Animal Who's Who 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Z
Animal Homes 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4
Feeding Time 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 b
Resting Time 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ö
When Winter Comes 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 J
Animal Babies 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 !Ü
Plants That Make Seeds 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 !Z
Trees Through the Year 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 !4
Plants Without Seeds 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 !ö
Flowers 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ZÜ
How Seeds Travel 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ZZ
Why the Wind Blows 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Z4
What Makes It Rain? 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Zö
Snow and Ice 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 JÜ
Rainbow Colors 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 JZ
Light and Shadow 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 J4
The Big Round World 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Jb
Day and Night 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Jö
How Rocks Were Made 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4Ü
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 • _ •_.
o, 0 0, 0 .
¸. 0 .
Pebbles 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 44
Sand and Soil 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4b
Land and Sea 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4ö
A GOLDEN EXPLORING EARTH BOOK
Animals, plants, rocks, gravity, day and night, rain
and snow, the sky and the ocean-with many fascinating
experiments and activities
By Rose Wyler
Illustrations by Marjorie Hartwell and Valerie Swenson
Cover by Rod Ruth
� GOLDEN PRESS
WeStetn |ubIISÞIng OCmþany, lnC. HaCIne, WISCCnSIn
Copyright© TSÏð, TSbÏ by Western Publishing Company, Inc.
PII rights reserved, including the right of reproduction in
whole or in part in any form. Printed in U.U.P.
GOLDEN PRESS@, GOLDEN, and A GOLDEN EXPLORING EARTH BOOK are trademarks DÎ
Western Publishing Company, Inc.
ANIMAL WHO' S WHO
ÌOV NAPY kinds of animals do you
know? You can name more than you
think. You can list many big animals of
the farm and woods and the zoo. You
know the tallest animal, the girafe.
And the biggest animal, the whale.
But remember-there are tiny ani
mals, too. You may not think of an ant
as an animal. But it is one. It is called
an insect. All insects have six legs, and
that is how many an ant has. Count
them and see.
Is a spider an insect? Count its legs.
You will fnd it has eight. A spider is
not an insect. Neither is a thousand
legger. But both are animals.
Some animals have no legs at all.
Worms and snails are legless animals.
So are fsh and snakes.
Some animals have bones. Some do
not; You can think of many animals
with bones. All the fur-bearing ani
mals, all the birds and fsh, all· the
snakes and to
ads and frogs and turtles
have bones. But there are many animals
which have no bones.
Worms have none. Neither do te
insects, spiders, and thousand-leggers.
Animals that live in shells-ams,
oysters, and snails-have no bones.
Then there are animals with hard,
tough skins-the crabs and lobsters.
They have no bones. And jellyfsh and
starfsh have none either.
The smallest animals of all have no
bones. They can be seen only through
a magnifying glass or a microscope.
These smallest animals have no faces,
no arms, no legs. They have no shells,
no feathers, no fur, no skin. They are
like tiny drops of jelly.
Why are they all called animals?
All animals are alike in some ways.
They all breathe. They all eat. And
they all have young that grow up to be
like their parents.
In fhe desed. Here an owl lives in a cactus, a snake under
a rock, and prairie dogs in a burrow.
P WILD animal's home is the place
where it feeds and rests. This may be
a feld of grass or a patch of dirt under
neath a big stone. It may be a pond or
a desert, a hot jungle or the frozen
The animals that live in cold places
have thick coats of fur or fufy feat
ers that keep them warm. In deserts,
many animals have scaly skins which
protect them from dryness. Most sea
shore animals have shells which keep
their bodies moist when the tide goes
In o ñeld. This feld mouse lives among the tall grasses.
Af fhe pond. Chipmunks have tunneled among the tree
roots, and a bird has nested on a branch. Fish and snails
are at home near the bottom of the pond. The frog and
the turtle spena-time both in and out of the water. The
dragonfy spends much of its time in the air.
Many animals spend some time m
shelters. There they hide or rest or raie
their young. Bears, coyotes, bobcats,
and mountain lions use ready-made shel
ters. These may be caves or tree hollows.
Some animals, such as prairie dogs
and ground squirrels, dig underground
burrows. These may have several doors
and rooms connected by tunnels.
The home of many spiders n a web.
This web acts as a net to catch insects,
which the spider eats.
A cleve digge. Te trapdor spider lives in a silk-lined
rom with a dor that ñh exacly.
Along the bech. Here (left to right) are a turtle, fsh,
shellfsh, a starfsh, and a crab-all at home along the sea
shore. Above fy their neighbors, the gulls.
Winter homes. The bear sleeps in the tree, but the deer
and the wolf stay awake and hunt food. The squirrel has
a store of nuts in the tree.
Nibblers. Squirrels, chipmunks, and feld mice eat all day.
Big eaters. Mountain lions and coyotes hunt other ani
mals. When they catch one, they eat all they can hold.
Days may pass before they eat again.
VlLDANlMALS do not eat tree meals
a day. Birds and many small frry ani
mals, such as squirrels, feed nearly all
day long. Oter animals, such as moun
tain lions and coyotes, eat only once in
Some animals, such as snakes, do not
get hungry often. They eat about once
a week in warm weather, and in cold
weather even less. They feed on in
sects, worms, frogs, and mice.
No animal eats as many kinds of
food as you do. Few tes of animals
like to eat both plant and animal food.
Some, such as the mountain lion, eat
only meat. They have sharp teeth and
claws for tearing their food.
Others eat only plants. Deer and
sheep could not easily eat raw meat if
they tried. They have fat teeth that are
good for grinding plants.
