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JOURNAL OF ETHNOBIOLOGY AND ETHNOMEDICINE
Medicinal plants used in Northern Peru for reproductive problems and female health
Rainer W Bussmann*, Ashley Glenn
Abstract Infections of the reproductive tract, complications after childbirth, and reproductive problems continue to be a major health challenge worldwide. An impressive number of plant species is traditionally used to remedy such afflictions, and some have been investigated for their efficacy with positive results. A total of 105 plant species belonging to 91 genera and 62 families were documented and identified as herbal remedies for reproductive problems in Northern Peru. Most species used were Asteraceae (9.52%), followed by Lamiaceae and Fabaceae (8.57% and 6.67%). The most important families are clearly represented very similarly to their overall importance in the local pharmacopoeia. The majority of herbal preparations for reproductive afflictions were prepared from the leaves of plants (22.72%), the whole plant (21.97%), and stems (21.21%), while other plant parts were used less frequently. More than 60% of the cases fresh plant material was used to prepare remedies. Over 70% of the remedies were applied orally, while the remaining ones were applied topically. Many remedies were prepared as mixtures of multiple ingredients. Little scientific evidence exists to prove the efficacy of the species employed as reproductive disorder remedies in Northern Peru. Only 34% of the plants found or their congeners have been studied at all for their medicinal properties. The information gained on frequently used traditional remedies might give some leads for future targets for further analysis in order to develop new drugs. Background According to 1999 WHO estimates reproductive problems, including, 340 million new cases of curable Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STIs; syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis) occur annually throughout the world in adults aged 15-49 years. In developing countries, STIs and their complications rank in the top five disease categories for which adults seek health care. Infection with STIs can lead to acute symptoms, chronic infection and serious delayed consequences such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, cervical cancer and the untimely death of infants and adults . Traditional Medicine (TM) is used globally and is rapidly growing in economic importance. In developing countries, TM is often the only accessible and affordable treatment available. The WHO reports that TM is the primary health care system for 80% of the population in developing countries. In Latin America, the WHO Regional Office for the Americas (AMRO/PAHO) reports that
* Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org William L. Brown Center, Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, MO 63166-0299, USA
71% of the population in Chile and 40% of the population in Colombia have used TM. The WHO indicates that in many Asian countries TM is widely used, even though Western medicine is often readily available, and in Japan, 60-70% of allopathic doctors prescribe TMs for their patients . Complementary Alternative Medicine (CAM) is gaining popularity in many developed countries. Forty-two percent of the population in the US have used CAM at least once , and the use of at least one of 16 alternative therapies increased from 34% in 1990 to 42% in 1997 . The number of visits to providers of CAM now exceeds by far the number of visits to all primary care physicians in the US [5,6]. The expenses for the use of TM and CAM are exponentially growing in many parts of the world. The 1997 out-of-pocket CAM expenditure was estimated at US$ 2,7 billion in the USA, and the world market for herbal medicines based on traditional knowledge is now estimated at US$ 60 billion . Northern Peru is believed to be the center of the Central Andean Health Axis , and traditional medicinal practices in this region remain an important component
© 2010 Bussmann and Glenn; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
conducted in Spanish by fluent speakers.com/content/6/1/30 Page 2 of 12 of everyday life [9-13]. The questionnaires did not include any reference as to disease concepts. The present study attempts to give an overview on medicinal plant species employed in Northern Peru in traditional remedies for reproductive problems and female health. collectors and market vendors and explain the premise for the study. as a larger scale project following initial collections in southern Ecuador (Figure 1). and spoke only Spanish as their native language. Many remedies were prepared as mixtures of multiple ingredients by boiling plant material either in water or in sugarcane spirit. A complete overview of all plants encountered is given in Table 3. are any other plants added to the mixture. most notably with regard to the conservation of genetic resources in the framework of a study treating medicinal plants.” “JULS. and species follows the Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru  and the Catalogue of Vascular Plants of Ecuador . This indicates that the local healers count on a very well developed knowledge about the properties of different plant parts. The results showed that the cost of using Traditional Medicine was less than the cost of Western therapy. All informants were of Mestizo origin.” “TRUBH. and future risk reduction – Traditional Medicine ‘s efficacy was higher than that of conventional treatments. Universidad Nacional de Trujillo). In almost 62% of the cases fresh plant material was used to prepare remedies. According to . and all interviews were conducted in Spanish. 