A SUMMER TRAINING SYNOPSIS BASED ON “ Networking Technologies And Its Design and Implementation ” AT

SUBMITTED TO: DR. Afshar Alam (HOD) HAMDARD UNIVERSITY, NEW DELHI

SUBMITTED BY:Name: Saba Wasim Class: B.Tech (IT) University Roll No.- 2007-311-030

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It is my pleasure to be indebted to various people, who directly or indirectly contributed in the development of this work and who influenced my thinking, behavior, and acts during the course of study. I express my sincere gratitude to DR.AFSHAR ALAM, worthy HOD for providing me an opportunity to undergo summer training at HCL CDC

I am thankful to Mr AKHLIESH SINGH for his support, cooperation, and motivation provided to me during the training for constant inspiration, presence and blessings.

Lastly, I would like to thank the almighty and my parents for their moral support and my friends with whom I shared my day-to-day experience and received lots of suggestions that improved my quality of work.

SABA WASIM (Name of the student)

DECLARATION I, Saba Wasim, student of B.Tech(IT) 5th Semester, studying at Hamdard University, Hamdard Nagar New Delhi, hereby declare that the summer training report on “Networking Technologies and Design” submitted to Hamdard University, Hamdard Nagar is the original work conducted by me. The information and data given in the report is authentic to the best of my knowledge. This summer training report is not being submitted to any other University for award of any other Degree, Diploma and Fellowship.

Saba Wasim (Name of the student)

TABLE OF CONTENT
i Acknowledgement

ii Certificate iii Table of Content iv.About HCL CDC


1.

Project Review

NETWORK TOPOLOGY TYPES OF NETWORKS PHYSICAL TOPOLOGY LAYER-3 DEVICES LAYER-2 DEVICES LAYER-1 (PHYSICAL) DEVICES LAN Solution END-USER DEVICES LOGICAL TOPOLOGY

1.
2. 3. 4. 5.

6. 7. 8.

9.

IP ADDRESSING

10. INTRODUCTION TO ROUTER 11. VLANS (Virtual LANs)

Project Work

1. ADDRESSING INFORMATION OF LAYER-3 DEVICES

2. ADDRESSING INFORMATION OF LAYER-2 DEVICES

3. COMPLETE LOGICAL NETWORK TOPOLOGY

4. IP ADDRESSING STRUCTURE 5. IP ADDRESS CLASSES

6. SUBNETTING 7. SWITCHING

8. VIRTUAL LAN

9. SWITCH CONFIGURATION

10.

ROUTING

11.

ADDRESSING SCHEME

12. 13.

INTERNET CONNECTION ISP LEVELS OF SERVICE

 Result and Conclusions

 Bibliography

About HCL CDC

As the training arm of HCL Infosystems, HCL Career Development Centre (CDC) carries forth a legacy of excellence spanning across more than three decades. HCL CDC is an initiative that enables individuals and organisations to benefit from HCL's deep expertise in the IT space. Among the fastest growing IT education brands in India, HCL CDC offers a complete spectrum of quality training programs on software, hardware, networking as well as global certifications in association with leading IT organisations worldwide.

Empowered with strategic alliances with leading IT organisations in India and abroad, HCL CDC training solutions cater to diverse consumer profiles including individuals, enterprises, academic institutions and Government enterprises "We shall develop and Impart Industry relevant ICT Education to meet the requirement of customers,Industry and society by

continually updating technology content and improving our processes" Certification of quality standards "In its pursuit of excellence", the company has developed a quality management system in line with ISO 9001:2000 standard

Network Design And Implmentation At HCL CDC

Project Review
NETWORK TOPOLOGY

A network is a system that transmits any combination of voice, video and/or data between users. A network can be defined by its geographical dimensions and by which the user’s PC access it. A network consists of a:

The network operating system (Windows NT/2000TM/Xp) on the user’s PC (client) and server.

• •

The cables connecting all network devices (user’s PC, server, peripherals, etc.).

All supporting network components (hubs, routers and switches, etc.). Computer Network means an interconnected collection of autonomous computers. Requirement of Networking Resource sharing- To make all programs, equipment, and especially data available to anyone on the network without regard to the physical location of the resource and the user. High reliability- As all files could be replicated on two or three machines, so if one of them is unavailable (due to hardware failure), the other copies could be used. Scalability- It is the ability to increase system performance gradually as the workload grows just by adding more processors. A computer network can provide a powerful communication medium along widely separated employees. The use of networks to enhance human-to-human communication will probably prove more important than technical goals such as improved reliability. These are the reasons that forced the inventerors to invent the networking devices, models and protocols etc. And the birth of Networking took place in 1844 when for the first time Samuel Morse send the first telegraph message.

TYPES OF NETWORKS

LOCAL AEA NETWORK (LAN) A local area network (LAN) is a computer network covering a small physical area, like a home, office, or small groups of buildings, such as a school, or an airport. The defining characteristics of LANs, in contrast to wide area networks (WANs), include their usually higher datatransfer rates, smaller geographic area, and lack of a need for leased telecommunication lines.

