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Whe1'e the Day Changes Z87

WHERE THE DAY CHANGES.

By F REDERIC R. HONEY.
The traveler who makes a voyage round the world has the unique experience of apparently lengthening or shortening the year by one day according as he travels east or west. If he travels east, i.e. in the direction of the earths rotation on its ax.is, his own motion is added to
that of the earth, and the resultant motion is greater than the earths. As a consequence the sun rises earlier each day, and the length of the apparent day is less than twenty four hours. But if he travels west,

i. e. in a direction opp osite the earthsrotation, his motion is subtracted


from that of the earth, and the resultant motion is less than the earths.

The sun rises later each day, and the length of the apparent day is greater than twenty four hours. A For example, a traveler A, starting from the meridian of Greenwich
and going east, reaches longitude 180 east in a certain number of

short days; while B, traveling in the.opposite direction, reaches 180 west in a certain number of long days. Meeting at 180 E. and W., A
and B (whose watches we assume have not been altered during the voyages) discover an accumulated discrepancy in their reckoning of

twelve hours each, or a total of one day. It has been found convenient to make the change of the day at this longitude. This is a suitable meridian because it passes through an area on the earths surface which is almost entirely covered by water.
This is obviously an advantage because it would be impracticable to

change the day at a meridian which passes through extended land areas. It would result frequently in next door neighbors adopting different
chronologies, and differing both as to the date and day of the week.

Should A return to the meridian of Greenwich by the same route that he came, i. e. in a direction opposite that in which he had traveled going west instead of east the. ap parent day would be lengthened, and the gain of one half a day would be corrected, on his arrival at the Greenwich meridian, by the loss of half a day. In this event A would observe no change of the day. Similarly if B should return to the meridian of Greenwich in a direction opposite that in which he had
previously traveledgoing east instead of west the apparent day would be shortened, and the loss of a half a day would be compensated

by the gain of a half a day. In this event also there would be no change of the day.
But if A and B continue their voyages around the world a compro

mise is made by an exchange of apparent days. By this arrangement A repeats a day, and B omits one.

Courtesy Maria Mitchell Observatory ' Provided by the NASA Astrophysics Data System

1920PA.....28..287H

288

Whiere the Day Changes

The drawing is a projection of the earth on the plane of the equator,

showing the Greenwich parallel of latitude and circles of longitude at


intervals of 15. The latter may also be taken to represent the hours of the day for one rotation of the earth. To simplify the illustration

the sun is assumed to be on the meridian of Greenwich, i. e. it is Green


wich noon. In this position it is the same daywe will say Sunday

all over the earth between Saturday. midnight and Sunday midnight, the
former corresponding with 180 west longitude ,and the latter with

180 east longitude.

Passing from east to west longitude As time

. ml

i as
I

ar

WE

Noon Greenwic

I
I

XE

changes from Sunday midnight to Saturday midnight, and the day is

repeated. A has therefore two Sundays in succession. But in passing


from west to east longitude Bs time changes from Saturday midnight

to S unday midnight, i. e. he omits Sunday from his reckoning. The illustration is selected for its simplicity. But the change of the day occurs at whatever time the traveler happens to reach 180 east
and west longitude. The time is set back or forward twenty four

hours according as he is traveling east or west.

Courtesy Maria Mitchell Observatory ' Provided by the NASA Astrophysics Data System

1920PA.....28..287H

F1*ede1"ic R. Honey

289

The table shows why a change of the day is unavoidable. Assume that A and B travel at the same speed along a parallel of very high latitude, and that each day A gains on the sun one hour, while B loses one hour. Starting from the meridian of Greenwich, We will say on Sunday noon the third day of the month, A and B make their voyages in the same time, i. e. in twenty four days, and return to the Greenwich meridian on V\/ednesday noon the twenty seventh. But, during this interval of three weeks and three days As reckoning shows a gain of one day, that is to say if he did not rep eat a day he would apparently return to the Greenwich meridian on Thursday the twenty eighth. During the same interval Bs reckoning shows a loss of one day, and if he did not skip a day, he would apparently return to the meridian on Tuesday the twenty sixth. Attention is called to the adjustments which are made on Friday the fteenth. As time, midnight Friday, is set

back to midnight Thursday, or O Hr. A. Ix Ii. Friday. Bs time, midnight Thursday, or O Hr. M. Friday, is set forward to midnight Friday, or
12 Hrs. P. M. Friday". The travelers agree on the day of the week and month, but in their reckoning they differ by twenty four hours, i. e. the difference between O Hr. A.M. and 12 Hrs. P. M. They make an ex

change of apparent time.

On each of the subsequent days there is a diminution of two hours in their difference until the nal adjustment on Wednesday noon the twenty seventh when they return from opposite directions to the Green wich meridian. p
'GREENw'IcH TIME Sunday Noon Monday Noon Tuesday Noon Wednesday Noon Thursday Noon \IO\U1 P00 Friday Noon \OO0 Saturday No on ' 10 Sunday Noon 11 l\/[onday Noon 12 Tuesday No on 13 Wednesday Noon 14 Thursday Noon I 15 Friday Noon I 15 Friday Noon 16 Saturday No on 17 Sunday No on 18 Monday Noon 19 Tuesday _ Noon 20 Wednesday Noon 21 Thursday Noon 22 Friday Noon 23 Saturday Noon 24 Sunday Noon 25 Monday Noon 26 Tuesday Noon 27 Wednesday No on As TIME Noon 1 P.M. 2 P.M. 3 P.M. 4 P.M. 5 P.M. 6P.M. 7 P.M. 8 P.M. 9P.M. 10 P.M. 11P.M. 12 P.M. 0A.M. 1A.M. 2A .M. 3 A.M. 4A.M. 5 .A.M. 6A.M. 7A.M. 8A.M. Bs TIME _ Noon 11 A.M. 10 A|.M. 9 A.M. 8 A.M. 7A.M. 6 A.M. 5 A.M. 4.A.M. 3 A.M. 2.A.M. 1A._M. OAi.M. 12 P.M. 11P.M. 10 P.M. 9 i='.M. 8 P.M. 7 P .M. 6P.M. 5 RM. 4P.M. 3 P.M. 2P.M. 1P.M.
Noon

9A.M. 10 A.M.
11 A.M. Noon

Courtesy Maria Mitchell Observatory ' Provided by the NASA Astrophysics Data System