6:30 http://www.67%).” “VFCHL. and 44 contributed only one species each to the pharmacopoeia (Table 1).97%). The informants were always provided with fresh (non-dried) plant material. TM is also gaining acceptance by national governments and health providers. The nomenclature was compared to the TROPICOS database. the sustainable cultivation and harvesting of medicinal species is one of the most important challenges for the next few years. and a 53-63% higher cost efficiency of Traditional Medicine over that of conventional treatments for the selected conditions . and Herbario Antenor Orrego (HAO. or the previous study in Southern Ecuador was exported in any form whatsoever. and included all vendors present. while the remaining ones were applied topically. by them. The most important families are clearly represented very similarly to their overall importance in the local pharmacopoeia (Table 1) . and stems (21.” “ISA. In addition. as well as [18-20]. how is it prepared. Universidad Privada Antenor Orrego Trujillo).” All questions were asked in the same order. Surveyors would approach healers. The majority of herbal preparations for reproductive issues were prepared from the leaves of plants (22. Materials and Methods Plant Collections Plants for the present study were collected in the field. Surveys were Results A total of 105 plant species belonging to 91 genera and 62 families were documented and identified as herbal remedies for reproductive problems in Northern Peru. In contrast. Vouchers of all specimens were deposited at the Herbario Truxillensis (HUT. No plant material collected either in this study in Northern Peru. The study covered the four existing medicinal plant markets of the region. and the available volumes of the Flora of Ecuador . using structured questionnaires.ethnobiomed.” “GER. while other plant parts were used much less frequently (Table 2). including the goal of conservation of medicinal plants in the area. the identification of the plant material was conducted entirely in Peru. or available at their market stands. Other families were less important. followed by Lamiaceae and Fabaceae (8. Peru’s National Program in Complementary Medicine and the Pan American Health Organization recently compared Complementary Medicine to allopathic medicine in clinics and hospitals operating within the Peruvian Social Security System.57% and 6. which differs little from the average herbal preparation mode in Northern Peru. which part. Over 70% of the remedies were applied orally.Bussmann and Glenn Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2010. plant parts or preparations. Most species used were Asteraceae (9. The same 116 informants (healers and market vendors) in the Trujillo and Chiclayo area were repeatedly interviewed during this time. the participants were asked simple questions along the lines “What is this plant used for. which quantity. higher perception of efficacy by both the patients and the clinics. The specimens are registered under the collection series “RBU/PL.21%). and compare this use to the western scientific evidence regarding their efficacy. and at the homes of traditional healers (curanderos) in Northern Peru in 10 2-3 months long field visits between 2001 and 2009. Species identification and nomenclature The nomenclature of plant families. Species were identified using the available volumes of the Flora of Peru .” depending on the year of fieldwork and collection location.” “EHCHL.52%). genera. for each of the criteria evaluated – clinical efficacy. All interviews were conducted with the same set of participants. .72%). in markets. including fewer side effects. the whole plant (21. either collected with them.” and “TRUVANERICA. user satisfaction. In order to recognize Peru’s rights under the Convention on Biological Diversity.
showed promise in the treatment of male infertility.: [45-48].50].49. Taraxacum: [29.23]. Only 34% of the plants found or their congeners have been studied at all for their medicinal properties. while Mimosa sp. Cupressus sp. [23.g.30].com/content/6/1/30 Page 3 of 12 Figure 1 Location of the study area in Northern Peru. Aloe spp.37-39]). Matricaria: [26-28]. Rosmarinus . A wide range of Lamiaceae have been shown to exhibit contraceptive efficacy.: [41-44]. and the same species are used in Peru for similar purposes (Mentha spp.g. A variety of other Asteraceae has been shown to be used against menopausal symptoms (Clibadium: . Ocimum spp. while [31-35] reported on anti-fertility effects of Dioscorea sp. 6:30 http://www..  reported that Artemisia spp. are well known abortifacients (e.ethnobiomed. while pumpkin seed oil showed testosterone-inhibitory effects (e. Discussion Little scientific evidence exists to prove the efficacy of the species employed as reproductive disorder remedies in Northern Peru. had effects on female health amongst the Cumash. Origanum majorana: [44. are known to have oestrogenic activity [22.40]. on the contrary are used to reduce spermal fertility [23. Chamaesyce sp.  found hormonal effects in Cordia sp. ).Bussmann and Glenn Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2010.
