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**Features of Amplitude Modulation
**

Modulated signal have three frequencies; fc, fc+fm, fc+fm Carrier contains 66.66% of total power at m=1 Carrier and one side band contains the power of 83.33% at m=1 Band width of the modulated signal is 2fm Carrier contains no information Upper and lower side bands contain same information Fading may occur

19 February 2011

DR. M. Amjad Imran

27

Amjad Imran 28 .SSB SC SSB-SC Advantages Power Optimization Reduction in band width Noise can be reduced comparatively Fading can be avoided Disadvantages Generation and reception of SSB signal is complex process SSB transmitter and receiver need to have an excellent frequency stability q y y 19 February 2011 DR. M.

M. so no out put at the secondary coil of T2 For negative half cycle of carrier. Amjad Imran 29 . so again no out put at the secondary coil of T2 With Modulating Signal For Positive half cycle of modulating signal D1 and D2 conduct.DSB SC DSB-SC D1 D3 D4 Modulating signal i l +T1 D2 +T2 ± Carrier No Modulating Signal y y y For Positive half cycle of carrier. and output can be achieved from secondary of T2 180 out of phase 19 February 2011 DR. currents leave the primary coil of T2 in opposite direction. so output can be achieved from the secondary of T2 For negative half cycle D3 and D4 conduct. currents enter the primary coil of T2 in opposite direction.

Amjad Imran 30 . M.DSB SC DSB-SC v1+v2 G S D FET1 Carrier v1 id1 + id2 D G Modulating Signal v2 T3 T1 T2 v1-v2 FET2 S See analysis in class notes y 19 February 2011 DR.

Amjad Imran 31 . M.SSB SC SSB-SC Balanced Modulator Side band Suppression filter Balanced Mixer Linear Amplifier Crystal oscillator Modulating Signal ω mt Balanced Modulator ω c t + 90 ± ω m t ω c t + 90 90 phase shifter 90 phase shifter Summing Amplifier 2 (ω c t + ω m t + 90 ) Linear Amplifier Carrier ω ct Balanced Modulator ω m t + 90 ω c t ± (ω m t + 90 ) 19 February 2011 DR.

SSB SC SSB-SC Modulating g signal ω 0 t + 90 ± ω m t Balanced Modulator 1 Audio LPF ω 0 t + 90 − ω m t Balanced B l d Modulator 1 ω c t ± (ω 0 t + 90 − ω m t ) ω 0 t + 90 90 phase p shifter ω ct Carrier osc ω 0t Audio Carrier C osc ω ct 90 phase p ase shifter Summing circuit 10 ω 0t Balanced Modulator 2 ω 0t ± ω m t Audio A di LPF ω 0t − ω m t 7 ω c t + 90 ω c t + 90 ± (ω 0 t − ω m t ) Balanced Modulator 1 10 → ω c t + (ω 0 t − ω m t ) 19 February 2011 DR. Amjad Imran 32 . M.

Amjad Imran 33 . M.Frequency Modulation FM Carrier wave: s c (t ) = Vc sin( ω c t + θ (t )) where ω c = 2πf c Instant Phase Deviation: sta t ase e at o It is the instantaneous change in the phase of the carrier at a given instant of time and indicates how much the phase of the carrier is changed with respect to the reference phase Instantane ous Phase Deviation = θ (t) rad Instant Phase: It is the precise phase of the carrier at a given instant of time and is expressed mathematically Instantane ous Phase = ωct + θ (t) rad () 19 February 2011 DR.

...FM. M. Amjad Imran 34 ... FM Instantaneous frequency Deviation: I t t f D i ti It is the instantaneous change in the frequency of the carrier and is defined as the first time derivative of the instantaneous phase deviation Instantane ous frequency deviation = θ ′(t) rad/s Instantaneous frequency: p q y g It is the precise frequency of the carrier at a given instant of time and is defined as the first time derivative of instantaneous phase Instantane ous frequency = Modulating Signal: d [ωct + θ (t)] dt s m (t ) = Vm sin ω m t 19 February 2011 DR......

.... KV m = V c{ J 0 ( β ) sin ω c t } 35 19 February 2011 DR. FM Frequency Modulated Signal: q y g S fm ( t ) = V c sin[ ω c t + ∫ θ ′(t) dt] In frequency modulation θ ′(t) ∝ S m (t) S fm ( t ) = V c sin[ ω c t + KV m ∫ sin( ω m t )dt] = V c sin[ ω c t + cos( ω m t ) ] ωm = V c sin[ ω c t + β cos( ω m t ) ] ∴ β = KV m / ω m = + J 1( β )[sin( ω c + ω m t ) − sin( ω c − ω m t )] = + J 2 ( β )[sin( ω c + 2 ω m t ) − sin( ω c − 2 ω m t )] = + J 3 ( β )[sin( ω c + 3ω m t ) − sin( ω c − 3ω m t )] + ... Amjad Imran ...... M......FM...

. varies in amplitude. with modulation i d β ith d l ti index β. Ec J 0 ( β ) sin(ωc t ) .FM. i.. n = 0 is the carrier component. hence the n = 0 curve shows how the component at the carrier frequency.e. fc.. 19 February 2011 DR.. Amjad Imran 36 . FM In the series for Sfm(t). M..

.FM.f3m. more bandwidths for q .. Increased value of modulation index require... AM has only three frequencies ( i.. FM OBSERVATIONS: 1. hence carrier may be suppressed by selecting those values of β 19 February 2011 DR. Side band distribution is symmetric about the carrier frequency 3..J0(β) goes zero.f2m. M. Sideband power and the total transmitted power increases with the depth of modulation. For certain values of modulation index... lowerside band) Where as FM has infinite number of side bands as well as carrier. Amjad Imran 37 ... Some of the Bessel Coefficients may have –ve values. upperside band. However in FM. total transmitted power always remain same. 2. transmission 6.e carrier. How many s deba d co po e ts have s g ca t a p tudes is depe de t o a y sideband components a e significant amplitudes s dependent on the Modulation Index 5. indicating 180 phase change for that particular pair of bands 4. In AM. The side bands are separated from the carrier by fm..

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