Switched Ethernet is the most common Data Link Layer implementation on local area networks. At the Network Layer, the Internet Protocol (i.e. TCP/IP) has become the standard. Smaller

LANs generally consist of one or more switches linked to each other— often at least one is connected to a router, cable modem, or ADSL modem for Internet access. Larger LANs are characterized by their use of redundant links with switches using the spanning tree protocol to prevent loops, their ability to manage differing traffic types via quality of service (QoS), and to segregate traffic with VLANs. Larger LANs also contain a wide variety of network devices such as switches, firewalls, routers, load balancers, and sensors.[9] LANs may have connections with other LANs via leased lines, leased services, or by tunneling across the Internet using virtual private network technologies. Depending on how the connections are established and secured in a LAN, and the distance involved, a LAN may also be classified as METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORK (MAN)

In a simple network consisting of a few computers, it is easy to visualize how all of the various components connect. As networks grow, it is more difficult to keep track of the location of each component, and how each is connected to the network. Wired networks require lots of cabling and network devices to provide connectivity for all network hosts. When networks are installed, a physical topology map is created to record where each host is located and how it is connected to the network. The physical topology map also shows where the wiring is installed and the locations of the networking devices that connect the hosts. Icons are used to represent the actual physical devices within the topology map. It is very important to maintain and update physical topology maps to aid future installation and troubleshooting efforts. In addition to the physical topology map, it is sometimes necessary to also have a logical view of the network topology. A logical topology map groups hosts by how they use the network, no matter where they are physically located. Host names, addresses, group information and applications can be recorded on the logical topology map.

PHYSICAL TOPOLOGY EQUIPMENTS List of all equipments required for setting up the internal network of the building for HCL CDC.

EQUIPMENT CISCO 2960 Layer Switch

2

QTY 9 5 3 3

DESCRIPTION 24 Fast-Ethernet ports, Gigabit Ethernet ports 10 Gigabit Ethernet ports

2

CISCO 2960 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Linksys Wireless Integrated Router CISCO 2800 Integrated Service Router

4 Ethernet ports, 1 Internet port 7 Gigabit Ethernet, 2 Serial ports / 6 Gigabit Ethernet, 3 Serial ports 1 Fast-Ethernet port For camera monitoring 1 Fast-Ethernet port 1 Fast-Ethernet Integrated Wi-Fi port,

HP Blade Servers HP Storage Servers IBM Desktop Computers IBM Laptop Computers HP IP Printers

3 2 142 32 5

1 Fast-Ethernet port/ Wireless

Shielded Twisted Pair 2500’ Cable (CAT-5) Unshielded Twisted Pair 4700’ Cable (CAT-5)

DESCRIPTION OF DEVICES LAYER-3 DEVICES • Linksys Wireless Integrated Router An ISR combines features such as routing and switching functions, security, voice, LAN and WAN connectivity into a single device. It is designed for small offices and homebased users. It consists of one WAN connection (Router Port) and four 10/100 Mbps switch ports. It provides services at broadband speeds. • CISCO 2800 Integrated Service Router An ISR combines features such as routing and switching functions, security, voice, LAN and WAN connectivity into a single device. It is designed for enterprise branch offices. It supports seven to eight 10/100/1000 Mbps Gigabit Ethernet ports and two to three Serial ports. It provides services at broadband speeds using T1/E1 connectioins. LAYER-2 DEVICES • CISCO 2960 Gigabit Ethernet Switch A switch is a device that is able to direct a stream of messages coming in one port, out of another port based on the destination MAC address within the frame. It supports ten Gigabit Ethernet ports. It is generally used for trunk lines which carry a huge amount of traffic. • CISCO 2960 Layer 2 Switch This type of switches does not use modules or flash card slots. Due to this reason, their physical configuration cannot be changed. It supports twentyfour 10/100 Mbps Fast-Ethernet ports and two 10/100/1000 Mbps Gigabit Ethernet ports.

LAYER-1 (PHYSICAL) DEVICES • Shielded Twisted Pair Cable They are used for high-speed data transmission. The individual pair of wires are wrapped in a shield and the entire four pairs are wrapped in another shield. It supports data transmission at rates as high as 1000 Mbps. It is generally used for trunk lines. • Unshielded Twisted Pair Cable UTP cable is inexpensive, offers a high bandwidth, and is easy to install. This type of cable is used to connect workstations, hosts and network devices. It can come with many different numbers of pairs inside the jacket, but the most common number of pairs is four. Each pair is identified by a specific color code. It supports data transmission speeds of 100 Mbps. END-USER DEVICES • HP Blade Servers These servers are high performance computers used in businesses and other organizations. They provide the maximum concentration of computing power and stability. It also contains hot-swappable hard-drives. • HP Storage Servers These servers are used to store redundant parts of files in order to prevent them from failing. Servers are usually kept in secure areas where access is controlled. • IBM Desktop Computers These are general purpose computers which provide the basic desktop services to users. It contains of a FastEthernet port. • IBM Laptop Computers

These are mobile computers which supports both LAN and WAN connectivity. • HP IP Printers These are IP based printers which acts as a host on the network. It contains either a Fast-Ethernet port or a Wireless card.