33 2.95 1 0.75 Asteraceae Lamiaceae Fabaceae Solanaceae Poaceae Cucurbitaceae Plantaginaceae Amaranthaceae Anacardiaceae Boraginaceae Brassicaceae Euphorbiaceae Olacaceae Rutaceae Dioscoreaceae Geraniaceae Linaceae Passifloraceae Adiantaceae Alstroemeriaceae Amaryllidaceae Apiaceae Apocynaceae Asclepiadaceae Asphodelaceae Balanophoraceae Bignoniaceae Cactaceae Convolvulaceae Cupressaceae Cyperaceae Dipsacaceae Ericaceae Erythroxylaceae Gentianaceae Illiciaceae Isoetaceae Krameriaceae Lauraceae Loganiaceae Loranthaceae Lythraceae Malvaceae Menispermaceae Moraceae Myristicaceae 9 7 6 2 3 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 9.95 1 0.87 6.95 1 0.92 2 1.92 2 1.52-55].92 1 0.95 1. Conclusions Infections of the reproductive tract.82 4. An impressive number of plant species is traditionally used to remedy such Table 2 Plant part used Plant part Leaves Whole plant Stems Flowers Root Seeds Bark Fruit Latex Wood % 22.92 2 1. and reproductive problems continue to be a major health challenge worldwide.95 1 0. while Portulaca oleracea showed efficacy in relieving uterine bleeding [65.27 1. and Myristica fragrans as well as Syzygium aromaticum [61.95 1 0.95 1 0.95 1 0.95 1 0.95 1 0.95 1 0.92 2 1.66].95 1 0.95 1 0.92 2 1.67 4 3.95 1 0.95 1 0.95 1 0.84 3 2.95 1 0.95 1 0.95 1 0.84 2 1.14 officinalis: ).33 1.95 1 0.95 1 0.72 21.95 1 0.52 9 8.92 2 1.84 3 2.92 2 1.95 1 0.  fulfil the same purpose.95 1 0.92 2 1.95 1 0.95 1 0.57 7 6.95 1 0.95 1 0.95 1 0.95 1 0. and Ruta graveolens [23.95 1 0.92 2 1.85 8.95 1 0. Similar efficacy has been shown for Sanguisorba officinalis .ethnobiomed.76 Species 30 29 28 13 11 9 6 3 2 1 .81 3 2.21 9.82 4.95 1 0.95 1 0.62].95 1 0.09 2.92 2 1.95 1 0.com/content/6/1/30 Page 4 of 12 Table 1 Plants used for reproductive issues in Northern Peru and Comparison of reproductive treatments to the ten most important plant families of the medicinal flora of Northern Peru (after Bussmann & Sharon 2006) Family Genera Species % Medicinal flora of Northern Peru (most important families) 13.64 4. Various species of Passiflora have aphrodisiac activity [56-60].95 1 0. and extracts of Lantana camara [63.95 1 0.95 0 0.75 Table 1 Plants used for reproductive issues in Northern Peru and Comparison of reproductive treatments to the ten most important plant families of the medicinal flora of Northern Peru (after Bussmann & Sharon 2006) (Continued) Nyctaginaceae Orchidaceae Oxalidaceae Polygonaceae Polypodiaceae Portulacaceae Proteaceae Ranunculaceae Rosaceae Rubiaceae Thelypteridaceae Thymeleaceae Typhaceae Urticaceae Valerianaceae Verbenaceae Lycopodiaceae TOTAL 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 91 1 0. complications after childbirth.Bussmann and Glenn Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2010.64] and Pilea spp.95 2.00 105 100 1.95 1 0.95 1 0.97 21.95 1 0.95 1 0.52 0.95 1 0.55 2.33 6. 6:30 http://www.
