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HTS Direct Drive Wind Generator Clive Lewis, Jens Müller, June 2007

HTS Direct Drive Wind Generator

Clive Lewis, Jens Müller, June 2007

HTS Direct Drive Wind Generator Clive Lewis, Jens Müller, June 2007

Introduction

Why an HTS Wind Generator?

The Market

Introduction Why an HTS Wind Generator?  The Market  Fast Growing Market for Wind Turbines

Fast Growing Market for Wind Turbines

Desire for large wind generating capacity in Northern Europe

Trend towards larger turbine ratings

High Volume cost sensitive market

Many turbine manufacturers moving to direct drive generators to improve reliability

The Technology

HTS Generators offer the advantage of much lower mass than conventional generator

New 2 nd generation HTS wire technology offering the promise of low cost (cheaper than copper) in volume production

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The Wind Turbine Market

The Wind Turbine Market  High growth rate, expected to continue well into the future HTS

High growth rate, expected to continue well into the future

High growth rate, expected to continue well into the future HTS Wind Generator | CUSTOMISED TECHNOLOGY

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The Wind Turbine Market

The Wind Turbine Market  Trend towards increasing individual turbine rating  Largest turbines today 5

Trend towards increasing individual turbine rating

Largest turbines today 5 MW+

Move to offshore in Northern Europe, particularly UK

Densely populated, limited land space

Large area of shallow sea, with excellent wind climate

UK Round 1 - 15 offshore sites (6 operating), 30 or 60 turbines at each site

UK Round 2 – 15 sites with a capacity of up to 1200 MW per site, 7200 MW total. 1000 MW London Array site now given consent by UK government

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Offshore Wind

Offshore Wind  Installation and connection costs significantly higher than onshore  Fewer larger turbines

Installation and connection costs significantly higher than onshore

Fewer larger turbines desirable to reduce number of installations

But: Increased nacelle mass increases installation costs Increases foundation costs Increases cost of lifting onto tower

Reliability very important for offshore

Cost of access high

Unable to access turbine due to sea conditions for most of the winter generating season

Maintenance visits need to be minimised

Maximum 1 visit per year

Preferably avoid DFIG generators with brush gear

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Reliability

Reliability  Desire among many turbine manufacturers to eliminate the gearbox  Turbines fail due to

Desire among many turbine manufacturers to eliminate the gearbox

Turbines fail due to a wide variety of causes

Gearboxes responsible for the greatest percentage of outage time

Johan Ribrant and Lina Margareta Bertling, “Survey of Failures in Wind Power Systems With Focus on Swedish Wind Power Plants During 1997–2005” IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol. 22, No. 1, March 2007

Data for Sweden (above) and Finland (below, from J Ribrant’s Master thesis)

and Finland (below, from J Ribrant’s Master thesis) HTS Wind Generator | CUSTOMISED TECHNOLOGY FOR CUSTOMER
and Finland (below, from J Ribrant’s Master thesis) HTS Wind Generator | CUSTOMISED TECHNOLOGY FOR CUSTOMER

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Evolution of Wind Turbine Technology

Evolution of Wind Turbine Technology  Early turbines were small – 100 kW or less 

Early turbines were small – 100 kW or less

Used a fixed speed induction generator, driven through a speed increasing gearbox, directly connected to grid

Power in high winds controlled by aerodynamic stall of the blades

Trend to larger turbine over time. More than a few 100’s kW advantage of variable speed became apparent

Use of DFIG dominated – Stator directly connected to grid. Rotor connected though converter supplying 30-50% of power

Increasing penetration of wind power require better power quality supplied to grid

Turbines with fully fed converters introduced

Many turbine manufactures are moving to direct drive generators to improve reliability

Low speed very high torque, hence physically large generators

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HTS Rotating Machines

Types of HTS Rotating Machine

HTS Rotating Machines Types of HTS Rotating Machine  HTS can be used in a number

HTS can be used in a number of different ways in rotating machines

Bulk HTS material

HTS Wire

Different types of rotating machine using HTS have been proposed

Synchronous

Homopolar

Induction

Most large HTS projects have been synchronous machines with a HTS DC field winding on the rotor

Largest manufactured and tested to date in 36.5 MW at 120 rpm (2900 kNm torque)

