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Compliance and Management Systems Team
Base Knowledge for Merchandisers and Export Marketing Peoples
FIBRE AND YARN
Process Flow of Cotton
Pretreatment (Bleached Fabric) Cotton From Fields Dyeing (Dyed Fabric) Printing (Printed Fabric)
Finishing Wet & Dry (Finished Fabric)
Finishing Wet & Dry (Finished Fabric)
Weaving (Greige Fabric)
Pretreatment (Bleached Fabric)
Hemp Regenerated Fibres Viscose Acetate Rayon Cupormonium Rayon Lyocell Spandax Lycra Synthetic Fibres Polyester Polyamide (Nylon) Poly-Acrylic (Vinyl) .g. Jute.Types of Fibres Natural Fibres Cotton Wool Silk Linen and other bast fibres e.
Fibre Characteristics Staple Length Cotton fibre considered with regard to its length and fineness. Short Staple: Less than 25 mm Medium Staple: 25 to 30 mm Long Staple: 30 to 37 mm Extra Long Staple: 37 mm and above Micronair The size of individual cotton fibre taken in crosssection. .
Long staple cotton variety having staple length between 30 to 37 mm. Now refers to short and medium staple cottons having staple length between 25 to 30 mm. Organically grown cotton uses crop rotation. beneficial insects. compost and other farming methods in place of chemical fertilizers and intensive farming techniques. Pima Cotton: Organic: .Types of Cotton Upland Cotton: Originally used to refer to cotton grown on raised lands not prone to flooding.
Israel. the USA.Barbadense: Pima or extra long staple cotton having above 37 mm staple length. Peru and the Central Asian states of the former Soviet Union . Major producing countries are Egypt.g.Types of Cotton Desi Cotton: Only refer to Pakistani short staple cotton having less than 25 mm staple length e. G. Punjab Desi and Sind Desi.
2) 1-1/8“ (28.4) 1-1/32“ (26.5 95.2 4.3 36.3 95.6) 1-3/32“ (27.1 38.0 91.7 31.5 36.2 92.T Staple Length Micronaire Strength Period of Release (%) Inches (mm) Value (000 tppst) Picking 1975 1981 1983 1984 1986 1986 1988 1988 35.7 3.3 4.4 93.4 4.9 4.5 4.5 40.6) 1-1/16” (27.2) 1-1/8” (28.Punjab Upland Type Variety B-557 MNH-93 NIAB-78 SLH-41 CIM-70 MNH-129 S-12 FH-87 Year of G.8 92.0) 1-3/32“ (27.8) 4.6 36.9 94.9 36.8) 1-5/32“ (29.8 1-1/32” (26.4 4.9 Oct-Nov Nov-Dec Nov-Dec Nov-Dec Nov-Dec Nov-Dec Nov-Dec Nov-Dec .O.0 95.
7 95.Punjab Upland Type Variety Gohar-87 CIM-109 RH-1 NIAB-86 CIM240 BH-36 FH-682 MNH-147 NH-26 Year of G.O.8) 1-3/32“ (28.4 103.0 33.9 4.8) 1-3/16“ (30.5 35.3 4.0 93.0) 4.0) 1-1/8“ (28.0 91.2 4.7 100.5) 1-3/32“ (28.3 4.5 1-3/32“ (27.4 95.0 35.7 95.4) 1-3/32“ (27.1 4.5 38.7 4.3 4.0 40 37.4 34.3 95.7 37.8) 1-3/32“ (27.2) 1-5/32“ (29.5) 1-1/16“ (27.0 Nov-Dec Nov-Dec Nov-Dec Nov-Dec Nov-Dec Nov-Dec Oct-Nov Nov-Dec Nov-Dec .4 3.T Staple Length Micronaire Strength Period of Release (%) Inches (mm) Value (000 tppst) Picking 1990 1990 1990 1990 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 36.5 95.
O.6 35.0 35.7 96.6) 1-3/16“ (30.2 4.5 34.0 33.0 3.2 15/16“ (23.7 Sep Sep Sep Oct-Nov Oct-Nov Oct-Nov Oct-Nov Oct-Nov .2) 1-1/8“ (28.T) M-100 (N.7 3.T) H-59-1 (Qalandari) S-59-1 (Sarmast) K68/9 TH-1101 (Rehmani) GH-28/82 (Shaheen) TH-1174 (Reshmi) Year of G.2) 1-1/16“ (27.0 85.Sindh Upland Type Variety M-4 (N.6) 1-1/8“ (28.1 90.7 4.8) 4.6 92.1 35.0 92.T Staple Length Micronaire Strength Period of Release (%) Inches (mm) Value (000 tppst) Picking 1942 1963 1974 1975 1977 1985 1988 1991 33.0 94.0 34.3 4.8) 1-1/32“ (26.2) 1-1/32“ (26.2 85 85.4 4.0) 1-1/4” (31.5 4.
5 Oct Sep-Oct 7.2 11/4” (17.Desi Variety Year of G.O.8) 5/8” (15.5 8.T Staple Length Micronaire Strength Period of Release (%) Inches (mm) Value (000 tppst) Picking Punjab D-9 Ravi Rohi 1971 1982 1986 38.4) 5/8” (15.8 5/8” (15.8) 8.0 80 Sep-Oct Sep-Oct Sep-Oct .8) Sindh TD-1 SKD-10/19” 1963 1976 39.8 40.2 79.0 38.0 10.0 41.8) 5/8” (15.0 8.