GER43 Sabila. Ahimir. GER13 ISA80. Topical fresh or dried Whole plant. GER9. # Iresine diffusa H. ALSTROEMERIACEAE Bomarea angustifolia Benth. JULS187. Lancetilla Whole plant. TRUBH15. GER225 Oral Regulation of menstrual cycle Mailchin. Chacur. Huamanpinta Oral Prostate. fresh Whole plant. Aloe Vera Leaves and Stems. AMARYLLIDACEAE Eustephia coccinea Cav. ex Paja Blanca. RBU/PL306. Prostate inflammation. Inflammation of the ovaries. Hojas de Leaves. Manzanilla Amarga. EHCHL31. Manzanilla Blanca. EHCHL174. JULS276. AMARANTHACEAE Alternanthera porrigens (Jacquin) Kuntze Sanguinaria. Puma Para. preferably Leaves and Stems.B. EHCHL93. Zabila.Bussmann and Glenn Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2010. Leaves and Stems. TRUVan/ Erica19. GER22. Llatama Negra Malera. ISA62 symptoms in adolescents Infertility in women ISA27 Oral Oral Inflammation of uterus RBU/PL313. ASCLEPIADACEAE Sarcostemma clausum Marrajudio (Jacquin) Schultes ASPHODELACEAE Aloe vera (L. RBU/PL278. ISA76. dried Oral Menstrual colics. Vaginal ulcers. Ezcurra Clibadium cf.W. Maichil.) Schum. Vaginal cleansing 2.) Burm f. ISA120. GER71. Moradilla. sylvestre (Aubl. Pomanpara. JULS90. Cysts. Para Para Cachuljillo Inflammation of the ovaries. JULS225 EHCHL162.) Baill. Ajenjo. fresh Leaves. fresh Oral Promoting lactation in women after birth JULS121. fresh Whole plant. Camalonga. Regulating the menstrual cycle Chuquiraga spinosa sp. 6:30 http://www. ex H. RBU/PL324. GER110 ISA66. Hill APOCYNACEAE Thevetia peruviana (Pers. Tumapara. Marco. GER145 . Manzanilla Manzanillon. RBU/ PL370. dried EHCHL123. Chuquiragua. fresh or dried Oral Menstrual regulation VFCHL29. Altamisa. JULS196.B. Cabalonga Oral Menopause Leaves. RBU/ PL265. Manzanilla Whole plant. TRUBH9. fresh or dried Topical Matricaria frigidum (HBK) Kunth Matricaria recutita L. Menstrual colics JULS22. Sexual impotence Before marriage EHCHL168. Artamisa. JULS149 Indigenous name Plant part used Admin.com/content/6/1/30 Page 5 of 12 Table 3 Species encountered and used in Northern Peru for reproductive problems Family/Genus/ Species ADIANTACEAE Adiantum concinnum Wild. fresh Topcial Vaginal inflammation. Sangrinaria Willd. Oral 2. EHCHL83 ANACARDIACEAE Mauria heterophylla H.K. RBU/ PL301. GER117 Culantrillo del Pozo. ASTERACEAE Ambrosia peruviana Willd. Fibroids 2. GER146 Topical Artemisia absinthium L. JULS17. B. Llatama Roja Malera Ajenco Perejil Molle. ISA117. Manzanilla del Muerto. Menstruation JULS75. Topical fresh or dried Whole plant. Vaginal cleansing Vaginal infection Bark and Latex. Menstration. RBU/PL373 EHCHL80 Flor de Novia Flowers. Inflammation of uterus. Trinidad. TRUBH18. Moy 1. EHCHL165. ISA56. Topical Topical 1.K. dried Bark. Culantrillo Leaves and Stems. TRUBH7 JULS192. fresh Sabila. Shimir.K.ethnobiomed. fresh or dried Leaves. VFCHL10 JULS108. Stems. RBU/PL363. TRUBH17. fresh Topical Inflammation of the vagina 1. Whole plant. huamanpinta C. Vaginal cancer After birth to reduce inflamation and prevent spasms in the woman’s womb JULS274. fresh Seeds. Feregreco Schinus molle L. EHCHL1. Use Coll. APIACEAE Petroselinum crispum (Miller) A. Aloe. Tres Hojas. Agua de la Banda. EHCHL68 ISA24. fresh Oral Cleansing womb after childbirth EHCHL142.
Tiquilia paronychoides (Phil. fresh Topical Oral Camote Whole plant. Inflammation (internal female parts Menstrual delay. GER228 RBU/PL252. GER142.) Lamarck CUCURBITACEAE Cucumis dipsaceus Ehrenb. Oral (L. GER189 JULS171. fresh Topical Prostate inflammation. ISA104. Papa Pacta Tuber. Oral 2. fresh 1. 2. fresh Oral Topical Inflammation of the ovaries. Menstruation Ovaries Oral Fertility. fresh Flowers and joints of Stems. GER62.. Uterus. Oral 2.) Medic. fresh Oral Tuna Leaves. Cipres 1. Cipre. Inflammation of the ovaries ISA125.Bussmann and Glenn Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2010. Oral fresh or dried Whole plant. BORAGINACEAE Cordia lutea Lam. EHCHL40. Flor de Overo. Jaboncillo. RBU/PL257. 