Project Report On 3D PRINTING (PRINTING SECTOR
Submitted to: Dr. Anjani Kumar Singh Assistant Professor Department of Entrepreneurship
For the subject: Emerging Business Sectors & New Technology
By Rajat khanna Roll No.-28 MBA-Entrepreneurship
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Particulars CHAPTER 1: PRINTING INDUSTRY SECTOR Industry Overview SWOT analysis of industry sector Major Players in the industry sector Status of Indian print industry Foreign Direct Investment Growth of the Industry sector
Page No. 1 1 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 13 14 16 17
CHAPTER 2: TECHNOLOGY ± 3D Printing
Name of the Technology Challenges faced in implementing technology Implications Commercialization of 3D printing Return on Investment (ROI)
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CHAPTER 1: PRINTING INDUSTRY
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Over the years. Some printers with a vision have already taken a step towards it and are able to produce printed products at much lower unit price by adopting new technologies. today Indian publishing is one of the greatest in the world and the country is counted among the top seven publishing nations. In fact. These kinds of set-ups do not belong to any specific region of India but are scattered all over the country. Bombay. But majority of these are very small in operation and each one of these may not be producing more than a dozen titles in a year. The advent of TV and Internet has not affected the growth of and requirement for printing professionals. These are also confined to producing titles in Indian regional languages and catering to the needs of the local markets. which is definitely lower than yesterday¶s prices and printing industry is no exception. The so-called clusters of printing Industry are present in North: (Amritsar.West: (Ahmedabad. improving quality and speed of the jobs executed with the consequent enhancement of costs enormously. Computers and electronics have invaded all the departments of printing. Madras). So-Called Hubs for Printing Industry There is a set of industry players which are growing systematically and regularly. Faridabad) . The growth of such organisations indicate that recession is nothing but a changing trend towards adoption of new style of working. The industry has made giant strides in recent times in improving its machinery in terms of the scope. Only a few (about 10%) of the publishing concerns in India are reasonably large producing more than 50 titles annually and are equipped with proper infrastructures such as printing presses and distribution networks. The modern style of business is completely in favour of the consumers. the arrival of computers has complemented the printing business and has played a vital role in increasing its status as a clean profession. ) ± South: ( Bangalore. technology and speed. Coimbatore. people in the printing industry have to find the solutions and not fret on decline in prices. Increasing number of printers are adopting newer and modern technologies. It ensures that they get optimum quality products at bare minimum price . Probably in all areas of life the consumers are getting products at most competitive prices. the printing industry has grown in all parts of the globe. In totality. To meet this challenge. The publishing firms in the private sector is also quite large in number and these are scattered throughout the country. Delhi.
sheetfed . Taiwan. USA.000 1.30. Employment created by Printing Industry Total No. used is predominately from China.5 KGs . Switzerland. England. France. of Printing Presses Turnover Directly 7.4. Japan.000 20 Billion + Indirectly 4. Germany.More than 1.000( offset.More than 10 Million family involved in the Industry .000 all types of printing presses in India .20 Billion + Turnover .Per capita consumption of Paper & boards . Spain.Machinery New and Second Hand.000 60. Italy. The Netherland.50.webfed)
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FACTS ABOUT PRINTING INDUSTRY
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Xerox Copier and Bond Paper We have entered manufacturing activity recently and now manufacture various paper stationery items as listed herebelow. Maplitho. Notebooks Memo Pads Writing pads Diaries in attractive designs and colors. printing and finishing/bindery under a single roof. Various Indian GOD Pictures of Artistic .
3) PRAGATHI OFFSET PVT.P age |5
Major players in India
1) THOMAS PRESS:
Thomson Press Printing Division comprises of one PrePress and two Printing units in Delhi. We are a one-stop service provider with prepress. With 6 presses capable of 4-6 colour printing at speeds of upto 15.5´ x 40´. Kraft Paper. Duplex Board. we have the capacity and the redundancy built into the system to handle your
. SBP is also a wholesale dealers for various paper Mills in India for variety of Printing Paper. Various Stationery Items. one printing unit in Chennai and one printing & Book Bindery unit in Delhi exclusively for exports.
