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Vol. 2. No. 5. September, 2010


Rohit Pathak 1 , Satyadhar Joshi 2 , Parag Parandkar 3 , Sumant Katiyal 4 , Arpit Ludhiyani 2

1 Acropolis Institute of Technology & Research, 2 Shri Vaishnav Institute of Technology & Science,


ChameliDevi Institute of Technology and Management

4 School of Electronics, Devi Ahilya University, Indore (INDIA)

E-mails: 1 xrohit@hotmail. com,


satyadhar_joshi@yahoo. com,

3 p_paragp@yahoo. com, 4 sumant578@yahoo. com


Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a generic term for technologies employing radio waves for detecting objects. The paper discusses distinctive approaches with recent methodologies in RFID systems sighting its commercial ventures, as it is the most researched and rapidly emerging technology. RFID has wide application in payment systems, access control and asset tracking as the companies are using the technology’s potential in manufacturing and other areas. A proposed software framework for RFID integrated mobile phones with considerable changes in the system is exemplified in the paper. Installation of the operating system with a driver to run RFID reader and involvement of Java Platform ME package for support in programming for RFID reader is discussed at length. A system service will continuously watch over the RFID hardware for events. Standalone application made in Java can use and control the RFID reader. Exemplary future applications and systems based on RFID and other technologies integrated with RFID mobile phones are proposed in this paper. The commercial scope in the field of RFID manufacturing and research, applications, problems being faced by RFID systems & their limitations in other fields in the current era has been discussed with its integration with current technologies. Some hardware and software limitations that restrict its feasibility in some fields like Mobile Phone based RFID technologies are illustrated with some future enhancements in this area.

Key words: Radio Frequency Identification (RFID); Wireless Sensor Network (WSN); Electronic Product Code (EPC); Java Platform ME



Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a major component of Pervasive computing and is considered “a key to automating everything” [26]. In recent times, RFID and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are used widely in pervasive computing environment [2]. RFID finds its use in areas including, but not limited to, asset tracking, real time supply chain management and telemetry based remote monitoring [4]. The technology was utilized in

World War II by army planes to distinguish enemy planes from allied planes through the use of radar [23]. RFID and similar technologies will play a vital role in future with large wireless networks for communication and small wireless networks between different kind of entities [5]. RFID relies on storing and remotely retrieving information or data as it consists of RFID tag, RFID reader and back-end database [6, 7]. RFID tags are used to store ID information of any object and are used to communicate tags to remotely retrieve their ID. The technology is dependent on communication between RFID tags and RFID readers, depicted in Fig. 1. The range of the reader is dependent upon its operational frequency [8]. RFID tag is a small device consisting of an integrated circuit and an antenna [9]. Tags can be incorporated into any device, object or living being for tracking and identification. The integrated circuit is used for modulating / demodulating radio frequency, processing information and other

purposes. The microchip can be as small as 0. 4 mm

, comparable to a grain of sand [10]. The antenna is used

for receiving and transmitting radio signals. The data stored in a tag may vary from 32 Bytes to 1 Megabyte depending upon the type and design of tag [11]. In Fig. 5 the thevenin equivalent circuit of an RFID tag has been

shown, where Z a is complex antenna impedance and Z c is complex load/circuit impedance [12].


and Z c is complex load/circuit impedance [12]. 2 Fig. 1. RFID System RFID technology will

Fig. 1. RFID System

RFID technology will be the performance differentiator for a variety of commercial products. Its power has been realized but its capabilities are yet to be utilized completely. In business, reader reads the tag then sends the information about the identification and location of the object to a computer. Now with this information further business processes are initiated [13]. There has been an outbreak in many areas of research with RFID such as environment management [14], project management [15], e-commerce [16], information systems [17-18],


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innovation management [19], supply chain management and warehousing [20-21]. With the help of a well

organized inventory system RFID systems can help in preventing theft, shop lifting, error and fraud losses, which amounts to nearly $31 billion USD in US [22]. The transformation of retail industry has been witnessed as

“Retailing in the 21

20 th

share in retail industry [24]. The main device in use is EPC (Electronic Product Code) and standards for these devices is managed by EPCglobal Inc. which is a joint venture of EAN and UCC, the bodies which controls the regulation of Barcodes in US and rest of the world [25]. In large quantities, EPC tags may even cost cheaper than

13 US cents [26] and is expected to drop to as low as 5 US cents in a few years [27]. IBM TM and Infosys

are in

century, just as retailing in the

century was very different from retailing in the 19 th century” [23], and currently RFID tag market has its largest


century will no doubt be very different from retailing in the 20



RFID manufacturing and services for commercial market requirements. Some examples for software developed for the same are IBM TM Websphere and SUN EPC network provided by Sun Microsystems TM [2].

