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in)

By

Dr. Rajiv Tiwari

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati 781039

Under AICTE Sponsored QIP Short Term Course on

Theory & Practice of Rotor Dynamics

(15-19 Dec 2008)

IIT Guwahati

A Brief History and

State of the Art of Rotor Dynamics

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Outline of the Presentation

Introduction and Definition

History

from Rakine (1869) to Jeffcott (1919)

from Stodola (1924) to Lund (1964)

from Dimentberg (1965) to till now

Development of Rotor Dynamics Analysis Tools

Softwares for Rotor Dynamics Analysis

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Dynamic Balancing of Rotors

Condition Monitoring of Rotating Machineries

Conclusions & Recent Trends

Outline of the Presentation

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

A brief history of rotor dynamics field has been documented

in the present review paper.

It reviews early development of simple rotor models,

analyses tools, and physical interpretations of various kind of

instabilities in rotor-bearing systems.

It also reviews developments of analysis methods for the

continuous and multi-degrees-of freedom systems that

allowed practicing engineers to apply these methods to real

turbo-machineries.

The paper also summaries work on dynamic balancing of

rotors, vibration based conditioning monitoring, and recent

trends in the area of rotor dynamics.

Introduction

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

A rotor is a body suspended through a set of cylindrical

hinges or bearings that allow it to rotate freely about an axis

fixed in space.

Engineering components concerned with the subject of rotor

dynamics are rotors in machines, especially of turbines,

generators, motors, compressors, blowers and the like.

The parts of the machine that do not rotate are referred to

with general definition of stator.

Rotors of machines have, while in operation, a great deal of

rotational energy, and a small amount of vibrational energy.

Introduction

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

It is very evident from the fact that a relatively small turbine

propels a huge aircraft.

The purpose of rotor dynamics as a subject is to keep the

vibrational energy as small as possible.

In operation rotors undergoes the bending, axial and

torsional vibrations.

Introduction

Rotor

Stator

Bearing

T

u

r

b

i

n

e

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

History of rotor dynamics

from Rakine (1869) to Jeffcott (1919)

Rotor dynamics has a remarkable history of developments,

largely due to the interplay between its theory and its practice.

Rotor dynamics has been driven more by its practice than by

its theory. This statement is particularly relevant to the early

history of rotor dynamics.

Research on rotor dynamics spans at least 14 decades of

history.

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Single Mass Rotor Models

A flexible rotor mounted on

rigid bearings

A rigid rotor mounted

on flexible bearings

An equivalent single degree of freedom

spring-mass system

eff

nf

k

M

=

0

( ) sin F t F t =

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Rankine (1869) performed the first analysis of a spinning

shaft. He chose a two-degrees-of-freedom model consisted of

a rigid mass whirling in a orbit, with an elastic spring acting in

the radial diection.

He predicted that beyond a certain spin speed ". . . the shaft

is considerably bent and whirls around in this bent form."

He defined this certain speed as the whirling speed of the

shaft. In fact, it can be shown that beyond this whirling speed

the radial deflection of Rankine's model increases without

limit.

Today, this speed would be called the threshold speed for

divergent instability. However, Rankine did add the term

whirling to the rotor dynamics vocabulary.

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Free body diagram of the model

F

r

Rankine rotor model (Two degree

of freedom spring-mass rotor

model)

G(x,y)

Circular motion Elliptical motion

Straight-line motion

Motion of the shaft center during whirling motion

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Rankines neglect of Coriolis acceleration led to erroneous

conclusions that confused engineers for one-half century.

Whirling refers to the movement of the center of mass of the

rotor in a plane perpendicular to the shaft.

A critical speed occurs when the excitation frequency (e.g.,

the spin speed of unbalnced shaft) coincides with a natural

frequency, and can lead to excessive vibration amplitudes.

eff

nf

k

M

= =

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

A Jeffcott (or Laval) rotor model in general whirling motion

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

The turbine built by Parsons in 1884 (Parsons, 1948)

operated at speeds of around 18,000 rpm, which was fifty

times faster than the existing reciprocating engine.

In 1883 Swedish engineer de Laval developed a single-stage

steam impulse turbine (named after him) for marine

applications and succeeded in its operation at 42,000 rpm.

He aimed at the self-centering of the disc above the critical

speed, a phenomenon which he intuitively recognized.

He first used a rigid rotor, but latter used a flexible rotor and

showed that it was possible to operate above critical speed by

operating at a rotational speed about seven times the critical

speed (Stodola, 1924).

