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Swimming

Swimming has appeared from the necessity that the human beings have to adapt to its environment, and one of these needs is water. If we consider that the Earths surface consists of three quaters of water, we understand the importance and need of human beings to adapt to their enviroment.

History
1.
The first world champion was Grehn Mall, who has won a mile race on the Thames at the end of the century 1863. At the end of the century competitive swimming was being established in Australia and New Zeland and several European countries and had already established federations. In the United States amateur clubs began to hold competitions in 1870. Swimming has been known since prehistoric times, as evidenced by drawings of the Stone Age. Around 1938 competitive swimming started in Europe, the most commont estile wast the crawl, then called Trudgen in those days, it was introduced in 1873 by John Arthur Trudgen, who copied from the natives american indians.

2.

3.

The swimming appeared to form part of the moderns Olympic Games in 1896 on Atens. In 1902 the trudgen stile was imrobed by Rivvhard Cavill by using the continous kick. In 1908 was created the ISF:International Swimming Federation. The butterfly stroke was developed like a derrivate of the arm stroke, until it was accepted in 1952 like a proper stile. Swimming is the art of stand and move, using your arms and legs, on or under water. Activity can be as playful or as a competitive sport. Because humans do not swim instinctively, swimming is a skill that must be learnt. Unlike other land animals given the will in the water, in what is essentially a way of walking, humans have had to develop a series of strokes and body movements that propel him into the water with power and speed. In these movements and styles behind the evolution of competitive swimming as a sport. You can practise swimming in every water place or area large enough to allow free movement. The currents and tides can be dangerous, but also pose a challenge to demonstrate the strength and value of the swimmers, as is apparent with the many successful attempts to cross the Channel or the Straits of Gibraltar. Swimming was an appreciated sport in the old civilizations of Greece and Rome, used as a training method for the soldiers. In Japan the conpetitions started on the A.C. century. However, during the Middle Age in Europe the

practice was almost forgotten, as the water immersion was associated with continued disease epidemics of the time. By the nineteenth century and this bias disappeared, and in the twentieth, swimming has become a way to regard a valuable system of physical therapy and exercise is generally the most beneficial . No other exercise use many muscles of the body and so much intensity. Moreover, increased influx of swimmers and the best techniques of construction and heating, have greatly increased the number of outdoor public swimming pools and decks around the world. The private pool, which was once a sign of exceptional privilege, it is increasingly common.

The diferents Stiles


There are four the styles that are used in competitions:

freestyle backstroke butterfly arm stroke crawl

Competitive swimming is swimming in order to improve their own brands and those set by others is a sport of self-improvement. It became popular in the nineteenth century, and is a major event in the Olympics. The body that administers competitive swimming is FINA, which includes sub-branches of local groups like the United States Swimming (USS) in the United States. FINA Swimming coordinates four disciplines at different distances.

Free Style (crawl) that the swimmer can do it the style that suits you. In freestyle, the only rules are that when starting the races, the swimmer must start from the exit bank, after the start and each turn, you can stay submerged up to 15 meters. During the swim you can not get out of the "rails" , you can not drive or walk on the bottom of the pool, until testing is complete. At the conclusion of any stretch and finish the race, you have to touch the wall in any manner which marks the end of the pool. By tradition and speed, use the crawl swimming freestyle races, but we know how to differentiate which are not synonymous. The events are made at distances of 50m, 100m, 200 m, 400 m, 800 m and 1500 m.