A large number of products in America are handled through retail supply chain and majority of them still

rely on manual methods of data collection [28]. Wal-mart has been studying and researching the business applications of RFID and has become one of the biggest user in retail market [29]. Wal-Mart [30] and US department of Defence [31] ordered their suppliers for implementation and usage of RFID by beginning of 2005 which made the academic community to shift towards it and retail industries such as Metro AG, Tesco and 7- Eleven have started using this technology in their supply chain management [32]. This not only assisted them to optimize their supply chain management but also helped them to know exactly where their products are at any time by providing easy tracking of these products in the chain. RFID technology is also getting rapidly adapted in Indian market [33]. It finds its extensive use in apparel industry in India and many retail industries such as Pantaloon and Madura garments have started using this technology to tag garments for SCM [33]. In Wipro’s Electronic City many stores such as Arving Mills sell RFID tagged products. Mahindra and Mahindra is using RFID for integrated production management [34]. Jayakar Library of Pune University and Dhanvantri Library of Jammu University are using RFID for library management purposes. Ashok Leyland is also preparing to deploy RFID in its assembling centers [33]. In order to reduce retail shrinkage many large retail outlets in India such as BIG BAZAAR and PANTALOON are using RFID [34].



RFID technology can be integrated into mobile phones which can bring a major breakthrough in pervasive computing. Indian market topping the list for majority of mobile subscribers can gain enormous support through successful integration of RFID readers into phones. Tracking mobile phones located in dense areas can restrict crime and optimize security as tagged objects, animals and persons can be tracked using it. If this technology is supported by the mobile network service provider then the mobile’s RFID reader can be used to send information back through the mobile phones network and can be utilized for any purpose. There have been some attempts to merge RFID and Wireless sensor network into mobile entities and a framework regarding the same is suggested in this paper. WISSE is one such framework in which mobile entities build groups by interaction and with shared context information they can easily receive services from Service Layer [35]. WISSE consist of a context layer which handles the interaction amongst mobile entities. Some devices have been made for adding RFID reader functionality to mobile phones. One such device is Syscan RFID reader module for PDA’s CF slot. Simple ASCII protocol was used for communication between the reader module and PDA. Commands were sent using PDA and the results were returned to PDA [8].

A trend of upgrading handsets with advanced features within a short duration and discarding old ones is

common in today’s scenario. If all the mobile manufacturers start integrating RFID readers in their mobile phones

then in nearly 5 to 10 years every mobile user will be having a RFID reader integrated mobile phone.

A software framework required for integration of RFID reader into current generation mobile phone have

been proposed in the paper. This framework uses a Standalone application made on Java Platform using JAVA ME which is used to control and use the RFID reader on mobile phone. A device driver is to be installed in the operating system which will be used by the kernel to communicate with the device. The OS will have some added system calls to provide RFID reader functionality to software applications. RFID protocols need to be added into the OS for communication using RFID reader. A RFID package will have to be included in JAVA ME, which is used to provide the class library for programming applications. This paper is an expansion of our earlier proposal



RFID TAG RFID tag is a small device consisting of an integrated circuit and an antenna incorporated into any object or living being for tracking and identification. This is done by storing ID information or data. Implantable RFID tags are specially designed tags which can be implanted into human body by inserting into hand or behind the neck or any other suitable organ of body. The tag carries identity of person in a unique form of ID. It bears encrypted information of the person.

RFID READER INTEGRATED MOBILE PHONES Mobile phone will be integrated with RFID reader and powered by mobile phone’s battery. Its functioning is managed by the combined effort of its device driver, operating system and its software installed on the mobile phone. RFID tags can be read through these mobile phones and information can also be sent to the mobile phone


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service provider for many types of transactions. Mobile phone acts as a mediator between Mobile Network Service Provider (NSP) and RFID tag. This functionality can provide many services like banking, billing, purchasing, electronic payment etc. The proposition is that the mobile phone should support multiple RFID communication protocol allowing it to read multiple tags. RFID reader modules can also be attached to PDA which can provide the capability to read RFID tags. Some modules such as syscan can be attached into the slot of PDA and used. In the proposal, mobile phone will initiate communication to any service provider through its network service provider. This communication can also be done using Internet facility provided by the NSP. The mobile will read and send information of RFID tag to NSP for further processing of transaction.


