Digestive system

Chapter 1

Learning Objectives
By the end of this chapter, students should be able to: Describe essential nutrients Describe the mechanism of feeding Describe intracellular vs extracellular digestion Describe structures of alimentary-canal related organs State and explain the four stages of digestion in human – mechanical vs chemical digestion including hormonal control Differentiate the variation in vertebrate digestive system

An adequate diet
Nutrients needed for Energy in the form of ATP Raw materials for biosynthesis (Growth, self maintenance, reproduction) Provide essential nutrients (Required by the body, however the body cannot synthesize it on its own)

2. Essential amino acids Essential fatty acids Vitamins Minerals .Essential nutrients 1. 3. 4.

Essential amino acids Animals require 20 amino acids. half can be synthesized Humans need eight Proteins in animal products are complete. plant proteins are incomplete. Combination are needed .

Essential fatty acids. vitamins and minerals Unsaturated fatty acids (One or more double bonds) are essential Vitamins are organic molecules needed by the body in small amounts Vitamins are classified into water and fatsoluble Minerals are inorganic molecules required in small amounts .

diseases and even death .Dietary deficiencies Undernourishment – a diet that supplies less energy that the body needs Can occur within well-fed populations Malnourishment – Long term absence of one or more essential nutrients May lead to deformities.

Clams and oysters .Main feeding mechanisms Suspension Feeder Sieve small food particles from water Whales.

Main feeding mechanisms Substrate feeder Animals that live in / on their food source Eat their way through the food Leaf-miner caterpillar .

aphids . Mosquito.Main feeding mechanisms Fluid feeders Suck nutrient-rich fluid from a living host.

g. two weeks .Main feeding mechanisms Bulk Feeders Eat relatively large pieces of food (swallow altogether) Spend a long time to digest their food e.

protist. reptiles. amphibians. hydra.g.Happens in cells that possess food vacuole In lower organisms e. mammals .Intracellular vs extracellular digestion Intracellular digestion .g. sponges Extracellular digetion – Breakdown of food in specific compartments The compartments can be saclike or tubelike In higher animals e. annelids. arthropods.

Variations of alimentarycanal related organs A crop is a pouch like organ in which food is usually softened. Gizzards are more muscular than crops where they can actively churn and grind the food (Physical fragmentation). moistened and stored temporarily. Gizzard often contains teeth or grit to assist in grinding. .

.Variations of alimentarycanal related organs Mechanical and chemical digestion happens in the stomach. Birds have a stomach in between their crop and gizzard.

stomach.Human digestive system i. small intestine. Alimentary canal – mouth. esophagus. liver. gallbladder. salivary glands. pharynx. Accessory digestive organs – teeth. tongue. and pancreas . and large intestine ii.

Human digestive system .

Human digestive system The GI tract is a “disassembly” line Nutrients become more available to the body in each step There are FOUR essential activities: Ingestion Digestion (mechanical & chemical) Absorption Defecation .

Human digestive system .

mixing.Ingestion Process of taking food into the digestive tract Chewing also mix up food with saliva that help in the digestion process Mechanical digestion – chewing. and churning (agitating) food .

Mechanical digestion Salivary gland Produce and secrete saliva that: Cleanses the mouth Moistens and dissolves food chemicals Aids in bolus formation Contains enzymes that break down starch Three pairs of extrinsic glands – parotid. and sublingual . submandibular.

Mechanical digestion .

.Mechanical digestion Carnivorous animals have pointed teeth that lack flat grinding surfaces which are adapted for cutting and shearing. Herbivores have large flat teeth for pulverizing the cellulose cell before digesting it.

.Mechanical digestion Human teeth suit their omnivorous lifestyle. They are simply carnivorous at their mouth front by having cuspids and incisors. Behind the cuspids are two premolars and three molars used for grinding and crushing food.

. the tongue helps shaped it into a bolus. As for the tongue.Mechanical digestion The palate. besides equipped with taste buds to help us taste the food. the bone-reinforced section of the mouth provides a hard surface for the tongue to press the food in order to mix with the saliva.

The tongue pushes the bolus to the back of the oral cavity and into the pharynx. The larynx moves upward causing the epiglottis to close the tracheal opening. .Mechanical digestion During swallowing.

esophageal sphincter relaxes and allows the bolus to enter the esophagus.Mechanical digestion At the same time. the larynx moves downward to its original position and the tracheal passage reopens . After swallowing.

and serosa . From esophagus to the anal canal the walls of the GI tract have the same four tunics From the lumen outward they are the mucosa.Mechanical digestion The esophagus is a muscular tube that conveys boluses from the pharynx to the stomach. muscularis externa. submucosa.

Mechanical digestion .

Nerve tissues are located here. Just outside the layer of submucosa is the muscle layer (muscularis externa). Outermost layer called the serosa covers the external surface of the tract.Mechanical digestion The innermost layer called mucosa consist of epithelium. The inner layer has a circular orientation whereas the outer layer is arranged longitudinally. The next major tissue layer is made of a connective tissue layer called the submucosa. .