Crawl is characterized by being the fastest of all the styles that are used in competitive swimming, crawl the correct position is achieved with the body straight and head facing forward under water, when necessary breathing together with any head with lateral body rotation when the arm on the side you breathe to live up the legs and prepared to do the recovery air while in turn the other arm stretched forward and makes the recovery head under water and again its recovering its position in the water. butterfly events require that the swimmer's actions have bilateral symmetry (the left side of the body should do what's right) and also the legs are coordinated in a shake up and down, starting the movement of arms, legs with a ripple that will travel from hip to toe. This style is one that requires more strength and more energyconsuming of all. The events are made at distances of 50 m, 100 m and 200 m. Chest (or arm), from which evolved the butterfly, has the additional restriction that the swimmers hands must be pushed forward together from the chest and the elbows,the body must remain under water at an angle of 90 degrees. It's a slower style in competitive swimming. Events are held at distances of 50 m, 100 m and 200 m. This style involves the legs that provide the greatest force for progress. Backstroke no symmetry restrictions, but swimmers must stay back for the entire event, except during the turn made in the wall. This style is essentially an investment in the crawl, but with your elbows straight - the competitor moves his arms back over their shoulders, turns, and pushed into the water to produce progress, coupled with a kick like that to crawl. Events are held at distances of 50 m, 100 m and 200 m.

The style and crawl back styles are called axis-long because the body is in a much more elongated than in the breast and butterfly styles, known as axiscut styles.

At the same time, there are a number of such events in competitive swimming. Relay: where a number of swimmers take part in a sequence. These events are conducted over distances of 4x50 m freestyle, 4x100 m freestyle and 4x200 m freestyle. Styles: where a swimmer swims butterfly styles, back, breast and free in that order. Events are held at distances of 100 m, 200 m and 400 m Relay styles where four swimmers swim the backstroke, breaststroke,

butterfly and free stroke in that order. Events are held at distances of 4x50 my 4x100 m Swimming has traditionally been dominated by the United States, but recently that dominance has been challenged by Australia, where this sport is a popular recreational long boom, as in the competitive field for spectators and competitors. The success of Australian swimmers like Ian Thorpe, Michael Klim, Grant Hackett and Kieren Perkins is a revival of the old era of Australian swimming gold of the 1950 and 1960, swimmers had the likes of Shane Gould and Dawn Fraser, but for now led by American swimmers Michael Phelps, Colin Cordes, Natalie Coughlin, Kaitlin Sandeno and Kara Lynn Joyce and they will give a close contest with the Australians as they did in the 2004 Olympics and the performance of Michael Phelps and USA in men's category in 2008. There are other swimming competitions, such as open water races of 5.10 and 25 [[miles] and that both formally organized as the LEN FINA World Championships in their country and Europe respectively. The IOC, at its meeting on 29 October 2005, admitted in his Olympic program for Beijing 2008, competitions of 10 km open water because so far there is no evidence that category was part of the Olympic program.

Not officials competitions


In addition to these races there are other long distance ones outside the official program of FINA and LEN such as crossing the Channel, or circumnavigating Manhattan Island. These races are noted for their hardness, since swimmers can get to be up to 5 hours in the water (in the case of 25 km) with only occasional help of some supplies. The world record of longest nonstop swim is what Martin Strel who swam 504 km non-stop in 2001 in the Danube River. He also swam the Mississippi River in 2002 at 66 +2, a total of 3,885 km, Vicki Keith holds the record for the person with the most long-distance world records. Swimming is also an important part in other sports, such as water polo, synchronized swimming, modern pentathlon, triathlon and rescue and lifesaving. (See list of water sports). There is also swimming long distances, called open water (open water). This variation is to swim long distances (5 km and 10 km) at sea or in lakes .

The swimming biggest ahtletes


Franziska van Almsick (1978 -), German swimmer, world champion and winner of four silver medals at the Olympics. Despite being the greatest