.Ginning The mechanical process by which cotton fibres are separated from their seeds quickly and efficiently to make the fibres available for textile use.
the resultant product of which is ‘Yarn’. .Spinning Conversion of fibre into yarn as per requiremtns. Consist of a series of operations/ processes.
Open End Spinning (Rotor Spinning) A system of continuous spinning of staple fibre. Air Jet Spinning .Types of Spinning Cap Spinning Flyer Spinning Mule Spinning Ring Spinning } Obsolete very rare in some of the old wool industries. The production of spun yarn by a process in which the sliver or roving is opened or separated into its individual fibres or tufts and is subsequently reassembled in the spinning element into yarn.
Yarn Count Yarn is categorized by its count or yarn number which in simple term can be said as the indicator of its thickness. So count can be defined as. Mass per unit length of yarn (Direct System) Length per unit mass of yarn (Indirect System) .
Types of Count Cotton Count (ECC or Ne) Number of 840 yards strands (hanks) per one pound of mass Metric Yarn Number (Nm) Length of yarn in meters per one gram of mass Worsted (NeK) Number of 560 yards strands (hanks) per one English pound of mass Linen Count (NeL or Lea) Number of 300 yards strands per one English pound of mass Woolen Measure (NeS) Number of 256 yards stands (hanks) per one English pound of mass .
000 meters length Decitex or dtex 1 gm 1 = tex 1000 m 10 Decitex is the count grading for filament and spinning yarns in man-made fibre industry Decimal Multiple Mass of yarn in Kilogram per 1000 meters length .Types of Count Tex Mass of yarn in grams per 1000 meters length Decimal Fraction Mass of yarn in grams per 10.
Count Conversion If you know and understand the definition of the relevant counts then it is very easy to find out the conversion factor. Ne to Nm (Number English to Number Metric) Nm to Ne (Number Metric to Number English) . Most commonly conversion comes in.
692 Nm and Nm = 1/1. Ne= 840 yards/1 lbs or Ne = (840 x 0.591 Ne .692 mtr/ 1 gm Now Nm is defined as Length of yarn in meters per one gram of mass So Ne =1.Conversion Example Convert Ne to Nm Ne is defined as: Number of 840 yards strands in one English pound Therefore.692 Ne or Nm = 0.9144) mtr/ 1 x 454 gm or Ne = 768.096 mtr/454 gm or Ne = 1.
68 Nm or 68 Nm Convert 40 Nm to Cotton count (Ne) Nm = 0.64 Ne or 24 Ne .692 Nm 40 Ne = 40 x1.591 Ne 40 Nm = 40 x 0.692 Nm 40 Ne = 67.Exercise Convert 40’S cotton to Nm Cotton Count (Ne) = 40’S Ne = 1.591 Ne 40 Nm = 23.
9 10000/Nm 5910/Ne Denier (den) 9 x tex 0.Conversion Formulas Into Convert Tex Decitex dTex Denier (den) Metric No. (Nm) English Cotton No. (Nm) 1000/tex 10000/dtex 9000/den 1.692 x Ne English Cotton No.591 x Nm - . (Ne) dtex/10 den/9 1000/Nm 591/Ne Tex Decitex (dtex) 10 x tex den/0. (Ne) 591/tex 5910/dtex 5314/den 0.9 x dtex 9000/Nm 5314/Ne Metric No.
Types of Yarn Single: Single Strand also called singly ply yarn Double: Two strands twisted together also called 2 ply yarn Multi-Ply: More than two stands twisted together Textured: Polyester or Nylon yarn where the effect is produced by pin. disc or belt Compact: Yarn produced by the use of compactors during spinning operation Filament: Normally used in the binding of selvedge during weaving. This is a single strand directly coming from the spinnerets attenuated to the required count .
3. 5.e. 3. 2. 4. Count Blend (if comprises of more then one fibre) Twist (No.Yarn Characteristics Primary 1. and Direction i. 4. Secondary 1. Z or S) Strength and Elongation CSP (Count Strength Product) Ply Evenness Hairiness Carded or Combed Compactness . 2. 6.
jute.) Kitties (Vegetable matter or dust contaminations) White Specs (Immature fibres) Lower Elongation (Less elasticity or rigid fibre) .g. polypropylene etc.Yarn Faults Neps (A small knot of tangled fibre ) Slubs (Thick-Thin Places) Unevenness (Yarn irregularities and non uniformity) Contamination (Foreign matter e. twine.
Yarn Faults Knots (Abnormal due to excessive breakage caused by yarn irregularities) Kinks (Due to dead or immature cotton or irregular twist) Barre (Due to improper mixing and immature fibres) Hairiness (is a measure of amount of fibres protruding from the structure of the yarn) Fly (Foreign matters which come from other machines by flying/air) .
e. weave type/design .Weaving • Process of making cloth by interlacing yarns at right angles according to a prescribed pattern i.
Essentials of Weaving • • • • • Yarn (to be used as warp and weft) Preparatory arrangement Loom Design or Weave Pattern Operator/trained labour .