Birds have no teeth at all. They
swallow their food whole. Insects, too,
get along witout teet.
Every animal must eat. Ad ever
animal has some way of getting food.
Oncea-week eater. A mouse may be enough to satisfy
a snake's hunger for a
Iæh Þnd cÎÞW8. Above you see the
skull, head, and foot of a mountain lion.
Tese show the teeth ond claws wich this
animal uses to tear its food. Te same
parts of a deer's body (below) mW that
this gentle animal is a vegetable eater, not
Ms. ÞÎf08 W mmm are exper at pf ng
f p The duck's broad, fat bill Î8 h0ndÿ for
sog up Insects m m water. The long
sharp m help å birds M catch m In m air.
hard litle jaws m gramppers,
bite Õ ma leaf Õf stem.
b0ckÎÞ@ M- M M m a buterf
is a long tube. Tgh W m m
sucb nectar from fowers.
ËgØ& Ihot H Open
ÌINbING FOOb n the main job of most
animals. When they are not eating,
Some animals, like people, sleep at
night and eat during the day. Others do
just the opposite. They rest during the
day in a cool, dark place. At night they
go out for food. Field mice, kangaroo
rats, and other small animals feel safer
in the dark.
In the deep water there is little change
from day to night. In the ocean' s depths,
it n always dark. The fsh and other sea
animals that live here do not have night
and day. They just eat for a while, then
rest, and then eat again.
When fsh rest, some go to the bot-
tom. Others rest in the water, moving
their fns slightly to keep themselves
steady. They do not even close their
eyes. They cannot, because they have
Many animals do not sleep. They just
rest without shutting their eyes. In fact,
only animals with fur have eyelids like
yours. Birds, frogs, and turtles have a
third eyelid that n thin and transparent.
These lids protect the eyes but do not
keep out light.
Most animals lie down to rest if they
can. But birds can' t lie down. Most birds
perch on branches of trees. They fuf
out their feathers. They tuck down
their heads. And they rest very well.
WHEN WINTER COMES
WM1Î ¾ÏÎ¯1M comes, plants stop
growing. Most tree drop their leaves.
Many fowers and grases die, but their
seeds �re under the leave or snow.
Anial, too, get ready for winter. In
the fall, squirrel and chipmunks hide
nuts to eat during the winter. Field mice
store seeds. When deer can no longer
fnd leaves, they will eat the bark and
twigs of trees.
Many animals do not hunt food in
winter. They crawl into underground
burrows, caves, or hollow tree trunks for
their winter sleep. Insects may sleep in
crack in logs or rocks.
Fish and some other water animal
swim around all winter. Only the top of
the water turns to ice. Under the ice,
life goes on.
In spring the ice melts. The frozen
earth thaws. New plant grow from the
hidden seeds. Tree send out new buds
and leaves. Animal come out of their
winter sleep, and, once again, they can
fnd plenty of food.
Wínfer homes. Deer search for food in the snow-covered
woods. While the bear sleeps i n his cave, the feld mouse
scampers into a hole in a log. The beaver swims to the
underwater entrance of his lodge i n the pond. The fsh
keep active near the bottom. Turtles and frogs, deep i n
the mud, are i n their winter sleep.
Moter grasshopper lays eggs. Baby grasshopper hatches from egg. Young grasshopper and adult lok for fod.
ÀANYANIMALbabies grow up without
a mother's loving care. Many of them
never even see their mothers.
This is true of insects. If a baby
grasshopper met its mother in a feld,
it would not know her. In the fall, a
mother grasshopper lays her eggs in a
tiny hole in the ground or in soft wood.
Then of she goes.
·Months later, when the weater
ts warm, the eggs hatch. The young
grasshoppers that come from the eggs
can take care of themselves. They can
jump around and get their own food.
They need no help.
Nearly all water animal have young
that shift for themselves. These ani
mals, like fsh, lay jelly-covered eggs
on water plants. Then they leave them.
If you keep snails in an aquarium, you
will surely see their eggs. They look
like dark dots in a drop of clear jelly.
In the sring, you may fnd some
frogs' eggs near the edge of a quiet
pond. The eggs are ball-shaped and
covere with colorless jelly. Tiny tad
poles hatch from them. They look ad
live like fsh for a while.
Eggs of land anmals-mainly birds
and tutlesare covered with tough
skin or shell. This covering keeps the
inside of the eggs moist.
Eggs of wate animals. Under the goldfsh (lower left) are some fsh eggs. At center are some frogs
eggs. Notice the four stages that a frog goes trough before it grows up. The snails (at right) also lay eggs.
Eggs are laid by the mother bird in a
carefully built nest.
The mother sits on the eggs to keep them Before leaving home, the baby bird
warm until they hatch. must learn to perch, fy, and get food.
The mother trtle covers her round
white eggs with leaves or dirt. Then
she leaves them. When the young
hatch, they waddle of to hunt for food.
Animals that do not take care of
their babies usually have a great many.
Fish lay hundreds of eggs, but most of
these or the little fsh that hatch from
eggs are eaten by other animals.
Birds lay their eggs in a nest and sit
on them. They keep the eggs warm
until they hatch. Then the parents feed
the babies and teach them to fy.
Almost all fur-bearing animals do not
lay eggs. The mothers give birth to ba
bies and feed them milk. These babies
get a lot of care and training. You may
have watched a mother cat with her
kittens or a dog with her puppies.
Just think how much care human
mothers must give their babies. They
feed their babies and keep them warm
and safe. Human mothers also train
their babies for many years. That is
because human babies have so much to
Find some frogs' eggs. Put them in a big
glass jar or tank flled with water and plants
from a pond. When the eggs hatch into tad
poles, watch them care for themselves
S s of many ki nds. An oak tree's seeds are acorns.