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

It thus became recognized that a shaft has several critical

speeds and that under certain circumstances these were the

same as natural frequencies of a non-rotating shaft.

Dunkerley (1895) found, as a result of numerous

measurements, the relationship known today by that of

Southwell, by which the fundamental critical speed can be

calculated, even for complicated cases.

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

The first sentence of Dunkerleys paper reads, "It is well

known that every shaft, however nearly balanced, when driven

at a particular speed, bends, and, unless the amount of

deflection be limited, might even break, although at higher

speeds the shaft again runs true. This particular speed or

critical speed depends on the manner in which the shaft is

supported, its size and modulus of elasticity, and the sizes,

weights, and positions of any pulleys it carries.

This was the first use of the term critical speed for the

resonance rotational speed.

Even with the general knowledge of critical speeds, the shaft

behaviour at any general speed was still unclear but more was

learnt from the calculation of unbalance vibrations, as given by

Fppl (1895).

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Fppl used an undamped model to show that an unbalanced

disc would whirl synchronously with the heavy side flying out

when the rotation was subcritical and with the heavy side flying

in when the rotation was supercritical.

Also the behaviour of Laval rotors (1889) at high speed was

confirmed by his theory.

It is regrettable that what Dunkerley regarded as well known

was actually little known.

Also practitioners of that day were not aware of the 1895

analysis by the German civil engineer Fppl who showed that a

rotor model exhibited a stable solution above Rankine's whirling

speed.

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Shaft spin

direction

Shaft whirling

direction

Shaft

Shaft spin

direction

Shaft whirling

direction

Shaft

Synchronous whirl (Heavy side flying out)

Anti-synchronous whirl

(Heavy side flying in and out)

Shaft spin

direction

Shaft whirling

direction

Shaft

Synchronous whirl (Heavy side flying in)

Shaft spin

direction

Shaft whirling

direction

Shaft

Synchronous whirl (Heavy side flying in

direction of motion of the shaft)

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Synchronous whirl (Heavy side flying out)

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) Synchronous whirl (Heavy side flying in)

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Anti-synchronous (backward) whirl (Heavy side flying in and out)

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

The change in phase between the force and the response is also shown

in Figure below for three difference spin speeds i.e. below the critical

speed, at the critical speed and above the critical speed.

Phase angles between the

force and response vectors

below critical speed

Phase angles between the

force and response vectors

at critical speed

Phase angles between the

force and response vectors

above critical speed

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

We cannot blame them too much since Fppl published his

analysis in Der Civilingenieur, a journal that was probably not

well known by contemporary rotor dynamicists.

More telling was about the apparent indifference to the

practical work of the Swedish engineer, De Laval, who in 1889

ran a single stage steam turbine at a supercritical speed.

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

One can speculate that engineers of the day laboured under a

confusion of concepts - equating Rankine's whirling speed (for

present day it is the threshold speed for divergent instability) with

Dunkerley's critical speed.

This was particularly unfortunate since Rankine was far more

eminent than Dunkerley and, as a result, his dire predictions were

widely accepted and became responsible for discouraging the

development of high speed rotors for almost 50 years (1869-

1916).

It was in England in 1916 that things came to the end. Kerr

published experimental evidence that a second critical speed

existed, and it was obvious to all that a second critical speed

could only be attained by the safe traversal of the first critical

speed.

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

The Royal Society of London then commissioned Jeffcott to

resolve this conflict between Rankine's theory and the practice

of Kerr and de Laval.

The first recorded fundamental theory of rotor dynamics can be

found in a classic paper of Jeffcott in 1919, in a place where it

was more likely to be read by those interested in rotor dynamics.

Jeffcott confirmed Fppl's prediction that a stable supercritical

solution existed and he extended Foppl's analysis by including

external damping (i.e., damping to ground) and showed that the

phase of the heavy spot varies continuously as the rotation rate

passes through the critical speed.

There is no evidence that Jeffcott was aware of Fppl's prior

work; in fact, Jeffcott's paper does not contain a single

reference.

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Experimental and estimated amplitude and phase responses

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

We can appreciate Jeffcotts great contributions if we recall

that a flexible shaft of negligible mass with a rigid disc at the

midspan is called a Jeffcott rotor (some times it is called the

Laval-Fppl-Jeffcott rotor).

The bearings are rigidly supported, and viscous damping

acts to oppose absolute motion of the disc. This simplified

model is also called the Laval rotor, named after de Laval.

