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1. 2. 3.
Introduction ...3 Objective..4

Impact of human activities, unplanned development and the mismanagement ...5 of ecosystem


Greenhouse effect and the thinning of ..42 the ozone layer


Steps to maintain a stable environment..48

Never before has the Earth been so threatened than it is today. The Earth has survived countless natural disasters such as volcanic eruptions and violent earthquakes, but even then, none of these catastrophes has had such a great impact on the Earth as the activities carried out by human themselves. In their attempt to fulfill the growing use of an ever-increasing population, mankind destroys natural habitats that house millions of flora and fauna species at the same time pollutes the environment.

The reasons why this paperwork is being done is due to several objectivesasstatedbelow:1. Evaluating human activities that endanger an ecosystem. 2. Understanding the greenhouse effect and the thinningofthe ozonelayer.

3. Realizing theimportanceofpropermanagementofdevelopment activities and the ecosystem. 4. Toinstil awareness among humans about the significances of preservation and conservation of the ecosystem. 5. To make humans realize how bad are the effects of humans activities towards the environment. 6. Toincrease effortsoncreatingasaferenvironment for ourselves and for the future generations. 7. To deduce the time for the depletion and destruction of the environment due to various environmental problems causedbyhumanbeings.

Impact of human activities, unplanned development and the mismanagement of ecosystems







Water is a chemical substance with the chemical formula H2O. Its molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms connected by covalent bonds. Water is a liquid at ambient conditions, but it often co-exists on Earth with its solid state,ice, and gaseous state (water vapor or steam). Water also exists in a liquid crystalstate near hydrophilic surfaces

Causes of water pollution

Oil spills Heavy metals Untreated sewage Agricultural waste Domestic waste

Effects of water pollutes

Cause inconvenient diseases like cholera, typhoid.

Water pollution control

Sewage collection and treatment system should be effective People should use less of detergents in their homes Factories and industries should be set up far away fromresidential area

Noise is unwanted sound and is among the most pervasive pollutants today

Sources of noise pollution

Road traffic Air craft Noise from railroads Construction Noise in industry Noise in building Consumer products (such as vacuum cleaner)

Effects of water pollutes

Lack of concentration Cause high blood pressure Temporary of permanent deafness Animal looses the control of its mind and become dangerous

Prevention of noise pollution

Do not use car horns unnecessarily. Areas like hospitals and campuses are silence zones and honking is prohibited there. Avoid loud music, which hurts your ears and others' ears.. Motors, machines and vehicles also produce loud noises when not maintained properly. Proper maintenance should be carried out for better performance. Turn off the engine of your car or motorbike when you are not using it. It stops the annoying hum, and reduces air pollution Better off, walk or cycle to school! It does wonders to the environment, reduces the amount of air pollution and noise, and makes you fit




Thermal energy is generated and measured by heat of any kind. It is caused by the increased activity or velocity of molecules in a substance, which in turn causes temperature to rise accordingly. There are many natural sources of thermal energy on Earth, making it an important component of alternative energy.

Sources of thermal pollution

Power plant creating electricity from fossil fuel Water as cooling agent Deforestation of shoreline Soil erosion

Effects of thermal pollutes

In water, thermal pollution(making the water warmer) can change the species of fish present in the water (trout for instance prefer cold water) and other organisms both because of the heat and the decreased oxygen in the water (warm water dissolves less oxygen). The warme water increases algal growth and encourages migratory birds, like ducks, to over winter. In air, thermal pollution is limited to the heat island effect caused by cites. Cities trap and radiate more heat than forests and fields. The warmer air makes thermal currents in the air which can act as a barrier to the normal wind patterns. This in turn affects the rainfall on the far side (down wind) of the city. In soil, theramal pollution is limited to the impact of climate on the types of plants that can grow and the reduction of areas which have permafrost. The loss of permafrost impacts the solidarity of the ground (impacting animal migration) and releases methane from the frozen decomposing organic matter.

Prevention of thermal pollution

People should aim at maximizing the efficiency of heat engines (steam, IC, nuclear etc) to minimise heat loss. Mechanical frictions arising in rotating machine parts should be aimed to be reduced. Less burning of fossil fuels and avoiding energy wastages by controlling its usage to the amount required.

Strict actions should be taken against oil spilling and the responsible people should be fined. Industries and factories should follow strict norms to reduce thermal pollution.




