,"nctions are also not a+aila%le to ta2e #ro#erty o"t of t!e #ossession or control of one #arty an #lace it into t!at of anot!er '!ose title !as not clearly %een esta%lis!e . 4 !io ". 9arcos, $%&4' T!e office of t!e 'rit of in,"nction is to restrain t!e 'rong oer #alo ". Roldan4 not to #rotect !i(. -uayan #attle ". Quintillian' S"((ary !earing necessary T!e !ol ing of a s"((ary !earing #rior to t!e iss"ance of a te(#orary restraining or er is (an atory$ in +ie' of t!e re)"ire(ent t!at t!e a##lication for a te(#orary restraining or er s!all %e acte "#on only after all #arties are !ear in a s"((ary !earing after t!e recor s are trans(itte to t!e %ranc! selecte %y raffle. In ot!er 'or s$ a s"((ary !earing (ay not %e is#ense 'it!. A TRO can %e iss"e e2 parte if t!e (atter is of s"c! e*tre(e "rgency t!at gra+e in,"stice an irre#ara%le in,"ry 'ill arise "nless it is iss"e i((e iately. Un er s"c! circ"(stance$ t!e e*ec"ti+e ," ge s!all iss"e t!e TRO effecti+e only for se+enty1t'o 3-&4 !o"rs for( its iss"ance. T!e e*ec"ti+e ," ge is t!en re)"ire to s"((on t!e #arties to a conference$ "ring '!ic! t!e case s!o"l %e raffle in t!eir #resence. Aefore t!e e*#iry of t!e se+enty1t'o !o"rs$ t!e #resi ing ," ge to '!o( t!e case 'as raffle s!all con "ct a s"((ary !earing to eter(ine '!et!er t!e TRO can %e e*ten e for anot!er #erio "ntil a !earing on t!e #en ing a##lication for #reli(inary in,"nction can %e !el . -or+a "s. 3alcedo, @==A' :!ile in t!e iss"ance of #reli(inary in,"nction$ t!e co"rts are gi+en s"fficient iscretion to eter(ine t!e necessity for t!e grant of t!e relief #raye for as it affects t!e res#ecti+e rig!ts of t!e #arties$ 'it! t!e ca+eat t!at e*tre(e ca"tion %e o%ser+e in t!e e*ercise of s"c! iscretion$ it is 'it! an e)"al egree of care an ca"tion t!at co"rts o"g!t to #rocee in t!e enial of t!e 'rit. It s!o"l not ,"st s"((arily iss"e an or er of enial 'it!o"t an a e)"ate !earing an ," icio"s e+al"ation of t!e (erits of t!e a##lication. A #erf"nctory an i(#ro+i ent action in t!is regar 'o"l %e a enial of #roce "ral "e #rocess an co"l res"lt in irre#ara%le #re," ice to a #arty. 3-ataclan "s #A, $%;%' 1&. :!en !earing on t!e (erits "nnecessary *** If t!e gro"n is t!e ins"fficiency of t!e co(#laint$ t!e sa(e is a##arent fro( t!e co(#laint itself. 6reli(inary in,"nction in s"c! a circ"(stance (ay

11.

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


59 of 76

%e ref"se o"trig!t$ 'it! or 'it!o"t notice to t!e a +erse #arty. In fact$ "n er Section 6 of R"le .>$ t!e co"rt (ay also ref"se an in,"nction on ot!er gro"n s on t!e %asis of affi a+its '!ic! (ay !a+e %een s"%(itte %y t!e #arties in connection 'it! s"c! a##lication. *** *** 3Section - of R"le .>4 (erely s#ecifies t!e actions t!at t!e co"rt (ay ta2e on t!e a##lication for t!e 'rit if t!ere is a !earing on t!e (erits. It oes not eclare t!at s"c! !earing is (an atory or #rere)"isite t!ereof. Ot!er'ise$ t!e co"rts 'ill %e force to con "ct a !earing e+en if fro( a consi eration of t!e #lea ings alone it can rea ily %e ascertaine t!at t!e (o+ant is not entitle to t!e 'rit. *** It 'o"l %e ifferent *** if t!ere is a prima facie s!o'ing on t!e face of t!e (otion or #lea ings t!at t!e grant of #reli(inary in,"nction (ay %e #ro#er$ in '!ic! case notice to t!e o##osing #arty 'o"l %e necessary since t!e grant of s"c! 'rit on an e2 parte #rocee ing is no' #roscri%e .*** 3If t!ere is a prima facie s!o'ing t!at #reli(inary in,"nction is #ro#er4 a !earing s!o"l %e con "cte $ since "n er s"c! circ"(stance$ only in cases of e*tre(e "rgency 'ill t!e 'rit iss"e #rior to a final !earing. S"c! re)"ire(ent for #rior notice an !earing "n erscores t!e necessity t!at a 'rit of #reli(inary in,"nction is to %e is#ense 'it! circ"(s#ection an %ot! si es s!o"l %e !ear '!ene+er #ossi%le. A"t it oes not follo' t!at s"c! a !earing is in is#ensa%le '!ere rig!t at t!e o"tset t!e co"rt is reasona%ly con+ince t!at t!e 'rit 'ill not lie. :!at 'as t!en isco"rage an is no' s#ecifically #ro!i%ite is t!e iss"ance of t!e 'rit 'it!o"t notice an !earing. Q** >alley ?rading #o 5nc "s #.5, $%;%' 1/. Cases '!ere in,"nction 'as !el i(#ro#er To restrain collection of ta*es 3 >alley ?rading "s #A4 e*ce#t '!ere t!ere are s#ecial circ"(stances t!at %ear t!e e*istence of irre#ara%le in,"ry. 3#)urc)ill F ?ait "s Rafferty, $%$54 To restrain t!e sale of con,"gal #ro#erties '!ere t!e clai( can %e annotate on t!e title as a lien s"c! as t!e !"s%an Ds o%ligation to gi+e s"##ort. 33aa"edra "s 1strada, $%A$4 To restrain a (ayor #roclai(e as "ly electe fro( ass"(ing !is office. 3#ereno "s Dictado, $%;;4 To restrain registere o'ners of t!e #ro#erty fro( selling$ is#osing an enc"(%ering t!eir #ro#erty ,"st %eca"se t!e res#on ents !a e*ec"te 9ee s of Assign(ent in fa+or of #etitioner. ?ayag "s. <acson, @==4' Against cons"((ate acts. 3!N- "s Adil4 Against is#osing of t!e case on t!e (erits 3 7rtigas and #ompany <imited !artners)ip "s #A, $%;;4 :rit of in,"nction is not #ro#er to sto# t!e e*ec"tion of ," g(ent '!ere t!e ," g(ent 'as alrea y e*ec"te . 9eneses "s Dinglasan' T!e C<I !as no #o'er to iss"e a 'rit of in,"nction against t!e Register of 9ee s if its effect is to ren er n"gatory a 'rit of e*ec"tion iss"e %y t!e National La%or Relations Co((ission. 3Am*rosio "s 3al"ador, $%&;' A 'rit of in,"nction is not #ro#er to sto# t!e e*ec"tion of ," g(ent '!ere t!e ," g(ent 'as alrea y e*ec"te . 3 9eneses "s Dinglasan4 A"t '!ere t!e lo'er co"rt enforce its ," g(ent %efore a #arty against '!o( t!e e*ec"tion 'as enforce co"l ele+ate !er

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


60 of 76

a##eal in an in,"nction s"it$ '!ic! 'as instit"te to #re+ent sai e*ec"tion$ an in e#en ent #etition for in,"nction in t!e Co"rt of A##eals is ,"stifie . 39anila 3urety and .idelity "s ?eodoro, $%6& 4 An in,"nction s"it %eco(es (oot an aca e(ic after t!e act so"g!t to %e en,oine !a alrea y %een cons"((ate . 3 Ri"era ". .lorendo, $%;6' A #ro!i%itory in,"nction cannot %e iss"e '!en t!e act so"g!t to %e en,oine !as alrea y %een co((itte . Ramos, 3r. ". #A, $%;%4 Ea*al "s #A'

14.

Transfer of 6ossession to 6arty 'it! is#"te legal title +ia #reli(inary in,"nction not allo'e A co"rt s!o"l not$ %y (eans of a #reli(inary in,"nction$ transfer t!e #ro#erty in litigation fro( t!e #ossession of one #arty to anot!er '!ere t!e legal title is in is#"te an t!e #arty !a+ing #ossession asserts o'ners!i# t!ereto. 3?oyota 9otors !)ils. #orp "s #A, $%%@4. E*ce#tions <orci%le entries in '!ic! t!e Co"rt (ay iss"e #reli(inary (an atory in,"nction 3R"le -7$ Sec 1.4 an %y Section &7 t!ereof in+ol+ing leases in '!ic! t!e co"rt (ay$ on a##eal$ grant si(ilar (an atory in,"ncti+e relief. T!e e*ce#tion a##lies only to e,ect(ent cases e*cl"si+ely cogni5a%le %y t!e ("nici#al co"rt. 3Ramos "s #A, $%;;4. 6ro#erty co+ere %y Torrens Title '!en t!ere is a clear fin ing of o'ners!i# an #ossession of t!e lan or "nless t!e s"%,ect #ro#erty is co+ere %y a Torrens Title #ointing to one of t!e #arties as t!e "n is#"te o'ner. 36353 "s .lorendo4

1..