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Jeffcott Rotor

Free body diagram of the disc in x-y plane

A Jeffcott rotor model in y-z plane

A Jeffcott rotor in general motion

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Stodola (1924) to Lund (1964)

Developments made in rotor dynamics up to the beginning of

the twentieth century are detailed in the masterpiece book

written by Stodola (1924).

Among other things, this book includes the dynamics of

elastic shaft with discs, the dynamics of continuous rotors

without considering gyroscopic moment, the secondary

resonance phenomenon due to gravity effect, the balancing of

rotors, and methods of determining approximate values of

critical speeds of rotors with variable cross sections.

He presented a graphical procedure to calculate critical

speeds, which was widely used. He showed that these

supercritical solutions were stabilized by Coriolis accelerations

(which eventually gives gyroscopic effects).

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

The unwitting constraint of these accelerations was the defect

in Rankine's model. It is interesting to note that Rankine's model

is a sensible one for a rotor whose stiffness in one direction is

much greater than its stiffness in the quadrature direction.

Indeed, it is now well known that such a rotor will have regions

of divergent instability.

It is less well known that Prandtl (1918) was the first to study a

Jeffcott rotor with a non-circular cross-section (i.e., elastic

asymmetry in the rotor).

In Jeffcott's analytical model the disk did not wobble. As a

result, the angular velocity vector and the angular momentum

vector were colinear and no gyroscopic moments were

generated.

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

a disc near the bearing

(d) A cantilever shaft with a rigid disc

at the free end

disc at the mid-span

(c) A cantilever shaft with a point

disc at the free end

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Gyroscopic effects

A Jeffcott rotor with a disc offset

from the midspan in the y-z plane

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

This restriction was removed by Stodola (1924). Natanzon

(1948, 1952), Bogdanoff (1947), Green (1948) and Fppl

(1948) studied effect of gyroscopic moment on natural

frequencies and critical speeds.

The gyroscopic moment has the effect of making the

natural frequencies dependence on rotor speed, while the

same time doubling their number.

Along with other parameters, the ratio of diametral to polar

moment of inertia plays an important role.

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Campbell Diagram

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000

0

500

1000

1500

Spin Speed (rad/sec)

N

a

t

u

r

a

l

W

h

i

r

l

F

r

e

q

u

e

n

c

y

(

r

a

d

/

s

e

c

)

Synchronous Whirl

2F

2B

3B

4B

1B

1F

3F

4F

CambeII Diagram for rolor bearing syslem

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

About a decade latter (1933), the study of asymmetrical

shaft systems and asymmetrical rotor systems began.

The former are systems with a directional in the shaft

stiffness and the latter are those with a directional difference

in rotor inertia.

Two-pole generator rotors and propeller rotors are

examples of such systems. As these directional differences

rotate with the shaft, terms with time-varying coefficients

appear in the governing equations.

These systems therefore fall into the category of

parameterically excited systems, which leads to instability in

the rotor system.

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Two Pole Generator Rotor

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

n=1

n=1

n=1

Instability

zone

Plot of equation (27) for n = 1

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

B

B

A three-bladed propeller A two-bladed propeller

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

The most characteristic property of asymmetrical systems is

the appearance of unstable vibrations in some rotational

speed ranges.

In 1933, Smith obtained a poineer work in the form of simple

formulas that predicted the threshold spin speed for super-

critical instability varied with bearing stiffness and with the

ratio of external to internal viscous damping.

To quote from Smith's paper " . . . [the] increase of

dissymmetry of the bearing stiffness and in the intensity of

[external] damping relative to [internal] damping raises the

[threshold] speed . . . and [this threshold] speed is always

higher than either critical speed."

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

The formula for damping was obtained independently by

Crandall (1961) some 30 years later. Dick (1948) also studied

behaviour of shaft having sections with unequal principal

modulii.

n

H

v

c

c

+ < 1

The system is stable provided

0 > +

v H

c c

m k

n

/

2

=

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Thereafter, rotor dynamics expanded to consider various other

effects.

As the rotational speed increased above the first critical

speed, the huge amount of kinetic energy stored in the rigid-

body rotational mode of a high speed rotor is available to fuel

a wide variety of possible self-excited vibration mechanisms.

However, the rotor dynamicist's respite from worrying about

instability was brief.