Weaving Operation Warping Loom Operation Sizing Inspection and Mending Drawing In Folding Gaiting On Loom Bale Making Loom Operation Departure to Processing Can be Exported Directly .
Warp & Weft • Warp: Threads which run parallel to the loom. Also called picks or filling (collectively called weft and individually called picks/filling). . Also called Ends (collectively called warp and individually called ends) • Weft: Threads which run at right angles to the warp.
Mathematically n Cover Factor: K = N for indirect counting system K = n N for direct counting system Cloth Cover Factor = Cover Factor of Warp + Cover Factor of Weft K = K1 + K2 For any Cotton Count K= n1 + N1 n2 N2 Where n1 and n2 are ends/inch and picks/inch and N1 and N2 are count of warp and weft respectively. It indicates the compactness of the fabric.Cover Factor • • It is the relative closeness of warp and weft. .
87 + 12.28 .41 K = 26.Cover Factor Example • Find the Cover Factor (K) of fabric with details as 76x68 – 30’S x 30’S Now Ends/inch = n1 = 76 Count of Warp = N1= 30’S Picks/inch = n2 = 68 Count of Weft = N2 = 30’S n1 76 68 n2 K = N 1 + N 2 = 30 + 30 = 13.
Weight of Fabric • This is the weight of warp and weft in a fabric. . • Usually mentioned as – In grams : gms/square meters (GSM) – In ozs : ozs/square yards • Sometime weight in gms or ozs per running meter or yard is also used during fabric weight calculation.
0428 lbs Similarly Weight of Weft = W2 = n2 /c2 x 0.Derivation of Weight of Fabric Construction n1 x n2/c1 x c2 Where n1 = Ends/inch n2 = Picks/inch and c1 = ECC of Warp c2 = ECC of Weft Let the Weight of Warp = W1 In a yard Total length of warp = n1 x 36 yards From the definition of count we know that Count x 840 yards = 1 lb Hence c1 x 840 yards = 1 lb Therefore. weight of n1 x 36 yards = (n1 x 36)/(c1 x 840) lbs or W1 = n1/c1 x 0.0428 lbs .
25 (n1/c1 + n2/c2) gm/m2 (also know as GSM) Also Weight/Running length = W x width (unit of measurements must be the same i.e.0428 + n2 /c2 x 0.9 gm/m2 so W = 0.686 (n1/c1 + n2/c2) oz/yd2 as 1 oz/yd2= 33. mtr or yard) .686 x 33.0428) lbs/yd2 or W = 0.Derivation of Weight of Fabric Weight of Fabric: W = W1 + W2 W = (n1/c1 x 0.0428 x 16 (n1/c1 + n2/c2) oz/yd2 or W = 0.0428 (n1/c1 + n2/c2) lbs/yd2 or W = 0.9 (n1/c1 + n2/c2) gm/m2 or W = 23.
.e. L • When yarn is taken out/separated from the fabric and stretched to remove waviness then l Width of Fabric L • Actual Yarn Length = L + l Width of Fabric • %age Crimp = l/L x 100 • Therefore. during yarn ( warp & weft) calculations for weaving always keep in mind %age crimp • The value of which depends upon the degree of interlacement i.Crimp • It is the waviness in the warp and weft. design/weave.
– Crimp – Take up %age (The shortage of length or width due to crimp) – Shrinkage in weft during processing • There are two point of views – Marketing Point of View • Width = Required Width + Shrinkage • Length = Required Length + Shrinkage – Weaving Point of View • Width = Required Width + Take Up %age • Length = Required Length + Take Up %age .Greige Fabric Width & Length Calculation • Greige Fabric depends upon.
Tuckin Leno . stentering • Normally two types.g.Selvedges or Selvedge • The woven edge portion of a fabric parallel to he warp or the longitudinal edges of fabric that are formed during weaving – It is on both sides of the fabric – Width may be from 1 to 2 cm – Usually dense and differ from the body of the fabric in construction or weave or both – Firm selvedge does not fray during processing e.
• Temple: These are the attachments on a loom to keep the selvedges in the stretched position as per requirements. • Reed: It is a comb like wired frame through which warp yarns pass. . It separates the warp yarn and is used during weaving to beat up the weft yarn into the cloth after each passage of weft yarn across the loom.Other Definitions • Dobby: It is a mechanical device to control the lifting of Heald shafts as per weave/design/pattern/repeat. Each partition is a ‘dent’.
shafts and read is placed on it. . • Gait-Up/Gaiting: This is to prepare the loom for production when the beam with yarn.Other Definitions • Beam: These are the solid (metallic) circular devices as per diagram to roll yarn or fabric on them for weaving purpose.
.Other Definitions • Heald – Healds or Heald shafts ar the wire frames with eyelets in the centre through which warp threads are passed as per design/weave pattern. design. These devices are.e. These shafts are lifted up and down by some mechanical or electro-mechanical device giving way to the passage of weft. • Tappets • Cams • Dobbies • Jacquard This whole depends upon the fabric structure i.
rapier (gripper). • Picking Device: These are the devices. by the use of which picks are inserted during weaving e.g. . air or water. shuttle. This is made due to up and down motions of heald shafts/Frames. projectile.Other Definition • Shed: This is the passage through which picks insertion takes place.