A apple tree's seeds are in the core of the apple.
Te seeds of grasses are very small, and you may need a
magnifer m get a god lok at tem.
PLANTS THAT MAKE SEEDS
THE PLANT you know best have big,
bright fowers. You know many plants
with small, dull fowers, too. Perhaps
you never noticed their blossoms.
Grasses have fowers. They are tiny
and green. Most trees have fowers,
too. You know apple blossoms and the
fowers of other fruit trees. But do you
know the fowers of the oak? They are
small and green. They bloom in the
Little fowers as well as big fowers
make seeds. Grass seeds are as small as
dust secks. Oak seeds are much big
ger. You have seen them many times
you call them acorns. Apple seeds are
not so big. Bite into the core of Û
apple and you will fnd some.
In each of these seeds, there is a baby
plant. There also is food for it.
Pine and fr trees make seeds, too.
But they do not bloom. Tey make
their seeds in cones. So they are called
cone-bearing plants. The other kinds of
plants that make sees are called fow
ering plant. -
Both cone-bearing and fowering
plants have roots, stems, and leaves.
The root anchors the plant. It also
takes in water and other needed tngs
from te soil. The stem connects te
root and leave.
Leaves are like kitchens. Tiny pipes
in the stem bring the leaf water. In
stead of windows, tiny holes let in air
and sunlight. The air is mixed with
water and other materials. The green
coloring in the leaves-chlorophyll
acts as the cook. With the help of
WATcH SEEDs FoRM
Pick diferent kinds of fowers and put
them in water. In each fower, fnd the place
where the seeds are formed.
LOK INSIDE THE SEEDS
Take some fairly big seeds and soak them
overight. Try beans, peas, and cor. Cut
them in half and see the baby plant inside.
LOK AT A LEAF WITH A MAGNIFYING GLASS
Try to fnd the tiny holes through which
the leaf breathes. Look on the underside of
the leaf for them. See how the leaf veins
sunlight, it turns air and water into a
sugary mixture. This is the plant's food.
Leaves use some of the food they
make. The rest goes through veins into
the stem. The stem uses some of the
food. All that is left goes to the roots.
They use some and store the rest.
TREES THROUGH THE YEAR
ÍAVE YOU ever tried to climb the stem
of a tree? Of course you have. For a
tree's stem is its trunk.
Trees are like other plants that grow
from seeds. They have roots, stems,
and leaves. But they are. diferent in
that they may live for many years. No
oter plants are as hardy as trees.
Each of the main parts of a tree has
some way of living through m er
heat and winter cold. The upper sec
tion of the root has a tough skin that
keeps it from freezing or drying out.
The root tips reach deep into the
ground. There the soil does not freeze,
and there they can fnd water all year.
The bark protects the tru nk,
branches, and twigs. Between the bark
and the wood is a green layer. Small
tubes run through it. These tubes carry
down to the root the food made by the
leaves. The food that is not used by the
root n stored. Other small tubes run
through the wood and carry water from
the root to the leaves.
Evergreen trees, such as pine and
sruce, have leaves shaped like needles.
These are covered with an oily skin
which keeps them from freezing or
drying. Crush some and they feel oily.
Notice their nice smell. That comes
from their oil.
A MAFL6 Ik66
Lælu L�1u LæIuewmu,
Other kinds of trees prepare for
winter by shedding their leaves. Late
in m er, the bottom of each leaf
stem begins to harden. Less and less
water passes from the twig into the
leaf. The leaf begins to lose its green
While the leaves are drying, they
DM yellow, red, purple, and brown.
Soon after these beautifl colors ap
pear, winds tear the withered leaves
from their twigs. Strong gusts blow
It buds ready, an apple tree
waits m spring.
New leaves wil be•ready to take te
place of the old ones. Tey are hdden
in buds, covere wit tick coats. Te
buds were made in te mCÏ.
Wen sring comes, sap rises from
the roots. It goes into te buds. Tey
swell and grow. Suddely tey op.
Out come te new leaves.
Flowers come from. te buds too.
Soon sees start to form. But tey
ripen slowly. Many kinds fall to te
ground in auO and lie tere tough
the winter. When sring comes, tey
Some seeds do not get far from teir
parent trees. Tey become seelings
th�t live for just a few years. Tey die
because they canot get enough m¬
Other seelings grow and grow.
They live for many, many years and
become great, beautifl trees.
In late summer and fall, te
apples are picked and te
GRow YouR OwN TREES
You can plant tree seelings in fower
pots and watch them grow. Spring is a goo
time to do this.
In the fall you can plant grapefruit or
orange seeds in a little fower pot. You will
soon have seedlings of your own.
Summer is the time to start a leaf collec
tion. Place your leaves between sheets of
newspaper. Pile heavy books on top of the
sheets, to keep the leaves fat. When the
leaves are dry, mount them on stif paper.
In autumn and winter, you can collect
twigs. Look for scars along the sides of the
twigs. They mark the places where leaves
grew. The skin coveri ng the scars formed
in the fall. It stopped water from reaching
Look for buds on twigs, too. They are at
the tips and near the scars.
In early spring, bring the twigs of difer
ent trees indoors and keep them in water,
in a warm place. Then watch the buds open.
You will have many surprises.
PLANTS WITHOUT SEEDS
on separate stalk.
ÍAVLYOU ever seen some brown pow
der on the underside of a fer leaf?