LOGICAL TOPOLOGY PROTOTYPE OF NETWORK TOPOLOGY The network topology of the HCL CDC building can be broadly categorized into three network layers: Access, Distribution and Core Layer.

IP ADDRESSING Every machine on the internet has a unique identifying number, called an IP Address. A typical; IP address looks like this: 216.27.61.45

IP ADDRESS is a 32-bit number, usually written in dotted decimal form, that uniquely identifies an interface of some computer. This 32bit number is divided into 4 octets each separated by a decimal. Out so many values certain values are restricted for use as typical IP address. For example, the IP address 0.0.0.0 is reserved for the default network and the address 255.255.255.255is used for broadcast. Each IP address is split into 2 sections: 1) Network address 2) Host address Individual IP address in same network all have a different value in the host part of address, but they have identical value in network part, just as in town there are different street address but same ZIP code. There are five IP classes: Class A – This class is for very large networks, such as a major international company. IP addresses with a first octet from 1 to 126 are part of this class. The other three octets are each used to identify each host. Net 54. Host or Node 24.54.43

Loopback- The IP address 127.0.0.1 is used as the loopback address. This means that it is used by the host computer to send a message back to itself. It is commonly used for troubleshooting and network testing. Class B- Class B is used for medium-sized networks. A good example is a large college campus. IP addresses with a first octet from 128 to191 are part of this class. Class B addresses also include the second octet as part of the Net identifier. The other two octets are used to identify each host. Net Host or Node

145.24

53.198

Class C- Class C addresses are commonly used for small to mid-size business. IP addresses with a first octet from192 to 223 are part of this class. Class C addresses also include the second and third octets as part of Net identifier. The last octet is used to identify each host. Net 196.54.34 Host or Node 86

Class D- It is used for multicast. It has first bit value of 1, second bit value of 1, third bit value of 1 and fourth bit value of 0. The other 28 bits are used to identify the group of computers the multicast messages is intended for. Net 24.54.145 Class E- It is used for experimental purpose only. Net 23.45.105 Host or Node 240. Host or Node 224

Private IP It is not necessary that every time we make a network we are connected to some ISP (Internet Service Provider). So in that case we require some private IP also which can be used in indigenous networks .In each class a range of IP addresses have been defined for this purpose CLASS A CLASS B CLASS C 10.0.0.1 to 10.255.255.244 172.16.0.1 to 172.34.255.254 192.168.0.0/16

MASKING Computers use a mask to define size of network and host part of an address. Mask is a 32-bit number written in dotted decimal form. It provides us the network address when we perform a Boolean AND of mask with the IP address. It also define number of host bits in an address. Class of addres s A B C Size of network Part of address, in bits 8 16 24 Size of Host Part of address, in bits 24 16 8 Default Mask for Each Class of Network 255.0.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.0

SUBNETTING Basically it is a process of subdividing networks into smaller subnets. In case we have 2-3 small networks but we cant buy IP address for each and every network. So here we use the basic concept of SUBNETTING i.e using one public IP address we will give them IP address and make them independent networks. For this we take some bits of host address and use them for network address so we have different independent networks Address Format when Subnetting Is Used (class A,B,C resp.): 8 Network 16 x Network 24 x Network Subnet Host Subnet Host 8-x 24-x Subnet Host 16-x x

And due to this mask changes to subnet mask and now the network address also includes subnet address. Example If subnet mask is 255.255.240.0 And an IP address for a computer is given as 142.16.52.4 142.16.0.0 is network address 0.0.48.0 is the subnet address 0.0.4.4 is the host address of the computer 10001110.00010000.00110100.00000100 is ANDed with 11111111.11111111.11110000.00000000 and output is 10001110.00010000.00110000.00000000 here first two octets represents Network address and third octet represents subnet address. It can be compared with a postal address as there is only one ZIP code (Network address), different streets (Subnet address), and different house number (Host address). Why Bother with VLSM Design? Suppose, you have just been hired by a new company and need to add on to the existing network. There is no problem with starting over with a new IP address scheme. Should you use a VLSM classless network or a classful network? Let’s just say you happen to have plenty of address space because you are using the Class A 10.0.0.0 private network address in your corporate environment and can’t even come close to imagining that you’d ever run out of IP addresses. Why would you want to bother with the VLSM design process? INTRODUCTION TO ROUTER It is an intelligent device. It works on networks layer. It is used for internet work communication, packet switching, packet filtering and path selection. It has no of broadcast and collision domain. By default