In the early 1920s a supercritical instability in built-up rotors

was encountered and, shortly thereafter, first shown by

Newkirk (1924) and Kimball (1924) to be a manifestation of

rotor internal damping (i.e., damping between rotor

components).

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Then, Newkirk and Taylor (1925) described an instability

caused by the nonlinear action of the oil wedge in a journal

bearing, which was named as oil whip.

Robertson (1932, 1934, 1935a and 1935b ) also studied

certain problems of vibratory motion and stability of rotors.

Baker (1933) described self-excited vibrations due to

contact between rotor and stator.

Kapitsa (1939) ponited out that a flexible shaft could become

unstable due to friction conditions in its sliding (bush)

bearings.

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Resonant whip

When the shaft rotates at about twice the speed associated

with the system

Journal vibration frequency spectra showing the oil-whirl and oil-whip

Instability in Rotating Machines

2x

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

For stable condition with unbalance in the system the path of

the journal (journal orbit) for momentary disturbance will settle

down to a elliptical shape after sufficient iterations.

Journal path due to a perturbation

Instability in Rotating Machines

x

x

y

x

y

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Steady state shaft orbit

x

y

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Stable shaft motion even with disturbances

x

y

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Stable shaft motion even with disturbances

x

y

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Unstable shaft motion for even a small disturbance

x

y

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Natural whirl frequency map and stability of rotorbearing system

supported on speed independent bearings (LD: - stable, + unstable)

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Other instabilities have since been discovered. Prominent

among these are those due to cross-coupling stiffnesses in

bearings and seals and steam whirl (flow in shrouds & shaft

seals, and blades), which can also occur in gas turbines.

These phenomena, in which friction that ordinary damped

vibration causes self-excited vibration, attracted the attention

of many researchers.

In the middle of the twentieth century, Hori (1959)

succeeded in explaining various fundamental characteristics

of oil whip by investigating the stability of shaft motion and

considering pressure forces due to oil films.

The mechanism of vibrations due to the steam whirl in

turbines was explained by Thomas (1958) and that in

compressors was explained by Alford (1965).

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

The vibration of hollow rotor containing fluid is a relatively

new problem of flow-induced vibrations.

Instability due to liquids partially filling interior cavities of

rootors was demonstrated by Kollmann (1962) and in 1967

Ehrich reported that fluid trapped in engine-shafts induced

asynchronus vibration and also changed the shape of

resonance curves.

Kuipers (1964) and Wolf (1968) independently successed in

explaining the appearance of an unstable speed range in a

postcritical region of a rotor system containing inviscid fluid.

In 1980s the rotor dynamic effects of seals in fluid handling

machines received a great deal of attention. Rotor

destabilization due to seals was predicted and demonstrated

in an operational compressor by Jenny (1980).

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

As rotors became lighter and rotational speeds higher, the

occurance of nonlinear resonances such as subharmonics

(1/2X, 1/3X, etc.) became a serious problem.

Yamamoto (1955, 1957) studied various kinds of nonlinear

resonances after he reported on subharmonic resonance due

to ball bearings in 1955. He also investigated combination

resonances.

Tondl (1965) studied nonlinear resonances due to oil films in

journal bearings.

Ehrich (1966) reported subharmonic resonances observed in

an aircraft gas turbine due to strong nonlinearity produced by

the radial clearance of squeeze-film dampers. Ehrich (1988,

1992) reported the occurance of various types of subharmonic

resonances up to very high order and chaotic vibrations in

practical engines.

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

-2 -1 0

1 2

/2

-2 -1 0

1 2

Backward Forward

Spectrum of the combination resonance (complex FFT method)

f

b

A

A

Spectrum

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Non-stationary phenomena during passage through critical

speeds have been studied since Lewis (1932) reported his

investigation on the Jeffcott rotor.

Non-stationary phenomena that occur are one in a process

with a constant acceleration and another with variable

acceleration (limited driving toque). As the theoretical

analysis of such transition problems is far more difficult than

of stationary oscillations, many of the researchers adopted

numerical integrations.

Natanzon (1952) studied shaft vibrations at critical speeds.

Grobov (1953, 1955) investigated in general form the shaft

vibrations resulting from varying rotational speeds. The

development of asymptotic method (analytical) by

Mitropolskii (1965) considerably boosted the research on

this subject.

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Fig. 2.33(g) Overlap of transient and steady state responses

with frequency

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

There is an extremely comprehensive literature on the role of

fluid-film bearings in rotor dynamics.

Developments up to 1957 were largely due to Newkirk who

explained them in very detailed and graphic way.

