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Common fresh water fishes of Kerala

Common freshwater fishes of Kerala Name: Pearl Spot Scientific name: Etroplus suratensis Malayalam: Karimeen, Kariyamplachi Pictures of Pearl spot A very tasty fish found in both salty and freshwaters of Kerala. It is found in backwaters, ponds and paddy fields. Body is covered over with scales of black colour, hence the name Karimeen(meaning black fish in the local language). The body is oval in outline and is laterally compressed. There are eight transverse bands on the body and a few irregular black spots on the abdomen. It has got a very small mouth. Also popular as an aquarium fish.

Name: Climbing Perch Scientific name: Anabas testudineus Malayalam: Chempally, Karuveppu, Antikalli, Kallada Pictures of Climbing Perch Anabas is another tasty fish but with a hard skin. Also an aquarium fish. They can live out of water for about 6 to 7 hours. Having the habit of migrating from pond to pond. The fish crawls through land to reach the next destination during which time it breaths air

through accessory respiratory organs on each side of the head. While in water breathing occurs through the gills. It is an omnivorous fish.

Name: Banded Snakehead(Opheocephalus) Scientific: Channa striatus Malayalam: Varal, Varaal

This fish is remarkable for its parental care. It is carnivorous. The body is long and cylindrical with a huge mouth and serpent like head. They have got additional respiratory organs (two air chambers) to enable breathing air while crawling through land. This fish is often found in ponds, paddy fields and in rivers. During migration these fishes even sail through backwaters to reach the next water body. Very often this fish can be seen coming to the surface of the water to gulp in air. During drought, they bury themselves in mud, and remain there in dormant stage, till the next monsoon comes. This is both edible and a prefered aquarium species. Name: Tilapia

Scientific: Oerochromis mossabicus Malayalam: Tilapia, Tilopia, Thilopia, Kerala Karimeen Images of Tilapia Tilapia is an exotic fish, brought to Kerala from Africa. It is found in ponds, rivers and backwaters of Kerala. It can multiply very fast even in a very constrained water body like a pond. Body is laterally compressed just like Etroplus(Karimeen), but comparatively more elongated. It is omnivorous
Common fresh water fishes (continued)
Name: Stinging Catfish Scientific Name: Heteropneustes fossilis Malayalam: Kaari

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Name: Walking Catfish Scientific Name: Clarias batrachus Vernacular language: Mushi, Muzhi, Mozhi

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Name: Yellow Catfish Scientific Name: Horabagrus brachysoma Malayalam: Manjakkoori

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Name: Longwhiskered Catfish Scientific Name: Mystus gulio Malayalam: Vellakkoori

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Name: Boal Scientific Name: Wallago attu Malayalam: Attu walah, Valah

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Name: Giant Danio Scientific Name: Danio malabaricus Malayalam: Paral

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Name: Karnataka Barbe Scientific Name: Puntius carnaticus Malayalam: Pachilavetti

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Name: Peninsular Olive Barb Scientific Name: Puntius sarana

Malayalam: Kuruva, Kuruva paral

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Name: Tiger Panchax Scientific Name: Aplocheilus lineatus Malayalam: Poonjan, Manathukanni, Poochutti

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Name: Orange chromide Scientific Name: Etroplus maculatus Malayalam: Pallathi

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Name: Mullet Scientific Name: Mugil cephalus Malayalam: Kanambu, Thirutha kanambu

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Name: Freshwater Garfish Scientific Name: Xenentodon cancila Malayalam: Kola

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Name: Malabar leaf fish, Common catopra

Scientific Name: Pristolepis marginata Malayalam: Pannakarimeen, Karipidi, Chuttichi

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Name: Tire track eel Scientific Name: Mastacembelus armatus Malayalam: Kallaral

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Name: Indian mottled eel Scientific Name: Anguilla bengalensis bengalensis Malayalam: Malanjil, Mananjil

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Name: Cobra Snakehead, GreatSnakehead, Bullseye

Snakehead
Scientific Name: Channa marulius Malayalam: Cherumeen

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Name: Tank goby Scientific Name: Glossogobius giuris Malayalam: Poolan, poolon

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Name: Ceylon Snake head, Bengal Snakehead Scientific Name: Channa orientalis Malayalam: Vattan, vatton

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Common marine fishes found in Kerala


Other keywords: Kari, manattu kanni, tiruta, vella kuri, poonjaan, malinjeel, cheru meen, manjakkoory, attuvalah, manathu kanni, Manjakuri, attuwala, kanampu, vellakkoory,waala, Manja koori, vaalah, pachila vetti, punjan, Manjakkuri, maanathukanni, kanamp, vellakkuri, manattukanni, Vellakuri, waalah, Manjakoori, puchutti, pallatti, tirutha, kalaral,vaala,maninjil, vellakoori, punjaan, thiruta, malinjil, manannil, attuwalah, kanamb, Manja kuri, maninjeel, Vella koori, attuvala, pulan, vatton

Commonly found sea fish species in Kerala

These are the fishes commonly found in inshore and deep sea habitats of Kerala coast. For each type of fish only the commonly found species are listed. Detailed list from fishbase.org Sardine
Sardine is the common name given to a number of oily fish species belonging to the family Clupeidae.