In,"nction #ro!i%ite #amilon, $%%='

to en,oin #rosec"tion of cri(inal #rocee ings Reyes "s

E*ce#tions 314 <or t!e or erly a (inistration of ,"stice0 3&4 To #re+ent t!e "se of t!e strong ar( of t!e la' in an o##ressi+e an +in icti+e (anner0 3/4 To a+oi ("lti#licity of actions0 344 To affor a e)"ate #rotection of constit"tional rig!ts0 3.4 In #ro#er cases %eca"se t!e stat"te relie "#on is "nconstit"tional or 'as !el in+ali 30ustiniani ". #astillo, $%;;4 364 :!ere t!e constit"tionality of t!e C!inese Aoo2 Lee#ing La' 'as )"estione 0 3Du #ong 1ng ". ?rinidad, $%@54 3-4 :!ere t!e !earing of t!e li%el case 'as en,oine %y #er(anent in,"nction after t!e S"#re(e Co"rt in a se#arate case fo"n t!e co(("nication allege to %e li%elo"s as #ri+ilege an not li%elo"s0 0ustiniani ". #astillo4 3>4 :!ere a traffic or inance 'as fo"n to %e in+ali 0 3 !rimicias ". 9unicipality of Brdaneta, !angasinan, $%&%' an 3?4 :!ere t!e fiscal 'as restraine fro( f"rt!er #rocee ing 'it! cri(inal case fo"n to %e ci+il in nat"re. 3 6uingona ". #ity .iscal of 9anila, $%;4' Note: T!is 'as later on reconsi ere . 36uingona ". #ity .iscal of 9anila, Reconsidered, Resolution' 3174 :!ere t!ere is (anifest %a fait! t!at acco(#anies t!e filing of cri(inal c!arges$ as in t!e instant case '!ere Aroc2a$ et al. 'ere %arre fro( en,oying #ro+isional release "ntil s"c! ti(e t!at c!arges 'ere file $ an '!ere a s!a( #reli(inary in+estigation 'as !astily con "cte -rocka "s. 1nrile, $%%='

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


61 of 76

16.

16.

In,"nction against co"rts or tri%"nals of e)"al ran2 is #ro!i%ite 3Roldan 0r "s Arca, $%&54 No co"rt !as #o'er to interfere %y in,"nction$ 'it! t!e ," g(ents or ecree of a co"rt of conc"rrent or coor inate ,"ris iction !a+ing e)"al #o'er to grant t!e relief so"g!t %y in,"nction /ac*ang, et al. "s. Die8, $%6A'. T!e #rinci#le a##lies regar less of '!et!er it is an or inary action or a s#ecial ci+il action. Co'e+er$ t!e Co"rt of <irst Instance of a ," icial istrict can en,oin t!e s!eriff fro( selling #ro#erties le+ie "#on to satisfy ," g(ent of a C<I of anot!er ," icial istrict '!ere t!e #ro#erties in+ol+e 'ere t!ose of a stranger to t!e action. *** T!is oes not constit"te an interference 'it! t!e #rocesses of a co"rt of coor inate an co1e)"al ,"ris iction as t!e s!eriff 'as i(#ro#erly i(#le(enting t!e 'rit of e*ec"tion A*iera "s. #ourt of Appeals, $%&@'. No 'rit (ay %e iss"e %y t!e Regional Trial Co"rt against )"asi1," icial %o ies of e)"al ran2 s"c! as Social Sec"rity Co((ission$ Sec"rities an E*c!ange Co((ission$ !)ilippine !acific .is)ing #o., 5nc. ". <una, $%;@' Intellect"al 6ro#erty Office$ Co((ission on Elections$ or :or2(enDs Co(#ensation Co((ission. Nocnoc ". >era, $%&%' Inferior co"rts (ay iss"e 'rits of #reli(inary in,"nction only in forci%le entry an "nla'f"l etainer cases. T!e e*cl"si+e original ,"ris iction of t!e inferior co"rt in ci+il cases no' incl" es t!e grant of #ro+isional re(e ies in #ro#er cases 3Refer to R"les of Co"rt$ R"le -7$ Sec. 1.4 Stat"tory #ro!i%itions against t!e iss"ance of a 'rit of #reli(inary in,"nction In,"nction or ers are #ro!i%ite in t!e follo'ing cases:

Un er Aatas 6a(%ansa Alg. &&- a(en ing Art. &.. 3La%or Co e4$ no te(#orary or #er(anent in,"nction in cases gro'ing o"t of la%or is#"te s!all %e iss"e %y a co"rt or ot!er entity e*ce#t as ot!er'ise #ro+i e in Articles &>1 an &64 of t!is Co e. A<B-?B#! ". -orromeo 4 Un er 6resi ential 9ecree No. &1>$ it is t!e National La%or Relations Co((ission 3NLRC4 t!at iss"es an in,"nction in la%or is#"tes. 3Caisa)an ng mga 9anggagawa ". 3armiento' Re#. Act No. >?-.$ No+. -$ &777 An act to ens"re t!e e*#e itio"s i(#le(entation an co(#letion of go+ern(ent infrastr"ct"re #ro,ects %y #ro!i%iting lo'er co"rts fro( iss"ing te(#orary restraning or ers. 6reli(inary in,"nctions or #reli(inary (an atory in,"nctions$ #ro+i ing #enalties for +iolations t!ereof$ an for ot!er #"r#oses. Section 1. Declaration of !olicy. 1 Article QII$ Section 6 of t!e Constit"tion states t!at t!e "se of #ro#erty %ears a social f"nction$ an all econo(ic agents s!all contri%"te to t!e co((on goo . To'ar s t!is en $ t!e State s!all ens"re t!e e*#e itio"s an efficient i(#le(entation an co(#letion of go+ern(ent infrastr"ct"re #ro,ects to a+oi "nnecessary increase in constr"ction$ (aintenance an Jor re#air costs an to i((e iately en,oy t!e social an econo(ic %enefits t!erefro(. Section &. Definition of ?erms. O 3a4 National go"ernment pro+ectsJ s!all refer to all c"rrent an f"t"re national go+ern(ent infrastr"ct"re$ engineering 'or2s an ser+ice contracts$ incl" ing #ro,ects "n erta2en %y go+ern(ent1o'ne an O controlle cor#orations$ all #ro,ects co+ere %y Re#"%lic Act No. 6?.-$ as a(en e %y Re#"%lic Act No. --1>$ ot!er'ise 2no'n as t!e

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


62 of 76

A"il 1O#erate1an 1Transfer La'$ an ot!er relate an necessary acti+ities s"c! as site ac)"isition$ s"##ly an Jor installation of e)"i#(ent an (aterials$ i(#le(entation$ constr"ction$ co(#letion$ o#eration$ (aintenance$ i(#ro+e(ent$ re#air an re!a%ilitation$ regar less of t!e so"rce of f"n ing. 3%4 J3er"ice contractsJ s!all refer to infrastr"ct"re contracts entere into %y any e#art(ent$ office or agency of t!e national go+ern(ent 'it! #ri+ate entities an non1go+ern(ent organi5ations for ser+ices relate or inci ental to t!e f"nctions an o#erations of t!e e#art(ent$ office or agency concerne . Section /. !ro)i*ition on t)e 5ssuance of ?emporary Restraining 7rders, !reliminary 9andatory 5n+unctions. K No co"rt$ e*ce#t t!e S"#re(e Co"rt$ s!all iss"e any te(#orary restraining or er$ #reli(inary in,"nction or #reli(inary (an atory in,"nction against t!e go+ern(ent$ or any of its s"% i+isions$ officials or any #erson or entity$ '!et!er #"%lic or #ri+ate acting "n er t!e go+ern(ent irection$ to restrain$ #ro!i%it or co(#el t!e follo'ing acts: 3a4 Ac)"isition$ clearance an e+elo#(ent of t!e rig!t1of1'ay an Jor site or location of any national go+ern(ent #ro,ect0 3%4 Ai ing or a'ar ing of contractJ #ro,ect of t!e national go+ern(ent as efine "n er Section & !ereof0 3c4 Co((ence(ent #rosec"tion$ e*ec"tion$ i(#le(entation$ o#eration of any s"c! contract or #ro,ect0 $awp)il.netL 3 4 Ter(ination or rescission of any s"c! contractJ#ro,ect0 an 3e4 T!e "n erta2ing or a"t!ori5ation of any ot!er la'f"l acti+ity necessary for s"c! contractJ#ro,ect. T!is #ro!i%ition s!all a##ly in all cases$ is#"tes or contro+ersies instit"te %y a #ri+ate #arty$ incl" ing %"t not li(ite to cases file %y %i ers or t!ose clai(ing to !a+e rig!ts t!ro"g! s"c! %i ers in+ol+ing s"c! contractJ#ro,ect. T!is #ro!i%ition s!all not a##ly '!en t!e (atter is of e*tre(e "rgency in+ol+ing a constit"tional iss"e$ s"c! t!at "nless a te(#orary restraining or er is iss"e $ gra+e in,"stice an irre#ara%le in,"ry 'ill arise. T!e a##licant s!all file a %on $ in an a(o"nt to %e fi*e %y t!e co"rt$ '!ic! %on s!all accr"e in fa+or of t!e go+ern(ent if t!e co"rt s!o"l finally eci e t!at t!e a##licant 'as not entitle to t!e relief so"g!t. In after "e !earing t!e co"rt fin s t!at t!e a'ar of t!e contract is n"ll an +oi $ t!e co"rt (ay$ if a##ro#riate "n er t!e circ"(stances$ a'ar t!e contract to t!e )"alifie an 'inning %i er or or er a re%i ing of t!e sa(e$ 'it!o"t #re," ice to any lia%ility t!at t!e g"ilty #arty (ay inc"r "n er e*isting la's.