figure of the female swimming during the 1990s, the German Franziska van Almsick failed to get the Olympic gold or Barcelona (1992) and Atlanta (1996). However, the medals achieved in such appointments as well as its spectacular track record in various editions of the European Championships and the World, endorse one of the most brilliant careers in the sport in recent decades. Matt Biondi (1965 -), American swimmer whose 11 medals in three editions of the Olympic Games, he became one of the best swimmers in the 1980s and early 1990s. Alexandr Popov (1971 -), Russian swimmer with eight Olympic medals, has one of the best records in the history of swimming. Martin Lopez-Zubero (1969 -), Spanish swimmer. European champion, world and Olympic record holder and universal in the 200 m backstroke, is considered the greatest exponent of the history of swimming in his country.Martn is the most outstanding swimmer in the history of this sport in Spain. The image shows the happy moment when Lopez-Zubero celebrates his victory in the 100 m backstroke at the European Championship held in Athens in 1991. In the same competition,he achieved another gold medal (in 200 m backstroke) and one silver (in 100 m butterfly). Felipe Tibio Kapamas Munoz (1951 -), Mexican swimmer, first from his country to get an Olympic gold. In 1997 he received the Olympic Order. Kristin Otto (1966 -), German swimmer who won six gold medals at the 1988 Olympic Games Michael Gross (1964 -), German swimmer, the best butterfly specialist racer of all time and one of the most successful in history. His tall figure and an extraordinary power derived from his large size, provided it with a very characteristic way of swimming, for which he received the nickname "The Albatross, a seabird whose movements ressembled. Mark Spitz (1950 -), American swimmer who won 7 gold medals at the Olympics in Munich, Germany, 1972. Alberto Zorrilla (1906-1986), Argentine swimmer first Olympic swimming champion born in South America . Michael Phelps(2009), American swimmer, one of the last prodigious in this sport who did an incredible actuation in the 2008 Olympic Games, swimming in all the categories, and winnig in all of them. The Spanish swimmers have never been part of the best ones on the world. Until some years ago they have improved and the new good swimmers coming up and their good results in the international competiotions have risen the interest in swimming. This aroused a gig interest among young people and children, who are dreaming of one day becoming world-class champions as national idols. This sport is generating a new generation of swimmers, where in the not too distant future great athletes will.

Some of the best swimmers in the Spanish

history in various individual categories:


Males
Name 50 m. L NORIEGA SANZ JAVIER LORENTE GINESTA EDUARD MUOZ PEREZ RAFAEL C.N. ALCORCON ARENA Year CLUB Recording CRONO Date Place

1980

22.04

24/07/2009

LAS PALMAS DE G.C.

1977

C. VALENCIANO

22.12

04/03/2004

CADIZ

1988

NAVIAL

22.21

02/04/2009

MALAGA

FERNANDEZ CABALLERO DANIEL

1987

REAL CANOE N.C.

22.80

28/06/2009

PESCARA (ITA)

100 m. L LORENTE GINESTA EDUARD

1977

C. VALENCIANO

49.34

07/03/2004

CADIZ

ALONSO TELLEZ JOSE ANTONIO AIZPURUA EZEIZA MAEL

1988

C.D.A.D. ZAMORA

49.74

05/04/2009

MALAGA

1988

BARDULIA I.K.T.

49.75

22/07/2009

LAS PALMAS DE G.C.

200 m. L VILLAECIJA GARCIA ALEX WILDEBOER FABER OLAF MEDRANO ARJONA ALBERT C.N. SANT ANDREU

1990

1:48.45

03/04/2009

MALAGA

1983

C.N. SABADELL

1:49.09

21/04/2006

EINDHOVEN

1982

C.N. SABADELL

1:49.14

03/04/2009

MALAGA

400 m. L RIVERA MIRANDA MARCO C.N. SANTA OLAYA

1983

3:49.82

06/04/2008

PALMA MALLORCA

NUEZ MOLANO JAVIER

1983

C.N. SABADELL

3:51.20

16/07/2006

ALMERIA

MANTAS MOTA ADRIAN

1992

C.N. FERCA-SAN JOSE

3:52.12

08/07/2009

PRAGA

800 m. L RIVERA MIRANDA MARCO C.N. SANTA OLAYA

1983

7:49.09

28/07/2009

ROMA (ITA)

FERNANDEZ ORDOEZ IGNACIO

1987

C.N.CERRADO CALDERON C.N. SANT ANDREU

8:00.96

21/12/2007

GIJON

NUEZ MOLANO JAVIER

1983

8:03.77

24/07/2009

LAS PALMAS DE G.C.