MOBILE PHONE OPERATING SYSTEM Operating system (OS) is designed to handle RFID reader installed on the mobile phone. Any software requiring reader device’s services has to put forward request to OS through system calls, and is not allowed to use the device directly. The OS in turn uses reader device driver to interact with hardware. It is incorporated with system calls which allow software to use RFID reader. The proposed software framework is shown in Fig 2. The OS also runs a low level service which looks after the device's functioning when it is idle. Some of the mobile phone operating systems such as Symbian OS in Nokia phones, MAC in iPhone, Windows CE, RTLinux and many other OS should provide functionality to add device driver to use additional hardware.

to add device driver to use additional hardware. Fig. 2. Proposed RFID Software Framework SYSTEM CALLS

Fig. 2. Proposed RFID Software Framework

SYSTEM CALLS Some system calls are proposed to be added in the OS. These system calls will allow programs to communicate with the OS for using RFID reader hardware as shown in Fig 3. Software and user processes have no direct access to the RFID reader device. System calls act as a layer between OS and software. As kernel has full control over the hardware, processes have to request hardware services from the kernel. System calls provide an interface between the kernel and process.

calls provide an interface between the kernel and process. Fig. 3. Role of System Calls DRIVER

Fig. 3. Role of System Calls

DRIVER OS has a RFID Reader device driver which allows it to control and interact with underlying RFID reader hardware, depicted in Fig 4. The kernel of the OS communicates with the reader device using the device driver. This device driver has a set of low level machine instructions which are specific to a device. These set of instructions helps the kernel in controlling the device. The driver is specific to a hardware model and is strictly dependent on it. The driver would be provided by the device manufacturer.


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Of A CADEMIC R ESEARCH Vol. 2. No. 5. September, 2010 Fig. 4. Role of Device

Fig. 4. Role of Device Driver

SERVICE The OS runs a service which overlooks the device’s functioning such as power management and is a process that runs for a long time continuously monitoring the hardware and keeping a watch for events. The service can be configured to work in desired manner. It can be configured to auto search for tags. The service should manage hardware efficiently.

RFID COMMUNICATION PROTOCOLS RFID protocols will be included in the OS as shown in Fig 5, which will allow communication between RFID reader and tags. The operating system also allows adding Network Protocol Plug-ins. This will allow adding new protocols when needed.

Plug-ins. This will allow adding new protocols when needed. Fig. 5. OS Networking Services JAVA PACKAGE

Fig. 5. OS Networking Services

JAVA PACKAGE Java ME (Micro Edition) consists of number of packages which adds specific device oriented functionality. Various other packages can be added for more functionality in Java Run Time Environment (JRE). An RFID reader package for Java ME is to be made which acts as an interface between Java and RFID reader hardware. This reader package provides the Java Platform with a set of instructions and functions to communicate with kernel using system calls for using the RFID reader hardware. It consists of an OOP class library for RFID reader providing an API for making applications which use RFID reader device. The library consists of a set of classes and functions which allows easy interface with the RFID hardware for its usage and management. The communication of Java application is depicted in Fig 6.

The communication of Java application is depicted in Fig 6. Fig. 6. Java Application & OS

Fig. 6. Java Application & OS communication


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STANDALONE APPLICATION A standalone application is application software which will allow the user to use the RFID reader hardware and can be used to manage and configure the functioning of RFID reader hardware on the mobile phone. The software can be used to read and store RFID tag information or data. The software is to be made on Java platform using Java ME as Java applications are platform and OS independent.

ME as Java applications are platform and OS independent. Fig. 7. Proposed additions to Java Platform

Fig. 7. Proposed additions to Java Platform package

The applications run on a virtual machine created by JRE, which is required to run Java applications and it is supplied by the manufacturer of the mobile phone. Java applications once compiled can be executed on any hardware device or OS having a JRE installed on it. The architecture of Java Platform Micro Edition is depicted in Figure 7.