Specks of this powder can start new
Each seck is a spore. There is no
food in it-just te begining of a new
Although fers never make seeds,
they are like fowering plants in many
ways. They have roots, stems, and
leaves. Some grow so tall they are
called tree fers.
Mosses grow from sores, too. But
tey have no roots. Instead they have
tiny hairs which hold them in place.
A little stalk serves as the stem. From
it grow leafets and tiny cases which
hold the sores.
Seaweeds and pond scum belong in
anoter group of plants tat start from
sores. These plants are called algae.
They have no roots, stems, or leaves.
Yet they can make food from air and
water, for they have chlorophyll.
Pond scums are commo kinds of al gae.
Sme plants have no chlorophyll. b
they L ot make food. They live on
dead things rotten wood, drie leaves,
decaying fruit. ²ÜÏC fngus plants.
MAKE A SPORE PRINT
Use a mushroom for this. First spread a
thin coat of a glue and watr mixture on a
piece of cardboard. Remove the stem of the
mushroom. Prop up the cap with toothpicks
and set it on the cardboard. Cover the cap
with a glass dish. Let it stand overight.
Millions of spores will fall and leave their
prints on the sticky paper.
GRow BREAD MoLD
Set a piece of fresh bread on some alumi
num foil. Let it stay in the open air for an
hour. Some mold spores will fall on it. Then
cover the bread and look at it every day.
Soon one or more molds will be growing
MAKE A Moss GARDEN
Cover the bottom of a big glass jar with
some sand. Then put moss and the soil in
which it is growing on top. Plant several
mosses in the garden. Moisten the soil.
Cover the top of the jar with a piece of
glass or foil. This will keep it from drying.
Each plat M ÍtOm a little spore.
A mushroom t8 a btg mg8. Molds
are fngus plants, too. They M up
dead plants and other wastes.
BRIGH-COLORED petals are the most
beautifl parts of the fower. But the
most usefl and interesting parts are
those that make seeds.
The colored petals attract bees and
other insects. The insects come to sip
the sweet juice, called nectar. This is
at the center of the fower. As insects
come and go from fower to fower,
they help make the seeds.
Look inside a tulip or poppy fower.
In the center there are many thin stalks
with little cases at their tips. These
cases hold a powder called pollen.
|nsecls lokÍng neclor
PARTS OF A FLOWER
At the center of the petals n a small
green case with a sticky top. Within the
tiny green case are unripe seeds. Before
they grow, the seeds must be touched
b¡ pollen grains from the same kind
That is where insects help. As the
insect goes after the sweet juice, the
powdery pollen sticks to its legs and
body. On goes the . bee to another
fower. And there some pollen from
te frst blossom rubs of onto the
sticky, green seed case.
Insect visitors may stop at more than
one kind of fower. So they often carry
pollen from diferent kinds of fowers.
But only poppy pollen can ripen the
seeds in the poppy seed case. Only
tulip pollen can ripen the seeds in the
tulip seed case.
Some plants have two kinds of fow
ers. One has pollen. The other has the
seed case. Nearly all of these plants
depend on the wind to carry pollen to
the seed case. They do not have bIg,
bright petals. After all, they do not
need to attract insects.
When pollen reaches the seed case,
the seeds begin to ripen. Then the work
of the petals is done. The petals dry
and drop of. But the seeds grow bigger
in their seed case.
You have seen the small seed pods of
some fowers. But do you know what
the seed case of the apple fower looks
like? It is the whole apple. The seed
pod of the oak fower is the acorn
shell. The nut inside is the seed.
Inside every seed pod are seed� from
which new plants can grow.
Appl e seeds form in the center of a
large feshy fruit.
The shell of an acorn is a seed case. The nut inside is a seed.
The nut meat in a walnut pod is stored
food. It is used by the seed for growth.
HOW SEEDS TRAVEL
Poppy se case
Tulip se case
Milkwee sees ore like parachutes.
SEED must be scattered. If tey all
just fell to the ground near the parent
plant, there would be no room for them
The poppy has a seed case that works
like a salt shaker. It has many little
holes under its cap. As the case sways
in the wind, seeds are shaken out and
The tulip seed case splits open. Then
the seeds pop out.
Many small seeds are scattered by
the wind. Grass seeds are so light that
just a gentle breeze can lift and carry
them a long way.
Some heavier seeds are also spread
by the wind. Milkweed and dandelion
have tiny parachutes of fuf that keep
them in the air for a while.
Others sail through the air on wings.
Maple, elm, and ash tree seeds do this.
Nu ore carried away by squirrels.
But many of the heavier seeds are
carrie around by animals or people.
Some have tiny hooks or burs which
stick to fr, feathers, and clothing.
Nuts are carrie away by squirrels
ÖÏ chipmunks who often bury them
and te forget about them.
L k for see ps in the summer and
fall. Keep the seed pos in small bags or cel
lophane envelopes. Oterise d pd may
pp open and you may lose te seeds.
For a display, mount the sees on card
bard. Cover them with cellophane. Then
tape down the cellophane.
Many seeds ore carried of by birds.
Birds and other creatures that nbble
at fruits and berries help in scattering
The seeds of water plants must be
scattered too. Those of water llies are
b:ilt like little boats. They foat away
from teir parents to fnd new homes.
After the water has ben soake up, OI
te glass upside down. Seedling stems will
twist to reach up. Rots will reach down.
WHY THE WIND BLOWS
TA a clean glass from the cupboard
shelf. Is it empty? It looks empty. You
cannot see anything in it. But it is
really fll-fll of air.