Goldstripe sardinella Scientific Name: Sardinella gibbosa Malayalam: Chaala, Mathi Images of Goldstripe sardinella More Information
Name: Name:

Indian oil sardine

Sardinella Longiceps Malayalam: Chaala, Mathi


Scientific Name:

More images of Indian oil sardine More information Fringescale sardinella Scientific Name: Sardinella fimbriata Malayalam: Kari-chaala Images of Fringescale sardinella More information
Name:

Mackerel Indian Mackerel Scientific Name: Rastrelliger kanagurta Malayalam: Ayala


Name:

More images of Indian Mackerel More information

Pomfret Black Pomfret Scientific Name: Parastromateus niger Malayalam: Aavoli Images of Black Pomfret More information
Name:

Silver Pomfret Scientific Name: Pampus argenteus Malayalam: Velutha Aavoli Images of Silver Pomfret More information
Name:

Seer fish Seer fish, King-fish, Narrow-barred Spanish mackerel Scientific Name: Scomberomorus commerson Malayalam: Naimeen / Ayakoora Images of Seer fish More information
Name:

Seer Fish, Indo-Pacific king mackerel Scientific Name: Scomberomorus guttatus Malayalam: Naimeen / Ayakoora Images of Seer Fish More information
Name:

Wahoo Scientific Name: Acanthocybium solandri Malayalam: Ayakoora Images of Wahoo More information
Name:

Tuna Kawa Kawa, Mackerel Tuna Scientific Name: Euthynnus affinis Malayalam: Choora Images of Tuna More information
Name:

Pacific Bonito Scientific Name: Sarda chilensis Malayalam: Choora Images of Tuna More information
Name:

Pacific bluefin tuna Scientific Name: Thunnus orientalis Malayalam: Choora Images of Pacific bluefin tuna More information
Name:

Striped bonito Scientific Name: Sarda orientalis Malayalam: Vaari Choora Images of Striped bonito More information
Name:

Frigate tuna Scientific Name: Auxis thazard thazard Malayalam: Ellichoora, Ayalachoora Images of Frigate tuna More information
Name:

Elasmobranchs (sharks, skates and rays) Sharks More than sixty species of sharks are found in Indian waters of which more than twenty of the Carcharhinidae and Sphyrnidae families contribute to fishery. Blacktip shark Scientific Name: Carcharhinus limbatus Malayalam: Sraavu, choraku Images of Blacktip shark More information
Name:

Spadenose shark Scientific Name: Scoliodon laticaudus Malayalam: Sraavu, choraku Images of Spadenose shark More information
Name:

Whitecheek shark Scientific Name: Carcharhinus dussumieri Malayalam: Sraavu, choraku


Name:

Pictures of Whitecheek shark More information Ray fish


Name: Javanese

cownose ray Scientific Name: Rhinoptera javanica Malayalam: Therandi, Tirandi Images of Javanese cownose ray More information White tail sting ray Scientific Name: Dasyatis bleekeri Malayalam: Therandi, Tirandi Images of White tail sting ray
Name:

List of other sharks and rays- http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/x2097e/X2097E14.htm

Others
Name: Pink

perch, Japanese threadfin bream Scientific Name: Nemipterus japonicus Malayalam: Kilimeen

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Name: Convict

Surgeonfish Scientific Name: Acanthurus triostegus Malayalam: Kurichil Photos of Convict Surgeonfish More information Indian anchovy Scientific Name: Stolephorus indicus Malayalam: Kozhuva, Natholi, Nethal Images of Indian anchovy More information
Name: Name: Silver

Moony, Fingerfish Scientific Name: Monodactylus Argenteus Malayalam: Aakoli Images of Silver Moony More information Jew fish Scientific Name: Nibea soldado Malayalam: Kora Images of Jew fish More information
Name:

Bengal tongue-sole, Sole Fish Scientific Name: Cynoglossus semifasciatus Malayalam: Nangu, Manthal
Name:

Images of Sole Fish More information Bluefin trevally Scientific Name: Caranx melampygus Malayalam: Vatta Images of Bluefin trevally More information
Name:

False trevally Scientific Name: Lactarius lactarius Malayalam: Parava Images of False trevally More information
Name:

Finletted mackerel Scientific Name: Megalaspis cordyla Malayalam: Thiriyan, Vangada, Kanni ayala
Name:

More images of Finletted mackerel More information Blacktip sea catfish Scientific Name: Plicofollis dussumier Malayalam: Etta Images of Blacktip sea catfish More information
Name:

Malabar thryssa Scientific Name: Thryssa malabarica Malayalam: Manangu Images of Malabar thryssa More information
Name:

White sardine Scientific Name: Escualosa thoracata Malayalam: Veloori Images of White sardine More information
Name:

Black Spot Snapper Scientific Name: Lutjanus fulviflamus Malayalam: Pahari, murumeen Images of Black Spot Snapper More information
Name:

Pickhandle barracuda Scientific Name: Sphyraena jello Malayalam: Seelavu Images of Pickhandle barracuda More information
Name:

Kerala Agriculture

Crop
Kerala, the State with network of azure backwaters, rivers and streams, boasts of an agrarian economy. The abundance of water due to the 34 lakes and other small streamlets, innumerable backwaters and water bodies and

44 rain-fed rivers flowing over the terrain of the state and also the adequate annual rainfall of 3000mm received by this state probably facilitates agriculture to a great extent and hence the economy of the state is dominated by agriculture. The most essential or the staple crop is the rice or paddy. About 600 varieties of rice are grown in the sprawling paddy fields of Kerala. In fact the Kuttanad region of the district of Kerala is known as the 'rice bowl of the state' and enjoys a significant status in theproduction of rice. Next to rice is Tapioca and is cultivated mainly in the drier regions. Tapioca is a major food of the Keralites. Besides production of the main crop, Kerala is also a major producer of spices that form the cash crops of the state. Kerala produces 96% of the country's national output of pepper. The important spices are cardamom, cinnamon, clove, turmeric, nutmeg and vanilla. Other cash crops that constitute the agricultural sector include Tea, coffee, cashew, Pulses, areca nut, ginger and coconut. In fact coconut provides the principal source of income in Kerala- from coir industry to coconut shell artifacts. Cashew is also an essential cash crop. Kerala also accounts for 91% of natural rubber production of the country. Kottayam district has extensive areas producing and processing rubber. Apart from rubber, other plantation crop likes plantains or bananas are also grown in plenty. Crop Management in Kerala. More Details Production and Marketing of Coconut in India

Livestock
Cattle, buffalo, goat, pig, poultry, duck are the major live stock population reared in Kerala. In Kerala as per 2003 census nearly 94% of the livestock population is concentrated in the rural area, 80% of the livestock farmers area marginal farmers and agricultural farmers. Women constitute 60% of the workers in this sector. As per 2003 figures, Kerala's share in all India cattle population is 1.13%, buffalo population accounts only for 0.07%, goat 1.01% and pig 0.05%. Cattle population in the state is 21.22 lakh, of which 17.35 lakh were crossbed. Of the total cattle population Palakkad district accounts fro 12.4% and Wayanad for 4.89%. Higher number of buffalo population is concentrated in Malappuram district (19%), goat in Thiruvananthapuram (12%) and pig in Idukky (30%). Regarding poultry Malappuram accounts for 13% fowls and Alappuzha accounts for 38% of ducks.

Fisheries sector
The demand for fish and fishery products are increasing considerably in the country, both in domestic and exports fronts. The major share of 5.34 million tonnes is expected from inland aquaculture followed by 3.10 million tonnes from marine fisheries (Planning Commission 2007). The global production of fish from aquaculture has grown rapidly during the past four decades (accounts for nearly 45 percent of the world's food fish). China account for 67.3 percent of the food fish aquaculture production followed by India (5.9%) and Vietnam (3.0%). India is endowed with vast fisheries resources in terms of a coast line of 8118 km and 2.02 million sq.km of exclusive economic zone, including 0.53 million sq.km of continental shelf. The inland fisheries include rivers and canals (1.95 lakh km), reservoirs (3.15 million ha), food plain wetlands (0.30 million ha), estuaries (0.26 million ha), fresh waters (2.41 million ha) and brackish water bodies (1.24 million ha). These resources are one of the main sources of livelihood for the