1500 m. L RIVERA MIRANDA MARCO C.N. SANTA OLAYA

1983

14:57.47

01/08/2009

ROMA (ITA)

FERNANDEZ ORDOEZ IGNACIO

1987

C.N.CERRADO CALDERON C.N. FERCA-SAN JOSE

15:23.09

19/12/2007

GIJON

MANTAS MOTA ADRIAN

1992

15:24.32

09/07/2009

PRAGA

50 m. M

MUOZ PEREZ RAFAEL

1988

NAVIAL

22.43

05/04/2009

MALAGA

MIRA NAVAS PABLO VILLAECIJA GARCIA ALEX

1988

C.N.D. FUENGIROLA UN SOL DE CIUDAD C.N. SANT ANDREU

24.00

05/04/2009

MALAGA

1990

24.02

05/04/2009

MALAGA

100 m. M

MUOZ PEREZ RAFAEL VILLAECIJA GARCIA ALEX

1988

NAVIAL C.N. SANT ANDREU

50.41

01/08/2009

ROMA (ITA)

1990

51.78

04/04/2009

MALAGA

GARCIA SOTO MARCOS

1988

C.N. FERROL

52.83

23/07/2009

LAS PALMAS DE G.C.

200 m. M GALDEANO CASTILLO EDUARD

1992

C.N. TARRACO

1:58.85

08/12/2009

DOHA (QAT)

LEADOR RIVAS CARLOS

1987

C.N. METROPOLE C.N.MAIRENA ALJARAFE

1:58.89

21/07/2009

LAS PALMAS DE G.C.

ORDOEZ MENA PABLO

1988

1:59.51

05/04/2008

PALMA MALLORCA

50 m. E WILDEBOER FABER ASCHWIN RANDO GALVEZ J.MIGUEL SANCHEZ TORRES ELOY

1986

C.N. SABADELL C.N. SANT ANDREU

24.48

01/08/2009

ROMA (ITA)

1988

24.77

01/08/2009

ROMA (ITA)

1989

C.N. CADIZ

25.24

03/04/2009

MALAGA

100 m. E WILDEBOER FABER ASCHWIN RANDO GALVEZ J.MIGUEL

1986

C.N. SABADELL C.N. SANT ANDREU C.N. SANT ANDREU

52.38

01/07/2009

PESCARA (ITA)

1988

53.89

27/07/2009

ROMA (ITA)

CABELLO FORNS ALAN

1988

55.00

04/04/2009

MALAGA

200 m. E WILDEBOER FABER ASCHWIN REGUEIRA SUAREZ RUFINO RANDO GALVEZ J.MIGUEL

1986

C.N. SABADELL

1:54.92

31/07/2009

ROMA (ITA)

1990

C.N. RIVEIRA C.N. SANT ANDREU

1:57.95

02/04/2009

MALAGA

1988

1:58.68

02/04/2009

MALAGA

50 m. B

MONTEAGUDO ESPINOSA HECTOR PLUTECKI ADAM MUOZ GONZALEZ DAVID

1989 1985

C.N. CIUDAD REAL C.N. TERRASSA C.N. ALCORCON ARENA

27.78

24/07/2009

LAS PALMAS DE G.C. FINAL LLIGA COMARCAL TERRASSA

27.87

19/07/2009

1979

28.03

04/04/2009

MALAGA

100 m. B

ALVAREZ CARABALLO MELQUIADES

1988

C.N. SANT ANDREU

1:00.45

27/06/2009

PESCARA (ITA)

GONZALEZ CABRERA ADZUBENAM

1990

C.N. HOSPITALET

1:01.15

23/07/2009

LAS PALMAS DE G.C.

IRADIER AGUIRREZABALAGA BORJA

1980

A.D. ZAMORA

1:01.32

08/06/2008

MONTECARLO

200 m. B

ALVAREZ CARABALLO MELQUIADES

1988

C.N. SANT ANDREU

2:09.69

29/06/2009

PESCARA (ITA)

GARCIA ORTIZ SERGIO

1989

C.N. SABADELL

2:10.18

22/07/2009

LAS PALMAS DE G.C.

