HISTORY The history of the Philippines can be divided into four distinct phases: the pre-Spanish period

(before 1521); the Spanish period (1521-1898); the American period (1898-1946); and the post-independence period (1946present). Pre-Spanish Period The first people in the Philippines, the Negritos, are believed to have come to the islands 30,000 years ago from Borneo and Sumatra, making their way across then-existing land bridges. According to popular belief, Malays subsequently came from the south in successive waves, the earliest by land bridges and later in boats by sea. In contrast, modern archeological, linguistic, and genetic evidence strongly suggests that those successive waves of migrants came from Taiwan as the Austronesian sub-group, Malayo-Polynesians. From Taiwan, the Austronesians first spread southward across the Philippines, then on to Indonesia, Malaysia, and as far away as Polynesia and Madagascar. The migrants settled in scattered communities, named barangays after the large outrigger boats in which they arrived, and ruled by chieftains known often as datus. Mainland Chinese merchants and traders arrived and settled in the ninth century, sometimes traveling on the ships of Arab traders, who introduced Islam in the south and extended some influence even into Luzon. The Malayo-Polynesians, however, remained the dominant group until the Spanish arrived in the 16th century. Spanish Period Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan reached the Philippines and claimed the archipelago for Spain in 1521, but was killed shortly after arriving when he intervened in a dispute between rival tribes. Christianity was established in the Philippines only after the arrival of the succeeding Spanish expeditionary forces (the first led by Legazpi in the early 16th century) and the Spanish Jesuits, and in the 17th and 18th centuries by the conquistadores. Until Mexico proclaimed independence from Spain in 1810, the islands were under the administrative control of Spanish North America, and there was significant migration between North America and the Philippines. This period was the era of conversion to Roman Catholicism. A Spanish colonial social system was developed with a local government centered in Manila and with considerable clerical influence. Spanish influence was strongest in Luzon and the central Philippines but less so in Mindanao, save for certain coastal cities. The long period of Spanish rule was marked by numerous uprisings. Towards the latter half of the 19th century, European-educated Filipinos or ilustrados (such as the Chinese Filipino national hero Jose Rizal) began to criticize the excesses of Spanish rule and instilled a new sense of national identity. This movement gave inspiration to the final revolt against Spain that began in 1896 under the leadership of Emilio Aguinaldo (another Chinese Filipino) and continued until the Americans defeated the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay on May 1, 1898, during the Spanish-American War. Aguinaldo declared independence from Spain on June 12, 1898. American Period Following Admiral George Dewey's defeat of the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay, the U.S. occupied the Philippines. Spain ceded the islands to the United States under the terms of the Treaty of Paris (December 10, 1898) that ended the Spanish-American war. A war of resistance against U.S. rule, led by revolutionary General Aguinaldo, broke out in 1899. During this conflict fighting and disease claimed the lives of tens of thousands of Filipinos and thousands of Americans. Filipinos and an increasing number of American historians refer to these hostilities as the Philippine-American War (1899-1902), and in 1999, the U.S. Library of Congress reclassified its references to use this term. In 1901, Aguinaldo was captured and swore allegiance to the United States, and resistance gradually died out until the conflict ended with a Peace Proclamation on July 4, 1902. Armed resistance continued sporadically until 1913, however, especially among the Muslims in Mindanao and Sulu. U.S. administration of the Philippines was always declared to be temporary and aimed to develop institutions that would permit and encourage the eventual establishment of a free and democratic government. Therefore, U.S. officials concentrated on the creation of such practical supports for democratic government as public education, public infrastructure, and a sound legal system. The legacy of the “Thomasites”--American teachers who came to the Philippines starting in 1901 and created the tradition of a strong public education system--continues to resonate today. The first legislative assembly was elected in 1907, and a bicameral legislature, largely under Filipino control, was established. A civil service was formed and was gradually taken over by the Filipinos, who had effectively