rural poor, particularly the fisher community. At present, an estimated 14 million people are engaged in fishing, aquaculture and ancillary activities in the country The state has all the requisite natural endowments for building a strong and vibrant fisheries economy in tune with the national strategy. They include a stretch of coastal belt extending over 590 km and extensive inland water spread of around 4 lakh hectares. The exclusive economic zone ( sea spread up to 200 metres) lying adjacent to Kerala coast is spread over 36000 square kilometres which is almost equivalent to the land area of the state. The estimated fisher folk population of Kerala is 11.114 lakh, which include 8.558 lakh in the marine sector and 2.556 lakh in the inland sector. There are 222 fishing villages in the marine and 113 fishery villages in the inland sector, where fishing and relative activities provide livelihood to a vast majority of the population. Alappuzha district is the first place in the number of fisher folk with a population of 1.86 lakh followed by Thiruvananthapuram (1.83 lakh). Species -wise Composition of Fish Landing According to the Kerala Marine Fisheries Regulation Act, the inshore Area coming within the depth range of 50 meters has been demarcated for fishing by the traditional fishermen using country crafts and the area beyond the limit in the economic zones can be utilized by motorized boats and large vessels. As this restriction is not being strictly followed, monsoon trawling has been banned from 1980 onwards as preventive measures. Although the fish catches from the Kerala coast include more than 300 different species, the commercially important number about forty only. The high value species among the fish catches are still few; prominent among them are seer fish, pomfret and prawn. Ribbon fishes are also now a target group. During 2006-07 the catch of Ribbon fish was 18000 tonnes. Unfortunately the share of these high value varieties in the total marine fish catch has been remaining stagnant. The annual potential of prawn is estimated by 64482 tonnes. The average catch of prawn during 2006-07 was 56779 tonnes. The catch of oil sardine, the most important variety consumes mainly by the poorer sections of the society exceeded the potential in recent years. The catch of sardine during 2006-07 was 2.15 lakh tonnes. Species wise composition of Marine fish landings in Kerala (2004-2005 to 2006-2007) (Tonnes)

Sl.No 1 2 3 4 5. a b c d e 6 7 8 9 10 11 13 a b c 14 15

Species 2004-05 Elasmobranchs 3044 Eels 148 Cat Fish 154 Chirocenrtrus 258 Oil Sardine 172754 Lesser Sardine 98303 Amchorilla 35312 Trissocles 2308 Other Clupeids 12791 Saurida&Saurus 5916 Hemirhamphus&Belone 642 Perches 30437 Red Mullets 1616 Polynrmides 21 Sciaenides 8992 Caranx 25419 Chornemus 1049 Othetr Carangids 24171 Leiognathus 5136 Lactrious 3907

2005-06 3159 168 168 265 149949 65268 30167 3175 15533 5551 691 30400 1676 67 9887 26987 985 20766 5306 3525

2006-07 3074

214773 33853

6158 32971

8232 25258

16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 a b c d e 24 25

Pomfrets Mackerel Seerfish Tunnies Sphyraena Mugil Soles Penaeid Prawn Non Penaeid Prawn Lobsters Crabs Stomatopods Cephalapoods Miscellanious TOTAL

1393 43017 2371 11208 1582 29 8061 53402 3315 0 3418 332 15939 6761 601863

1501 44202 2475 11923 2094 42 13951 48006 1738 398 4515 9547 14203 14948 558913

45904 2648 12248

56779

100988 561028

Source: Directorate of Fisheries Species-wise Inland Fish Production in Kerala (2003-04 to 2006-07)

Sl.No 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Species 2 Prawns Etroplus Murrels Tilapia Catfish Jew Fish Others Total

2003-04 Production % 3 4 16136 21 4510 6 3657 5 7739 10 4359 6 2795 4 37083 48 76279 100

2004-05 Production % 5 6 16334 21 4458 6 4133 5 7490 10 4740 6 2765 4 36531 48 76451 100

2005-06 Production 7 14812 4626 4287 7965 4922 2871 38497 77980

% 8 19 6 6 10 6 4 49 100

2006-07 Production % 9 10 16226 20 4452 6 4081 5 7555 10 4484 6 2745 3 39564 50 79110 100

Source: Directorate of Fisheries Trend in production Among the maritime states in India , Kerala occupies the foremost position in marine fish production, accounting for about 20 % of the total landings. Marine capture fisheries have always dominated the total fish production, compared to Inland fisheries in Kerala. Fish production in the marine sector over the last 10 years presents more or less a stagnant trend with an average production of 5.88 lakh tonnes. The marine fishery resource of the state has almost attained the optimum level of production. In this context there is no scope for further increase in fish production for inshore marine capture fisheries. However, the total inland fish production has shown an increasing trend in Kerala. The inland fish production reached peak share of 13 % of the total fish production of the state during 2000-01 and thereafter decline slightly. At the national level more than 50% of the total fish production is contributed by the inland sector.