RFID reader integrated mobile phones will be able to read tags. This functionality will prove very useful in many kinds of transactions. To perform a transaction using a RFID reader integrated mobile phone, several software layers will communicate and work together. The transaction can be of any type such as banking transaction, billing, payment, purchasing, etc. The transaction includes following:

RFID INTEGRATED MOBILE PHONE The mobile phone which is being used to initiate the transaction process. It has an OS with RFID reader driver installed capable of using the device. A Standalone Application (SAA) is used for transaction. NETWORK SERVICE PROVIDER (NSP) The mobile phones network provider. RFID The tag which is involved in transaction. Data on the tag is encrypted by the vendor of the tag and its key is stored in the company's database. Proposition will comprise of RFID integrated credit card, Authentication card, any ID card etc. THIRD PARTY The company or service provider with whom the transaction is to be processed. TP can be bank, e- purchasing company, hotel, shop etc. PHASE I We assume that the proposed software framework is deployed on the RFID reader integrated mobile phone which has to read a RFID tag. The SAA will generate a private key SAPRI and corresponding public key SAPUB. SA will then request the OS for network access. It will then send a request to the NSP for communication with third party. The NSP will forward request to TP. SA will then send its public key SAPUB to the TP which is used by it for further communications. TP will generate a pair of public and private keys TPPUB, TPPRI respectively and send the public key TPPUB to SA to initiate the transaction process. In the transaction process TP will request for RFID authentication. PHASE II The application will then request the OS for using the RFID reader hardware and will send the key SAPUB to OS. The application runs on a virtual machine under the JRE, thus in reality Java communicates with the OS for the operations requested by the application. The OS generates a public key OSPUB and corresponding private key OSPRI. OS sends OSPUB to SAA and then uses the device driver to communicate with the RFID reader hardware. OS sends the key OSPUB to the RFID tag which then generates its public key TPUB and corresponding private TPRI. The tag sends key TPUB to the Mobile phone's OS. The OS will then use the public key TPUB to encrypt further communication requesting the tag to send it’s ID. The tag sends OSPUB (data) to OS and OS uses key OSPRI to obtain data from OSPUB (data). OS then sends SAPUB (data) to the software which


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requests it to read the tag. SA obtains data from SAPUB (data) by using key SAPRI. If the user wants SA can store this information for future use. PHASE III SA uses the key TPPUB on data to obtain TPPUB (data) and sends it to TP and TP uses key TPPRI on TPPUB (data) to obtain data. TP checks for a key EPRI corresponding to the tag, which is used to decrypt data received. The decrypted data is checked for validity and authenticity. If the data is valid, further process is initiated; else if the data is invalid then the transaction is dropped. In case of valid data TP then requests SA for a PIN code which exists corresponding to every ID. SA forwards request to the user and user enters the PIN. The PIN is encrypted using TPPUB to obtain TPPUB (PIN). This is sent to TP which uses key TPPRI on TPPUB (PIN) to obtain PIN. TP checks for authenticity of the information provided by the transaction user. If the information and data provided by the user is correct, the transaction proceeds in the third party company or service provider.


Start Phase I SAA: Initialize SAPUB & SAPRI SAA: Request network access to OS OS: Access granted SAA: Request NSP for communication with TP

NSP: Access granted SAA: Transaction request TP: Initiate transaction, Initialize TPPUB & TPPRI, Send TPPUB to SAA End

Start Phase II SAA: Send SAPUB to TP, Send transaction details TP: Tag authentication request to SAA SAA: RFID reader Hardware request to OS OS: Access granted, Send OSPUB to Tag Tag: Initialize TPUB & TPRI, Send TPUB to OS OS: Data request to Tag Tag: data → OSPUB (data) using OSPUB, Send OSPUB (data) to OS OS: OSPUB (data) → data using OSPRI, data → SAPUB (data) using SAPUB, Send SAPUB (data) to SAA End

Start Phase III SAA: SAPUB (data) → data using SAPRI, data → TPPUB (data) using TPPUB, send TPPUB (data) to TP TP: TPPUB (data) → data using TPPRI, check database for decryption key, decrypt data, authenticate If authenticate success, proceed else transaction closed TP: PIN request to SAA SAA: PIN request to user USER: Send PIN to SAA SAA: PIN → TPPUB (PIN) using TPPUB, Send TPPUB (PIN) to TP TP: TPPUB (PIN) → PIN using TPPRI, Authenticate


If authenticate success, proceed else transaction closed End


This software framework can be used for variety of purposes as tags can be read and the information can be saved in the mobile phone memory for future use. Companies can offer services which require RFID authentication. RFID tags will be supplied with a PIN code to further increase security of the system. Standalone application will request OS for network access and initiate communication with the third party with the help of NSP. The TP will request for RFID authentication and SAA will request OS to read RFID tag using device driver's help. This information is given to SAA. SAA then sends the information to TP which has a data base of keys corresponding to RFID tags. This data base is used to obtain a key for decrypting the information received from SAA and if the information is valid TP requests the SAA for PIN code verification. User enters the PIN and SAA sends it to TP which has a database of PINs corresponding to RFID tags. This PIN is verified and if it is found correct, the transaction process is continued.