6:30 http://www. Hierba del Whole plant. ISA58. Cancer of the Uterus. Topical 1. Sexual potency. Chancho Schkuhria pinnata (Lam. Carapa de Poepp. VFCHL42. Hierba Susto Stems and Leaves. Mano de Raton Flowers.f. fresh Oral 1. Hierba de Leaves. JULS150. Inflammation of the JULS212. fresh or dried Whole plant. BRASSICACEAE Brassica rapa L. fresh Tuber. Vaginal cleansing. macho) BIGNONIACEAE Crescentia cujete L. JULS302 Hierba Chupaflor. VFCHL52 Paranephelius uniflorus Pacha Rosa. dried Suerte. JULS42. JULS221 JULS272 Cucurbita moschata Duch.) Miller CONVOLVULACEAE Ipomoea batatas (L. Zapallo Oral Preventing miscarriage GER32 CUPRESSACEAE Cupressus lusitanica Miller CYPERACEAE Oreobolos goeppingeri Sues DIOSCOREACEAE Dioscorea tambillensis Kunth Dioscorea trifida L. Hierba del Susto (Amarillo). EHCHL6 JULS263. Male impotence Topical Healing of belly button after birth JULS164 Overo. VFCHL27. Huanarpo (hembra & F. GER10 JULS154. Vaginal hemorrhage 2. Stopping baby from breastfeeding Preventing miscarriage JULS120 JULS174. TRUVan/Erica7. fresh Tuber/Root. GER35. GER119 JULS283. Allergies. Cucurbita maxina Duch. & Endl. Uterus disease and discharge. Pastor. Jaboncillo de Campo. GER20 JULS201 JULS7. Mocura. fresh Latex from Leaf. RBU/PL274. Vaginal discharge. fresh Oral or dried Root. EHCHL67. ISA72 EHCHL133. Hierba del Susto. Amargon Whole plant. Hair loss RBU/PL288. Patito de Campo Zapallo Fruits.K. GER140 Papa Semitona Papa Madre. EHCHL77.) Rich.B. Vaginal cleansing EHCHL19. Topical Inflammation of ovaries 1. Hierba del Carpintero Aphrodisiac EHCHL149. fresh Whole plant.ethnobiomed. fresh Topical Hair loss Promoting lactation in women after giving birth Hair loss (prevention). Cancer of the Uterus . Topical 2. Bolsa de Pastor fresh or dried CACTACEAE Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Nabo Higueron Canchalagua. JULS125 RBU/PL266. Paja de Lagartija. Malva. JULS214. Fungus. fresh or dried Flowers and joints of Stems. TRUVan/ Erica17. Topical 1.com/content/6/1/30 Page 6 of 12 Table 3 Species encountered and used in Northern Peru for reproductive problems (Continued) Monactis flaverioides H. EHCHL107. JULS213 2. fresh Oral or dried Flor de Arena. GER3 Ovaries Prostate Capsella bursa-pastoris Bolsita del Pastor. Oral 1.) Kuntze Taraxacum officinale Wiggers BALANOPHORACEAE Corynaea crassa Hook. ovaries. VFCHL12. Canchalagua (Chica) Diente de Leon. Cysts. Overal Flowers. JULS62.
S. Muña. ISA114. Raima Malva de Oro. ILLICIACEAE Illicium verum Hook. JULS234.) J. Talla. Pacae. ex Willd.ethnobiomed. GER143 JULS41. Ambarina Negra.Bussmann and Glenn Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2010.) H.) DC. fresh Leaves and Root. Malva Olorosa Geranio Whole plant. Topical 1. GER17 JULS168. Oral Menstrual regulation 2. Inflammation of uterus. Menstruation 2. dried Oral Inflammation of the ovaries. fresh Oral Fungus. Pringle. Pacai Huaba. Simpson LAMIACEAE Lepechinia meyenii (Walpers) Epling Salvia. Pacai Uña de Gato de la Costa Algarrobo Stems. Hierba de la Postema. of the womb EHCHL89. Lechera Whole plant. JULS50. EHCHL39. Coca Oral JULS144. Menstrual pain Induce child birth.) L’Herit. f. Chancas de fresh or dried Comida. Hair loss RBU/PL303.B. Inhaled JULS100. EHCHL27. Salvia Real Ratania. Anal pimples Sexual potency ISA55. Uterus. dried Topical Seeds. Purenrosa. ISA50 ERYTHROXYLACEAE Erythroxylon coca Lam. Vaginal discharge GER192 Tara. Guava. JULS44. 