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


63 of 76

Section 4. Nullity of (rits and 7rders. O Any te(#orary restraining or er$ #reli(inary in,"nction or #reli(inary (an atory in,"nction iss"e in +iolation of Section / !ereof is +oi an of no force an effect. Section .. Designation of Regional ?rial #ourts. 1 T!e S"#re(e Co"rt (ay esignate regional trial co"rts to act as co((issioners 'it! t!e sole f"nction of recei+ing facts of t!e case in+ol+ing ac)"isition clearance an e+elo#(ent of rig!t1of1'ay for go+ern(ent infrastr"ct"re #ro,ects. T!e esignate regional trial co"rt s!all 'it!in t!irty 3/74 ays fro( t!e ate of recei#t of t!e referral$ for'ar s its fin ings of facts to t!e S"#re(e Co"rt for a##ro#riate action. Section 6. !enal 3anction. O In a ition to any ci+il an cri(inal lia%ilities !e or s!e (ay inc"r "n er e*isting la's$ any ," ge '!o s!all iss"e a te(#orary restraining or er$ #reli(inary in,"nction or #reli(inary (an atory in,"nction in +iolation of Section / !ereof$ s!all s"ffer t!e #enalty of s"s#ension of at least si*ty 3674 ays 'it!o"t #ay. Section -. 5ssuance of !ermits. O U#on #ay(ent in cas! of t!e necessary fees le+ie "n er Re#"%lic Act No. -167$ as a(en e $ ot!er'ise 2no'n as t!e Local ;o+ern(ent Co e of 1??1$ t!e go+ernor of t!e #ro+ince or (ayor of a !ig!ly1"r%ani5e city s!all i((e iately iss"e t!e necessary #er(it to e*tract san $ gra+el an ot!er )"arry reso"rces nee e in go+ern(ent #ro,ects. T!e iss"ance of sai #er(it s!all consi er en+iron(ental la's$ lan "se or inances an t!e #ertinent #ro+isions of t!e Local ;o+ern(ent Co e relating to en+iron(ent. Section >. 3epara*ility #lause. 1 If any #ro+ision of t!is Act is eclare "nconstit"tional or in+ali $ ot!er #arts or #ro+isions !ereof not affecte t!ere%y s!all contin"e to %e of f"ll force an effect. Section ?. Repealing #lause. 1 All la's$ ecrees$ incl" ing 6resi ential 9ecree No. 67.$ 1>1> an Re#"%lic Act No. -167$ as a(en e $ or ers$ r"les an reg"lations or #arts t!ereof inconsistent 'it! t!is Act are !ere%y re#eale or a(en e accor ingly. Section 17. 1ffecti"ity #lause. O T!is Act s!all ta2e effect fifteen 31.4 ays follo'ing its #"%lication in at least t'o 3&4 ne's#a#ers of general circ"lation. A##ro+e : No+e(%er -$ &777

6resi ential 9ecree No. />. 6ro!i%ition to iss"e in,"nction against any go+ern(ent financing instit"tion in any action ta2en %y s"c! instit"tion in connection 'it! t!e (an atory foreclos"re '!ere arrears a(o"nt to at least &7M of t!e total o"tstan ing o%ligations incl" ing interest an ot!er c!arges as a##earing in t!e %oo2 of acco"nts an Jor relate recor s of t!e financial instit"tions concerne 3.ilipinas 9ar*le #orporation ". 5A#, $%;6' 6resi ential 9ecree No. />. cannot !o'e+er$ %e a##lie '!ere t!e e*tent of t!e loan act"ally recei+e %y t!e %orro'er is still to %e eter(ine . 6353 ". #A, $%;%'

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


64 of 76

It is not also a##lica%le to #ro#erties alrea y foreclose . T!e #ro!i%ition fo"n in 6resi ential 9ecree No. />. against t!e iss"ance of in,"nctions %y lo'er co"rts$ "nless certain con itions are (et$ a##lies only to foreclos"re #rocee ings initiate %y go+ern(ent financing instit"tions li2e t!e 9e+elo#(ent Aan2 of t!e 6!ili##ines 4 Repu*lic of t)e !)ilippines ". #A, @===' No restraining or er or #reli(inary in,"nction against t!e 6resi ential Agrarian Refor( Co"ncil 36ARC4 No co"rt in t!e 6!ili##ines s!all !a+e ,"ris iction to iss"e any restraining or er or 'rit of #reli(inary in,"nction against 6ARC or any of its "ly a"t!ori5e or esignate agencies in any case$ is#"te or contro+ersy arising fro($ necessary to$ or in connection 'it! t!e a##lication$ i(#le(entation$ enforce(ent$ or inter#retation of t!is Act an ot!er #ertinent la's on agrarian refor(. 3Sec. ..$ CAR6 La'4 6resi ential 9ecree No. 67. '!ic! #ro!i%its co"rts fro( e*ercising ,"ris iction to iss"e #reli(inary in,"nction in a case in+ol+ing t!e iss"ance or a##ro+al %y a (inistrati+e officials of #"%lic grants in connection 'it! t!e e*#loitation of nat"ral reso"rces$ oes not a##ly in a case '!ere t!e co(#laint oes not #"t in iss"e t!e legiti(acy of t!e efen antDs clai( of %eing !ol ers of (ining lease contracts$ %"t asserts t!at efen ants !a rig!ts. D.#. #rystal, 5nc. ". <aya, $%;%' E*ec"ti+e Or er No. 1 effecti+ely 'it!!ol s ,"ris iction o+er t!e 6resi ential Co((ission on ;oo ;o+ernance fro( all lo'er co"rts$ incl" ing t!e Co"rt of A##eals. !#66 "s. !ena, $%;;' T!e e*cl"si+e an original ,"ris iction o+er t!e 6C;; is lo ge in t!e San igan%ayan$ '!ose ecisions an final or ers are in t"rn s"%,ect to re+ie' on certiorari e*cl"si+ely %y SC. Repu*lic "s. 9igrino, $%%='

No in,"nction against go+ern(ent #ro,ects "n er 6.9. 1>1> ***'e cannot s"stain t!e grant of #reli(inary in,"nction as or ere %y t!e Co"rt of A##eals. As a r"le$ an a##lication for #reli(inary in,"nction entails a eter(ination of '!et!er t!e re)"isites #ro+i e in R"le .> of t!e Re+ise R"les on Ci+il 6roce "re for t!e iss"ance of t!e #ro+isional re(e y are e*tant. In t!e instant case$ !o'e+er$ t!e i(#act of 6.9. No. 1>1>t!e la' '!ic! #roscri%es co"rt in,"nctions on go+ern(ent #ro,ects ("st also %e ta2en into acco"nt as sai la' s#ecifically e*cl" es arrastre an ste+e oring contracts along 'it! ot!er acti+ities fro( t!e s#!ere of t!e in,"ncti+e #o'er of t!e co"rts. !!A "s. !ier ;, @==5' A co"rt s!o"l iss"e a 'rit of #reli(inary in,"nction only '!en t!e #etitioner assailing a stat"te or a (inistrati+e or er !as (a e o"t a case of "nconstit"tionality asi e fro( s!o'ing a clear legal rig!t to t!e re(e y so"g!t. ?a*larin ". 6utierre8, $%;&' #rayer in co(#laint. 3 ?)e #)ief of 3taff, A.! "s 6uadi8

1-. 1>.