Air is all around you. It is pressing
on you right this minute. The reason
why you do not feel this pressure is
tat air is inside you as well as outside.
The pressing from the outside balances
the pressing from the inside.
But there are times when you do feel
the air. When air moves gently against
you, you feel a breeze. When it moves
more strongly, you feel a wind.
You can put air into things such as
a balloon or a tire. You can let it out.
But you cannot see air, because it is
made of tiny, tiny, colorless particles.
The particles are not all alike. They
are bits of diferent gases. You know
the name of one of these gases-oxy
gen. We must breathe oxygen to keep
Aother gas in the air is water in the
form of particles too small to see.
Tey are called water vapor. Hang
up some wet clotes and they dry. The
water ts to water vapor and sreads
through the air. It evaporates.
When air moves from one place to
another, there is a wind. Blow on
your hand, wave your arm, or t on
a fan. As the air moves past you, you
feel a small wind-a breeze.
You can also make air move if you
use heat. When air is heated, the par
ticles move faster. They spread farther
apart. And this makes the air thinner.
The thin, warm air becomes lighter
than cooler air around it. Up, up it
goes, foating above the tick, cold air.
The warm air above a hot stove or
radiator always rises. Then, as it cools
of, it comes down. The particles draw
together and the air becomes tcker.
But how do winds start outdoors?
Heat from the m starts them.
The m warms some places more
than others. At a beach on a warm,
b y day, the sand heats up. But the
water stays cool. The sand acts like a
stove, heating the air above it. Up goes
this air, whil
cool air from over the
water moves in to take its place. And
this is what makes a wind start.
The warm air particles lose speed as
tey climb. They draw closer to
gether, so the air becomes heavier.
Down it goes, taking the place of
cool air moving toward the beach.
But the hot sand heats the air again.
It rises. Up, down, and up it goes, over
and over again. And so the wind keeps
Use square of fairly strong paper, : inch
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points which have dots. Run
pin through center.
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SEE WARM Am RisE
Take a thin, soft paper napkin. Cut a
strip about one inch wide and three inches
long. Fringe one end. Stick the point of a
pencil through the other end. Now you have
a little fag. Hold it over a hot toaster. Ris
ing warm air pushes up the fag and makes
it futter. Set the fag near the bottom of the
toaster and it stops futtering.
CoLD AIR MovEs, To
Place the little fag on the foor in front
of the refrigerator door. When you open
the door, cold air pours out. See how the
The roín. The water turns to vapor and rises to the sky, as the arrows show. Then the vapor becomes drops of cool rain.
WHAT MAKES IT RAIN?
bIRANGL though it may seem, the sun
makes it rain. Water must frst go up
into the air before it can come down.
And it is warmth from the sun that
The sun shines on the oceans, on lakes,
and on rivers. Water vapor forms and
spreads through the air.
Warm air can hold a great deal of
water vapor, but cold air cannot hold
so much. When warm, moist air cools,
some of its water vapor turns to liquid.
Little droplets form and make clouds.
If the clouds are chilled, then rain may
fall from them.
On a warm day, air often rises. While
rising, it cools. Its water vapor turns into
droplets. Pufy little clouds form. More
and more air rises and cools. The clouds
grow. Soon they cover the sky.
The drops of water in the clouds grow
bigger, too. When they are too big to
foat in the air, down comes the rain. The
big drops splash against the ground.
The rain cools the air, and the air
stops rising. No more water vapor comes
to the clouds, so they stop growing, and
soon the storm is over. The sun comes
out again and begins once more to warm
MAKE A LITTLE RAINSTORM
Heat some water in an open pot. The
water turs to gas and spreads through the
warm air above the pot. When the warm air
rises and cools, a cloud forms.
Catch the cloud in a clean glass jar.
Drops of water from the cloud settle on the
cold glass. They run into each other and
make bigger drops. Soon they drip down
the jar like rain.
PULL WATER FROM THE AIR
Fill a tin cup with ice cubes. Soon the
outside of the cup will be covered with
drops of water.
Dry the cup. More drops will form. But
the cup does not leak. The water must come
from the air. When water. vapor in the air
is chilled, it turns into liquid water. This
happens when water vapor touches the cold
9 cans of snow I can of wa
SNOW AND ICE
SNOW comes from cold, moist air. The
snowfakes form when water vapor
trns into ice without frst turning into
liquid. The snowfakes are really little
ice crystals, each with six sides.
The smallest snowfakes are made of
single crystals. Sometimes they fall.
But if gusts of air hold them up, they
grow into bigger fakes. The big fakes
have six sides, too. They look like
dainty pieces of lace.
Air flls the space between the cry
stals of the bigger fakes. The air
makes them light for their size. So
they fall slowly and land quietly.
A blanket of snow is really a blanket
of fuf. There is more air in it than
water. You must melt nine or ten cups
of snow to get one cup of water.
Ice that covers the ground or a pond
is as hard as a rock. It forms when
liquid water freezes. It also is made of
crystals. But the crystals are so close
together that you can't tell where one
ends and the next begins.
Sometimes snow melts, then freezes
again as ice. This often happens on
snowy roads. Passing cars press on the
snow and this makes it melt. If the air
is cold enough, the water freezes again
when the car has passed by. Thus the
road becomes icy.
When you make a snowball, the
heat and pressure of your hands melt
some of the fakes. The water quickly
freezes to ice, which acts like glue.
Then the fakes stick together and
make a frm ball.
In cold weather we sometimes have
sleet. It is made of solid ice-not fufy
fakes. Sleet forms when rain drops
pass through cold air and freeze.
Winter may bring glaze, too. Glaze
is an icy covering that forms on very
cold objects when rain falls on them.