router does not broadcast. Router understands different topology and protocols. It works on full duplex mode. ROUTER represents a separate network. The Network layer (also called layer 3) manages device addressing, tracks the location of devices on the network, and determines the best way to move data, which means that the Network layer must transport traffic between devices that aren’t locally attached. Routers (layer 3 devices) are specified at the Network layer and provide the routing services within an internetwork. It happens like this: First, when a packet is received on a router interface, the destination IP address is checked. If the packet isn’t destined for that particular router, it will look up the destination network address in the routing table. Once the router chooses an exit interface, the packet will be sent to that interface to be framed and sent out on the local network. If the router can’t find an entry for the packet’s destination network in the routing table, the router drops the packet. Two types of packets are used at the Network layer: data and route updates. Data packets Used to transport user data through the internetwork. Protocols used to support data traffic are called routed protocols; examples of routed protocols are IP and IPv6. Route update packets Used to update neighboring routers about the networks connected to all routers within the internetwork. Protocols that send route update packets are called routing protocols; examples of some common ones are RIP, RIPv2, EIGRP, and OSPF. Route update packets are used to help build and maintain routing tables on each router. Network addresses Protocol-specific network addresses. A router must maintain a routing table for individual routing protocols because each routing protocol keeps track of a network with a different addressing scheme (IP, IPv6, and IPX, for example).

3.2

Interface The exit interface a packet will take when destined for a specific network. Metric It is the distance to the remote network. Different routing protocols use different ways of computing this distance Routers break up broadcast domains, which mean that by default, broadcasts aren’t forwarded. Routers also break up collision domains, but you can also do that using layer 2 (Data Link layer) switches. Because each interface in a router represents a separate network, it must be assigned unique network identification numbers, and each host on the network connected to that router must use the same network number. A router in an internetwork

o Each router interface is a broadcast domain. Routers break up broadcast domains by default and provide WAN services. o Routers, by default, will not forward any broadcast or multicast packets.

1 o Routers use the logical address in a Network layer header to determine the next hop router to forward the packet to. 1 o Routers can use access lists, created by an administrator, to control security on the types of packets that are allowed to enter or exit an interface. 2 o Routers can provide layer 2 bridging functions if needed and can simultaneously route through the same interface. o Routers provide connections between virtual LANs (VLANs).

Because by creating contiguous blocks of addresses to specific areas of your network, you can then easily summarize your network and keep route updates with a routing protocol to a minimum. Why would anyone want to advertise hundreds of networks between buildings when you can just send one summary route between buildings and achieve the same result? Summarization, also called Supernetting, provides route updates in the most efficient way possible by advertising many routes in one advertisement instead of individually. Some terminologies those are used with Networking models: Collision Domain- It is the group of PC’s in which collision will occur when two PC will transmit data simultaneously.

Broadcast Domain- It is the group of PC’s those will receive same broadcast message. CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/ Collision Detection)In this protocol when a PC wants to transmit any packet it sense the carrier i.e the path ,if no other PC is using the carrier then only it sends. If two PCs starts sending data simultaneously collision will occur. Both PCs will wait for some random time and then initiate the same process. MAC (Media Access Control) . The IEEE 802.3 (Ethernet) and 802.5 (Token Ring) are the MAC sub layers of these two LAN data-link protocols. Burned-in address: The 6-byte address assigned by the vendor making the card. It is usually burned in to a ROM or EEPROM on the LAN card and begins with a 3-byte organizationally unique identifier (OUI) assigned by the IEEE. Locally administered address: Through configuration, an address that is used instead of the burned-in address. Unicast address: Fancy term for a MAC that represents a single LAN interface.

VLANS (Virtual LANs)

A VLAN permits a group of users to share a common broadcast domain regardless of their physical location in the internetwork. VLAN improve performance and security in switched networks. A Catalyst switch operates in a network like a traditional bridge. Each VLAN configured on the switch implements address learning, forwarding/filtering decisions, and loop avoidance mechanisms. Ports belonging to a VLAN are configured with a membership mode that determines to which VLAN they belong. Catalyst switches support two VLAN membership modes: static and dynamic. The IEEE 802.1Q protocol is used to transport frames for multiple VLANs between switches and routers, and for defining VLAN topologies.