Then, beginning in the early 1960s, most attention focused

on hydrodynamic bearings, this was largely stimulated by

Lund and Sternlicht (1962) and Lund (1964).

Gunters work (1966) related to rotor dynamic stability

problems, combined with Ruhl and Bookers (1972) and

Lunds (1974) methods for calculating damped critical speeds,

stimulated a great deal of interest in rotor-bearing stability

problems.

Lund (1987) gave an overview of the fluid film bearings.

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

In the mid 1970s, rotor dynamic instability experiences with

various high-pressure compressors and the high-pressure fuel

turbo-pump of the Space Shuttle main engine focused a great

deal of attention on the influence of fluid-structure-interaction

forces, particularly forces due to liquid and gas seals,

impellers and turbine.

Someya (1989) and Tiwari et al. (2004) complied extensive

numerical and experimental results and literatures of dynamic

parameters of fluid film bearings, respectively.

Shaft seals have similar effect as fluid-film bearings. They

influence the critical speeds, can provide damping or on the

other hand cause instability. Some of the first investigations

were carried out in 1965 by Lomakin. Since then shaft seals

have acquired a significant role in their effect on rotor

dynamics, as the extensive literature shows (Childs, 1993;

Tiwari et al., 2005).

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Instability from fluid-film bearings and shaft seals arises from

the fact that, during radial displacement of a rotor, a restoring

force is produced, which has a component at right angles to

this displacement (i.e., a phase of 90 degree).

Such a mechanism is possible for a rotor with blades, as a

result of variable leakage around the blade tips. The

phenomenon of instability was described in detail by Newkirk

(1924), whose interest was in turbomachineries.

At first it was thought that the cause was internal friction due

to shrink fits on the shaft and a theory was developed to

explain this also, together with experimental verification

(Newkirk, 1924; Kimball, 1924 and 1925).

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Summary of Various Rotor Dynamic Phenomena

Resonance (Th) Dunkerley

(1895)

unbalance Critical speed 4

Unbalance

response (Th)

Stodola

(1924)

gravity Secondary resonance 7

Damped unbalance

response (Th)

Jeffcott

(1919)

unbalance Stable supercritical

response

6

Resonance (Exp) Kerr (1916) unbalance Second critical speed 5

Unbalance

response (Th)

Fppl (1895) unbalance Synchronous

whirling

3

Unbalance

response (Exp)

De Laval

(1983)

unbalance Self centering of

rotor

2

General motion

(Th)

Rankine

(1869)

unbalance Whirling 1

Remarks Reported/

Interpreted

by

Caused by Phenomena S.N.

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Instability

analysis (Th)

Smith

(1933)

Dissymmetry

of bearing

stiffness

Threshold spin

speed for instability

11

Instability

analysis (Th)

Newkirk and

Taylor (1925)

Nonlinear

action of the

oil wedge in a

journal bearing

Oil whip 12

Instability

analysis (Th)

Newkirk (1924),

Kimball (1924),

Smith (1933),

Crandall (1961)

Internal

damping

Threshold spin

speed for instability

10

Free vibrations

(Th)

Stodola (1924) Rotor

wobbling

Gyroscopic effect 9

Instability

analysis (Th)

Prandtl (1918) Shaft

asymmetry

Instability 8

Remarks Reported/

Interpreted by

Caused by Phenomena/effects S.N.

Summary of Various Rotor Dynamic Phenomena

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Summary of Various Rotor Dynamic Phenomena

(Exp) Jenny (1980) Seals Instability 17

(Exp), (Th) Yamamoto (1955,

1957)

Nonlinearity (ball

bearing)

Subharmonics/

combination

resonance

18

(Exp),

(Exp),

(Th),

(Th)

Kollmann (1962),

Ehrich (1965),

Kuipers (1964),

Wolf (1968)

Hollow rotor

containing fluid

Flow induced

vibrations

16

(Th) Thomas (1958) Steam injection

on turbine blades

Steam whirl 15

(Th) Hori (1959) Hydrodynamic

bearing

Oil whip 14

(Th) Baker

(1933)

Contact between

rotor and stator

Self-excited

vibration

13

Remarks Reported/

Interpreted by

Caused by Phenomena/effects S.N.