Air is a precious resource that most of us take for granted. Air supplies us with oxygen, which is essential for our bodies to live. Without it, we would die within minutes. Pure air is a mixture of several gases that are invisible and odourless. It consists of about 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and less than 1% of argon, carbon dioxide, and other gases as well as varying amounts of water vapour. Adults breathe in about 10-20 cubic metres of air every day. Thats about 20,000 breaths. Children breathe almost twice that amount because they are smaller, and their respiratory systems are still maturing

Sources of air pollution

Vehicles burning petrol Domestic fires Power stations burning fossil fuel Industries

Effects of air pollutes

Cause runny eyes, nose, and throat irritation and breathing difficulties (asthmatics) Affects the functioning of the heart Can lead to throat and lung infections Can cause headaches and vomiting

Prevention of air pollution

Reduce the use of vehicles either by resorting to public transport for daily transportation or switching over from vehicles to other means - such as cycling or walking. If the use of vehicle is inevitable, make sure that you use it efficiently - drive within the speed limit recommended by the manufacturer, turn the engine off on red light and make sure that you maintain your vehicle. Buying fuel efficient vehicles is yet another option that you have. Several car manufacturers are using advanced technology to roll out vehicles which minimize emissions.




Soil Erosion


Soil Erosion
Erosion is the process by which material is removed from a region of the Earth surface. It can occur by weathering and transport of solids (sediment, soil, rock and other particles) in the natural environment, and leads to the deposition of these materials elsewhere. It usually occurs due to transport by wind, water, or ice; by downslope creep of soil and other material under the force of gravity; or by living organisms, such as burrowing animals, in the case of bioerosion.

Sources of soil erosion

Nature of the soil Nature of the landLack of plant cover Rain Wind

Effects of soil erosion

The top soil is the fertile soil. Nature takes about 100-400 years to build one centimeter of this soil, which getting destroyed very rapidly by human activities Top layer of soil contains most of the organic matter and nutrients. Loss of this soil reducing soil fertility and affecting its structure badly. Soil erosion decreases the moisture supply by soil to the plants for their growth. It also affects the activity of soil micro-organisms. Thus deteriorating the crop yeild. Soil eroded by water get deposited on river beds, thus increasing their level and causing floods. These flood have various devasting effects, such as killing human and animals and damaging various buildings.

Prevention of soil erosion

Gardening Conservation tillage Avoid access watering Plant trees




Flash floods


Flash floods
A flash flood is a sudden inundation of water in low-lying areas, usually brought on by heavy rain or a dam break. When the ground becomes so saturated with water that more cannot be absorbed, the overflow begins to rush downhill, sweeping away whatever is in its path.

Sources of flash floods

Storm Heavy rain Long rain duration

Effects of flash floods

Loss of life Loss of habitat Damage infrastructure Disease.

Prevention of flash floods

Plant more trees Build river defences Build dams Build coastal defences






A landslide or landslip is a geological phenomenon which includes a wide range of ground movement, such as rockfalls, deep failure of slopesand shallow debris flows, which can occur in offshore, coastal and onshore environments

Sources of landslides
Deforestation Earthquakes Erosion Construction

Effects of landslides
Loss of life Loss of habitat Damage infrastructure Destroy plantation

Prevention of landslides
Plant more trees Build dams Build channels to redirect mudflow Don't build steep slopes close to mountain edges, near drainage ways or natural erosion valleys






Excessive richness of nutrients in a lake or other body of water, frequently due to runoff from the land, which causes a dense growth of plant life

Sources of eutrophication
Discharge of detergents Runoff and erosion Discharge of untreated municipal sewage Nitrogen compounds produced by cars and factories

Effects of eutrophication
Death of aquatic organisms Loss of desirable fish species Colour, smell, and water treatment problems Decreases in perceived aesthetic value of the water body

Prevention of eutrophication
Organic farming Nitrogen testing and modeling Prevention policy






Deforestation is the clearing or removal of trees from an area of woodland or forest for many differing reason

Sources of deforestation
Agricultural activities Road network Population growth

Effects of deforestation
Erosion of soil Flash floods Greenhouse effect Global warming

Prevention of deforestation
Reducing emissions Farming Forest management Reforestation Forest plantations






The state or process of a species, family, or larger group being or becoming extinct

Sources of extinction
Hunting and trapping Taking animals for profit Overharvesting Destruction of habitat Pollution

Effects of extinction
Species extinct Increasing uneaten species Disruption of food chain

Prevention of extinction
Reducing emissions Forest plantations Create wildlife preserves Sanction endangered species laws



Greenhouse Effect And The Thinning Of The Ozone Layer


Greenhouse effect
A greenhouse gas (sometimes abbreviated GHG) is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infraredrange. This process is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect. The primary greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere are water vapor,carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone.