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If a banking transaction needs to be performed, than the bank will provide the user with a RFID tagged ID

or card along with a PIN code. The bank can supply the user with Standalone Application which would be made using Java platform and would be supported on every Java enabled mobile phone. Thus user can use RFID reader to read the card supplied by the bank and use it for baking transactions. The banking card's data is sent to the bank with the help of NSP and user is prompted for PIN code. When the user enters right PIN code the transaction process can be continued. This approach allows alternative ways to pay bills, purchase things etc. using the same technology. More sophisticated uses include tracking of persons using hand implantable RFID tags.


BANKING Banks can provide their customers with cards integrated with RFID tags and RFID reader integrated mobile phones can be used to read the RFID banking card. This will allow the customer to purchase things, pay bills, transfer money, etc. on mobile phones and the card will be read using RFID reader integrated mobile phones as shown in Fig. 8. This ID information will be sent to bank through NSP, so that it can be used for further transaction or processing. Banks will provide every RFID card with a PIN code. Users will be required to enter this code for every transaction using the RFID banking card. This pin code system will prevent people from using other person’s card without knowing the PIN.

from using other person’s card without knowing the PIN. Fig. 8. Banking with RFID Cards and

Fig. 8. Banking with RFID Cards and RFID mobiles

PERSON IDENTIFICATION In future, people are supposed to inject an RFID chip within the body, used for their identification, as shown in Fig 9. This identity will be used for every transaction to be performed such as purchasing, banking transactions etc. and other places in which identity needs to be authenticated. Mobile phones can be used to track such RFID chip wearing people. The scenario is shown in Fig 10. Every mobile phone can send the ID and information of people around that mobile phone. This information can be sent to NSP from where it can be used for tracking the position of the mobile phone and RFID tag by the RFID reader integrated mobile phone. Top level security is of the highest concern in such a system and is ensured by storing the information on the tags in encrypted form.

by storing the information on the tags in encrypted form. Fig. 9. RFID tag inserted in

Fig. 9. RFID tag inserted in hand

A person having RFID reader might try to read the tag of the other person to obtain his private information

and if permitted to read the ID of the tag then that ID may be misused for other purposes. Such type of intrusion can be prevented by a key system which will be sent from the service provider. This key will be sent to the tags; only then tag will send its information to the reader. This key system will restrict people having RFID reader

mobile phone to read the tags of other people. The reader hardware has to be made in such a way that the


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underlying information doesn’t get in the hands of the mobile phone owner. So the communication between the RFID tag and NSP has to be made secured.

between the RFID tag and NSP has to be made secured. Fig. 10. Mobile integrated with

Fig. 10. Mobile integrated with RFID reader

UNIVERSAL ID Every object can be given an identification code. So, the RFID reader integrated mobile phone can read the RFID tag on an object and send this ID to NSP. The NSP can identify the object and can send a description of that object. This information can then be used for further transactions and other useful processing.