Glaze can be beautifl, but it makes
streets and sidewalks slippery. Its
weight also may damage trees and
Sow crystals seen
through a magnifer
In summer, ice may fall from te
sky. This is hail. Hailstones for high
above the eart where there are cold
winds. First, a raindrop freezes. It is
tossed by the winds and QÌasho wm
more water. This also fJeezes.
In tis way, layer upon layer OÍice
is adde, and te hailstone may become
as big as an egg. Finally it falls to
earth. Large hailstones may damage
crops, trees, and greenhouses.
Thousands of snow
on a w
NEAR the end of a rain shower, you
sometimes see the m. If you ÎÏ
away from it, you may see a beautifl
rainbow in the sky.
Every rainbow has the same colors
in it: red, orange, yellow, green, blue,
and violet. These colors are always in
sulight. When they are mixed, they
do not show. But when sunlight goes
into raindrops, the colors are sepa
rated. They come out one at a time.
Then you see them.
Colors are made only when objects
give of light. In the dark, there are no
Light is never still. It travels in waves
that are like the waves in a pond. But
light waves are not all the same. The
longest waves are the ones we see as
red light. The next longest waves are
orange. Then come yellow, green,
blue, and violet. When all six kinds of
waves mix, they make white. Other
mixtures make other colors.
If an object looks red, it is giving of
waves of red light. It may make this
light or refect it from something else.
But most red objects do neither. When
white light shines on them, they soak
up all but the red waves. They refect
these and so they look red. Other col
ors also form in these three ways.
A rainbow. The colors made by sunli ght shining through raindrops are beautiful.
MAKE A RAINBOW
Tum on a garden hose. Stand with your
back to the sun. Hold the hose so that sun
light goes through the spray. You will see
the rainbow colors.
Hold a cut-glass crystal in sunlight. The
crystal will work as the raindrops do. It
will sort out the colors in sunlight.
MAKE A RAINBOW MIXER
If you mix light from rainbow colors, you
will get white, the color of sunlight.
Cut a cardbard circle fve inches wide.
Pnch two holes near the center. Coat the
eges of the holes with glue or shellac. Let
Cut another circle the same size from
white paper. Color this circle like the one
in the picture. Paste it on the cardboard.
Punch two holes in it by pushing a pencil
pint through the holes in the cardboard.
Thread about four feet of string through
each of the two holes. Tie the ends together
Now place the wheel in the middle and
hold the string by the ends. Twirl the wheel
until the string is tightly tisted. Now pull
the string. Watch the wheel spin.
See what happens to the rainbow colors
as they mix. They OI to gray-almost
white. If the colors were pure, they would
tum pure white.
Above the clouds and rai n. The airliner's shadow falls on top of the clouds. The underside of the clouds i s dark.
LIGHT AND SHADOW
THE SU shines every day. But some
days you cannot see it. Thick clouds
hide the sun.
If you fy above those clouds in an
airlane, you see the sun above them.
Its light makes the top of the clouds
look pearly white.
From the ground, you see only the
bottom of the clouds. That part looks
gray because sunlight can not reach it.
Sometimes clouds cast shadows on
the ground. Anything that keeps light
from going through it makes a shadow.
On a sunny day, you fnd a shadow,
or shade, under a leafy tree. The
leaves and branches stop sunlight from
reaching the ground.
A house casts a shadow. In the mor
ing, the sun is in the east. Its rays fall
on the east side of the house. But they
cannot go through. bo thc vcst sìdc ís
Welcome shadows. We are glad for te shadows of
trees O a hot day.
Shadows thrugh the day. Shadows are long at sunrise, shor at noon, and long again when the sun sets.
in shadow. In the afteroon, the sun is
in the western sky. Its rays fall on the
west side of the house. But they cannot
go trough. O the east side is in
People used to tell time by shadows.
They would set up a stick and watch
its shadow shorten and lengthen and
move. The stick was called a shadow
clock or sun dial.
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Telling time. Te moving
shadow of a sundial tells
THE BI G ROUND WORLD
IN THE sky is a great big ball of rock.
Water, sand, and soil cover most of the
rock. Green plants grow in the soil.
And animals crawl among the plants.
Some creatures walk about on two
legs. They speak diferent languages.
How can you see this wonderful
place? Just look around you. It is the
From the ground, you cannot see
how the earth is shaped. When you
look across felds, the land seems fat.
When you look at the sea, the water
seems fat. You are looking at only a
small part of the big earth. And a
small part of a big ball looks fat.
Yet there is a way to tell the earth
i s round. At the seashore, you often
see a distant ship. Only the top shows.
The lower part is hidden by the earth's
curve. If the earth were fat, you could
see the whole ship.
Anything fat has ends. But the
earth has no ends. People can travel
all around the world.
No one ever falls of. A strong force
pulls everyone and everything down
toward the earth's center. This force
Anyone who jumps must work
against gravity. Anyone who falls is
pulled down by gravity.
This force holds down sand and soil .
It keeps water from spilling out of
the sea. Without gravity, everything
would fy away.
Proving the world is round. As a ship sails away, more and more of it becomes hidden by the curve of the earth.
� � � m
Oop1-o gravit! Without gravity, everything on the earth would be
trow of into space, just as mud is trown of a whirling wheel.
VuY Tu£ LnkTu b££ms ltni
Take three balls of diferent sizes. With
a tape measure, mark of a one-inch line on
each ball. Run your fnger over the lines.
Notice that the line on the biggest ball
cures the least. On a huge ball, like the
earth, a line a mile long has only a very
slight curveso slight that it doesn' t show.