Sources of greenhouse effect

Deforestation Greenhouse emissions Population growth

Effects of greenhouse effect

The global temperature parallel the rises in concentrationof carbon dioxide The melting of a polar ice caps and glaciers take place atthe fast rate With the warmer climate, pets, vector may spread to newareas. Some regions will expose to the long drought and someplaces will be expose to the greater rainfall

Prevention of Greenhouse effect

Reducing emissions Forest plantations reduce the open burning of fuel. Use the alternative sources, such as biomass or geothermal. International Corporation: the Kyoto Protocol treat that binds country. Lessen the effect of global warming Energy efficient: travelling by public transport rather than by driving the own car



Ozone layer
A region of the upper atmosphere, between about 15 and 30 kilometers (10 and 20 miles) in altitude, containing a relatively high concentration of ozone that absorbs solar ultraviolet radiation in a wavelength range not screened by other atmospheric components. Also called ozonosphere.

Sources of thinning of the ozone layer

Deforestation Greenhouse emissions Population growth Mainly due to chlorofluorocarbons (CFC)

Effects depletion of ozone layer

Excessive entering of ultraviolet radiation to the Earths surface. Lead to higher risk of skin cancer, cataracts and sunburns due to prolonged exposure to ultraviolet radiation Lead to the increasing of the Earths temperature Reduce the nutrient content and crop yields due toultraviolet radiation

Prevention of depletion of ozone layer

Forest plantations reduce the open burning of fuel. Use the alternative sources, such as biomass or geothermal. Reduce or stop the use of CFC. For example, reduce the use of air conditioner.Replace CFC with hydro chlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and hydro fluorocarbon (HFC).Unlike CFC, these gases breakdown in the atmosphere and return to earth in the form of rainwater.



Steps to maintain a stable environment


Biological control
Biological control is the use of natural predators to control the population of pest species
Examples; - the use of khaki chambel (a species of ducks) to control the population of gold snails (siput gondang emas) which feeds on paddy stalks. - the use of owls to control the populations of rats in oil palm plantations. - the use of the hoverfly larvae to control aphids which feed on crop plants


Implementation of laws
Many laws and regulations are designed to control pollution which affects the quality of lands, air and water. Examples of the act; - The Environment Quality Acts, 1974, 1989 *Motor Vehicle Noise Regulations,1987 *Scheduled Wastes Treatment and Disposal Facilities Regulations, 1989 *Clean Air Regulations, 2000 (Amendment) - The National Forestry Act, 1984 - The Pesticides Act, 1974 - The Fisheries Act, 1985 - The Protection of Wildlife Act, 1972


The Use of Technology

Install catalytic converters in vehicle to clean up exhaust emissions and convert harmful gases released to less harmful gases. Use unleaded petrol to reduce the emissions of leads into environment. Treat sewage in sewage treatment plants before it is discharged to reduce water pollution. Treat toxic waste from factories before it is discharged into the environment. Use microorganisms to clean up the environment. Develop hydrogen-based fuel-cell vehicle to reduce the burning of fossil fuels


Efficient use of energy

Reduce the burning of coal, petroleum and other fossil fuels. Substitute natural gas for coal at power plants. Improve fuel efficiency in vehicles-use cars that run on energy-efficient engines. Use a cleaner fuel by reducing the content of sulphur in diesel and switching to gas. Improve energy efficiency in factories


The use of renewable energy

Renewable energy is energy flow that occurs naturally in the environment and can be harnessed for the benefit of the humans. Renewable energy is inexhaustible and does not pollute the air. Examples of renewable energy; - Solar energy (generates electricity) - Wind energy (to operate windmills) - Flowing water (generate hydroelectric power) - Wave energy (generates electricity) - Geothermal energy (generates electricity) - Biomass energy (produces biogas as fuel) - Gasohol ( converted to ethanol as fuel)


Preservation and conservation

Preservations involves efforts to protect an ecosystem. Conservations involves efforts to return an affected ecosystem to its natural equilibrium and keep them good. Preservations is better than conservations.


Education on the management

The public must be educated on the concept of the4R. Recycle means collecting segregating waste according to the types of materials and turning this waste into new products. Reuse means use things such as old plastics containers and bottles again instead of throwing them away. Reduce means cutting down on the use of materials which are non-biodegradable. Renew means to use materials such as bottles and plastic containers after they are cleaned.