Broad Classification of Looms • Plain • Dobby • Jacquard These are related with the warp lifting devices during weaving .
e.Types of Looms • Conventional Power Loom – It is a very simple loom where single shuttle moves to insert the pick – Only plain fabrics are woven – Speed is very low i. less production – Quality of fabrics is poor – Bobbin changing is manual • Auto loom – – – – – Better than a conventional power loom More than one colour picks can be inserted Picking is through shuttles Bobbin changing is automatic Dobbies can be installed to get fashion fabrics .
cones are used – Speeds are very high – Production is high – Quality of fabrics is Good – According to picking system there are four types of shuttle less loom .Types of Looms • Shuttle less Loom – In these looms shuttles are not being used and bigger packages e.g.
denim etc. duck. material and construction Specially suitable for fashion fabrics Smaller length can also be woven Superior quality weaving then other shuttle less loom • Projectile – Pick insertion through projectiles using projectile motion – More production than Rapier – Specially suitable for heavy fabrics like canvas.Types of Shuttle Less Looms • Rapier – – – – – Pick insertion through grippers Versatile loom for any design. count. . drill.
Types of Shuttle Less Looms • Air Jet – – – – – Pick insertion through air jet system More production as compared to Rapier and Projectile Fabric quality is good Most appropriate for plain mass production Suitable for long set length as these are very high speed looms • Water Jet – Pick insertion through water jet system – Most suitable for synthetic fabrics and unsuitable for cotton fabrics • Multiphase Weaving System – In the introduction phase yet .
4”-6.25” 5.6”-7.48”-2” 4.5” 7”-10” .Different Looms Comparison Loom Type Conventional Power Loom Automatic Loom Rapier Projectile Air Jet or Water Jet Weft Insertion Rate (Yds/min) 220 330-440 1000-1400 1300-1600 1600-2200 Average Width 100” 100” 100” 100” 100” Picks/min 80 118-160 350-500 450-600 550-800 Fabric/min 1” 1.
The weaves vary depending on the interlacing pattern used in a woven fabric. use one of these basic weave in their composition. .Weave • The process of forming a fabric on a loom by interlacing the warp and weft threads with each other. no matter how intricate. All other weaves. The fundamental weaves are Plain weave. Twill weave and Satin weave.
cheesecloth.Plain Weaves • Most simple and most common type of construction • Inexpensive to produce. percale. durable • Flat. tablecloths. upholstery . gingham. voile • Household Uses: – Draperies. tight surface is conducive to printing and other finishes • Method of Construction: – Each filling yarn goes alternately under and over the warp yarns • Common Fabrics: – Cotton calicos.
less durable than plain weave Method of Construction: – Two or more warps simultaneously interlaced with one or more fillings • Common Fabrics: – Monks cloth.Basket Weave • • • • • A variation of the plain weave Usually basket or checkerboard pattern Contrasting colors are often used Inexpensive. oxford • Household Uses: – Wall hangings. pillows .
comforters. or other design • The design is enhanced with colored yarn • Is strong and may develop a shine • Method of Construction: – Three or more shafts. houndstooth. corkscrew. warp or filling floats over two or more counterpart yarns in progressive steps right or left • Common Fabrics: – Denim. pillows . serge. chevron.Twill Weave • Creates a diagonal. gabardine. tweed • Household Uses: – Upholstery.
then tied down with one thread. satin-weave fabrics out of fabrics such as cotton. quilts . • Household Uses: – Draperies. resulting in a smooth face • Common Fabrics: – Satin.Satin Weave • • • • Smooth. soft luster Excellent drapability Floats snag easily Method of Construction: – Floats one warp yarn over four or more weft yarns.
wall hangings . often intricate. tapestry Household Uses: – Upholstery.Jacquard Weave • • • • • • • Yarns woven into unlimited designs. damask. but the design doesn’t fade or wear out Durability depends on the fiber used The Jacquard loom was invented by Joseph Marie Jacquard Method of Construction: – Warp is individually controlled with each pick passage creating intricate designs Common Fabrics: – Brocade. multicolor effect Expensive.
creating a geometric pattern • Common Fabrics: • Household Uses: – Thermal Blankets.Leno Weave • A mesh-like fabric • Method of Construction: – A pair of warp threads are passed over and under the filling yarns in a figure 8 or an hourglass twist. curtains .
loops are formed vertically by machine. loops are formed by hand or machine as yarn is added in crosswise direction. stretchy • Method of Construction: – Interlooping yarns – In weft knitting. – In warp knitting.Knit Weave • Soft. one row at a time • Common Fabrics: – Raschel warp knits • Household Uses: – Not used extensively in design with the exception of raschel warp knits which are used in making curtains and draperies .
relatively inexpensive Can snag if loops are caught Method of Construction: – Generally a plain or twill weave with a third dimension--additional warp yarn or filling yarn is introduced into the basic structure and forms a loop at regular intervals • Common Fabrics: – Frieze. carpet.Uncut pile Weave • • • • Loops are possible on both sides of fabric Soft and absorbent. terry cloth • Household Uses: – Upholstery. area rugs . towels.