GONZALEZ CABRERA ADZUBENAM

1990

C.N. HOSPITALET

2:12.82

22/07/2009

LAS PALMAS DE G.C.

200 m. S CABELLO FORNS BRENTON C.N. SANT ANDREU C.N. SANT ANDREU

1981

2:00.38

05/04/2009

MALAGA

CABELLO FORNS ALAN

1988

2:00.43

05/04/2009

MALAGA

GARCIA ORTIZ SERGIO

1989

C.N. SABADELL

2:01.66

21/07/2009

LAS PALMAS DE G.C.

400 m. S C.N. SANT ANDREU CLUB DE TENIS ELCHE

NUEZ MOLANO JAVIER

1983

4:16.98

04/04/2008

PALMA MALLORCA

VIVES GOMIS CARLOS

1988

4:17.39

23/07/2009

LAS PALMAS DE G.C.

GARCIA ORTIZ SERGIO

1989

C.N. SABADELL

4:17.57

03/04/2009

MALAGA

Females
RK 50 m. L Name Year CLUB recording CRONO date place

HERRAEZ DE LA CALLE ARACELI

1983

REAL CANOE N.C.

25.49

02/04/2009

MALAGA

PALOMO JIMENEZ ANA BELEN ROUBA BIENIARZ TATIANA

1977

C.N. MIJAS CN.PALMA DE MALLORCA

25.54

04/03/2004

CADIZ

1983

25.70

27/07/2007

BARCELONA

100 m. L

FUSTER MARTINEZ MARIA ROUBA BIENIARZ TATIANA CASTRO ORTEGA PATRICIA FERNANDEZ RODRIGUEZ LAURA

1985

CN.PALMA DE MALLORCA CN.PALMA DE MALLORCA REAL CANOE N.C.

55.19

04/04/2009

MALAGA

1983

55.51

04/08/2007

PARIS (FRA)

1992

55.84

23/07/2009

LAS PALMAS DE G.C.

1989

C.N. SANTA OLAYA

55.84

29/06/2009

PESCARA (ITA)

200 m. L

CASTRO ORTEGA PATRICIA COSTA SCHMID MELANIE RAMOS PLASENCIA ARANTXA FUSTER MARTINEZ MARIA

1992

REAL CANOE N.C. CN.PALMA DE MALLORCA

1:58.33

03/04/2009

MALAGA

1989

1:59.12

04/04/2008

PALMA MALLORCA

1988

C.N. SABADELL CN.PALMA DE MALLORCA

1:59.59

03/04/2009

MALAGA

1985

1:59.82

21/03/2008

EINDHOVEN (NED)

400 m. L

VILLAECIJA GARCIA ERIKA CASTRO ORTEGA PATRICIA RAMOS PLASENCIA ARANTXA

1984

C.N. SANT ANDREU REAL CANOE N.C.

4:08.44

05/04/2009

MALAGA

1992

4:09.17

05/04/2009

MALAGA

1988

C.N. SABADELL

4:09.79

05/04/2009

MALAGA

1500 m. L

VILLAECIJA GARCIA ERIKA SANTAMARIA MARIN EIDER

1984

C.N. SANT ANDREU C.D.N. BIDASOA XXI

16:00.25

28/07/2009

ROMA (ITA)

1990

16:12.00

04/04/2009

MALAGA

10

DASCA ROMEU CLAUDIA SAN JUAN CISNEROS ANGELA MARTI ARASA ANNA ADA

1994

C.N. SABADELL

16:16.94

04/04/2009

MALAGA

50 m. M

1983

REAL CANOE N.C.

26.78

24/07/2007

BARCELONA

1993

C.N. TORTOSA

27.01

09/12/2009

DOHA (QAT)

HERRAEZ DE LA CALLE ARACELI SAN JUAN CISNEROS ANGELA GARCIA SANCHEZ MIREIA IGNACIO SORRIBES JUDIT

1983

REAL CANOE N.C.

27.21

05/04/2009

MALAGA

100 m. M

1983

REAL CANOE N.C.