6:30 http://www. EHCHL111. After giving birth JULS282 Whole plant. Strength for woman during childbirth. Payama. fresh Topical Bark. GER41 Yuca Oral Vaginal infection. Cadillo. Inflammation of the womb. GER121 Ambarina. Cysts. de Perro. Pelargonium roseum Willd. & B. Expelling placenta from woman after giving birth Hair growth Hair growth Anus cyst. ISA91 . Topical fresh or dried Desmodium Pie de Perro. Manayupa Indigofera suffruticosa Miller Inga edulis C. GERANIACEAE Pelargonium odoratisimum (L. fresh Seeds. Mimosa nothacacia Barneby Prosopis pallida (H. Pacae. Flor de Ambarina Flowers.B. ISA43. Pata Whole plant. RBU/PL372. Menstrual regulation. Chanchalagua Seeds pods. Helping delivery of newborn VFCHL22. & P. GER201 EUPHORBIACEAE Chamaesyce hypericifolia (L. KRAMERIACEAE Krameria lappacea (Dombey) Berdet & B. fresh Oral Infection of the uterus. EHCHL109. ISOETACEAE Isoetes andina R. Inflammation of the uterus Expel residues of feces in stomach of newborn babies Male impotence Inflammation of the ovaries JULS84 Anis Estrella Oral JULS102 Piri Piri Stems. dried 1. dried Oral Gentianella Anga Macha bruneotricha (Gilg. Inflammation TRUVan/Erica14. JULS304. Leaves and Stems. Vaginal pimples. Oral fresh or dried 2. GER17 JULS265. Martius Inga feuillei DC. VFCHL21. Inflammation of uterus. RBU/PL268. Uterus pain. GER135.K. Inflammation of ovaries. VFCHL17. Pullunrosa. Guava.) Millspaugh Manhiot esculenta Crantz FABACEAE Caesalpinia spinosa (Molina) Kuntze Lecherita.K. JULS255. Inflammation of the womb Cleaning of the woman.com/content/6/1/30 Page 7 of 12 Table 3 Species encountered and used in Northern Peru for reproductive problems (Continued) DIPSACACEAE Scabiosa atropurpurea L. Inflammation of the vagina Inflammation of the ovaries. Oral fresh or dried Flowers and Leaves. RBU/PL256 GER198 JULS168. Topical molliculum (H. Rosada. fresh Topical Flowers. fresh Oral Promoting lactation in women after birth JULS67. Hierba del buen querer Flowers. TRUBH6. fresh 1. Pata-Perro. Oral Prostate. fresh Oral Oral ISA100 JULS53 Whole plant. fresh Tuber. 1. GER8 Flowers. Malva de Olor. ERICACEAE Bejaria aestuans L. fresh or dried Leaves. GENTIANACEAE Añil Huaba. GER199 JULS97. JULS304. JULS188 Hemorrhages. Inflammation of ovaries.
Oregano Leaves and Stems. Salvia discolor H. GER74 Leaves and Stems. Sterilization for women only Inflammation of the prostate Inflammation of the prostate JULS211. EHCHL29 MALVACEAE Malva sylvestris L. Satureja pulchella (H. TRUVan/Erica8. Mejorana Origanum vulgare L. dried Seeds. LOGANIACEAE Buddleja utilis Kraenzl. Haemorrhages (prevention and healing EHCHL64. JULS19. ISA49. GER114 Rosmarinus officinalis L. EHCHL3. NYCTAGINACEAE Mirabilis jalapa L.B. Panizara. GER136 Vaginal discharge (white or yellow) JULS296. EHCHL48. MORACEAE Brosmium rubescens Taubert MYRISTICACEAE Myristica fragrans L. fresh Leaves and Stems. EHCHL155. Menta Whole plant.) Sand. Inflammation of the womb. Buenas Tardes Root. After birth Menstration Menstrual cramps. Hierba Buena Silvestre. Romero. fresh or dried Leaves. Yatama Salvia Salvia officinalis L. fresh Oral or dried Whole plant. JULS43 Contraceptive. Llatama. fresh or dried Wood and Bark. GER147 VFCHL49. ISA53. GER15. Fright/Susto in children 2. Malva (Chica). Romero Castilla Topical RBU/PL329. GER197 Palo Sangre. Gansetilla. JULS33. Refreshing womb. JULS27. Hierba del Toro Suelda con Suelda Flor Blanca Linaza Palta Whole plant. Albaca Mistura. RBU/ PL317. JULS59. Reducing inflammation after birth 2. fresh or dried Leaves. Palo de la Sangre. Hasten delivery. Albaca Negra. Panisara K. To promote dialation of the uterus. Preventing infections related to birth. LORANTHACEAE Tristerix longibracteatus (Des. Fertility. GER191 Ocimum basilicum L. Preventing infections related to birth Control and regulate menstrual cycle Menstrual delay JULS241 GER148. Menstration. GER139 Linum usitatissimum L. EHCHL43. fresh Oral Prostate. JULS155.K. EHCHL62 Abuta (male and female) Oral Contraceptive JULS88. 6:30 http://www. Pre-prostate cancer JULS116. Topcial 2. Sexual potency RBU/PL385. fresh or dried Seeds. fresh Oral Discharges GER104. JULS72. VFCHL34. fresh Oral Oral EHCHL88. GER86. K. fresh Oral Aphrodisiac RBU/PL308. RBU/PL312 . TRUBH11. Albaca Morada.) Briquet LAURACEAE Persea americana Mill. GER134. dried Oral Oral EHCHL1599 JULS185.com/content/6/1/30 Page 8 of 12 Table 3 Species encountered and used in Northern Peru for reproductive problems (Continued) Mentha spicata L. fresh or dried Stems. dried Oral Menstruation. EHCHL35.B. VFCHL13. JULS292. GER165 JULS205. ISA151(93a). Albahaca (costa) Whole plant. Hierba Buena. Lower stomach cramps related to PMS Hair loss Origanum majorana L.ethnobiomed. 