Cut Pile Weave • • • • • Soft and warm Resilient. absorbent May have a nap that must be matched May be expensive and need professional cleaning Method of Construction: – Similar to uncut pile. stage draperies . velvet. but loops have been cut – Corduroy. velveteen • Common Fabrics: • Household uses: – Upholstery.
white or printed fabric with lengthwise cords. thin. stripes or checks. . Lighter duck is used in summer clothing. tents. • Dimity is sheer. etc. durable tightly woven fabric. • Drill is a strong twilled cotton fabric. Heavy weight drill is used in awnings. used in men’s and women’s slacks. dobby or plain woven absorbent cotton. • Duck is a heavy.Fabrics and Weave • Diaper Cloth is a twill.
• Whipcord is a strong fabric with a diagonal round cords that can also be produced in wool. • Lawn is a plain weave. • Gingham is a lightweight. very light. soft. combed cotton fabric with a crisp finish. washable. . plaids or stripes. lightly woven fabric similar to cheesecloth. Is also made in silk. • Gauze is a sheer.Fabrics and Weave • Flannel cotton is plain or twill weave with a slight nap on one or both sides. • Flannelette is a soft cotton fabric with a nap on one side. stout fabric that is woven in checks.
and sleepwear. • Percale is a light weight. Also a term used for wool fabric that has black and white fibers. It is characterized with narrow stripes and can be woven in plain or basket weave. diapers. • Outing flannel is a soft. closely woven. twill or plain weave fabric napped on both sides. soft finish.Fabrics and Weave • Muslin is a sheer to coarse plain woven cotton fabric. Muslin comes in "natural" color or is dyed. Used for baby clothes. . sturdy fabric that can be found printed in dark colors. transparent cotton with a crisp finish. Organdy is a very thin. • Oxford is shirting fabric with a lustrous.
Fabrics and Weave • Poplin is a plain weave fabric with a cross-wise rib. • Sateen is a satin weave cotton fabric. heavy canvas or duck made in plain weave. Sailcloth is a very strong. . • Swiss is a sheer. very fine cotton that can be plain or decorated with dots or other designs. Very absorbent and used for towels. • Velveteen is an all cotton pile fabric with short pile resembling velvet. • Seersucker is a lightweight cotton fabric crinkled into lengthwise stripes. • Terry Cloth is a looped pile fabric that is either woven or knitted. etc. French terry cloth is looped on one side and sheared pile on the other.
Common Weaving Faults • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Broken End Coarse/Thick End Double End End Out End Missing Fine End Loose End Broken Pick Coarse Filling Double Pick Loose Weft Miss Pick Oily Weft Read Mark Wrong Draw Crack Starting Mark/Setting/Set Mark • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Filling Slub Float Smash Shuttle Top Shuttle Cut Weft Bar Count Variation Wrong Mending Abrasion Bad Selvedge Tailed Weaver /Beamer Knot Blow-Off Waste Contamination Draw Back Oily Stain Hole. Cut or Tear .
Broken End .
Broken End .
End Out .
End Missing .
Fine End .
Loose End .
Broken Pick .
Coarse Filling .
Double Pick .
Double Pick .
Loose Weft .
Miss Pick .
Miss Pick .
Oily Weft .
Reed Mark .
Wrong Draw .
Starting Mark .
Filling Slub .
Shuttle Top .
Shuttle Cut .
Weft Bar .
Count Variation .
Wrong Mending .
Bad Selvedge .
Bad Selvedge .
Tailed Weaver/Beamer Knot .
Blow-Off Waste .
Draw Back .
Oily Stain .
01-0.Impurities in Greige Fabric Two types of impurities are found in cotton Primary impurities or Natural Inherited Impurities.5 % . These are the part of cotton fibre and occurs naturally Pectic Substance 2-3 % Cotton Wax.0 % 0.5-1.5 % 0.2-0.3 % 3-4 % 0.03 % Secondary Impurities These are the impurities added during weaving process in sizing. Starch PVA Acrylic Size Wax After Wax 4-6 % 3-5 % 0. Cottond Seed Oil Protein Ash Pigment 0.
It consist of a series of processes which are termed as pretreatment processes and itself as pretreatment. Printing and Finishing is essential to get the desired results. .Pretreatment Removal of primary or secondary impurities prior to Dyeing.
Pretreatment Processes Singeing Desizing Scouring Bleaching Mercerizing .
Processing repeat is normally 1F x 1B (one face x one back) . protruding ends Visualizes fabric texture Burning is achieved by passing the fabric over the flame of the gas burners Speed varies from 60~120 mtr/min Fabric temperature is set from 120~240oC depending upon the weight of the fabric to be singed Normally both sides are singed. however single side can be arranged.Singeing Smoothing surface of fabric by burning and removing fuzz.
Desizing The purpose of a desizing process is to remove sizes that have been attached warp yarns in sizing operation in weaving preparatory operation. Starch (maize. rice. flour etc. . cornstarch.) are used as sizes.
Why Sizing is being done? To increase strength of the warp yarn to avoid excessive breakage during weaving Provide warp yarn with flexibility PVA also act as a sizing agent and as an adhesive Acrylic size used to provide additional adhesive property Wax reduces electrostatic charges and make the fabric more hygroscopic .