. peristalsis happens A wavelike contraction that squeezes a bolus downwards to the stomach The movement of food is controlled by a sphincter.Mechanical digestion In the esophagus.

meaning that whenever one muscle layer contract the other one relax. This causes the peristalsis process to happen and brings the bolus to the stomach.Mechanical digestion Both layers of muscularis externa contract involuntarily. .

enabling it to fold up when empty and open out like an expanding balloon whenever it is full of food. .Stomach The stomach is convoluted.

. To store ingested foods ii. Help control the passage of food into the small intestines Chyme leaves the stomach through the pyloric sphincter to enter the small intestine.Stomach Stomach has 3 important functions i. The secretion helps dissolve and break down food particles especially protein iii.

Small intestine The small intestine is about 6 m long where the first 25 cm is the duodenum. . the remainder is divided into jejunum and ileum. The duodenum receives acidic chyme from the stomach. digestive enzymes and bicarbonate from the pancreas and bile from the liver and gallbladder.

Small intestine .

. The epithelial cells lining the villi have many cytoplasmic extensions called the microvilli.Small intestine The epithelial wall of the small intestine is covered with tiny. This greatly increases the surface area of the small intestine that helps in the absorption process. fingerlike projection called villi.

Small intestine .

No digestion takes place within the large intestine and only about 4% of fluid absorption happens here. Certain bacteria produced vitamins for human usage Undigested material is compacted and stored.Large Intestine The large intestine (colon) is much shorter than the small intestine but it possesses a larger diameter. .

. i) composed of smooth muscles that open involuntarily in response to pressure inside the rectum. Compacted feces will be driven by peristalsis from the large intestine into a short tube called rectum. ii) composed of striated muscle that can be voluntarily controlled by the brain. Two sphincters control passage to the anus.Large Intestine Bacterial fermentation happens at the colon and produces gases.

Large Intestine .

Chemical digestion .mouth The salivary amylase enzyme begins hydrolyzing starch in the food. Salivary amylase will turn starch to oligosaccharide and disaccharide (maltose) .

Mucus functions in lubricating and protecting the cell lining in the stomach from the acidity of the gastric juice. enzymes and strong acid (pH – 2). i) Mucus cells .Chemical digestion Stomach The stomach secretes gastric juice – made of mucus. cell division happens every 3 days to replace damaged cells. Three types of cells in the stomach. Besides. .

Stomach ii) Chief cells – secrete pepsinogen iii) Parietal cells – secrete strong acid (HCl) All these cells are situated at the gastric glands .Chemical digestion .

Chemical digestion .Stomach The enzyme pepsinogen is an inactive form of the digestive enzyme pepsin. . Acid converts pepsinogen to active pepsin by removing a small portion of the molecule and exposing the active sites.

The stomach will mix the food boluses with the gastric juice.Stomach Pepsin will digest protein into smaller polypeptides.Chemical digestion . Contraction of the muscles in stomach wall aids chemical digestion. This makes it easier for the protein to undergo further digestion in the small intestine. forming a mixture called acid chyme. .

Stomach The sphincters in the stomach are always closed. The cardiac orifice will only open if bolus enters (if not heartburn) Pyloric sphincter causes the chyme to enter the small intestine one squirt at a time (2-6 hours) .Chemical digestion .

Chemical digestion – Stomach Movement of chyme is aided by peristalsis .

. liver and gallbladder.Accessory organs Consists of the pancreas.

Accessory organs .pancreas The pancreas is an exocrine organ pancreatic fluid is secreted through the pancreatic duct. The pancreatic fluid contains hydrolytic enzymes i) trypsin and chymotrypsin (protein digestion) ii) pancreatic amylase (carbohydrate digestion) iii) lipase (fat digestion) .

pancreas The enzymes are released as inactive enzymes called zymogens which will then be activated by the brush border enzymes of the small intestine. Pancreatic fluid also contains bicarbonate that function in neutralizing the HCl from the stomach. .Accessory organs . The pancreas also plays a role as an endocrine gland.

The bile pigments (by-products of red blood cell destruction) did not participate in the digestion process.Accessory organs . Bile salts will play an important role in fat digestion (emulsification process). It is eliminated with feces. .pancreas The main exocrine secretion of the liver is bile which is a mixture of bile pigments and bile salts.

The arrival of fatty food to the duodenum triggers a reflex causing contraction and injection of gallbladder to the duodenum. .Accessory organs Gallbladder Gallbladder functions in storage and concentration of bile salts.

Enterogastrone . Secretin iv. Cholecytoskinin (CCK) iii.Hormonal control of digestion Four hormones altogether i. Gastrin ii.