2. ISA105 ISA93. VFCHL2. RBU/PL259. Inflammation of uterus ISA60. Ovarian cysts. Sexual potency JULS209. LINACEAE Linum sativum L. Ablita Oral 1. dried Topical Vaginal cleansing MENISPERMACEAE Abuta grandiflora (Mart. fresh or dried Root and Stems. fresh Oral 1. GER185 Nuez Moscada. GER18 Seeds. JULS20 JULS54. RBU/PL311. RBU/PL284. RBU/PL267. fresh Oral 1. Albaca. RBU/PL333. EHCHL38. Preventing infections related to birth.B.) Barlow & Wiens LYTHRACEAE Cuphea strigulosa H. ISA78. ISA51. Lancetilla. Oral Oral 1. VFCHL3. fresh Oral or dried Seeds. Malva Blanca Leaves and Stems. EHCHL74. Linaza Flowers. Gacetilla. ISA25 Palmeras (Chica).Bussmann and Glenn Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2010. Sanguinaria. Ajonjoli Oral Fertility. JULS20.
EHCHL173 Llantén Pajilla Blanca Leaves. JULS73.B. RANUNCULACEAE Laccopetalum giganteum (Wedd. Cysts of the uterus. JULS284. RBU/PL332. Fresh sugar 1. TRUVan/Erica13 JULS207 Hojas de Tumbo Chulgan Tuber. fresh Sola Oral Contraceptive. dried Oral Cysts of the ovary. Huaminga Leaves and Stems.K. Bunbun. POLYGONACEAE Rumex crispus L. of uterus ISA28. fresh Leaves. JULS25. Topical fresh 2. GER208 GER182 JULS70. Caña Dulce Triticum sativum L. Vaginal discharge 1. Hierba Leaves. lanuginosa Grieseb. Quinuagiro Bark. Azucar. 6:30 http://www. fresh EHCHL71. Uterus. OXALIDACEAE Oxalis tuberosa Molina Oca Rosada PASSIFLORACEAE Passiflora quardrangularis L. Oral 2. ISA57. Passiflora sp. dried Oral Oral Oral Sexual potency Menstrual pain Promoting vaginal dilation during childbirth. GER170 RBU/PL314.) Persoon Grama Dulce Stems. ISA106. Flor de Guarmarya Leaves. Calaguala Stems. RBU/PL262. fresh Topical Vaginal cleansing Vaginal discharge VFCHL50. fresh or dried Oral Sexual potency Menstrual regulation RBU/PL287. Chuchuhuasi Limoncillo Bark. TRUBH35. Hojas de Mala Hierba Trigo 1. TRUBH38.com/content/6/1/30 Page 9 of 12 Table 3 Species encountered and used in Northern Peru for reproductive problems (Continued) OLACACEAE Heisteria acuminata (H. Oral fresh or dried Whole plant. GER151 VFCHL4. JULS31. Pacra.) Ulbrich ROSACEAE Sanguisorba minor Scop. Inflammation of the ovaries. Vaginal inflammation Prostate ISA61.B. JULS123. Plantago sericea R. Oral fresh or dried Stems. Inflammation of the prostate Vaginal infection.) Engler Ximenia americana L. EHCHL42. sericans (Pilger) Rahn POACEAE Cynodon dactylon (L. fresh or dried Oral Paja Blanca Ovarian pain. Topical Oral POLYPODIACEAE Polypodium crassifolium L. JULS52. fresh Leaves and Stems. & B. Inflamation (internal woman parts). fresh Topical Hair loss GER171 Lengua de Ciervo. JULS138. Aphrodisiac 2. dried Whole plant. fresh or dried Oral Inflammation of the ovaries.Br. Pimpinela.) R. VFCHL20. fresh Oral Menstrual regulation EHCHL117. PORTULACACEAE Portulaca villosa H. EHCHL75 Chuchuasi. PLANTAGINACEAE Plantago major L.) Rchb. Lengua de Vaca. subsp. 2. Flor de Overa Whole plant. dried Oral Fertility. Infection of the uterus 2. JULS203 EHCHL135 JULS279 Hierba de la Soledad. PROTEACEAE Oreocallis grandiflora (Lam. fresh Topical 1. f. Oral Seeds. Stems. GER162 Rumilanche. Sterilization of women ISA141. JULS127. JULS303 RUBIACEAE Cinchona officinalis L. Uterus prolapse 1. Plantago sericea R. fresh or dried Oral Fertilization (Heat Ovaries) VFCHL53. ISA19. & P. Fibroids. Acelga.Bussmann and Glenn Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2010. Inflammation EHCHL127.ethnobiomed. & P. Sexual potency .K. ISA147(103a). RBU/PL321. Cascarilla. EHCHL11. GER167 Huamanripa. GER164 JULS184 Whole plant. EHCHL96 Inflammation of the womb Saccharum officinarum Azucar de Caña. ORCHIDACEAE Aa paleacea (H. Caña de L. RBU/PL335. RBU/ PL331. ISA70 Verdolaga Root and Stems. var.