2) M/s SUBRAMANIAM BROTHERS PRIVATE LIMITED
SBP is one of the leading and experienced Paper Trading Company in South India and was established in 1942.000 impressions per hour and sizes of upto 28.
POP is a forty year old company catering to the high-quality printing requirements of customers worldwide. LTD. Creamwove Paper. Thematic and Religious Values.
. a wholly-owned subsidiary of Heidelberger AG of Germany.P age |6
largest jobs with the quickest turn-around time
5) ANDERSON PRINTING HOUSE
ANDERSON Printing House Pvt Ltd has entered country's elite printing club with its recent installation of computer-to-plate technology system from Heidelberg India.
These printers are today equipped at par with the best print production facilities in the world.P age |7
STATUS OF INDIAN PRINT INDUSTRY
The Indian Print Industry has undergone a revolutionary change in the last 15 years. The current annual turnover of all the components in the Indian printing industry are more than Rs. In 1990. The average compound annual growth rate has been higher than 12% over the last 15 years.50. Some printers have won recognition by winning prizes at international competition for excellence in printing.
. by investing in the latest of technology and machinery. Prior to 1990. India initiated a process of reforms aimed at shedding protectionism and embracing liberalization of the economy. Our packaging industry is currently growing at a rate of more than 16% a year. That is in the region of USD 11 Billion. The quality standards have improved dramatically and immense production capacities have been created.000 crores. Today. This change opened the doors for the Indian Print Industry to modernize. The progressive printers of today are equipped with the latest computer controlled printing machines and flow lines for binding. Leading print companies have optimized the use of information technology in each and every area of their business. India is fast becoming one of the major print producer & manufacture of printed paper products for the world markets. Post 1990. the trend has been to acquire the latest and the best equipment & machines. most printers found it easy to invest in East German and Czechoslovakian machines. while state of the art digital technologies are being used in pre-press. Privatization was initiated with the aim of integrating the Indian economy with the world economy.
etc. Indian exports of books. The decision of the Government to permit 26 per cent foreign direct investment in the printing industry betrays a disturbing lack of foresight and depth of understanding in dealing with sensitive matters which affect the people. newspapers & periodicals. journals and printing jobs.
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Indian books. are being exported to over 120 countries of the world both developed and developing.
FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT Indian printing industry suggests that growth is due to relaxed governmental policy. allowing the expansion of foreign ownership holdings from zero to 26%. job printing and printed materials during 2004-05 was estimated to the tune of USD 550 million. printed pamphlets.
1.6 million work force 18 Printing Engineering Colleges.P age |9
3D PRINTING INDUSTRY GROWTH
Indian Printing Industry has been considered as one of the largest industries.000 Printing Presses in active operation all over the country.5% y y y More than 160. with the growth of 12.
. Several diploma schools and many print training institutions. y Over 2000 Printing Graduates every year.
3-D Printer-produced models are throwaway models that allow you to see things you would not be able to see as well on a computer with a CAD system. The material used can be powder. However. the powder that is deposited is then given a spray of a binding liquid that' helps to harden the powder and help form a solid object. or it might be an end-use specialty product ranging from a component in a complex aircraft engine to a consumer medical or dental implant. plastics. The printers can generally produce models in as little as one-tenth the time it takes other types of machines. The big benefits of 3D printing is it¶s low cost and speed. in this case the µprinter¶ deposits successive layers of material to build up a full-scale 3D model. until it produces a 3D model. and get a good feel for its shape. The beauty of this approach is people can hold the proposed design. one on top of another. With each successive run of the µprinter head¶.
. resins or even metals. In the case of powder.P a g e | 10
CHAPTER 2 3D PRINTING
3D PRINTING What is 3D Printing? 3D printing involves having the computer sending the coordinates for a 3D object to an output device (a 3D Printer) that employs the same ink-jet printer principle that is used to print on paper. The end-result of this process might be a model which designers can use to verify a product¶s design qualities before full-scale manufacturing begins. the printer is actually delivering ultra-thin layers of powder onto a surface. study it.
This is why it's a big deal: it's potentially the biggest change in how we make things since the invention of assembly lines made the modern era possible. And the printer in every home scenario isn't that far-fetched either -. to manufacture something today.P a g e | 11
Process: A big machine takes a raw material. So even if 3D printing is limited to the business world. Today most 3D printing technology uses too few materials. the opportunities and the big questions?