A burÞ AT SEA
Make a little paper boat. Then ask a
friend to move it on a globe. Stand on the
opposite side of the globe. Watch the ship
sail toward you. You see the top frst, just
as you do when a distant ship sails into port.
DAY AND NI GHT
LUR EARTH is never still. It is always
spinning in the sky. Round and round
it goes, like a top.
The earth spins so steadily we never
feel it turn. Each spin takes the same
time-24 hours. In that time, we have
a day and a night. The earth turns us
toward the sun, then away from it.
When our side of the earth is toward
the sun, we get some of its light. We
have day. But the other side is dark.
There it is night.
We have night when our side of the
earth is away from the sun. Then the
other side has day.
Long ago, people thought something
happened to the sun at night. People
who lived near the sea thought the sun
fell into the water. Those who lived
near hills thought the sun hid behind
But now we know the sun is always
in the sky. We see the sun rise as our
part of the earth turns toward it. And
we see the sun set as we turn away
from it. Sunlight cannot go through the
earth. So one part is always covered
with a big shadow. This shadow makes
night. The pictures above show how
the shadow travels around the world.
SEE OnY ADO Ptoui
Get a globe. Use a piece of tape to stick See how the shadow of the marker moves.
a small marker on the land where you live. It moves from side to side. It grows shorter
Get a fashlight. Then darken the room. and longer again. That' s how shadows move
Tur on the fashlight. Pretend it is the sun. on the spinning earth. When the marker is
Now spin the globe. in darkness, your home is having night.
HOW ROCKS WERE MADE
bOCK that is part of the earth's crust
has a special name. It is called bedrock.
Near your house, you may fnd only
one kind of bedrock. Perhaps you will
fnd some bedrock with a streak of dif
ferent rock running through it. Or you
may see two kinds of bedrock side by
side. Along a clif or canyon wall, you
may see layers of diferent rock piled
one on top of the other.
Stones are pieces of broken bedrock.
They are crumbs of the earth's crust.
In most places, all the stones are made
of the same kind of rock. They come
from the top layer of bedrock.
It's fn to pick up stones and see if
they match the bedrock. In some kinds
of rock, you fnd pretty glassy crystals.
Other kinds of rocks have no crystals.
You may fnd a speckled rock, made
of dark and light crystals. This is prob
ably granite. Perhaps you will fnd
some gneiss (say it like "nce") . This
rock is also made of dark and light
crystals. These form thick bands.
Or you may discover a rock called
schist. This is a faky rock made of
little crystals in thin sheets. Some of
the crystals sarkle.
A white, yellow, gray, or blush
rock without crystals may be lime
stone. Rock made of little sand grain
Slate breaks into thin sheets. It is
gray, red, green, or purple. Another
rock that breaks into tin sheets is
Fossils These three pieces of rock have imprints of plants. The middle piece also has te shells of prehistoric shellfsh.
shale. It is found in the same colors as
slate. But it is softer. It may crumble
in your hand.
Rocks such as sandstone, limestone,
and shale often have traces of strange
plants and animals in them. These
traces are called fossils.
All rocks with fossils were made
from sand, mud, or other soft, wet
material. Dead plants and animals were
covered by these materials and decayed
slowly. New layers of earth piled on
top of old ones and pressed down on
them. Slowly the lower layers ted
Meanwhile, water, carrying miner
als, dripped through the layers. Some
of the minerals flled little saces left
by the decayed plants and animals. In
time, minerals replaced every part of
their bodies. And so they became fossils.
Rocks made of crystals have no fos
sils, for they formed in a diferent way.
Some are parts of the earth's crust that
were once very hot. In some places,
the hot material souted from vol
canoes as lava. In others, it cooled
inside the earth before it could get out.
Most rocks that you see were under
ground for ages. Layers of soil covered
them. But rivers, rain, and wind slowly
worked on the layers and wore them
away. Now rock that was once buried
is part of the earth's upper crust.
OPEN IV STONES
To see what is inside a stone, break it.
Put it in a paper bag. Then hit it with a
hard stone or a heavy hammer.
START A SToNE CoLLECTION
Look for stones wherever you go. Keep
diferent kinds in an egg carton or in a tool
box. Or stick them on a board with a dab
The eah's crust. If you could dig deep enough, you would fnd layers and layers of bedrock under the soil.
WHAT I S I NSIDE THE EARTH?
DID YOU ever dig a deep hole? Perhaps
you tried to dig to China. But you
gave up, for digging is hard work.
What would you fnd if you kept on
digging? After te soil you might fnd
sand. Sooner or later you would come
Rock is always under you. Even
when you sail in a boat, rock is under
you. The bottom of a river, a lake, or
the sea may be covered with mud or
sand. But under that lies hard rock.
A shell of hard rock covers the
whole earth. We call this shell the
earth' s crust. In some places the crust
shows. Rock sticks out of the ground.
It forms hills, clifs, and mountains.
But most of the crust is hidden.
The earth' s hard crust vari es i n
thickness, and no one really knows j ust
what is under it. As men go down into
deep mines, they fnd te earth be
comes hotter and hotter. Way down, it
-must be hot enough to melt rock. Prob
ably that' s what is inside the earth
The deepest holc made so far is an
oil well. It goes down about fve miles.
Five miles is only a small part of the
way to the earth' s center. From the
outside to the center is +,000 miles.
In the earth's crust there are many
deep cracks. Sometimes a big chunk of
the crust will sink a little and other
chunks around it will rise. The earth
trembles. We feel an earthquake.