WAN (Wide Area Network) and Protocols involved Below figures shows the different WAN connection types that can be used to connect distant devices. WAN connection types

Synchronous serial

Here’s a list explaining the different WAN connection types: Leased lines These are usually referred to as a point-to-point or dedicated connection. A leased line is a pre-established WAN communications path that goes from the CPE through the DCE switch, then over to the CPE of the remote site. The CPE enables DTE networks to communicate at any time with no cumbersome setup procedures to muddle through before transmitting data. When you’ve got plenty of cash, this is really the way to go because it uses synchronous serial lines up to 45Mbps. HDLC and PPP

encapsulations are frequently used on leased lines. Circuit switching When you hear the term circuit switching, think phone call. The big advantage is cost—you only pay for the time you actually use. No data can transfer before an end-to-end connection is established. Circuit switching uses dial-up modems or ISDN and is used for low-bandwidth data transfers. Packet switching This is a WAN switching method that allows you to share bandwidth with other companies to save money. Packet switching can be thought of as a network that’s designed to look like a leased line yet charges you more like circuit switching. But less cost isn’t always better—there’s definitely a downside: If you need to transfer data constantly, just forget about this option. Instead, get yourself a leased line. Packet switching will only work for you if your data transfers are the bursty type—not continuous. Frame Relay and X.25 are packet-switching technologies with speeds that can range from 56Kbps up to T3 (45Mbps). Frame Relay A packet-switched technology that made its debut in the early 1990s, Frame Relay is a high-performance Data Link and Physical layer specification. It’s pretty much a successor to X.25, except that much of the technology in X.25 used to compensate for physical errors (noisy lines) has been eliminated. An upside to Frame Relay is that it can be more cost effective than point-to-point links, plus it typically runs at speeds of 64Kbps up to 45Mbps (T3). Another Frame Relay benefit is that it provides features for dynamic bandwidth allocation and congestion control.

HDLC High-Level Data-Link Control (HDLC) was derived from Synchronous Data Link Control (SDLC), which was created by IBM as a Data Link connection protocol. HDLC works at the Data Link layer and creates very little overhead compared to LAPB. It wasn’t intended to encapsulate multiple Network layer protocols across the same link— the HDLC header doesn’t contain any identification about the type of protocol being carried inside the HDLC encapsulation. Because of this, each vendor that uses HDLC has its own way of identifying the Network layer protocol, meaning each vendor’s HDLC is proprietary with regard to its specific equipment. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) is a pretty famous, industrystandard protocol. Because all multiprotocol versions of HDLC are proprietary, PPP can be used to create point-to-point links between different vendors’ equipment. It uses a Network Control Protocol field in the Data Link header to identify the Network layer protocol and allows authentication and multi-link connections to be run over asynchronous and synchronous links.

Project Work
ADDRESSING INFORMATION OF LAYER-3 DEVICES ROUTERS DEVICE INTERFAC IP ADDRESS SUBNET MASK E Core Router Serial 7/0 212.212.212 255.255.255.0 .2 Serial 8/0 192.168.10. 255.255.255.2 6 52 Serial 9/0 192.168.10. 255.255.255.2 2 52 Gb E 192.168.8.2 255.255.255.2 0/0.27 40 Gb E 200.200.200 255.255.255.2 0/0.28 .1 48 Lab A Router Serial 8/0 Gb E 0/0.15 Gb E 0/0.16 Gb E 0/0.17 Gb E 0/0.18 Gb E 0/0.19 Gb E 0/0.24 Gb E 0/0.25 Gb E 192.168.10. 1 192.168.2.2 25 192.168.2.1 77 192.168.2.1 61 192.168.2.1 93 192.168.2.2 09 192.168.2.2 192.168.2.3 3 192.168.2.6 255.255.255.2 52 255.255.255.2 24 255.255.255.2 40 255.255.255.2 40 255.255.255.2 40 255.255.255.2 40 255.255.255.2 24 255.255.255.2 24 255.255.255.2

0/0.26 Lab B Router Serial 8/0

5

40 255.255.255.2 52 255.255.255.2 24 255.255.255.2 24 255.255.255.2 24 255.255.255.2 24 255.255.255.2 24 255.255.255.2 24 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.2 24 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.2 24 255.255.255.0

192.168.10. 5 Gb E 0/0.9 192.168.2.6 5 Gb E 192.168.2.2 0/0.10 Gb E 192.168.2.3 0/0.11 3 Gb E 192.168.2.9 0/0.12 7 Gb E 192.168.2.1 0/0.13 29 Internet LAN 192.168.1.4 192.168.3.2 192.168.1.3 192.168.3.1 192.168.2.4 192.168.4.1

Finance Deptt. Wireless Router

Seminar Hall-1 Wireless Router

Internet LAN

Seminar Hall-2 Wireless Router

Internet LAN

ADDRESSING INFORMATION OF LAYER-2 DEVICES SWITCHES DEVICE INTERFAC MODE VLAN ID E Server Switch 0/1 Access 28 1/1 Access 28 2/1 Trunk 1-1005 3/1 Access 27

Lab-A Core Switch

0/1 1/1 2/1 3/1

Trunk Trunk Trunk Trunk Trunk Trunk Access Trunk Trunk Access Trunk

1-14,16,201005 1-15,17,201005 1-14,18-1005 1-1005 1-1005 1-14,20-1005 24 1-23,26-1005 1-23,25,271005 24 1-1005

Lab-B Core Switch

0/1 2/1 0/1 1/1 2/1 3/1 4/1

Floor 1 Switch

COMPLETE LOGICAL NETWORK TOPOLOGY • IP ADDRESSING A host needs an IP address to participate on the Internet. The IP address is a logical network address that identifies a particular host. It must be properly configured and unique in order to communicate with other devices on the Internet. An IP address is assigned to the Network interface connection for a host. This connection is usually a network interface card (NIC) installed in the device. Examples of end-user devices with network interfaces include workstations, servers, network printers and IP phones. Some servers can have more than one NIC and each of these has its own IP address. Router interfaces that provide connections to an IP network will also have an IP address. Every packet sent across the Internet has a source and destination IP address. This information is required by networking devices to insure the information gets to the destination and any replies are returned to the source.