No in,"nction %eyon 0r, $%;=4

Secon A##lication for 6reli(inary In,"nction A secon a##lication for #reli(inary in,"nction$ '!ic! rests in t!e so"n iscretion of t!e co"rt$ 'ill or inarily %e enie "nless it is %ase on facts "n2no'n at t!e ti(e of t!e first a##lication. T!e reason for t!is r"le is t!e sa(e as t!e inter iction on s#litting a single ca"se of action '!ile #ro+i ing for #er(issi+e ,oin er of ca"ses of action$ %ot! inten e to a+oi ("lti#licity of s"its. Co'e+er$ t!is r"le a##lies only '!ere t!e secon a##lication is to o#erate on t!e sa(e act so"g!t to %e en,oine in t!e first a##lication$ an

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


65 of 76

cannot %e in+o2e #A, $%%=' 1?.

'!ere relief is so"g!t against a

ifferent act. Reyes "s.

Te(#orary Restraining Or er A te(#orary restraining or er is an or er to (aintain t!e s"%,ect of contro+ersy in status :uo "ntil t!e !earing of an a##lication for a te(#orary in,"nction. It is isting"is!e fro( an in,"nction in t!at it is inten e as a restraint "#on t!e efen ant "ntil t!e #ro#riety of granting an in,"nction pendent elite can %e eter(ine $ an it goes no f"rt!er t!an to #reser+e t!e status :uo "ntil s"c! eter(ination. Accor ingly$ t!e grant$ enial or lifting of a restraining or er oes not in any 'ay #ree(#t t!e co"rtDs #o'er to eci e t!e iss"e in t!e (ain action '!ic! is t!e in,"nction s"it. Anglo-.il ?raing #orp. "s. <a8aro, $%;A' Recei+ers!i# 3R"le .?4 Sec 1. A##oint(ent of recei+er. U#on a +erifie a##lication$ one or (ore recei+ers of t!e #ro#erty s"%,ect of t!e action or #rocee ing (ay %e a##ointe %y t!e co"rt '!ere t!e action is #en ing$ or %y t!e Co"rt of A##eals or %y t!e S"#re(e Co"rt$ or a (e(%er t!ereof$ in t!e follo'ing cases: 3a4 :!en it a##ears fro( t!e +erifie a##lication$ an s"c! ot!er #roof as t!e co"rt (ay re)"ire$ t!at t!e #arty a##lying for t!e a##oint(ent of a recei+er !as an interest in t!e #ro#erty or f"n '!ic! is t!e s"%,ect of t!e action or #rocee ing$ an t!at s"c! #ro#erty or f"n is in anger of %eing lost$ re(o+e $ or (aterially in,"re "nless a recei+er %e a##ointe to a (inister an #reser+e it0 3%4 :!en it a##ears in an action %y t!e (ortgagee for t!e foreclos"re of a (ortgage t!at t!e #ro#erty is in anger of %eing 'aste or issi#ate or (aterially in,"re $ an t!at its +al"e is #ro%a%ly ins"fficient to isc!arge t!e (ortgage e%t$ or t!at t!e #arties !a+e so sti#"late in t!e contract of (ortgage0 3c4 After ," g(ent$ to #reser+e t!e #ro#erty "ring t!e #en ency of an a##eal$ or to is#ose of it accor ing to t!e ," g(ent$ or to ai e*ec"tion '!en t!e e*ec"tion !as %een ret"rne "nsatisfie or t!e ," g(ent o%ligor ref"ses to a##ly !is #ro#erty in satisfaction of t!e ," g(ent$ or ot!er'ise to carry t!e ," g(ent into effect0 3 4 :!ene+er in ot!er cases it a##ears t!at t!e a##oint(ent of a recei+er is t!e (ost con+enient an feasi%le (eans of #reser+ing$ a (inistering$ or is#osing of t!e #ro#erty in litigation. 9"ring t!e #en ency of an a##eal$ t!e a##ellate co"rt (ay allo' an a##lication for t!e a##oint(ent of a recei+er to %e file in an eci e %y t!e co"rt of origin an t!e recei+er a##ointe to %e s"%,ect to t!e control of sai co"rt. Sec &. Aon on a##oint(ent of recei+er. Aefore iss"ing t!e or er a##ointing a recei+er t!e co"rt s!all re)"ire t!e a##licant to file a %on e*ec"te to t!e #arty against '!o( t!e a##lication is #resente $ in an a(o"nt to %e fi*e %y t!e co"rt$ to t!e effect t!at t!e a##licant 'ill #ay s"c! #arty all a(ages !e (ay s"stain %y reason of t!e a##oint(ent of s"c! recei+er in case t!e a##licant s!all !a+e #roc"re s"c! a##oint(ent 'it!o"t s"fficient ca"se0 an t!e co"rt (ay$ in its iscretion$ at any ti(e after t!e

9.

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


66 of 76

a##oint(ent$ re)"ire an a a(ages.

itional %on

as f"rt!er sec"rity for s"c!

Sec /. 9enial of a##lication or isc!arge of recei+er. T!e a##lication (ay %e enie $ or t!e recei+er isc!arge $ '!en t!e a +erse #arty files a %on e*ec"te to t!e a##licant$ in an a(o"nt to %e fi*e %y t!e co"rt$ to t!e effect t!at s"c! #arty 'ill #ay t!e a##licant all a(ages !e (ay s"ffer %y reason of t!e acts$ o(issions$ or ot!er (atters s#ecifie in t!e a##lication as gro"n for s"c! a##oint(ent. T!e recei+er (ay also %e isc!arge if it is s!o'n t!at !is a##oint(ent 'as o%taine 'it!o"t s"fficient ca"se. Sec 4. Oat! an %on of recei+er. Aefore entering "#on !is "ties$ t!e recei+er ("st %e s'orn to #erfor( t!e( fait!f"lly$ an s!all file a %on $ e*ec"te to s"c! #erson an in s"c! s"( as t!e co"rt (ay irect$ to t!e effect t!at !e 'ill fait!f"lly isc!arge !is "ties in t!e action or #rocee ing an o%ey t!e or ers of t!e co"rt. Sec .. Ser+ice of co#ies of %on s0 effect of isa##ro+al of sa(e. T!e #erson filing a %on in accor ance 'it! t!e #ro+isions of t!is R"le s!all fort!'it! ser+e a co#y t!ereof on eac! intereste #arty$ '!o (ay e*ce#t to its s"fficiency or of t!e s"rety or s"reties t!ereon. If eit!er t!e a##licant=s or t!e recei+er=s %on is fo"n to %e ins"fficient in a(o"nt$ or if t!e s"rety or s"reties t!ereon fail to ,"stify$ an a %on s"fficient in a(o"nt 'it! s"fficient s"reties a##ro+e after ,"stification is not file fort!'it!$ t!e a##lication s!all %e enie or t!e recei+er isc!arge $ as t!e case (ay %e. If t!e %on of t!e a +erse #arty is fo"n to %e ins"fficient in a(o"nt or t!e s"rety or s"reties t!ereon fail to ,"stify$ an a %on s"fficient in a(o"nt 'it! s"fficient s"reties a##ro+e after ,"stification is not file fort!'it!$ t!e recei+er s!all %e a##ointe or re1a##ointe $ as t!e case (ay %e. Sec 6. ;eneral #o'ers of recei+er. S"%,ect to t!e control of t!e co"rt in '!ic! t!e action or #rocee ing is #en ing$ a recei+er s!all !a+e t!e #o'er to %ring an efen $ in s"c! ca#acity$ actions in !is o'n na(e0 to ta2e an 2ee# #ossession of t!e #ro#erty in contro+ersy0 to recei+e rents0 to collect e%ts "e to !i(self as recei+er or to t!e f"n $ #ro#erty$ estate$ #erson$ or cor#oration of '!ic! !e is t!e recei+er0 to co(#o"n for an co(#ro(ise t!e sa(e0 to (a2e transfers0 to #ay o"tstan ing e%ts0 to i+i e t!e (oney an ot!er #ro#erty t!at s!all re(ain a(ong t!e #ersons legally entitle to recei+e t!e sa(e0 an generally to o s"c! acts res#ecting t!e #ro#erty as t!e co"rt (ay a"t!ori5e. Co'e+er$ f"n s in t!e !an s of a recei+er (ay %e in+este only %y or er of t!e co"rt "#on t!e 'ritten consent of all t!e #arties to t!e action. No action (ay %e file '!ic! a##ointe !i(. %y or against a recei+er 'it!o"t lea+e of t!e co"rt

Sec -. Lia%ility for ref"sal or neglect to eli+er #ro#erty to recei+er. A #erson '!o ref"ses or neglects$ "#on reasona%le e(an $ to eli+er to t!e recei+er all t!e #ro#erty$ (oney$ %oo2s$ ee s$ notes$ %ills$ oc"(ents an #a#ers 'it!in !is #o'er or control$ s"%,ect of or in+ol+e in t!e action or #rocee ing$ or in case of isagree(ent$ as eter(ine an or ere %y t!e co"rt$ (ay %e #"nis!e for conte(#t an s!all %e lia%le to t!e recei+er for t!e (oney or t!e +al"e of t!e #ro#erty an ot!er t!ings so ref"se or neglecte to %e s"rren ere $ toget!er 'it! all a(ages t!at (ay !a+e %een s"staine %y t!e #arty or #arties entitle t!ereto as a conse)"ence of s"c! ref"sal or neglect.