. for most finished products we buy today.
3D PRINTING TODAY
According to several reports. Until you end up with an actual object. So. the sale of 3D printers and associated services like software is already a billion dollar market. And then another layer.000. it's going to be a huge industry. 3D PRINTING FUTURE
3D printing is going to be a huge industry because it's much more efficient than traditional manufacturing. what are the pitfalls. Thanks to 3D printing. Like any other piece of technology. and software to tell the printer what to print. raw material. and melts them into a microscopic layer. today mostly plastics and some metals. how do we get from here to there. But nobody disputes that 3D printing is very far from a utopian 3D-printer-on-every-desk future. Current manufacturing processes create as much as 90% waste. whereas 3D printing adds raw material as needed. you need only a printer. The main reason is that the current way to manufacture things is to chip away at a block or sheets of raw material. 3D printers are always getting cheaper and better. And then another layer. 3D printers today can be had for about $5. and is too crude in some ways.only as far-fetched as "a computer in every home" was in 1975.
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Today. there's never going to be a reason to buy something that looks like something someone else owns. But early cars were slow. 3D printing will create many jobs: in a world where anyone can make and sell most kinds of items. either directly (blacksmiths replaced by car repairmen) or indirectly through higher economic growth. But it's not sure that these people will be more numerous than all the manufacturing jobs that will be lost. It's hard to build objects with high polish. The biggest difference between today's manufacturing and a 3D printing world is going to be the advent of mass customization. slow. 3D printers are too unreliable. A serious question is whether 3D printing will be a "jobless industry. but there's a not-insignificant chance that 3D printing might be an exception." History and economics teaches us that new industries often end up creating more jobs than they destroy. rough. dangerous. Companies will have to change not just their manufacturing but their product lines. marketing and even business models. many people will profit and create new industries. and manufacturing large objects is costprohibitive. and notoriously unreliable.
. When each product is printed individually from software. To be sure.
leaving the solid model. the unfused media serves to support overhangs and thin walls in the part being produced. choice and cost of materials and colour capabilities. The ZBuilder Ultra is an example of a DLP rapid prototyping system. layer by layer. Another approach is selective fusing of print media in a granular bed. cost of the printed prototype. The liquid polymer is then drained from the vat. uses a nozzle to deposit molten polymer onto a support structure. This method also allows overhangs. One method of 3D printing consists of an inkjet printing system. The exposed liquid polymer hardens. The process repeats until the model is built. Fused deposition modeling. cost of the 3D printer. and consequently some companies offer a choice between powder and polymer as the material from which the object emerges. Generally. Finally. the main considerations are speed. the desired 3D object is traced out in a block of gel by a focused laser. Yet another approach uses a synthetic resin that is solidified using led lights. ultra-small features may be made by the 3D microfabrication technique of 2-photon photopolymerization. The gel is cured to a solid only in the places where the laser was focused. In this approach. Examples of this are selective laser sintering and direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) using metals. due to
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CHALLENGES FACED IN IMPLEMENTING TECHNOLOGY Each method has its advantages and drawbacks. a vat of liquid polymer is exposed to light from a DLP projector under safelight conditions. The process is repeated until every layer is printed. orresins) and inkjet printing a binder in the cross-section of the part. Typically a laser is used to sinter the media and form the solid. In this variation. a technology developed by Stratasys that is used in traditional rapid prototyping. It is also recognized as the fastest method In digital light processing (DLP). reducing the need for auxiliary temporary supports for the workpiece. The build plate then moves down in small increments and the liquid polymer is again exposed to light. The printer creates the model one layer at a time by spreading a layer of powder (plaster. This technology is the only one that allows for the printing of full color prototypes.
No toxic chemicals like those used in stereolithography are required. low cost. Unlike stereolithography. Implications for Consumers Many people in the 3-d printing industry fully believe every household will have a device that¶s capable of printing any solid object. FDM parts can be strengthened by wicking another metal into the part. followed by the ³fork´ or ³spoon´ button. a narrower fork. and even basic mechanical objects. one need only to use the printer itself to blow off surrounding powder after the printing process. a bowl that is perfectly tapered to support and grip an unwieldy watermelon. too: a stripy cup.