• IP ADDRESSING STRUCTURE An IP address is simply a series of 32 binary bits (ones and zeros). It is very difficult for humans to read a binary IP address. For this reason, the 32 bits are grouped into four 8-bit bytes called octets. An IP address in this format is hard for humans to read, write and remember. To make the IP address easier to understand, each octet is presented as its decimal value, separated by a decimal point or period. This is referred to as dotted-decimal notation. The 32-bit IP address is defined with IP version 4 (IPv4) and is currently the most common form of IP address on the Internet. There are over 4 billion possible IP addresses using a 32-bit addressing scheme. When a host receives an IP address, it looks at all 32 bits as they are received by the NIC. Humans, on the other hand, need to convert those 32 bits into their four octet decimal equivalent. Each octet is made up of 8 bits and each bit has a value. The four groups of 8 bits have the same set of values. The rightmost bit in an octet has a value of 1 and the values of the remaining bits, from right to left, are 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and 128.

• IP ADDRESS CLASSES The IP address and subnet mask work together to determine which portion of the IP address represents the network address and which portion represents the host address. The class of an address can be determined by the value of the first octet. IP addresses are grouped into 5 classes. Classes A, B and C are commercial addresses and are assigned to hosts. Class D is reserved for multicast use and Class E is for experimental use.

• Class C addresses have three octets for the network portion and one for the hosts. The default subnet mask is 24 bits (255.255.255.0). Class C addresses are usually assigned to small networks. • Class B addresses have two octets to represent the network portion and two for the hosts. The default subnet mask is 16 bits (255.255.0.0). These addresses are typically used for medium-sized networks. • Class A addresses have only one octet to represent the network portion and three to represent the hosts. The default subnet mask is 8 bits (255.0.0.0). These addresses are typically assigned to large organizations. In the addressing scheme of HCL CDC, we have used Class-C addressing scheme. In the Class-C addressing scheme, there are a total of 256 addresses available. Out of these, 254 addresses are usable. The remaining to addresses are reserved for network and broadcast address. IP addresses are of two types: Private addresses and Public addresses. All hosts that connect directly to the Internet require a unique public IP address. Because of the finite number of 32-bit addresses available, there is a risk of running out of IP addresses. This problem can be resolved by the use of Private addresses. They allow hosts within an organization to communicate with one another without the need of a unique public IP address. Table below shows a list of Private addresses:

SUBNETTING The customer network using the single ISR is badly overloaded. The proposed solution is to add a second networking device, a larger ISR, and to divide the single network into two separate networks. For security purposes, the wireless and wired users need to be on separate local networks. In the subnetting scheme for HCL CDC, we utilize the concept of classless subnetting where we use custom subnets to differentiate the networks. Routers distinguish between networks by using the subnet mask to determine which bits make up the network ID and which bits make up the host portion of the address. When a network is partitioned, the router needs a modified or custom subnet mask to distinguish the subnets from each other. A default subnet mask and a custom subnet mask differ from each other as follows: Default subnet masks only change on octet boundaries. For instance, the default subnet mask for a Class A network is 255.0.0.0. Custom subnet masks take bits from the host ID portion of the IP address and add them to the default subnet mask. SWITCHING

A switch is a device that is able to direct a stream of messages coming in one port, out of another port based on the destination MAC address within the frame. A switch cannot route traffic between two different local networks. In the context of the OSI model, a switch performs the Layer 2, known as the data-link layer function. Only one message can be sent through an Ethernet hub at a time. It is possible for two or more hosts connected to a hub to attempt to send a message at the same time. If this happens, the electronic signals that make up the messages collide with each other at the hub. A collision causes the messages to become garbled and unreadable by the hosts. A hub does not decode the messages; therefore it does not detect that the message is garbled and repeats it out all the ports. The area of the network where a host can receive a garbled message resulting from a collision is known as a collision domain. A switch is preferred over hubs in the networking model of HCL CDC because of the large collision domain associated with hubs. Since a switch uses micro-segmentation, it narrows down the collision domain. The network of HCL CDC uses 9 CISCO switches, which can result in a huge broadcast domain. So, to minimize the domain, we have used the concept of Virtual LAN (VLAN). VIRTUAL LAN A VLAN is a logical broadcast domain that can span multiple physical LAN segments. It allows an administrator to group together stations by logical function, by project teams, or by applications, without regard to physical location of the users. A VLAN has two major functions: • A VLAN contains broadcasts. • A VLAN groups devices. Devices located on one VLAN are not visible to devices located on another VLAN.