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


67 of 76

Sec >. Ter(ination of recei+ers!i#0 co(#ensation of recei+er. :!ene+er t!e co"rt$ (ot" #ro#rio or on (otion of eit!er #arty$ s!all eter(ine t!at t!e necessity for a recei+er no longer e*ists$ it s!all$ after "e notice to all intereste #arties an !earing$ settle t!e acco"nts of t!e recei+er$ irect t!e eli+ery of t!e f"n s an ot!er #ro#erty in !is #ossession to t!e #erson a ," ge to %e entitle to recei+e t!e($ an or er t!e isc!arge of t!e recei+er fro( f"rt!er "ty as s"c!. T!e co"rt s!all allo' t!e recei+er s"c! reasona%le co(#ensation as t!e circ"(stances of t!e case 'arrant$ to %e ta*e as costs against t!e efeate #arty$ or a##ortione $ as ,"stice re)"ires. Sec ?. 8" g(ent to incl" e reco+ery against s"reties. T!e a(o"nt$ if any$ to %e a'ar e to any #arty "#on any %on file in accor ance 'it! t!e #ro+isions of t!is R"le$ s!all %e clai(e $ ascertaine $ an grante "n er t!e sa(e #roce "re as #rescri%e in section &7 of R"le .-. 1. A##oint(ent of a recei+er T!e general r"le is t!at neit!er #arty to t!e litigation s!o"l %e a##ointe as a recei+er 'it!o"t t!e consent of t!e ot!er %eca"se a recei+er is s"##ose to %e an i(#artial an isintereste #erson. 3Alcantara ". A**as, $%6A' A cler2 of co"rt s!o"l not %e a##ointe as a recei+er as !e is alrea y %"r ene 'it! !is official "ties. A*rigo ". Cayanan, $%;A'. T!e a##oint(ent of a recei+er "ring t!e #en ency of t!e action is interloc"tory in nat"re an cannot %e co(#elle %y (an a("s$ %"t certiorari 'ill lie if t!ere 'as gra+e a%"se of iscretion 3 3amson "s. -arrios, 6A !)il. $%%4 -er*ari "s. 5mperial, et al., 4A !)il. @@@ 4 S#ecific sit"ations '!en a recei+er (ay %e a##ointe <a(ily Co e$ Article 171: If a s#o"se 'it!o"t ,"st ca"se a%an ons t!e ot!er or fails to co(#ly 'it! !isJ!er o%ligations to t!e fa(ily$ t!e aggrie+e s#o"se (ay #etition t!e co"rt for recei+ers!i#. R"les of Co"rt$ Sec. 41$ R"le /?: T!e co"rt (ay a##oint a recei+er of t!e #ro#erty of t!e ," g(ent o%ligor0 an it (ay also for%i a transfer or ot!er is#osition of$ or any interference 'it!$ t!e #ro#erty of t!e ," g(ent o%ligor not e*e(#t fro( e*ec"tion. After t!e #erfection of an a##eal$ t!e trial co"rt retains ,"ris iction to a##oint a recei+er of t!e #ro#erty "n er litigation since t!is (atter oes not to"c! "#on t!e s"%,ect of t!e a##eal. 3R"les of Co"rt$ R"le 41$ Sec. ?0 AcuGa ". #aluag, $%5&4 After final ," g(ent$ a recei+er (ay %e a##ointe as an ai to t!e e*ec"tion of ," g(ent. !)ilippine ?rust #ompany ". 3antamaria, $%@%' A##oint(ent of a recei+er o+er t!e #ro#erty in custodia legis (ay %e allo'e '!en it is ,"stifie %y s#ecial circ"(stances as '!en it is reasona%ly necessary to sec"re an #rotect t!e rig!ts of t!e real o'ner. Dolar ". 3undiam, $%&$' :!en recei+ers!i# (ay %e enie or lifte 3a4 if t!e a##oint(ent so"g!t or grante is 'it!o"t s"fficient ca"se 3%4 if t!e a +erse #arty files a s"fficient %on to ans'er for a(ages 3c4 '!ere t!e %on #oste %y t!e a##licant for t!e grant of recei+ers!i# is s"fficient

&.

/.

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


68 of 76

3 4 4. 9a(ages

if t!e %on of t!e recei+er is ins"fficient Sa(e as Sec. &7$ R"le .:!ere$ !o'e+er$ t!e a(ages s"staine 'ere not %y reason of t!e a##oint(ent of t!e recei+er %"t "e to t!e recei+erDs o'n (alfeasance$ t!e reco+ery for a(ages s!all %e against t!e %on of t!e recei+er an (ay %e reco+ere in a se#arate action$ an not %y (ere (otion in t!e case '!erein t!e recei+ers!i# 'as grante 3De la Rosa F #o. "s. De -or+a, 5A !)il. %%=4

Cases: A recei+er of real or #ersonal #ro#erty$ '!ic! is t!e s"%,ect of t!e action$ (ay %e a##ointe %y t!e co"rt '!en it a##ears fro( t!e #lea ings or s"c! ot!er #roof as t!e ," ge (ay re)"ire$ t!at t!e #arty a##lying for s"c! a##oint(ent !as 314 an act"al interest in it0 an 3&4 t!at 3a4 s"c! #ro#erty is in anger of %eing lost$ re(o+e or (aterially in,"re 0 or 3%4 '!ene+er it a##ears to %e t!e (ost con+enient an feasi%le (eans of #reser+ing or a (inistering t!e #ro#erty in litigation. A recei+er is a #erson a##ointe %y t!e co"rt in %e!alf of all t!e #arties to t!e action for t!e #"r#ose of #reser+ing an conser+ing t!e #ro#erty in litigation an #re+ent its #ossi%le estr"ction or issi#ation$ if it 'ere left in t!e #ossession of any of t!e #arties. T!e a##oint(ent of a recei+er is not a (atter of a%sol"te rig!t. It e#en s "#on t!e so"n iscretion of t!e co"rt an is %ase on facts an circ"(stances of eac! #artic"lar case. A #etition for recei+ers!i# "n er Section 1 3%4 of R"le .? re)"ires t!at t!e #ro#erty or f"n '!ic! is t!e s"%,ect of t!e action ("st %e in anger of loss$ re(o+al or (aterial in,"ry '!ic! necessitates #rotection or #reser+ation. T!e g"i ing #rinci#le is t!e #re+ention of i((inent anger to t!e #ro#erty. If an action %y its nat"re$ oes not re)"ire s"c! #rotection or #reser+ation$ sai re(e y cannot %e a##lie for an grante . #ommodities 3torage ". #A, $%%&' A recei+er is a #erson a##ointe %y t!e co"rt$ or in t!is instance$ %y a )"asi1," icial a (inistrati+e agency$ in %e!alf of all t!e #arties for t!e #"r#ose of #reser+ing an conser+ing t!e #ro#erty an #re+enting its #ossi%le estr"ction or issi#ation$ if it 'ere left in t!e #ossession of any of t!e #arties. It is t!e "ty of t!e recei+er to a (inister t!e assets of t!e recei+ers!i# estate0 an in t!e (anage(ent an is#osition of t!e #ro#erty co((itte to !is #ossession$ !e acts in a fi "ciary ca#acity an 'it! impartiality towards all interested persons . T!e a##oint(ent of a recei+er oes not issol+e a cor#oration$ nor oes it interfere 'it! t!e e*ercise of its cor#orate rig!ts. In t!is case '!ere t!ere a##ears to %e no restraints i(#ose "#on res#on ent as it "n ergoes re!a%ilitation recei+ers!i#$ res#on ent contin"es to e*ist as a cor#oration an !ence$ contin"es or s!o"l contin"e to #erfor( its contract"al an stat"tory res#onsi%ilities to #etitioners as !o(eo'ners. Recei+ers!i# is ai(e at t!e #reser+ation of$ an at (a2ing (ore sec"re$ e*isting rig!ts0 it cannot %e "se as an instr"(ent for t!e estr"ction of t!ose rig!ts. Arran8a ". -... /omes, @===' E. Re#le+in 3R"le 674 Sec 1. A##lication. A #arty #raying for t!e reco+ery of #ossession of #ersonal #ro#erty (ay$ at t!e co((ence(ent of t!e action or at any ti(e

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


69 of 76

%efore ans'er$ a##ly for an or er for t!e t!e (anner !ereinafter #ro+i e .

eli+ery of s"c! #ro#erty to !i($ in

Sec &. Affi a+it an %on . T!e a##licant ("st s!o' %y !is o'n affi a+it or t!at of so(e ot!er #erson '!o #ersonally 2no's t!e facts: 3a4 T!at t!e a##licant is t!e o'ner of t!e #ro#erty clai(e $ #artic"larly escri%ing it$ or is entitle to t!e #ossession t!ereof0 3%4 T!at t!e #ro#erty is 'rongf"lly etaine %y t!e a +erse #arty$ alleging t!e ca"se of etention t!ereof accor ing to t!e %est of !is 2no'le ge$ infor(ation$ an %elief0 3c4 T!at t!e #ro#erty !as not %een istraine or ta2en for a ta* assess(ent or a fine #"rs"ant to la'$ or sei5e "n er a 'rit of e*ec"tion or #reli(inary attac!(ent$ or ot!er'ise #lace "n er c"sto ia legis$ or if so sei5e $ t!at it is e*e(#t fro( s"c! sei5"re or c"sto y0 an 3 4 T!e act"al (ar2et +al"e of t!e #ro#erty.