59.60

28/06/2009

PESCARA (ITA)

1981

C.N. HOSPITALET

1:00.13

24/06/2005

A_INT JME ALMERIA

1994

C.N. SABADELL

1:00.15

04/04/2009

MALAGA

200 m. M

BELMONTE GARCIA MIREIA CAMINO ESTUDILLO PAULA IGNACIO SORRIBES JUDIT

1990

C.N. SABADELL

2:06.90

01/07/2009

PESCARA (ITA)

1991

NAVIAL

2:08.96

21/07/2009

LAS PALMAS DE G.C.

1994

C.N. SABADELL

2:10.06

21/07/2009

LAS PALMAS DE G.C.

50 m. E

PERIS MINGUET MERCEDES ZHIVANEVSKAYA NINA SASETA ESTEBANEZ ANE

1985

C.N. SANTA OLAYA

28.10

03/04/2009

MALAGA

1977

C. VALENCIANO C.D.N. BIDASOA XXI

28.11

23/03/2008

EINDHOVEN (NED)

1983

28.64

03/04/2009

MALAGA

100 m. E

ZHIVANEVSKAYA NINA

1977

C. VALENCIANO

1:00.29

21/03/2008

EINDHOVEN (NED)

11

PERIS MINGUET MERCEDES DA ROCHA MARCE DUANE

1985

A.D. SANTA CRUZ REAL CANOE N.C.

1:01.32

05/04/2008

PALMA MALLORCA

1988

1:01.61

05/04/2009

MALAGA

200 m. E

BERNARD GONZALEZ ESCARLATA DA ROCHA MARCE DUANE MORANT VARO LYDIA

1989

C.N. METROPOLE REAL CANOE N.C.

2:10.58

19/03/2008

EINDHOVEN (NED)

1988

2:10.89

02/04/2009

MALAGA

1990

C.N. ELCHE

2:12.07

02/04/2009

MALAGA

50 m. B

BADILLO DIAZ CONCEPCION RIVERA PEREZ ANGELA GARCIA URZAINQUI MARINA GARCIA URZAINQUI MARINA ALVAREZ PEREZ EVELYN

1986

NAVIAL C.N. SANTA OLAYA C.E. MEDITERRANI

31.14

01/07/2009

PESCARA (ITA)

1993

31.75

16/07/2009

OURENSE

1994

31.78

08/07/2009

PRAGA

100 m. B

1994

C.E. MEDITERRANI

1:07.63

12/07/2009

PRAGA

1993

C.N. METROPOLE

1:08.88

02/04/2009

MALAGA

BADILLO DIAZ CONCEPCION GARCIA URZAINQUI MARINA BELMONTE GARCIA MIREIA

1986

NAVIAL

1:09.05

27/06/2009

PESCARA (ITA)

200 m. B

1994

C.E. MEDITERRANI

2:25.05

10/07/2009

PRAGA

1990

C.N. HOSPITALET

2:27.00

06/04/2008

PALMA MALLORCA

PEREZ SALA SARA

1988

C.N. ATLETICBARCELONETA

2:28.87

26/06/2005

ALMERIA

12

200 m. S

BELMONTE GARCIA MIREIA DA ROCHA MARCE DUANE CONCA RUZAFA AINA

1990

C.N. HOSPITALET REAL CANOE N.C. C.N. SANT ANDREU

2:11.16

21/03/2008

EINDHOVEN (NED)

1988

2:14.67

22/07/2009

LAS PALMAS DE G.C.

1987

2:14.84

05/04/2009

MALAGA

400 m. S

BELMONTE GARCIA MIREIA DASCA ROMEU CLAUDIA GARCA MAURI CRISTINA

1990

C.N. HOSPITALET

4:37.91

09/08/2008

PEKIN (CHI)

1994

C.N. SABADELL R.C. MEDITERRANEO

4:43.45

24/07/2009

LAS PALMAS DE G.C.

1995

4:46.26

11/12/2009

DOHA (QAT)

13