the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF). The election was marred by widespread electoral fraud on the part of Marcos and his supporters. using the existing Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) as a vehicle for self-government. The government began a process of political normalization during 1978-81. International observers. Post-Independence Period The early years of independence were dominated by U.-assisted postwar reconstruction. 1986. The assassination of opposition leader Benigno (Ninoy) Aquino upon his return to the Philippines in 1983 after a long period of exile coalesced popular dissatisfaction with Marcos and set in motion a succession of events that culminated in a snap presidential election in February 1986. Muslim separatists. resulting in impeachment proceedings. President Estrada was plagued with allegations of corruption. The Catholic Church was disestablished. movie actor Fernando Poe. During his first 2 years in office. Ramos declared "national reconciliation" his highest priority. Popular movie actor Joseph Ejercito Estrada's election as president in May 1998 marked the Philippines' third democratic succession since the ouster of Marcos. assumed the presidency in January 2001 after widespread demonstrations that followed the breakdown of Estrada's impeachment trial. ruling largely by decree and popular referenda. Estrada was elected with overwhelming mass support on a platform promising poverty alleviation and an anti-crime crackdown. 1981. and a considerable amount of church land was purchased and redistributed. and develop and diversify the economy. progress was made in revitalizing democratic institutions and civil liberties. implement domestic reform programs. but Congress rejected the charges in September 2005. He legalized the Communist Party and created the National Unification Commission (NUC) to lay the groundwork for talks with communist insurgents. Noli De Castro was elected vice president. The Philippine Supreme Court subsequently endorsed unanimously the constitutionality of the transfer of power. In June 1994. citing growing lawlessness and open rebellion by the communist rebels as his justification. Marcos governed from 1973 until mid-1981 in accordance with the transitory provisions of a new constitution that replaced the commonwealth constitution of 1935. denounced the official results. The succeeding administrations of Presidents Carlos P.S. Estrada vacated his office in 2001. the government signed an agreement bringing the military insurgency to an end. delegation led by Senator Richard Lugar (R-Indiana). Garcia (195761) and Diosdado Macapagal (1961-65) sought to expand Philippine ties to its Asian neighbors. was signed in 1996. However. head of the United Nationalist Democratic Organization (UNIDO). The communistinspired Huk Rebellion (1945-53) complicated recovery efforts before its successful suppression under the leadership of President Ramon Magsaysay. The Marcos government's respect for human rights remained low despite the end of martial law on January 17. the administration was also viewed by many as weak and fractious. Marcos (1965-86) declared martial law. National and local elections took place in May 2004. elected vice president in 1998. Fidel Ramos was elected president in 1992.. Early in his administration. A peace agreement with one major Muslim insurgent group. President Ferdinand E. . and she won a hard-fought campaign against her primary challenger. and corruption and cronyism contributed to a serious decline in economic growth and development. in elections held May 10. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. Under Aquino's presidency. His government retained its wide arrest and detention powers. Jr. 2004. In 2007. as well as Philippine military and police personnel accused of crimes committed while fighting the insurgents.S. Similar charges were discussed and dismissed by Congress in later years. and military rebels. He suppressed democratic institutions and restricted civil liberties during the martial law period. Arroyo was eligible for another term as president for a full 6 years. culminating in the reelection of President Marcos to a 6-year term that would have ended in 1987. President Ramos signed into law a general conditional amnesty covering all rebel groups. Corazon Aquino. In October 1995. The opposition united under Aquino's widow. and a return to full political stability and economic development was hampered by several attempted coups staged by disaffected members of the Philippine military.gained control by the end of World War I. including a U. and Salvador Laurel. Impeachment charges were brought against Arroyo in June 2005 for allegedly tampering with the results of the 2004 elections. an anti-graft court convicted Estrada of plunder charges. Under the constitution. In 1972. He received a presidential pardon soon after the conviction. Marcos was forced to flee the Philippines in the face of a peaceful civilian-military uprising that ousted him and installed Corazon Aquino as president on February 25.

San Francisco. won the vice presidency. Binay Foreign Secretary--Albert F. and other domestic issues. which possesses significant reserves of chromate. Aquino III Vice President--Jejomar C. 202-467-9300 ). and. and coal energy reserves. International competitiveness rankings have slipped. The meaning of the name Ishmael means God hear. Principal Government Officials President--Benigno S. Cuisia. although the Asian financial crisis in 1997 slowed Philippine economic development once again. and trade and investment barriers. Honolulu. Aquino III (son of Ninoy and Corazon Aquino) ran for and won the presidency. campaigning against corruption and on a platform including job creation. the Philippines has been on an unfortunate economic trajectory.In 2010 elections. most opinion-shapers lauded the election process as among the best in the Philippines’ history. Permanent Representative to the UN--Libran N. Liberal Party Senator Benigno S. and business process outsourcing. and Agana (Guam). I am not a linguist but I have studied Arabic. a member of the PDP-Laban party. Growth after the war was rapid. the Philippines saw a period of higher growth. Nonetheless. A severe recession from 1984 through 1985 saw the economy shrink by more than 10%. the Philippine Government introduced a broad range of economic reforms designed to spur business growth and foreign investment. Apparently this was for the crying of Ibrahim asking God to give him a son. long-term economic growth remains threatened by inadequate infrastructure and education systems. Washington. Consulates general are in New York. DC 20036 (tel. This name was chosen by God. despite uncertainty about the technical reliability of the machines in the run-up to the election. President Arroyo made considerable progress in restoring macroeconomic stability with the help of a wellregarded economic team. The service sector contributes more than half of overall Philippine economic output. quickly producing results that were widely accepted as legitimate. followed by industry (about a third). Most industries are concentrated in areas around metropolitan Manila. As a result. Cabactulan The Republic of the Philippines maintains an embassy in the United States at 1600 Massachusetts Avenue NW. but slowed as years of economic mismanagement and political volatility during the Marcos regime contributed to economic stagnation and resulted in macroeconomic instability. Makati City Mayor Jejomar Binay. nickel. Significant offshore hydrocarbon finds have added to the country's substantial geothermal. Mining has great potential in the Philippines. textiles and garments. During the 1990s. Persian and English. Los Angeles. Despite occasional challenges to her presidency and resistance to pro-liberalization reforms by vested interests. electronics and automobile parts. hydro. and copper. ECONOMY Since the end of World War II. and agriculture (less than 20%). going from one of the richest countries in Asia (following Japan) to one of the poorest. Important industries include food processing. provision of health care and education. What Ishmael mean? "I" stance for Ellah or Illah the Arabic word for Allah (GOD) "sh" it means hear. and political instability during the Corazon Aquino administration further dampened economic activity. Del Rosario Ambassador to the United States--Jose L. Chicago. Jr. The election was the first in the Philippines to feature nationwide use of automated ballot-scanners. .

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