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HTS Technology in Wind Turbines

HTS Technology in Wind Turbines  HTS allows significant increase in power density compared to wound

HTS allows significant increase in power density compared to wound copper or permanent magnet machines

20% of conventional synchronous

50% of state of the art direct drive PM generators

It is an enabling technology for direct drive generator in very large turbines

No gearbox

No sliprings

Reduced mass

HTS offers efficiency advantages, especially at part load

At full load efficiency is not so important

At part load as much of the wind energy as possible should be extracted

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HTS Technology in Wind Turbines

HTS Technology in Wind Turbines Prerequisites for a successful HTS wind generator  HTS wire manufactured

Prerequisites for a successful HTS wind generator

HTS wire manufactured in volume at low cost

HTS wire manufacturing technology suitable for volume production Continuous process

A generator design optimised for low cost highly automated volume production

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HTS Wire Technology

HTS Wire Technology First Generation HTS Wires  Commercially available for many years  Based on

First Generation HTS Wires

Commercially available for many years

Based on BSCCO HTS materials

Multiple filaments in a silver matrix

Manufacturing involves multiple rolling processes followed by controlled heat treatment

Silver Matrix Ceramic Filaments
Silver Matrix
Ceramic Filaments

Second Generation HTS wires

Starting to become commercially available

Based of YBCO HTS materials

Coated on a buffer layer and substrate

HTS materials  Coated on a buffer layer and substrate HTS Wind Generator | CUSTOMISED TECHNOLOGY

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Trithor 2G Wire Technology

Trithor 2G Wire Technology  2G Coated Conductor HTS Wire has the potential to meet the

2G Coated Conductor HTS Wire has the potential to meet the price and performance targets for wind energy

Different processing routes evaluated

Multiple process routes could satisfy the technical criteria

Only an All Chemical route can meet the commercial viability target in large production volume

Prototype continuous process installed at Trithor

Biaxial textured metal tape

Ni-W Alloy as substrate

Lanthanium-Zirconate / Ceriumoxide (LZO/CeO) buffer

YBCO Superconducting layer

Low cost chemical deposition continuous process

Throughput to increase from 0.01 up to 1000 m / hour

With large enough demand 2G wire undercuts the price of copper

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Converteam HTS Wind Generator

Converteam HTS Wind Generator  Feasibility study carried out in 2004 based on the potential price

Feasibility study carried out in 2004 based on the potential price performance of 2G HTS wire

Larger project started in 2006

Design of 8 MW 12 rpm generator

Part funded by UK DTI

Partners on project (also receiving funding)

A S Scientific (cryogenic systems)

University of Warwick (materials and manufacturing expertise)

HTS Coil manufacture by Trithor

Project Structure

Phase 1 – Conceptual design of 8 MW, 12 rpm Generator

Completed

Phase 2

Detailed design of 8 MW Generator

Design manufacture and test of a scaled prototype

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Conceptual Design

Preliminary Study

Conceptual Design Preliminary Study  High current density of HTS allows use of designs without iron

High current density of HTS allows use of designs without iron or with partial iron magnetic circuit

1. Conventional stator with iron teeth – rotor with magnetic pole bodies (warm or cold)

Does not offer much size and mass advantage

2. Conventional stator – rotor with non magnetic pole bodies – more HTS wire needed, but lower cold mass – otherwise similar to 1

3. Airgap stator winding – rotor with magnetic pole bodies – rotor iron can be operated highly saturated – allows significant reduction in size and mass

4. Airgap stator winding – rotor with non-magnetic pole bodies – uses more HTS wire than 3 (depending on flux density) - significant reduction in size and mass

Type 4 chosen for the wind generator

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Design Challenges

Design Challenges  A number of challenges and risks identified at the start of the project

A number of challenges and risks identified at the start of the project

Some potential show-stoppers

the start of the project  Some potential show-stoppers HTS Wind Generator | CUSTOMISED TECHNOLOGY FOR
the start of the project  Some potential show-stoppers HTS Wind Generator | CUSTOMISED TECHNOLOGY FOR

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Torque Transmission

Torque Transmission  Transmit more than 6 MNm of torque (much more than this in a