Configuring a VLAN: In order to configure VLAN on a switch, connect it with a terminal device using a console cable. Enter the privileged mode using the enable command Switch>enable Switch# Enter the configuration mode using the configure terminal command Switch# configure terminal Switch (config) # Enter the name and VLAN number using the commands Switch(config)#vlan vlan_number Switch(config-vlan)#name vlan_name Switch(config-vlan)#exit Use the following commands to assign individual ports to VLANs: Switch(config)#interface fa#/# Switch(config-if)#switchport access vlan vlan_number Switch(config-if)# exit

Use the following commands to assign a range ports to VLANs: Switch(config)#interface range fa#/start_of_range end_of_range Switch(config-if)#switchport access vlan vlan_number Switch(config-if)#exit To disassociate a port from a specific VLAN: Switch(config)#interface fa#/# Switch(config-if)#no switchport access vlan vlan_number A switch port can function in two modes: Access and Trunk mode.

To switch between the two modes, use the following command Switch(config)#interface fa#/# Switch(config-if)#switchport mode <trunk/access>

A switchport in the trunk mode is used for a switch-switch or switch-router connection, whereas an access mode is used for connection to terminal devices. SWITCH CONFIGURATION Core Switches SWITCH INTERFACE Server Switch Gb E 0/1,1/1 Gb E 2/1 Gb E 3/1 Floor-1 Switch Gb E 0/1,3/1 1/1 2/1 4/1 Lab A Core Switch 0/1 1/1 2/1 3/1 Lab B Core Switch 0/1 2/1 MODE Access Trunk Access Trunk Trunk Trunk Trunk Trunk Trunk Trunk Trunk VLAN ID 28 1-1005 27 24 1-23,26-1005 1-23,25,271005 1-1005 1-14,16,201005 1-15,17,201005 1-14,18-1005 1-1005 1-1005 1-14,20-1005

SWITCH Main Deptt. Switch

Other Switches INTERFACE MODE Fa E 0/1-0/6 Access Fa E 0/7-0/11 Gb E 1/1 Access Trunk Access Access Trunk Access Trunk Access Trunk Access Trunk Access Trunk Access Trunk Trunk Trunk Trunk

VLAN ID 18 19 1-1005 15 17 1-1005 16 1-1005 13 1-1005 12 1-1005 9 1-1005 11 1-1005 1-8,11,141005 1-9,14-1005 1-8,12,14-

IT Deptt. Switch

Fa E 0/1-0/8 Fa E 0/100/13 Gb E 1/1

Java class room Switch

Fa E 0/12/1,4/1 3/1

CCNA class room Switch

Fa E <all> Gb E 1/1

DB Switch

Fa E <all> Gb E 1/1 Fa E <all> Gb E 1/1 Fa E <all> Gb E 1/1 Gb E 0/1 Gb E 1/1 Gb E 2/1

OP Switch

PC Switch

Lab B Main Switch

Gb E 3/1 Gb E 4/1 Gb E 5/1 D Switch Fa E <all> Gb E 1/1 Fa E <all> Gb E 1/1

Trunk Access Trunk Access Trunk Access Trunk

1005 1-8,13-1005 10 1-1005 26 1-1005 25 1-1005

HD Switch

ROUTING Routing is the process of finding a path to the destination host. A router is a networking device that connects a local network to other local networks. At the Distribution Layer of the network, routers direct traffic and perform other functions critical to efficient network operation. Routers, like switches, are able to decode and read the messages that are sent to them. Unlike switches, which only decode (unencapsulate) the frame containing the MAC address information, routers decode the packet that is encapsulated within the frame. Each port, or interface, on a router connects to a different local network. Every router contains a table of all locally-connected networks and the interfaces that connect to them. These routing tables can also contain information about the routes, or paths, that the router uses to reach other remote networks that are not locally attached. When a router receives a frame, it decodes the frame to get to the packet containing the destination IP address. It matches the address of the destination to all of the networks that are contained in the routing table. If the destination network address is in the table, the router encapsulates the packet in a new frame in order to send it out. It forwards the new frame out of the interface associated with the path, to the destination network. The process of forwarding the packets toward their destination network is called routing.