If rapid desizing is required then oxidative desizer e. The fabric is then batched on a roller having rotating device.Desizing How? Singed fabric is passed through a mangle having enzymatic desizing agent (e. The batched fabric is kept on rotating for 6~16 hours depending upon the weight of the fabric.g.g. There are washed out in the next process i. Enzymatic desizer degrades the starch particles and make them water soluble.e. Leonil EBP 2-4 gm/l ate boil. Singing and desizing is done in one step. Singing is optional but desizing is essential. Bactasol MTN 3-5 gm/l at 60-65oC) dissolved in it. . scouring.
PVA. Dust. Vegetable Matters Other preparations added during sizing in weaving e. . Acrylic Size etc.Scouring This is the process of removing the following impurities from the desized fabric • • • • • Pectic Substances Oils.g. Fates and Waxes Degraded Starch Particles Dirt.
The above mentioned details are for continuous scouring on plant. printing and finishing as the case may be. NaOH = 40~70 gm/ltr Detergent = 2 gm/ltr Sequesting Agent = 2 gm/ltr (can be added in desizing bath also) Washing Temperature = 90~60oC Treatment Time = 15~30 minutes in steamer Whole operation is automatic.What is Scouring? It is an alkali (caustic soda) treatment rather a strong alkali treatment at higher temperature for a specific time to remove the impurities from the fabric and to make it ready for bleaching and subsequently for dyeing. Two types of machines are used for scouring • Kier • Bleaching Plant (rope form) (open width continuous) .
Kier process is suitable for light weight and cheaper qualities and where tensionless treatment is required. Kiers are vessels where desized fabric is piled and treated with scouring solution for 6~12 hours at boil. Scouring solution consist of caustic soda, sodium carbonate, detergent, sodium silicate and chelating agent.
Sequence of Operation
• • • • • • • • • Singing Desizing Washing Scouring Washing Bleaching Washing Souring (Acid treatment for neutralization of fabric) Washing
Scouring on Plant
This is continuous operation and consist of following activities
Desized Fabric Batcher or Grey Fabric Washing in the primary washing range Chemical Padding Steaming in the Steamer Washing in secondary washing range Drying on Dryer Dried fabric batched on batcher or piled on trolley
In Chenab Limited we have three continuous bleaching plants
• Goller Bleaching Plant (Width: 78”) • Babcock Bleaching Plant (Width: 2.8 m) • Kuster Bleaching Plant (Width: 3.2 m)
Scouring is essential for all the fabric meant for
• Dyeing • Printing • Finishing (as whites are directly given to finishing)
Bleaching This is the process of making the fabric white. printing and finishing as the case may be. Types of Bleaching • Reduction or Chlorine or Chlorite Bleaching • Oxidative or Peroxide Bleaching . After this the fabric is ready for dyeing.
land and aquatic animals.8~1.2 % (W/V) Available Chlorine 19~20 % (W/V) this type of bleaching is carried out to Kier Scoured fabric. . Free NaOH (Caustic Soda)0. Chlorine generated as result of chemical reaction performs the function of bleaching the fabric. The composition of which is as below. In Chenab Limited Sodium Hypochlorite is used for this purpose.Reduction or Chlorine or Chlorite Bleaching In this type of bleaching powder dissolved in water or bleach liquor is used. Chlorine bleaching is not permanent as the yellowing occurs with the passage of time due to oxidation in air. Today's trend is toward Peroxide Bleaching. Moreover this is not environment friendly and causes water pollution and harmful for human being. Sodium Chlorite or Sodium Hypochlorite are used as bleaching agent.
. Not only associated with permanent whiteness but also friendly for environment as H2O2 is degradable into water and oxygen. Sequesting agent is used for this purpose and stabilizer for a controlled bleaching process.Oxidative or Peroxide Bleaching This is the most common bleaching method. Best bleaching whiteness is obtained at pH 11 adjusted using Caustic Soda H2O2 H2O + O In peroxide bleaching the fabric or water must be free of metal ions as these cause abnormal degradation of H2O2 and due to this pin holes appears in the fabric.
Bleaching Processes Continuous (Plant Bleaching) Semi Continuous (J-Box Bleaching) Non Continuous ( Kier Bleaching) .
e. pH and time of treatment are automatically controlled Consistent results are achieved Degree of whiteness can be adjusted . speed.Continuous or Plant Bleaching Carried out on plant The process is continuous Highly productive Dosing of chemicals is automatic Parameters i. temperature. pick up. pressure.
Sequence of Operation Scoured Fabric Washing (Primary Washer) Padding with Chemical Steaming (Steamer) Washing (Secondary Washer) pH Adjustment (Caustic Washer) Drying (Dryer) Material comes on the Batcher .
.Scope of Bleaching Plant Scouring Bleaching Solomatic Process (Half Bleaching) Only Washing All the above processes can be carried out on the Bleaching Plant.
. This is a one step process where scouring and bleaching is carried out simultaneously. However quantities of the chemicals and treatment time is increased.Solomatic Bleaching Process This is just like bleaching process (already discussed).
The process was named mercerization derived from Mercer. There are two types of Mercerization • Cold Mercerization • Hot Mercerization .Mercerization In 1844 John Mercer invented a process of treatment of cotton with caustic soda (NaOH) which improved the behaviour of cotton fabrics during subsequent process.