Implications for Traditional Manufacturing It is doubtful that this new generation of 3D printers can replace traditional manufacturing methods such as injection molding. machined or milled parts and manufacturing line assembly. and ease-of-use. and then the remaining gel is washed away. making it suitable for visualizing during the conceptual stages of engineering design through to early-stage functional testing. with colors of your choosing. Imagine pressing the ³bowl´ or ³cup´ button on the 3D printer in the kitchen. However I do believe that small and medium specialty manufactures should consider implementing 3D printing processes for individual steps or subsystems in a traditional line manufacturing process. It is very possible that these new low cost printers would help reduce overall manufacturing costs. and minimal post printing finish work is needed. inkjet 3D printing is optimized for speed. as well as complex structures such as moving and interlocked parts. Bonded powder prints can be further strengthened by wax or thermoset polymer impregnation.P a g e | 14
the nonlinear nature of photoexcitation. and so on. It would even work for larger objects like cutting boards and colanders and laundry baskets ² and it would be easy enough to provide fairly extensive customization. Feature sizes of under 100 nm are easily produced.
Layers of living cells are deposited onto a gel medium and slowly built up to form three dimensional structures.P a g e | 15
Implications for Healthcare
Experts also see a bright future for 3D printing in the medical industry. Future applications include Organ printing. bio-printing. 3D printing technology is currently being studied by biotechnology firms and academia for possible use in tissue engineering applications where organs and body parts are built using inkjet techniques.
. computer-aided tissue engineering.
but still in specific niches. until you realize that the first people who cared about things like cars. 3D printing is already being used for finished products. The word "designers" is making it sound like it's a few guys in Brooklyn.
Hobbyists. In plenty of industries from architecture to aerospace.
. You need to build tangible prototypes to move forward. The hobbyist component of 3D printing doesn't sound impressive. With a 3D printer. and still the biggest business case for 3D printing.P a g e | 16
COMMERCIALIZATION OF 3D PRINTING
Rapid prototyping. This was the early. but 3D printing is already changing the way we make buildings. That used to be a big expense. cars and planes. and more importantly. One exciting area with huge potential is prosthetics. where 3D printer allow highly customized prosthetics to be made. a huge time-suck: there's no reason a designer should have to wait days for someone to make a prototype until they can move forward. the drawing board and computer screen only takes you so far. planes and personal computers were hobbyists. One of the reasons why you hear about 3D printing is that there's a small but vocal and growing hobbyists community who enjoy making small doodads. designers can have a rough prototype quickly and be much more productive.
Specialty manufacturing. Some industrial components that would be costly or complex to manufacture are already being 3D-printed.
logistics and scheduling. Then as volumes increase again or they have a need for other materials they justify another system. Of course these factors eventually translate to meaningful numbers for accounting but sometimes take a bit longer to do so. Being on the side of selling both systems and services here's the what I've noticed in the last 15 years.P a g e | 17
RETURN ON INVESTMENT ROI of 3D Printing is 40% The largest advantages of owning your own machine have less direct to do with accounting. sometimes months because they end up doing more parts and more iterations than they every thought they would need to do. They also outsource as they have needs for other materials that weren't capable on the system they purchased. and more to do with flexibility.
These customer tend to start outsourcing again because thier capacity keeps getting filled. etc.. Those that start off outsourcing reach a certain point where they are doing a lot parts and/or spending a fair amount on outsourcing where they've justified purchasing a system. Often times once they get the system in-house their return on investment is very short. quality control. Another thing which you might consider is selling the extra time.
. So we see this cyclic trend. And with larger companies. One has also to consider that when you have it in-house you can do the stuff which otherwise you would not have done because of costing. other divisions get in on the action and want to utilize the equipment or begin to outsource as they see firsthand the benefit.
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ACCEPTANCE OF NEW TECHNOLOGY BY FINANCIAL INSTITUTION VC Funding Venture capital firm Foundry Group announced that it has led a $10 million investment in MakerBot Industries.
. It's the team that first got notice for building something called the Cupcake. a user-assembled 3D printer that cost only around $1. a Brooklyn-based developer of low-cost commercial 3D printers.