Transmit more than 6 MNm of torque (much more than this in a fault) from cold HTS coils at 35 K to a warm shaft at >300 K

Avoid transferring more than a few Watts of heat to the cold parts

Removing 100 W of heat at 30 K takes up to 10 kW of compressor power

Various options explored including discs, tubes and spokes

Solution using carbon fibre rods chosen

A little over 20 W of heat leak to cold parts

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Mechanical Forces

Mechanical Forces  High torque machine , compact operating at high flux density  >4 T

High torque machine , compact operating at high flux density

>4 T in parts of HTS coils

High Current density capability of HTS wire

Force density in HTS coils due to Lorenz forces (JJ x BB) very high

Airgap winding – torque acts on the coils rather than on iron

But torque accounts for only 10% of the total force on the coils

Excessive strain on HTS wire can lead to quench

Forces due to differential thermal contraction also need to be managed

Need to make efficient use of radial airgap space

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Wind Turbulence

Wind Turbulence  Wind does not blow at constant speed  Changes in load can cause

Wind does not blow at constant speed

Changes in load can cause eddy current heating on the rotor

Also AC losses in the HTS wire

Representative wind turbulence modelled

Large turbine with blade pitch control

2D non-linear time stepping FE model for 10 minuets of wind data

Mean loss low – Rotor EM Shield effective

HTS Generator output 16000 16 14000 14 12000 12 10000 10 kW 8000 8 kNM
HTS Generator output
16000
16
14000
14
12000
12
10000
10
kW
8000
8
kNM
RPM
6000
6
4000
4
2000
2
0
0
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
s
Power (kW), Tor
(kNm)
Speed (RP

(W)

Rotor Loss

1000 100 900 90 800 80 700 70 600 60 500 50 400 40 300
1000
100
900
90
800
80
700
70
600
60
500
50
400
40
300
30
200
20
100
10
0
0
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
Warm E.M. Shield loss (W)
Cold support structure loss

s

Shield loss Support loss
Shield loss
Support loss

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Airgap Stator Winding

The challenges

Airgap Stator Winding  The challenges  Forces act on stator conductors rather than iron teeth

Forces act on stator conductors rather than iron teeth

The forces are high cycle fatigue loads

Stator coils need to be made from stranded litz wire to eliminate eddy current loss – naturally flexible

Forces need to be transmitted to the back iron / frame via non- magnetic, non-conducting supports

Compact design could need expensive liquid cooling

Solutions

Forces can be managed

Full fatigue analysis to be carried out during next phase

Stiff structure can be obtained using from wound coils, composite supports and global VPI

Stator can be air cooled

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N/m

Airgap Stator Winding

N/m Airgap Stator Winding Stator mechanical model during 3 Phase Short Circuit Time and space varying
Stator mechanical model during 3 Phase Short Circuit Time and space varying coil forces from
Stator mechanical model
during 3 Phase Short Circuit
Time and space
varying coil forces
from EM Model
Resulting deflections in
the stator winding and
support structure
Radial and Tangential
forces calculated
Total Tangential Force in Slot
50,000
0
-50,000
slot 1
-100,000
slot 2
slot 8
slot 13
-150,000
slot 14
slot 18
-200,000
-250,000
-300,000
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
s

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Stator Iron Losses

Stator Iron Losses  Airgap winding gives significant axial component of flux at the ends 

Airgap winding gives significant axial component of flux at the ends

Can cause radial and tangential eddy current losses in the stator core

High operating flux density increases the problem

Low operating frequency helps

Original baseline design had 55 kW losses – unacceptable

Two solutions found with losses reduced to 6 kW

Selected solution had slightly higher mass, but lower risk and easier manufacturing

higher mass, but lower risk and easier manufacturing Eddy currents in the stator core for 1

Eddy currents in the stator core for 1 possible design (not selected)

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Conclusions

Conclusions  Conceptual design phase completed  Solutions found for all the major technical challenges 

Conceptual design phase completed

Solutions found for all the major technical challenges

Low cost 2G HTS wire will enable very large direct drive generators to be economically attractive solution compared to conventional technology for very large turbines

Project is progressing through the next phase

Design and manufacture of a scaled prototype

Detailed design of the full sized machine

Manufacture of full sized prototype planned to start in 2009

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Thank you for your attention

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