Changes in Fabric Properties due to Mercerization Stable dimension Increase in luster Improvement in dyeing property Increased tensile strength Cotton fibre swells when passed through the caustic soda solution as evident from the changes in a cross-section of a cotton fibre during a mercerization treatment 1.0 1.3 0.8 1 2 3 4 Swelling process in an alkaline solution 5 7 6 Removal of After Alkali by water drying substitution .
So swell surface only occur throughout the body of the fabric No Good Good Brighter Increased Yes Better Better More Brighter More Increased Widthwise stretching on the machine Lustre Dimensional stability Shade Dye Affinity .Comparison of Mercerization Parameter/Property Impregnation Swelling Cold Wet on Dry Hot Wet on Wet Normal and Faster and more evenly into on the fabric the yarn core.
25-30oC 25-32oBe Suitable Less Almost double Conclusion: Hot mercerizing is preferred over Cold Mercerizing . 15-25oC 25-32oBe Unsuitable More Less Hot 25-30 Sec.Comparison of Mercerization Parameter/Property Devilling Time 100 gm-300gm/m2 wt Temperature NaOH Solution Concentration (Lye Concentration) Suitability for Heavy Weight Fabric (above 300 gm/m2) Lye Consumption Production for same fabric Cold 45-50 Sec.
between 7.e.Pretreatment Requirements Fabric Must Have • • • • • Even Absorbency No starch and other impurities No residual chlorine Neutral pH i. side-center-side .5 Same whiteness throughout i.5~8.e.
Bleaching Faults Whiteness Variation (side-center-side) Wrinkles and Creases Variation in Absorbency and Pick up (side-center-side) Higher Tagwa rating (starch presence) will affect dye uptake Cuts Patches Improper Washing (Chemical are not removed giving way to variation in dyeing/printing) .
Dyeing Colouring the fabric has a history which date backs to 5000 BC. Now it has been completely replaced by synthetic colours. . At that time dyeing was done with naturally occurring materials.
These are also called as dyer primary. gray or black to distort their clarity and vibrancy.Primary Colours RED Yellow BLUE Also termed as pure colours or hues Do not have any white. All the colours can be made from these primary colours. .
Secondary Colours These are obtained by mixing two primary colours in amount as per requirements Red + Yellow = Orange Red + Blue = Purple Yellow + Blue = Green .
Tertiary Colours Any colour obtained as a result of combining/mixing the three primary colours is called a tertiary colour. Red + Yellow + Blue New Colour (Tertiary Colour) A lot of colours can be obtained by various combinations .
Various Types of Dyes Acid Acid-dyeing premetalized Basic Chrome Direct Disperse Pigment Naphthol Neutral-dyeing premetalized Reactive Sulpher Vat .
Dyeability of Fibres Class of Dyes Acid Acid-dyeing premetalized Neutraldyeing premetalized Naphthol Disperse Reactive Pigment Sulpher Crome Direct Basic VAt Fibre Type Acetate Acrylic (16) Acrylic (N) Cotton Cuprammonium Flex Jute Polyamide Polyester Silk Vinyle Fibre Viscose Wool X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X .
Ramazol etc. Levafix. Cibacrone. These become an actual part of the cellulose fibre molecules Their overall fastness properties are good Their fastness to chlorine bleach/chlorine is poor generally (the only drawback) These are classified as Cold or Hot dyes from exhaust dyeing method point of view but applied at normal temperature in continuous dyeing methods Examples are Procion. .Reactive Dyes These react chemically with cellulose or protein molecules and form a covalent bond. Dramarine.
Vat Dyes Water insoluble dyes usually containing Keto groups Applied to the fibre from an alkaline aqueous solution –Reduced Leuco form Leuco solution is oxidized in the fiber to the insoluble form Have high fastness to both washing and sunlight Example is Cibanone. .
polyamide. Examples are Teracil and Foron . acrylic and elostomaric fibres.Disperse Dyes Non Ionic Water Insoluble Applied as a finally divided dispersion Suitable for polyester.
Selection of Dyes It depends upon Customer’s specifications/requirements End use of the fabric .
Requirements Colourfastness Colourfastness Colourfastness Colourfastness Colourfastness Colourfastness Colourfastness Colourfastness Colourfastness Colourfastness to to to to to to to to to to washing water hypochlorite bleach Chlorinated Swimming Pond water Dry cleaning Perspiration Light Home Laundering Rubbing Sea Water .
Other Specific Requirements Conformance with certain regulation i. Lead.e. Cupper. Cadmium. EU not allowed to use Pentachlorophenol (PCP) Lindane Tin Organic Compounds Heavy Metals (Arsenic. Mercury. Nickel) Azodyes capable of releasing carcinogenic arylamines Nonylphenol exthoxylates (NPEO’s) And others .
Soft Flow. Yarn/Package Dyeing M/C Thermosole (Less time required Thermosole or Pad Steam (More time reqired longer storage) Pad Steam dyeing range Pad-Steam Continuous . Winches. Jiggers.Dyeing Methods Method Exhaust Pad-Dry Pad-Batch Nature Batchwise or non continuous Continuous Semi Continuous Machines Jets.
Cotton Fabric with Reactive Dyestuff (150-160oC) (1-3 minutes) Cure Washing Drying Ready for Finishing (100-120oC) Dry Pad Pad-Dry-Cure .