leaves and Stems. fresh 1. dried Topical JULS166. scalaris (Christ. URTICACEAE Pilea microphylla (L. & P. fresh or dried Tuber.B. JULS137. RBU/ PL365. Grant: G0000613). GER187 VFCHL51. Valeriana. AG conducted fieldwork. TRUVan/ Erica20. Lucuma Fruit.) Lieberman VALERIANACEAE Phyllactis rigida (R. Since the plant parts utilized in preparation of the remedies are reported in this survey. An often-limiting factor to these investigations is lack of comprehensive ethnobotanical data to help choose plant candidates for potency/ efficacy tests. ISA122. & P. Menstruation. Oral 2.) Kuntze. Valeriana Estrella.ethnobiomed. Hierba de la Estrella Chante Contra Hierba Los Cholitos.com/content/6/1/30 Page 10 of 12 Table 3 Species encountered and used in Northern Peru for reproductive problems (Continued) RUTACEAE Ruta graveolens L. and some have been investigated for their efficacy with positive results. Siete Sabios. EHCHL128. EHCHL44.K. Chuno de Papa THELYPTERIDACEAE Thelypteris cf. GER174. Warming women Control and regulate menstrual cycle Hierba Santa. However. fresh or dried Oral Cold of the ovaries. JULS46. EHCHL33 Stems. Both authors have read and approved the final manuscript. JULS57. ISA137. data analysis and manuscript composition.Bussmann and Glenn Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2010. more detailed scientific studies are desperately needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the remedies employed traditionally. fresh or dried Flowers. it serves as an indication of species that may need further ecological assessment on their regeneration status. The results of this study show that both indigenous and introduced species are used for the treatment of reproductive system problems. GER216 ISA45 RBU/PL282. fresh Promoting lactation on women after giving birth Preventing spasms after giving birth. Aphrodisiac. fresh or dried Flowers.) Alton THYMELEACEAE Daphnopsis weberbaueri Domke TYPHACEAE Typha angustifolia L. 6:30 http://www. Cysts Oral Menopause EHCHL163. ISA145(108a). Acknowledgements The presented study was financed through MIRT/MHIRT (Minority Health Disparity International Research and Training) a grant from the National Institutes of Health (Fund: 54112B MHIRT Program. dried Whole plant. Leaves and Stems. Santa María Oral Control and regulate menstrual cycle JULS246 Solanum tuberosum L. GER24 JULS186 Pouteria lucuma (R. & P. Ruda (Macho y Hembra). Oral fresh or dried Seeds. GER6 VERBENACEAE Lantana scabiosaefolia Mastrando. Fieldwork for this project was supported through the assistance of a large . Mastrante H. Agrasejo Leaves. JULS1. TRUBH30. Topical Oral 1. Abortion 2. JULS141 JULS291 Whole plant. RBU/PL355. Women after childbirth to avoid colds afflictions. ISA152. leaves and Stems. VFCHL16. fresh Stems. Authors’ contributions RB collected/identified plant material analysis of the data as well as writing the manuscript. fresh Oral Oral Prostate Prostate. Ruda. Hierba del Quinde Whole plant. Cholitos Helecho Macho Oral After childbirth complications Contraceptive JULS140. EHCHL172. SOLANACEAE Cestrum auriculatum L’Herit Cestrum strigilatum R. dried Oral Infertility in women EHCHL153.) Persoon Hornamo Estrella. Declaration of competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. EHCHL102 JULS245 Santa María Oral Cestrum undulatum R. & P. The information gained on frequently used traditional remedies might give some leads for future targets for further analysis in order to develop new drugs. RBU/PL281.
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