Router interfaces do not forward messages that are addressed to the broadcast MAC address. As a result, local network broadcasts are not sent across routers to other local networks. Configuring a ROUTER: In order to configure a router, the following commands can be executed. Enter the privileged mode using the enable command Router>enable Router# Enter the configuration mode using the configure terminal command Router# configure terminal Router (config) # The host from the sending VLAN forwards traffic to the router using the default gateway. The sub-interface for the VLAN specifies the default gateway for all hosts in that VLAN. The router locates the destination IP address and does a routing table lookup. If the destination VLAN is on the same switch as the source VLAN, the router forwards the traffic back down to the source switch using the subinterface parameters of the destination VLAN ID. This type of configuration is often referred to as a router-on-a-stick. If the exit interface of the router is 802.1Q-compatible, the frame retains its 4-byte VLAN tag. If the outbound interface is not 802.1Q-compatible, the router strips the tag from the frame and returns the frame to its original Ethernet format. To configure inter-VLAN routing, use the following steps: 1. Configure a trunk port on the switch. Switch(config)#interface fa0/2 Switch(config-if)#switchport mode trunk 2. On the router, configure a FastEthernet interface with no IP address or subnet mask. Router(config)#interface fa0/1 Router(config-if)#no ip address

Router(config-if)#no shutdown 3. On the router, configure one subinterface with an IP address and subnet mask for each VLAN. Each subinterface has an 802.1Q encapsulation. Router(config)#interface fa0/0.10 Router(config-subif)#encapsulation dot1q 10 Router(config-subif)#ip address 192.168.10.1 255.255.255.0 4. Use the following commands to verify the inter-VLAN routing configuration and functionality. Switch#show trunk Router#show ip interfaces Router#show ip interfaces brief Router#show ip route ADDRESSING SCHEME IP ADDRESS SUBNET MASK RANGE 192.168.2.210 255.255.255.24 -222 0 192.168.2.210 -222 192.168.2.194 -206 192.168.2.226 -254 192.168.2.162 -174 192.168.2.178 255.255.255.24 0 255.255.255.24 0 255.255.255.22 4 255.255.255.24 0 255.255.255.24

ROOM Manager’s Office Human Resources Dept Accounts Dept Application Development Marketing Room Special

DEFAULT GATEWAY 192.168.2.20 9 192.168.2.20 9 192.168.2.19 3 192.168.2.22 5 192.168.2.16 1 192.168.2.17

Projects Room Testing Simulation Room Debugging Room Optimization Room Prototype Construction Conference Hall Waiting Room Help Desk/Custome r Care Documentatio n Room Cafeteria

-190

0 255.255.255.22 4 255.255.255.22 4 255.255.255.22 4 255.255.255.22 4 255.255.255.19 2 255.255.255.19 2 255.255.255.24 0 255.255.255.24 0 255.255.255.0

7 192.168.2.12 9 192.168.2.97 192.168.2.65 192.168.2.33 192.168.4.1 192.168.3.1 192.168.1.33

& 192.168.2.130 -158 192.168.2.98126 192.168.2.6694 192.168.2.3462 192.168.4.262 192.168.3.262 192.168.1.3462 192.168.1.6679 192.168.3.0254

192.168.1.65 192.168.3.1

INTERNET CONNECTION The Internet is a network of networks that connects users in every country in the world. There are currently over one billion Internet users worldwide.

Any home, business or organization that wants to connect to the Internet must use an Internet Service Provider (ISP). An ISP is a company that provides the connections and support to access the Internet. It can also provide additional services such as Email and web hosting. ISPs are essential to gaining access to the Internet. No one gets on the Internet without a host computer, and no one gets on the Internet without going through an ISP. ISPs range in size from small to very large and differ in terms of the area they service. ISPs also differ in the types of connection technologies and speeds they offer. ISP LEVELS OF SERVICE When data is transferred, it is either uploaded or downloaded. Downloading refers to information coming from the Internet to your computer, while uploading indicates the reverse path, from your computer to the Internet. When the download transfer rate is different from the upload transfer rate, it is called asymmetric. When the transfer rate is the same in both directions, it is called symmetric. ISPs can offer both asymmetric and symmetric services. The HCL CDC is to use T1 symmetric connection from any ISP. The advantage of using a symmetric T1 connection is that it can carry large amounts of data in both directions at equal rates. Moreover, it helps when we need to upload large amounts of traffic such as intensive graphics, multimedia, or video. The network for HCL CDC was established with an eye towards the prospects for future upgrades.

Result and Conclusion

The HCL CDC network built up is installed in the Computer Lab, and is based on the same networking model created and discussed here in the project report. The N/W model is suited for a small business and work. It is formed by following best practices as commenced by the CISCO N/W academy. The model is laid down by the prospect of future upgrades as required by the enterprise. It adjusts and accommodates major upgrades without changing the actual model. Any additional constraints can be added and the N/W be redesigned with those constraints functional. The N/W created gives functioning environment to the next shown Physical Layout

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Books:Stevens W Richard., “TCP/IP Illustrated Volume - I” Pearson Education, Second Edition. Strebe Mathew, Tata McGraw Hill, Seventh Edition CCNA: Cisco Certified Networking Associate, Study Guide, Todd Lemmle Sites:www.about.com http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/

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