Volcanoes start when melted rock
creeps up through cracks in the crust.
If the melted rock fnds an opening in
the earth's surface, it will fow out. If
it fnds no opening, it may burst out
with a big explosion.
Undw the erh's crust. The outside shell of the earth is mostly granite. Next is a shel l of heavi er, darker rock cal l ed
basalt. The core of the earth is probabl y mel ted ni ckel and iron, but no steam shovel can di g down far enough to get it!
This great block of bedrock remained after softer bedrock
around it was worn away.
LooK FOR THE EARTH' s CRUST
I f workmen are digging near your house,
watch the hole grow. Maybe the workmen
will strike rock.
When you go for a walk, watch for
places where the road cuts through the
rock. Also look along the sides of clifs,
hills, and canyons for rock.
This cave formed as water seeped through l i mestone and
dissolved away some parts of it.
THE PEBßLES along a beach come from
clifs near the edge of the sea. Pieces
of rock break of the clifs and fall into
the water. Waves toss them about.
The pieces break into smaller and
smaller stones. The stones bash into
each other. And they crash against the
clifs. Their sharp edges are knocked
of. The waves pick up sand, and the
sand rubs against the stones. This
makes them smooth.
You can fnd pebbles in streams and
along the banks of rivers, too. Running
water often carries stones and sand.
The stones bounce against each other
while sand scours them. The bouncing
and scouring turn them into smooth,
It is m to make a collection of
pebbles. In a short walk along the sea
shore, you may fnd dozens of diferent
kinds. The big pebbles are very hand
some, but smaller ones are better for a
collection. Mount each pebble with a
dab of glue on a sheet of plywood.
How can there be so many diferent
kinds of pebbles along a seashore? Here
there were once layers and layers of
rock containing many kinds of miner
als. From those layers of rock came
the many kinds of pebbles.
When at the seashore, watch how the
waves keep washing the pebbles back
and forth. This goes on for hundreds
and thousands of years. The pebbles
will some day be worn to sand.
Ku× A PEBBLE ìncioeY
Get some small stones with sharp edges.
Put them in a cofee can and cover them
with water. Put the lid on the can. Shake it
Ì ÛÛ times. Ask each of your friends to shake
it Ì ÛÛ times. Then see if the stones are
rounder. It takes a l ong time to make
smooth pebbles from rough stones . But this
takes a long time outdoors, too.
Beach sand. A waves grind pebbl es against each other, beach sand is made.
SAND AND SOI L
WHERE lLL all the sand on a beach
come from? The sand grains are little
pieces of rock. They are pieces that
were chipped of larger pieces.
Desert sand forms in a diferent way.
Very few plants grow in a desert. In
many places, big bare rocks rise above
the ground. Now and then, there is
some rain. The water gathers in cracks
and hollows of the rocks. Gases of the
air mix with it. This mixture slowly
eats into the rocks and makes· tem
Bit by bit, the rocks wear away.
A little sand forms. Winds pick it up
and hul it against the rocks. Chips are
knocked of the rocks. These chips are
sand grains. They help make more
sand as winds blow them about.
Nothing can grow in plain beach or
desert sand. The water runs right
through it when there is rain. The
Deser sand. Air, water, and wind-blown sand wear away the rocks to make the sands of the desert.
Soil and water. Form crops need plenty of water. Good
soil (upper drawing) stores water for crops. In sand (lower
drawing), water runs down between I orge sand groins and
spaces between -the grains are too large
to store water. Also, pure sand does
not contain any food for plants.
Soil is diferent. It contains materials
that plants can use for food. It holds
water like a sponge. Pick up a handful
of soil and see how soft it is.
Soil is mostly a mixture of tiny bits
of rock. Some sand is in it. But most of
the rock particles are smaller than sand
grains. The spaces between them are
tiny. After a rain, water is trapped in
the little spaces.
When seeds fall into soil, they sprout
and grow. When the plants die, their
dead leaves and stems drop into the
soil. They rot and make the material
called humus. Humus, which gives the
soil a dark color, is a food for plants.
Thus the plants that die become food
for living plants, and these in turn die
and make food for still other plants.
LAND AND SEA
THE EARTH'Scrust is very uneven. Some
parts rise higher than others. Some of
the higher parts form big bodies of land
that are called continents.
High mountains tower above the
rest of the land in some places. These
mountains run for miles. Between them
are long valleys. Big wrinkles in the
crust make the mountains and valleys.
The lower parts of the crust are
flled with deep water. This water
makes the oceans. The oceans run to
gether, making one big sea.
The crust at the bottom of the sea is
rough. It is as uneven as the crust of
the continents. There are canyons and
clifs under the sea. Mountains rise
from its foor. Some rise so high their
tops stick ou
above the water. The
tops of these mountains make islands.
Gol den EXPLORI NG EARTH BOOKS travel f ar beyond t he boundar i es of t he
pr i nted page. They l ead readers on exci t i ng expedi t i ons-whet her i n t he
mi nd or on foot -and open t hei r eyes to t he many fasci nat i ons of t he nat ural
wor l d. Each book i n t he ser i es i s an advent ure f or t he young nat ur e l over
or begi nni ng sci ent i st who wi shes to be better acquai nted wi t h our earth
and i ts many marvel s.
Gol den EXPLOR I NG EARTH Books
FLOWERS, TREES, AN D GAR DE N I N G OCEAN OGRAPHY
R EPTI LES AND AMPH I B I ANS NATUR E HI KES
ROCKS AND MI NERALS
OUR b0 U N I TED STATES
TH E H U MAN BODY
D I NOSAURS
I NS ECTS