RFID reader integrated mobile phones have got so many advantages to their stride but at the same time this technology is limited by below mentioned factors. Cost involved in integration of RFID readers into mobile phones is the major factor. RFID integrated mobile phone will cost significantly more compared to the normal one, due to the added cost of RFID reader. Increase in size of the mobile phone due to integration of RFID reader also raises a major issue for consideration. As RFID reader uses mobile phone battery power in abundance in reading the tags as compared to running a mobile phone, as a result mobile phone battery backup will decline at a much faster pace. Modern generation batteries tend to be smaller and more powerful still power requirement of RFID reader is significantly higher. Besides having done lot of research in the RFID field, limitation of higher power consumption of RFID tag poses a major concern. Active tags are dependent on battery and thus have a short lifespan. Batteries need to be replaced after their depletion, but for some micro devices of small size, as small as 1mm 3 , it is very difficult or nearly impractical to do it. One of the ways to achieve significant energy utilization was propounded using MEMS energy scavenger, which proposed a model of harnessing vibration energy for the power needs of the device [36]. Whether the power generated is sufficient for the proper working of the device and whether sensors can be connected to their tags, are the areas of major concern in these types of devices. Low cost RFID have very low power at their disposal that also limits their processing power. There is no proper hardware in such RFIDs to handle conventional encryption methods, so an encryption method is needed requiring less resources, but not at the cost of security. TEA algorithm was proposed to forgo limitations of fulfilling low cost RFID requirements. A 0. 21mm 2 RFID implementation of TEA with 0. 35 micrometer CMOS was estimated to consume 7. 37 microwatt of power [37]. Much of research is being done in transponder to increase its range, making it more power efficient and decreasing its size. Inductively powered new transponder based on MEMS was proposed, few millimeters in length operating at 13. 56 – 27 MHz [38]. A low inductance solenoid conductor is used as coupling element. The device can be used at a distance of 10 millimeter. A vital RFID tag storing identification data can be read rapidly and can be traced in open radio frequency environments needing proper security measures [39]. Low cost tags do not provide any type of data access control restricting any unauthorized readers from gaining access to the data. One solution for this problem is that the tag will send its data or information to reader only after proper authentication. An authentication protocol was proposed in which the tag authenticates the reader and the communication is done using stream encryption [39]. However due to lot of processing involved in processing encryption and protocols, most of the RFID devices are not capable of doing large computations. Multiple tags may send information at the same time which can cause collision between different tags and reader and also if more than one tag is in range of the reader than there is an ambiguity that which tag will be read. So, an anti-collision protocol is proposed which avoided collision of tags sending data at the same time [40]. A positioning method was also proposed which could get information from a particular tag when more than one tag is in range of the reader. To purposely block or disturb the operation of a RFID reader active jamming was used in which the user sends an active RFID signal continuously and tags can be deactivated using a “kill command” after which the tag cannot be used anymore and it can not be activated again [41]. This was proposed by the Auto-ID center in MIT by using a metal mesh container or a container made of foil impenetrable by RF waves [42, 43]. The tag can be protected by shielding it from RF waves in a container called Faraday cage [41]. To cope up with many of its


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limitations, RFID technology is being merged with Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) technology, to increase its features and applicability. When combining RFID with WSN technology energy efficiency is one of the major issues to be resolved [3].


RFID is an emerging technology and will improve over time as it can bring about some great breakthroughs commercially. RFID business is facing some challenges today. Until the requirement of RFID grows commercially RFID manufacturing and other middleware software making companies won’t expand their RFID business. There has been some good work in the field of RFID to make it more powerful in the commercial market. A new and more powerful technology would be combining the two, RFID and WSN. RFID integration with WSN can be done in some ways [2], where RFID being used to identify objects while WSN providing context environment information of these objects. Three ways are proposed to merge RFID and WSN by integrating RFID into WSN base station [3]. Zigbee protocol having low power consumption, less memory usage, high reliability was also proposed. Zigbee protocol has the drawback of slow data transfer rate and is not suitable for outdoor environment. EPC Sensor Network (ESN) architecture based on the EPC global architecture was proposed as an integration system of RFID and WSN [2]. To handle large volume of events from distributed sensor readers and RFID, complex event processing is used in ESN middle ware. A new model incorporating integration of RFID and WSN was also proposed in which active RFID tags were used for identification and WSN sensor nodes consisted of RFID reader [44]. In this model the sensor nodes consisted of three parts, a sensing part which senses the environment temperature and other things, a reader which communicates with RFID tags and a transmitter which transmits the data back to station. Lot of research work is going on to bring RFID successfully in the commercial market. In future, small transponders are expected which can work at large range. These transponders will be passive, that is, they will generate power from the incoming signal, from environment or from any other free source. These transponders will be than integrated with other sensors such as temperature or humidity sensors. Such large range and highly efficient transducers will bring a breakthrough in RFID technology. Integration of RFID technology into mobile phones can bring about a revolution. The major challenge in current era is cost of RFID readers. RFID readers cost around thousands of US dollars per reader [45]. The cost of integrating such devices would be even greater. As research and development in RFID reader technology progresses, new innovative manufacturing techniques will emerge over time. The size of mobile phones is small and with integration of RFID reader its size would be considerably increased. Battery consumption of mobile phones also remains a big issue as RFID readers will consume the battery of mobile phones quickly. Low consumption and highly efficient RFID reader devices will be needed if they are to run on a mobile battery backup, and that too with the battery shared with mobile. In future when Nanotechnology becomes more mature, nano-batteries would be used which would be smaller and more efficient. The current work focuses on design and implementation of integration of RFID reader into mobile phones. The middleware software and protocol design for such a system is to be worked upon. The work will also target upon some designs which would use MEMS and Nanotechnology to make these devices smaller and more power efficient. Even if nano-batteries can be successfully integrated in such a design, their cost would still remain a major issue.


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