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

(Th) Grobov (1953,

1955)

Varying spin

speeds

Shaft general

motion

23

FEM,

TMM , (Th)

Ruhl and Bookers

(1972), and

Lunds (1974)

Hydrodynamic

bearings

Damped critical

speeds

24

(Th) Natanzon (1952) Varying spin

speeds

Shaft vibrations at

critical speeds

22

(Th) Lewis (1932) Constant/variable

accelerations of

rotor speed

Nonstationary

response

21

(Exp) Ehrich (1966) Squeeze film

dampers

Subhamonic

resonances

20

(Th) Tondl (1965) Oil films in

journal bearings

Nonlinear

resonance

19

Remarks Reported/

Interpreted by

Caused by Phenomena/effects S.N.

Summary of Various Rotor Dynamic Phenomena

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Development of Rotor Dynamics Analysis Tools

In rotor dynamics a remarkable amount can be explained by

the dynamics of a single mass Jeffcott rotor model.

This model, introduced in 1895 by Fppl, was named after

Jeffcott, because in 1919 he explained the science of rotor

dynamics in a graphic and illuminating way.

Gradually, the Jeffcott rotor model, in its many variations,

came closer to the practical needs of the rotor dynamicists of

the day. But, not close enough.

Vibrations of rotors with continuously distributed mass were

studied. The simplest continuous rotor model corresponding

to the Euler beam was first studied in the book by Stodola

(1924).

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Skoda Power, Czech Republic

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

The critical speeds of shafts with distributed mass were also

examined by Grammel (1920, 1929).

In the 1950s and 1960s , Bishop (1959), Bishop and Gladwell

(1959), Bishop and Parkinson (1965), Dimentberg (1961) and

Tondl (1965) reported a series of papers and books on the

unbalance response and the balancing of a continous rotor.

Eshleman and Eubanks (1969) derived more general

equations of motion considering the effects of rotary inerta,

shear deformation and gyroscopic moment and investigated

these effects.

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Many practical rotors, especially those being designed for

aircraft gas turbines, were not suitable for a Jeffcott model. For

one thing, the distinction between disk and shaft is blurred in

the typical aircraft gas turbine.

In the practical design of rotating machinery, it is necessary to

know accurately the natural frequencies, mode shapes and

forced responses to unbalances in complex-shaped rotor

systems.

The first systematic procedures for analysizing realistic

rotordynamic models, however, gave as much importance to

internal forces and moments as they did to displacements.

The method of Holzer (1921) for torsional vibrations was of

this type. Engineers could apply this method using only a slide

rule. A more general modeling technique was needed. This

was supplied by Prohl in the late 1930s and published in 1945

for crtical speed evaluation of turbine shaft.

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

It is similar to the method published about the same time by

Myklestad (1944) for the natural frequencies of aircraft wings

but was developed independently. Of course, Prohl's method

was designed for a rotating structure rather than a stationary

one.

Together, Prohl's and Myklestad's work led to a broader

method, now called the Transfer Matrix Method (TMM). This

method is particular useful for multi-rotor-bearing systems and

has developed rapidily since 1960s by the contribution of

many researchers such as Lund et al. (1965, 1967, 1974),

Goodwin (1989), and Rao (1996).

The TMM for rotors remains viable; indeed, it seems still to be

the method of choice for most industrial rotor dynamic

analyses. The another representative technique used for this

purpose is the finite element method.

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Although most of the concepts used in finite element

analysis were described by Courant (1943) the real

development of the finite element method as engineering tool

occurred a decade later with the introduction of digital

computers and the formulation of structural analysis in matrix

format (Langefors, 1952; Argyris, 1954; Turner et al., 1956)

and then used in various technological fields.

The name Finite Element Method first appeared in the title

of a paper by Clough (1960). The first application of the finte

element method to a rotor system was made by Ruhl and

Booker (1972).

Then Nelson and McVaugh (1976) generalised it by

considering rotary inertia, gyroscopic moment and axial force.

It was soon recognised that the large number of nodes

necessary to provide accurate stress distribution created

dynamic systems too large for economical calculation in 3-D.

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Softwares for Rotor Dynamics Analayis

World War II can be considered as the demarcation between

the early stages of rotor dynamics and what might be called

modern rotor dynamics.

This was the consequence of two factors. First, there was a

growing awareness of the contributions of rotor dynamicists

from non-English speaking countries, e.g., Dimentberg in

Russia, Tondl in Czechoslovakia, Kramer in Germany, and

Yamamoto in Japan, among many others.