T!e a##licant ("st also gi+e a %on $ e*ec"te to t!e a +erse #arty in o"%le t!e +al"e of t!e #ro#erty as state in t!e affi a+it afore(entione $ for t!e ret"rn of t!e #ro#erty to t!e a +erse #arty if s"c! ret"rn %e a ," ge $ an for t!e #ay(ent to t!e a +erse #arty of s"c! s"( as !e (ay reco+er fro( t!e a##licant in t!e action. Sec /. Or er. U#on t!e filing of s"c! affi a+it an a##ro+al of t!e %on $ t!e co"rt s!all iss"e an or er an t!e corres#on ing 'rit of re#le+in escri%ing t!e #ersonal #ro#erty allege to %e 'rongf"lly etaine an re)"iring t!e s!eriff fort!'it! to ta2e s"c! #ro#erty into !is c"sto y. Sec 4. 9"ty of t!e s!eriff . U#on recei+ing s"c! or er$ t!e s!eriff ("st ser+e a co#y t!ereof on t!e a +erse #arty$ toget!er 'it! a co#y of t!e a##lication$ affi a+it an %on $ an ("st fort!'it! ta2e t!e #ro#erty$ if it %e in t!e #ossession of t!e a +erse #arty$ or !is agent$ an retain it in !is c"sto y. If t!e #ro#erty or any #art t!ereof %e conceale in a %"il ing or enclos"re$ t!e s!eriff ("st e(an its eli+ery$ an if it %e not eli+ere $ !e ("st ca"se t!e %"il ing or enclos"re to %e %ro2en o#en an ta2e t!e #ro#erty into !is #ossession. After t!e s!eriff !as ta2en #ossession of t!e #ro#erty as !erein #ro+i e $ !e ("st 2ee# it in a sec"re #lace an s!all %e res#onsi%le for its eli+ery to t!e #arty entitle t!ereto "#on recei+ing !is fees an necessary e*#enses for ta2ing an 2ee#ing t!e sa(e. Sec .. Ret"rn of #ro#erty. If t!e a +erse #arty o%,ects to t!e s"fficiency of t!e a##licant=s %on $ or of t!e s"rety or s"reties t!ereon$ !e cannot i((e iately re)"ire t!e ret"rn of t!e #ro#erty0 %"t if !e oes not so o%,ect$ !e (ay$ at any ti(e %efore t!e eli+ery of t!e #ro#erty to t!e a##licant$ re)"ire t!e ret"rn t!ereof$ %y filing 'it! t!e co"rt '!ere t!e action is #en ing a %on e*ec"te to t!e a##licant$ in o"%le t!e +al"e of t!e #ro#erty as state in t!e a##licant=s affi a+it$ for t!e eli+ery t!ereof to t!e a##licant$ if s"c! eli+ery %e a ," ge $ an for t!e #ay(ent of s"c! s"( to !i( as (ay %e reco+ere against t!e a +erse #arty$ an %y ser+ing a co#y of s"c! %on on t!e a##licant. Sec 6. 9is#osition of #ro#erty %y s!eriff. If 'it!in fi+e 3.4 ays after t!e ta2ing of t!e #ro#erty %y t!e s!eriff$ t!e a +erse #arty oes not o%,ect to t!e s"fficiency of t!e %on $ or of t!e s"rety or s"reties t!ereon0 or if t!e a +erse

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


70 of 76

#arty so o%,ects an t!e co"rt affir(s its a##ro+al of t!e a##licant=s %on a##ro+es a ne' %on $ or if t!e a +erse #arty re)"ires t!e ret"rn of #ro#erty %"t !is %on is o%,ecte to an fo"n ins"fficient an !e oes fort!'it! file an a##ro+e %on $ t!e #ro#erty s!all %e eli+ere to a##licant. If for any reason t!e #ro#erty is not eli+ere to t!e a##licant$ s!eriff ("st ret"rn it to t!e a +erse #arty.

or t!e not t!e t!e

Sec -. 6rocee ings '!ere #ro#erty clai(e %y t!ir #erson. If t!e #ro#erty ta2en is clai(e %y any ot!er t!an t!e #arty against '!o( t!e 'rit of re#le+in !a %een iss"e or !is agent$ an s"c! #erson (a2es an affi a+it of !is title t!ereto$ or rig!t to t!e #ossession t!ereof$ stating t!e gro"n s t!erefor$ an ser+es s"c! affi a+it "#on t!e s!eriff '!ile t!e latter !as #ossession of t!e #ro#erty an a co#y t!ereof "#on t!e a##licant$ t!e s!eriff s!all not %e %o"n to 2ee# t!e #ro#erty "n er re#le+in or eli+er it to t!e a##licant "nless t!e a##licant or !is agent$ on e(an of sai s!eriff$ s!all file a %on a##ro+e %y t!e co"rt to in e(nify t!e t!ir 1#arty clai(ant in a s"( not less t!an t!e +al"e of t!e #ro#erty "n er re#le+in as #ro+i e in section & !ereof. In case of isagree(ent as to s"c! +al"e$ t!e co"rt s!all eter(ine t!e sa(e. No clai( for a(ages for t!e ta2ing or 2ee#ing of t!e #ro#erty (ay %e enforce against t!e %on "nless t!e action t!erefor is file 'it!in one !"n re t'enty 31&74 ays fro( t!e ate of t!e filing of sai %on . T!e s!eriff s!all not %e lia%le for a(ages$ for t!e ta2ing or 2ee#ing of s"c! #ro#erty$ to any s"c! t!ir 1#arty clai(ant if s"c! %on s!all %e file . Not!ing !erein containe s!all #re+ent s"c! clai(ant or any t!ir #erson fro( +in icating !is clai( to t!e #ro#erty$ or #re+ent t!e a##licant fro( clai(ing a(ages against a t!ir 1#arty clai(ant '!o file a fri+olo"s or #lainly s#"rio"s clai($ in t!e sa(e or a se#arate action. :!en t!e 'rit of re#le+in is iss"e in fa+or of t!e Re#"%lic of t!e 6!ili##ines$ or any officer "ly re#resenting it$ t!e filing of s"c! %on s!all not %e re)"ire $ an in case t!e s!eriff is s"e for a(ages as a res"lt of t!e re#le+in$ !e s!all %e re#resente %y t!e Solicitor ;eneral$ an if !el lia%le t!erefor$ t!e act"al a(ages a ," ge %y t!e co"rt s!all %e #ai %y t!e National Treas"rer o"t of t!e f"n s to %e a##ro#riate for t!e #"r#ose. Sec >. Ret"rn of #a#ers. T!e s!eriff ("st file t!e or er$ 'it! !is #rocee ings in orse t!ereon$ 'it! t!e co"rt 'it!in ten 3174 ays after ta2ing t!e #ro#erty (entione t!erein. Sec ?. 8" g(ent. After a trial of t!e iss"es$ t!e co"rt s!all eter(ine '!o !as t!e rig!t of #ossession to an t!e +al"e of t!e #ro#erty an s!all ren er ," g(ent in t!e alternati+e for t!e eli+ery t!ereof to t!e #arty entitle to t!e sa(e$ or for its +al"e in case eli+ery cannot %e (a e$ an also for s"c! a(ages as eit!er #arty (ay #ro+e$ 'it! costs. Sec 17. 8" g(ent to incl" e reco+ery against s"reties. T!e a(o"nt$ if any$ to %e a'ar e to any #arty "#on any %on file in accor ance 'it! t!e #ro+isions of t!is r"le$ s!all %e clai(e $ ascertaine $ an grante "n er t!e sa(e #roce "re as #rescri%e in section &7 of R"le .-. 1. Ste#s in t!e iss"ance an i(#le(entation of a 'rit of re#le+in A #arty #raying for t!e reco+ery of #ossession of a #ersonal #ro#erty files 'it! t!e co"rt at t!e co((ence(ent of t!e action or

