Load Balancing

Contents           What is Load Balancing Load Balancer and Back-End Layer-2 Load Balancing Layer-4 Load Balancing Layer-7 Load Balancing Persistence DNS Load Balancing Database Load Balancing Load-Balancing Clusters More Software Solutions .

What is Load Balancing?  Load balancing is a computer networking methodology to distribute workload across multiple resources to achieve     optimal resource utilization maximize throughput minimize response time avoid overload .

Load Balancer and Back-End  A Load Balancer (Front-End Server) is usually used Receives computed outputs from several BackEnd Servers In Multitier architecture. terminology of designs may include     Stovepipes Bowties .

Load Balancer and Back-End  Redirects traffic according to algorithm/availability/traffic but stays as a mediator between the user and the back-end servers  Server Health Checking through Ping/TCP Connect/HTTP Get Header/HTTP Get Content Custom checks can be designed too  .

Layer-2 Load Balancing ● ● Bonding Bond two or more links into a single. higherbandwidth logical link ● ● NIC Teaming Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) .

Layer 4 Load Balancer/Router  MultiLayer Switch  Practically a NAT with port and transaction awareness least load fastest response times balancing requests out if one machine is not up. the router will not send traffic to it  Modern load balancing routers can use rules      IPVS in the Linux Virtual Server (LVS) .

Layer-7 Load Balancing   Reverse Proxy Parse requests in application layer and distribute requests to servers based on different types of request contents LoadBalancing.org recommends HAProxy for open-source   Citrix netscaler and F5 are also said to dominate this market  Also KTCPVS .

Layer-7 Load Switching .

Persistence    When a user is directed to one server The user is kept redirected to that server Source IP Persistence  Not good for multiple access behind one IP Good for HTTP but there are famous vendors that also do RDP Cookies (HAProxy)  Cookie Based  .

2 www.113.example.example.example.example.DNS Load Balancing   Using the Zone File When the Server is down.1 two.   Its DNS will not respond Quickest DNS responder will be the closest @ in a 192.2.example.0.org www.org NS one..2.org A 203.org NS two.1 one..org .0.0.example.org A 192.

Database Load Balancing    Oracle RAC MySQL Cluster or through middle-ware like MySQL Load Balancing Proxy .

Linux-HA .Load-Balancing Clusters  Usually a group of computers connected in a LAN to make a ”Virtual Server” More cost-effective than single computers with similar performance Some software used is     MPI Library Beowulf. Linux Virtual Server. and MPICH. distcc.

RedHat Cluster. Ultra Monkey.More Software Solutions  Apache web server's mod_proxy_balancer extension Varnish (HTTP Accelerator/Reverse Proxy) Pound (Reverse Proxy/Load Balancer) Gearman (application framework designed to distribute appropriate computer tasks to multiple computers) Redundant Firewalls with OpenBSD F5 uses FreeBSD. Linux Virtual Server      . Linux-HA.