Hormonal control of digestion Gastrin (from stomach) stimulates the production of gastric juice CCK (from duodenum) stimulates the release of digestive enzymes from the pancreas and bile salts from the bladder Secretin (from duodenum) stimulates the release of bicarbonate from the pancreas Enterogastrone (from duodenum) inhibits peristalsis and acid secretion from the stomach – slowing digestion of fat .

proteins.Chemical digestion – Small intestine The epithelial lining of the small intestine is called the brush border that released enzymes. The enzymes in the pancreatic juice break down carbohydrates. fats and nucleic acids . Some enzymes are secreted into the lumen Chyme entering the duodenum will trigger the release of pancreatic juice.

.Chemical digestion – Small intestine For protein digestion Trypsin Chymotrypsin Protein Smaller polypeptides Carboxypeptidase Brush border Aminopeptidase enzyme Dipeptidase Small polypeptides Amino acids i.

Chemical digestion – Small intestine ii) For carbohydrate digestion Pancreatic amylase Polysaccharides Di/monosaccharides Disaccharidase – Brush border Disaccharides Monosaccharides .

Chemical digestion – Small intestine iii) For nucleic acid digestion Pancreatic nucleases DNA and RNA Nucleotides Intestinal nucleases – Brush Border Nucleotides Bases/Sugar .

Chemical digestion – Small intestine iv) For fat digestion Bile salts Fat globules Fat droplets (Emulsified) Pancreatic Lipase Fat droplets Fatty acids and glycerol .

Chemical digestion – Small intestine For fat digestion. Fats are triglycerides (not water-soluble). In the chyme. This process functions in accelerating fat digestion. . a process called emulsification happens in the small intestine. they will clump to form fat globules As the fat globules move in the intestinal wall. the movement of the muscle layers breaks apart the fat globules into small droplets that get coated with bile salts.

Emulsion droplets.Chemical digestion – Small intestine Bile salts are negatively charged. making the droplets repel each other (separated with each other) and form an emulsion. . chemical digestion of our meal is just about to complete. By the time peristalsis has moved the chyme mixture through the duodenum. give fat digesting enzyme lipase a greater surface area to act on. which are separated.

Chemical digestion – Small intestine .

Absorption .

and brush border enzymes like dissacharidase . and facilitated diffusion Enter the capillary bed (blood vessels) in the villi Transported to the liver via the hepatic portal vein Enzymes used: salivary amylase. pancreatic amylase.Carbohydrate absorption Fructose Absorption: via co transport with Na+.

and dipeptidases Also transported to hepatic portal vein (to liver) Together with most glucose molecules and vitamins . carboxypeptidases.Protein absorption Absorption: Active transport Enzymes used: pepsin in the stomach Enzymes acting in the small intestine Pancreatic enzymes – trypsin and chymotrypsin Brush border enzymes – aminopeptidases.

Protein absorption .

Fat absorption Absorption: Diffusion of micelles (fatty acid. monoglyceride and bile salts) into intestinal cells where they: Combine to form triglycerides called chylomicrons Enter lacteals and are transported to systemic circulation via lymph Enzymes/chemicals used: bile salts and pancreatic lipase .

Fat absorption .

Nucleic acid absorption Absorption: active transport via membrane carriers Absorbed in villi and transported to liver via hepatic portal vein Enzymes used: pancreatic ribonucleases and intestinal deoxyribonuclease in the small intestines .

they were taken away from the villi to the hepatic portal vein that leads to the liver for regulation of homeostatic processes.Absorption For fats. protein. from the lacteals they will travel to the lymphatic system that will drain to large veins As for carbohydrate. nucleic acids and glycerol. .

.Vertebrate digestive system Carnivores usually have large expandable stomach because it is harder for them to catch prey. They can consume 40kg of meat at a time (a lion) They have shorter alimentary canal because it is easier to digest meat as compared to vegetation.

Carnivore digestive system .

Vertebrate digestive system
Most herbivores lack enzyme that digest cellulose in the vegetation cell wall, so they depend on microorganisms’ role to aid in their digestion. Ruminants such as cows, deer and other herbivores, they have multiple stomach chambers in which cellulose is slowly broken down.

Ruminant digestive system (Cow)
The first chamber contains of a rumen and a smaller chamber called recticulum and the second portion consists of two additional chambers called the omasum and abomasum. The breakdown of cellulose in tough plant cell walls happens in the first and second stomach chamber where bacterial symbionts release digestive enzymes to digest the nutrients in cellulose.

Ruminant digestive system (Cow)
The cow will then regurgitates and rechews the contents of the first sac before swallowing again. This process is called rumination. This action exposes more surface area for the enzymes to react, resulting in more nutrients to be released for the host’s benefit. In the omasum –water is absorbed In the abomasum, digestion is carried out by the cow's own enzyme. Absorption completed here.

Cow digestive system .

Vertebrate digestive system In animals like rodents and rabbits. they swallowed their feces in order for the absorption process to happen. . Because it is located beyond the stomach. Therefore. the digestion of cellulose is carried out by microorganisms in the enlarged cecum. regurgitation is impossible.

. consist of undigested fiber compared to the mucus-coated cecotropes.Rabbit digestive system The ingested litter is called cecotropes and rabbits need to ingest it to avoid malnutrition. The fecal pellets are dry.

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