Clearly, after WWII, rotor dynamics had become an

international endeavor, a fact that was recognized by the

founding of the Rotor Dynamics Committee of the International

Federation of the Theory of Machines and Mechanisms

(IFToMM). Beginning in 1982, international conferences have

been organized by this committee in Rome (1982),

Tokyo(1986), Lyon, Chicago, Darmstadt, Sydney and Vienna

(2006).

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Second, there was a revolution in solution capability; a

transition from somewhat simplified models to almost actual

geometry.

In the 1960s there was a coalescence of numerical methods

applied to structural dynamics and of digital computer capacity

that fostered the development of a series of general purpose

computer codes.

The initial application of these codes to rotor dynamics was

based on the TMM method but in the 1970s another

underlying algorithm, the FEM, became available for the

solution of the prevailing beam-based models.

Now, in the beginning of the 21st century, rotor dynamicists

are combining the FEM and solids modeling techniques to

generate simulations that accommodate the coupled behavior

of flexible disks, flexible shafts, and flexible support structures

into a single, massive, multidimensional model.

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Rieger (1974) was first to review the rotor dynamic software

on the market at that time. He concluded that the

development of rotor dynamics programs has lacked the

support afforded to other areas of structural mechanics.

Crandall (1992) gave an overview of the rotordynamic

compluter codes (e.g. ANSYS, CADENSE, MADYN, RODYN,

ROMAC, SAMCEF, VT-FAST, etc.). The classical Jeffcott

rotor with four degrees of freedon was used to illustrate free,

forced and self-excited vibration problems for rotordynamic

systems. He also concluded that with regards to quality and

quantity of software the specialised area of rotor dynamics

still lags behind the broader field of non-rotating structural

dynamics. He gave two main reasons for this that the rotor

dynamics market is smaller and the technical problems are

more difficult.

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Dynamic Balancing of Rotors

The most important and fundamental procedure to reduce

unfavourable vibrations is to eliminate geometric imbalance in

the rotor. The balancing procedure for a rigid rotor was

established relatively early.

A practical balancing machine based on this technique was

invented in 1907 (Miwa and Simomura, 1976). The arrival of

high-speed rotating machins made it necessary to develop a

balancing technique for flexible rotors.

Two representative theories were proposed. One was the

modal balancing method proposed in the 1950s by Federn

(1957) and Bishop and Gladwell (1959). The other is the

influence coefficient method proposed in late 1930s by

Rathbone (1929) and later by Thearle (1932) and developed

mainly in the Unites States along with the progress of

computers and instruments for vibration measurements (Wowk,

1995).

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Fig 1.5 Classification of unbalances for a short rigid rotor

F

G

G

M

G M

G

(a) Perfectly balance (No force and moment) (b) Static unbalance (pure radial force)

(c) Dynamic unbalance (pure moment) (d) Dynamic unbalance (both force and moment)

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

G

1 2

First flexible mode Second flexible mode

Unbalance in a continuous rotor

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Condition Monitoring of Rotating Machineries

In the 1960s, cracks were found in rotors of some steam

turbines. To prevent serious accidents and to develop a

vibration diagnostis system detecting cracks, research on

vibrations of cracked shafts begun.

In the 1970s, Gasch (1976) and Henry and Okah-Avae (1976)

investigated vibrations giving consideration to nonlinearity in

stiffness due to open-close mechanisms. They showed that an

unstable region appeared or disappeared at the critical speed,

depeending on the direction of the unbalance.

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

An other area in which lot of development took place is on

assessment of turbomachinery condition monitoring and failure

prognosis technology.

High-performance turbomachines are now extremely important

elements of worldwide industry. The electric power,

petrochemical, mining, marine, and aircraft industries are prime

examples for which turbomachinery is crucial to business

success.

Failure and resulting downtime can be very costly to the

industry involved (Rieger et al., 1990).

According to Eshleman (1990), over the past several years,

instrumentation and monitoring capabilities have increased

dramatically, but techniques for fault diagnosis have evolved

slowly.

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Internet

Web Server

Data

Expert System

Web Browser

Expert monitors the

condition of several power

plants using Java applets

on a Web Browser

The power plant data is collected

and analyzed by the expert

system. The Web server

provides Java applets to the user

over the Internet for visualization

of the power plant data and

interaction with the expert

system software..

Web Server

Data

Expert System

New Delhi

Power Plant

Bangalore

Power Plant

On-site model of a condition monitoring system

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

The tools are therefore still more advanced than the

techniques, and there are three technical areas that must be

addressed for effective fault diagnosis using vibration:

condition and fault mechanism, modification of signal

trasmission paths, and signal analysis.