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


71 of 76

%efore ans'er in a##lication for a 'rit of re#le+in. 3R"les of Co"rt$ R"le 67$ Sec. 14 To acco(#any t!e a##lication is t!e affi a+it '!ic! s!o"l state t!at: 314 t!at t!e a##licant is t!e o'ner of t!e #ro#erty clai(e $ #artic"larly escri%ing it$ or is entitle to t!e #ossession t!ereof0 3&4 t!at t!e #ro#erty is 'rongf"lly etaine %y t!e a +erse #arty$ alleging t!e ca"se of etention t!ereof accor ing to t!e %est of !is 2no'le ge$ infor(ation$ an %elief0 3/4 t!at t!e #ro#erty !as not %een istraine or ta2en for a ta* assess(ent or a fine #"rs"ant to la'$ or sei5e "n er a 'rit of e*ec"tion or #reli(inary attac!(ent $ or ot!er'ise #lace "n er custodia legis$ or if so sei5e $ t!at it is e*e(#t fro( s"c! sei5"re or c"sto y0 an 344 t!e act"al (ar2et +al"e of t!e #ro#erty &. Notes 314 T!e a##licant of a 'rit of re#le+in nee not %e t!e o'ner for it is eno"g! if !e !as a rig!t to #ossess it. 3 Dang ". >alde8, 6. R. No. &AA$&, August A$, $%;%' R"le 67 of t!e Re+ise R"les of Co"rt re)"ires t!at an a##licant for re#le+in ("st s!o' t!at !e Fis t!e o'ner of t!e #ro#erty clai(e $ #artic"larly escri%ing it$ or is entitle to t!e #ossession t!ereof.G :!ere t!e rig!t of t!e #laintiff to t!e #ossession of t!e s#ecifie #ro#erty is so conce e or e+i ent$ t!e action nee only %e (aintaine against !i( '!o so #ossesses t!e #ro#erty. 5n rem action est per :uam rem nostrum :uae a* alio possidetur petimus, et simper ad"ersus eum est :ui rem possidet. 3er"icewide 3pecialists, 5nc. "s. #A, $%%%' 3&4 Aasic is t!e r"le t!at #ro#erty alrea y #lace "n er legal c"sto y (ay not %e a #ro#er s"%,ect of re#le+in. T!is #rinci#le a##lies es#ecially '!en a co"rt of coor inate or$ as in t!is case$ of s"#erior ,"ris iction !as alrea y esta%lis!e its a"t!ority o+er t!e #ro#erty. A contrary r"ling 'o"l %e tanta(o"nt to s"%+erting a octrine stea fastly a !ere to$ t!e (ain #"r#oses of '!ic! are to ass"re sta%ility an consistency in ," icial act"ations an to a+oi conf"sion t!at (ay ot!er'ise ens"e if co"rts are #er(itte to interfere 'it! one anot!erDs la'f"l or ers. "da. de Danao "s. 6inete, @==A' Re#le+in cannot %e a+aile of if t!e #ro#erty is in custodia legis as '!ere it is "n er attac!(ent or 'as sei5e "n er a searc! 'arrant 3!agkalinawan ". 6ome8, Nos. <-@@5;5, Decem*er $6, $%6&4 R"les of Co"rt$ R"le 67$ Sec. & 3c44 e*ce#t: a. '!en t!e sei5"re is illegal0 -agali)og ". .ernande8, 6. R. No. %6A56, 0une @&, $%%$' an %. '!ere t!ere is reason to %elie+e t!at t!e sei5"re 'ill not any(ore %e follo'e %y t!e filing of t!e cri(inal action in co"rt or t!ere are conflicting clai(s. #)ua ". #ourt of Appeals, 6. R. No. &%=@$, 9ay $&, $%%A'

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


72 of 76

3/4 A re#le+in %on is si(#ly inten e to in e(nify t!e efen ant against any loss t!at !e (ay s"ffer %y %eing co(#elle to s"rren er t!e #ossession of t!e is#"te #ro#erty #en ing t!e trial of t!e action. Ce cannot reco+er on t!e %on as for a recon+ersion '!en !e !as faile to !a+e t!e ," g(ent entere for t!e ret"rn of t!e #ro#erty. Nor is t!e s"rety lia%le for #ay(ent of t!e ," g(ent for a(ages ren ere against t!e #laintiff on a co"nterclai( or #"niti+e a(ages for fra" "lent or 'rongf"l acts co((itte %y t!e #laintiffs an "nconnecte 'it! t!e efen ant=s e#ri+ation of #ossession %y t!e #laintiff. E+en '!ere t!e ," g(ent 'as t!at t!e efen ant 'as entitle to t!e #ro#erty$ %"t no or er 'as (a e re)"iring t!e #laintiff to ret"rn it or assessing a(ages in efa"lt of a ret"rn$ it 'as eclare t!at "ntil ," g(ent 'as entere t!at t!e #ro#erty s!o"l %e restore $ t!ere co"l %e no lia%ility on t!e #art of t!e s"reties 33apugay "s. #A, $%%=4. 344 T!e ," g(ent in a re#le+in s"it is re)"ire %y Sec. ? of t!is R"le to %e in t!e alternati+e$ i.e.$ for t!e eli+ery of t!e #ro#erty to t!e #arty entitle to it if$ for instance$ t!e sa(e !a not t!eretofore %een eli+ere to !i( since t!e a +erse #arty !a file a re eli+ery %on $ or for t!e +al"e of t!e #ro#erty in case t!e sa(e cannot %e eli+ere #l"s a(ages. T!e or er to eli+er t!e #ro#erty i(#lies t!at t!e sa(e is in t!e con ition #ro+i e for in t!e o%ligation. Cence$ if it is not in s"c! con ition$ t!e #re+ailing #arty !as t!e rig!t to ref"se eli+ery an $ instea $ to as2 for t!e enforce(ent of t!e alternati+e relief for t!e #ay(ent of its +al"e 3Ago, et al. "s. #A, $%664. 3.4 A 'rit of re#le+in (ay %e ser+e any'!ere in t!e 6!ili##ines. T!e ,"ris iction of a co"rt to !ear an eci e a case s!o"l not %e conf"se 'it! its #o'er to iss"e 'rits an #rocesses #"rs"ant to an in t!e e*ercise of sai ,"ris iction. A##lying sai r"le$ 9alaloan, et al. "s. #A, et al. $%%4', reiterate t!e istinction %et'een t!e ,"ris iction of t!e trial co"rt an t!e a (inistrati+e area in '!ic! it co"l enforce its or ers an #rocesses #"rs"ant to t!e ,"ris iction conferre "#on it 3.ernande8, et al. "s. 5nternational #orporate -ank, $%%%4. .. Ret"rn of #ro#erty "n er 'rit of re#le+in T!e efen ant is entitle to t!e ret"rn of t!e #ro#erty ta2en "n er a 'rit of re#le+in if t!e follo'ing re)"isites are (et: 314 SJ!e #osts a re eli+ery %on an 3&4 SJ!e f"rnis!es t!e #laintiff of a co#y of t!e "n erta2ing 'it!in fi+e 3.4 ays fro( ta2ing an 3/4 T!e %on is s"fficient an in #ro#er for(. 3R"les of Co"rt$ R"le 67$ Secs. . an 64 <. S"##ort 6en ente Lite 3R"le 614 Sec 1. A##lication. At t!e co((ence(ent of t!e #ro#er action or #rocee ing$ or at any ti(e #rior to t!e ," g(ent or final or er$ a +erifie a##lication for s"##ort #en ente lite (ay %e file %y any #arty stating t!e gro"n s for t!e clai( an t!e financial con itions of %ot! #arties$ an acco(#anie %y affi a+its$ e#ositions or ot!er a"t!entic oc"(ents in s"##ort t!ereof.