Edward et al. (1998) provided a broad review of the state of

the art in fault diagnosis techniques, with particular regard to

rotating machinery. A detailed review of the subject of fault

diagnosis in rotating machinery was then presented. Special

treatment was given to the areas of mass unbalance, bowed

shafts and cracked shafts, these being amongst the most

common rotor-dynamic faults.

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Vibration response measurements yield a great deal of

information concerning any faults within a rotating machine,

and many of the methods utilising this technique are reviewed.

Pusey and Roemer (1999) provided a broad overview of

developments and progress in condition monitoring, diagnostic

and failure prognosis technology applicable to high-

performance turbomachineries.

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Cracks in shafts have long been identified as factors limiting

the safe and reliable operation of turbomachines.

They can sometimes result in catastrophic failure of

equipment (rotor bursts) and, more often, in costly process

upsets, repairs and premature scrapping and replacement of

equipment. In the past three decades, much research and

many resources have gone into developing various on-line

and off-line diagnostic techniques to effectively detect cracks

before they cause serious damage.

Sabnavis et al. (2004) reviewed literature on cracked shaft

detection and diagnostics published after 1990.

One of the earliest documented applications of acoustic

emission technology (AET) to rotating machinery monitoring

was in the late 1960s.

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Since then, there has been an explosion in research- and

application-based studies covering bearings, pumps,

gearboxes, engines, and rotating structures.

Mba and Rao (2006) presented a comprehensive and critical

review on the application of AET to condition monitoring and

diagnostics of rotating machinery.

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Recent Trends

The latest topic in rotor dynamics is a study of magnetic

bearings (a mechtronics product) (Schweitzer et al., 2003;

Chiba, et al., 2005), which support a rotor without contacting it

and active dampers.

This study has received considerbale attention since

Schweitzer reported his work in 1975. We are now a long way

from the approaches of Jeffcott and Prohl, a journey that

deserves its own history sometime.

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Bearing bush

Outer raceway of

rolling bearing (can

displace radially and

constraint not to

rotate.

Squeeze film

Rotor

Oil feed groove

Schematic diagram of squeeze film (passive) dampers

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Rotor

Rolling bearing

Electrodes

Teflon

Smart (active) fluid-film dampers

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Working principle of active magnetic bearing

Rotor

Electro magnet

Sensor

Controller

Power Power

Amplifier Amplifier

f f

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Main Advantages Active Magnetic Bearings

Magnetic bearings allow contact-free motions, which

results in

Absence of lubrication and seals.

Low bearing frictional losses.

Absence of mechanical wear.

High speeds whose limit is the strength of the material of

the rotor.

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Online balancing

Online balancing

is possible.

is possible.

Adaptable stiffness and damping

properties and this

properties and this

characteristic can be utilized in vibration isolation:

characteristic can be utilized in vibration isolation:

Passing critical speeds with less vibration amplitudes.

Passing critical speeds with less vibration amplitudes.

Stabilization of the rotor systems when they are exposed

Stabilization of the rotor systems when they are exposed

to excitations such as earth quakes etc.

to excitations such as earth quakes etc.

Eliminating stability zones.

Eliminating stability zones.

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Research in rotor dynamics is aimed at improving the

understanding of rotor dynamic phenomena and improving

the performance of rotating machinery.

In most rotor dynamic systems the vibratory amplitudes are

sufficiently small that linear analysis of rotor and stator

deformations are satisfactory.

In rotor dynamics structural modelling is generally adequate

and most research is centered on fluid-structure interactions:

bearings, seals, blade forces, squeeze-film dampers etc. It is

here that the nonlinearities are concentrated.

Conclusions

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

The equations of motion of such systems consist of a great

many linear equations coupled to a small handful of nonlinear

equations (Yamamoto and Ishida, 2001).

The most promising area of research for performance

improvement is active control.

I believe that it is not an easy matter to present a good and

enough complete history of rotor dynamics because there

exists an enormous number of publications in different non-

English languages (European, Russian, Japanese, etc.) .

Conclusions

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Of course, it would be possible to mention some problems

and phenomena not commonly occurring in rotor systems,

e.g. special stability problems (e.g. investigation the stability

in the large domains of attraction), the effect of the tuning

the system into the internal resonance, mutual effect of lateral

with torsional/axial vibrations, effect of the limited source of

energy, etc.

Conclusions

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Thank you.

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