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


73 of 76

Sec &. Co((ent. A co#y of t!e a##lication an all s"##orting oc"(ents s!all %e ser+e "#on t!e a +erse #arty$ '!o s!all !a+e fi+e 3.4 ays to co((ent t!ereon "nless a ifferent #erio is fi*e %y t!e co"rt "#on !is (otion. T!e co((ent s!all %e +erifie an s!all %e acco(#anie %y affi a+its$ e#ositions or ot!er a"t!entic oc"(ents in s"##ort t!ereof. Sec /. Cearing. After t!e co((ent is file $ or after t!e e*#iration of t!e #erio for its filing$ t!e a##lication s!all %e set for !earing not (ore t!an t!ree 3/4 ays t!ereafter. T!e facts in iss"e s!all %e #ro+e in t!e sa(e (anner as is #ro+i e for e+i ence on (otions. Sec 4. Or er. T!e co"rt s!all eter(ine #ro+isionally t!e #ertinent facts$ an s!all ren er s"c! or ers as ,"stice an e)"ity (ay re)"ire$ !a+ing "e regar to t!e #ro%a%le o"tco(e of t!e case an s"c! ot!er circ"(stances as (ay ai in t!e #ro#er resol"tion of t!e )"estion in+ol+e . If t!e a##lication is grante $ t!e co"rt s!all fi* t!e a(o"nt of (oney to %e #ro+isionally #ai or s"c! ot!er for(s of s"##ort as s!o"l %e #ro+i e $ ta2ing into acco"nt t!e necessities of t!e a##licant an t!e reso"rces or (eans of t!e a +erse #arty$ an t!e ter(s of #ay(ent or (o e for #ro+i ing t!e s"##ort. If t!e a##lication is enie $ t!e #rinci#al case s!all %e trie an eci e as early as #ossi%le. Sec .. Enforce(ent of or er. If t!e a +erse #arty fails to co(#ly 'it! an or er granting s"##ort #en ente lite$ t!e co"rt s!all$ (ot" #ro#rio or "#on (otion$ iss"e an or er of e*ec"tion against !i($ 'it!o"t #re," ice to !is lia%ility for conte(#t. :!en t!e #erson or ere to gi+e s"##ort #en ente lite ref"ses or fails to o so$ any t!ir #erson '!o f"rnis!e t!at s"##ort to t!e a##licant (ay$ after "e notice an !earing in t!e sa(e case$ o%tain a 'rit of e*ec"tion to enforce !is rig!t of rei(%"rse(ent against t!e #erson or ere to #ro+i e s"c! s"##ort. Sec 6. S"##ort in cri(inal cases. In cri(inal actions '!ere t!e ci+il lia%ility incl" es s"##ort for t!e offs#ring as a conse)"ence of t!e cri(e an t!e ci+il as#ect t!ereof !as not %een 'ai+e $ reser+e or instit"te #rior to its filing$ t!e acc"se (ay %e or ere to #ro+i e s"##ort #en ente lite to t!e c!il %orn to t!e offen e #arty allege %eca"se of t!e cri(e. T!e a##lication t!erefor (ay %e file s"ccessi+ely %y t!e offen e #arty$ !er #arents$ gran #arents or g"ar ian an t!e State in t!e corres#on ing cri(inal case "ring its #en ency$ in accor ance 'it! t!e #roce "re esta%lis!e "n er t!is R"le. Sec -. Restit"tion. :!en t!e ," g(ent or final or er of t!e co"rt fin s t!at t!e #erson '!o !as %een #ro+i ing s"##ort #en ente lite is not lia%le t!erefor$ it s!all or er t!e reci#ient t!ereof to ret"rn to t!e for(er t!e a(o"nts alrea y #ai 'it! legal interest fro( t!e ates of act"al #ay(ent$ 'it!o"t #re," ice to t!e rig!t of t!e reci#ient to o%tain rei(%"rse(ent in a se#arate action fro( t!e #erson legally o%lige to gi+e t!e s"##ort. S!o"l t!e reci#ient fail to rei(%"rse sai a(o"nts$ t!e #erson '!o #ro+i e t!e sa(e (ay li2e'ise see2 rei(%"rse(ent t!ereof in a se#arate action fro( t!e #erson legally o%lige to gi+e s"c! s"##ort. Notes an Cases

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


74 of 76

1.

S"##ort pendente lite can %e grante %y t!e co"rt in t'o 3&4 instances: 314 ci+il action for s"##ort0 an 3&4 cri(inal action '!ere ci+il lia%ility incl" es s"##ort for t!e offs#ring as a conse)"ence of t!e cri(e.

&. :!ere t!e rig!t to s"##ort is #"t in iss"e %y t!e #lea ings or t!e fact fro( '!ic! t!e rig!t to s"##ort arises is in contro+ersy or !as not %een esta%lis!e $ t!e co"rt cannot grant s"##ort pendente lite .rancisco ". Eandueta, 6$ !)il. &5@ M$%@%N.' /. T!e a(o"nt of s"##ort pendente lite is not final in c!aracter in t!e sense t!at it can %e t!e s"%,ect of (o ification e#en ing on t!e c!anging con itions affecting t!e a%ility of t!e o%ligor to #ay t!e a(o"nt fi*e for s"##ort. 33an 0uan ". >alen8uela, No. <-5%%=6, 7cto*er @A, $%;@' 4. If an a##lication for s"##ort pendente lite is certiorari. enie $ t!e re(e y is

.. Bere affi a+its or ot!er oc"(ents a##earing in t!e recor are s"fficient %asis for t!e co"rt to eter(ine a(o"nt of s"##ort pendente lite. Reyes ". 5nes-<uciano, $%&%' 6. S"##ort pendente lite are allo'e in cri(inal actions '!ere t!e ci+il lia%ility incl" es s"##ort for t!e offs#ring as a conse)"ence of t!e cri(e an t!e ci+il as#ect t!ereof !as not %een 'ai+e $ reser+e or instit"te #rior to its filing. 3R"les of Co"rt$ R"le 6$ Sec. 6.4 -. 6etitioner=s assertion t!at s"##ort #en ente lite s!o"l not !a+e %een or ere %y t!e CA$ @t!ere !a+ing %een neit!er a recognition of #aternity %y t!e #etitioner nor its esta%lis!(ent %y final ," g(ent@ is 'it!o"t (erit. *** in t!e case at %ar *** e+i ence relati+e to filiation 'as intro "ce an fo"n to %e s"fficient$ alt!o"g! t!e trial co"rt=s ecision is still #en ing a##eal. T!e ROC clearly a"t!ori5es t!e granting of s"##ort #en ente lite$ e+en #rior to t!e ren ition of ," g(ent %y t!e TC. It goes 'it!o"t saying t!at if$ %efore t!e ren ition of ," g(ent$ t!e TC (ay @#ro+isionally@ grant ali(ony #en ente lite$ 'it! (ore reason (ay an a##ellate co"rt e*ercise a si(ilar a"t!ority$ after a f"ll ress trial an a ecision of t!e trial co"rt on t!e (erits fin ing t!at t!e clai( of filiation an s"##ort !as %een a e)"ately #ro+en in t!e case at %ar$ %eyon o"%t e+en if s"c! ecision 'ere still #en ing a##eal ta2en %y t!e #arty a ," ge to %e %o"n to gi+e s"c! s"##ort. T!e ref"sal of t!e trial co"rt to grant sai ali(ony #en ente lite i not an cannot e#ri+e t!e a##ellate co"rt of sai a"t!ority$ or e+en ent t!e 'is o( of t!e action ta2en %y t!e latter$ consi ering t!at t!e for(er i not gi+e any #la"si%le reason for its afore(entione ref"sal an t!at t!e sa(e (ay !a+e$ in fact$ %een "e to t!e a##eal ta2en %y t!e efen ant$ '!ose recor on a##eal !a alrea y %een a##ro+e . *** t!e circ"(stances o%taining in t!e #resent case s"ggest t!at t!is is an instance '!ere$ in +ie' of t!e #o+erty of !erein #ri+ate res#on ents$ @it 'o"l %e a tra+esty of ,"stice@ to ref"se t!e( s"##ort "ntil t!e ecision of t!e trial ," ge is s"staine on a##eal.@ Ramos ". #.A., $%&@' >. 8" g(ent for s"##ort oes not %eco(e final. T!e rig!t to s"##ort is of s"c! nat"re t!at its allo'ance is essentially #ro+isional0 for "ring t!e entire #erio t!at a nee y #arty is entitle to s"##ort$ !is or !er ali(ony (ay %e

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


75 of 76

(o ifie or altere $ in accor ance 'it! !is increase or ecrease nee s$ an 'it! t!e (eans of t!e gi+er. It cannot %e regar e as s"%,ect to final eter(ination. <am ". #)ua, @==4' ?. T!e rig!t to recei+e s"##ort can neit!er %e reno"nce nor trans(itte to a t!ir #erson 3Art. /71 CC4. *** <"rt!er(ore$ f"t"re s"##ort cannot %e t!e s"%,ect of a co(#ro(ise 3Art. &7/. CC4. *** T!e rig!t to s"##ort %eing fo"n e "#on t!e nee of t!e reci#ient to (aintain !is e*istence$ !e is not entitle to reno"nce or transfer t!e rig!t for t!is 'o"l (ean sanctioning t!e +ol"ntary gi+ing "# of life itself. T!e rig!t to life cannot %e reno"nce 0 !ence$ s"##ort$ '!ic! is t!e (eans to attain t!e for(er$ cannot %e reno"nce . De Asis ". #A, $%%%'

UP LAW BAROPS 2007 ONE UP LAW


76 of 76