) Steam Pad Dry Washing Drying Ready for Finishing (100-130oC) Pad Steam Pad Thermosole Pad-Dry-Pad-Steam .Cotton Fabric with Reactive Dyestuff (102oC) (60-90 Sec.
Cotton Fabric with Reactive Dyestuff (16-24 hours) Rotation Washing Drying Ready for Finishing Batch Pad Pad-Batch .
) (Developing) Pad Washing Drying Ready for Finishing (100-130oC) Dry Pad Steam Pad Thermosole Pad-Dry-Pad (Developing)-Steam-Oxidation .Cotton Fabric with Vat Dyestuff Steam Oxidation (H2O2) (102oC) (60-90 Sec.
Cotton Fabric with Pigment Dyestuff (100-130oC) Dry (160-170oC) (1-3 minutes) Cure Pad Ready for Finishing Pad-Dry-Cure .
Jigger Process (in Two Ends) Alkali Addition (in Two Ends) Salt Addition (in different Ends) Shade Matching (in Two Ends) Dye Addition Dye Addition (if required) Washing Unloading & Drying Washing Loading .
PC or Polyester/Cotton Blends One Bath Method is used for pastel and medium shades Two Bath Method is used for medium and dark shades Disperse Dyestuff is used for Polyester portion Reactive Dyestuff is used for Cotton portion .
One Bath Method (100-130oC) Dry (at 180-200oC for 1-3 minutes) Cure Pad (Disperse + Reactive) Ready for Finishing Pad-Dry-Cure .
Two Bath Method Thermosole Pad Steam Thermosole (Disperse Dye Solution) Pad Dry Steaming (at 102oC for 60-90 Sec.) (Reactive Dye Solution) Pad (at 100-130oC) Dry Dry (at 100-130oC) (at 190-200oC) Cure (Caustic Soda + Hydrosulphite) Reduction & Cleaning (at 150-160oC) Cure Ready for Finishing .
Dyeing Faults Colour Spots Patchy or Streaky uneven dyeing Shading and Listing Shade Variation (Side-Centre-Side) White Spots Wrinkles and Creases Poor Fastness to washing Selvedge Stamping Stitch Marks .
In fabric printing it is the operation by virtue of which patterns/designs are made on the fabric. .Printing It is the process for applying colorants or other materials to the surface of a substrate usually in specific localised areas to produced a design.
Essential of Printing Design or Pattern Design transfer medium (Rollers. Screens) Printing Paste Printing Machine Fabric to be Printed .
binders.Print Paste It is the mixture of colouring maters. thickening agents etc. solvents. which are used in printing to achieve the required impressions .
Ingredients of Printing Paste Pigment Colorants Thickening Agent Binder Fixer (where required) Liquor Ammonia Preserving Agent Emulsifying Agent Reactive Colorants Sodium Bicarbonate Sodium Alginate Urea Colgon S (Sodium Hexametaphosphate) Reserver Salt-S .
Prerequisites of Fabric Printing
Fabric batched to the required width Neutral pH Suitable absorbency Even whiteness and penetration (i.e. side-centre-side) Final recipe with passed i.e. approved sample All required colours and chemicals Effective Blanket washing system with ample water Trained operators Ready for printing design screens
Printing Process Flow
Exposing of Screens Preparation of Print Paste Screen Placement on M/C Feeding of Batched Fabric Ageing (Reactive) Drying Bulk Printing Sample Printing Curing (Pigment) Washing
Drying Ready for Finishing
Direct Printing Discharge Printing Resist Printing Flock Printing Batik Printing
Printing method in which colours and colouring matters (printing paste & Colours) are printed directly onto the fabric examples are
Stencil Printing Printing on rotary or flatbed printing M/Cs Roller Printing
Discharge Printing Also called Extract Printing Printed on a pre-dyed fabric (medium to dark shades) Printed by print paste added with a colour destroying agent such as chlorine or hydrosulphite Colour discharges are also possible by adding such colours/dyestuffs in the paste which are not affected by discharging agent. The final product is of soft feel and bright in colours .
Resist Printing In this type of printing A design is printed on a white or dyed fabric with chemical or wax that resist penetration of dye When the fabric is dyed/printed. the colour is absorbed only where there is no resist chemical applied Then the resist is removed .
The fibres are propelled into an adhesive that has been screen printed on the fabric in the shape of desired design. The finished work has a very soft hand touch and a three-dimensional feel causes a special tender warm feeling. In can be in single or multi-colours The method used are Dusting on An air blast Electrostatic attraction . It can be ideally used to substitute computerized embroidery.Flock Printing Printing technique consisting of the application of flock (very short fibres) usually nylon or rayon fibres to the surface of a fabric by means of an adhesive. It is used to print various small designs such as dots and figures.
the pattern appears on the surface of the cloth and is properly called as “Reserve” Cotton and silk are best suited for batik printing Wax is applied through Blocks . protecting from the dye the portion it covers. When finally the wax is removed. also called reserve printing The wax is melted and deposited on the surface of the fabric in a design/pattern This hot wax resist thus thoroughly penetrates the fibre.Batik Printing The word Batik comes from Javanese and means “Printing in Wax” It is the type of Resist Printing termed as wax resist printing.
Other Printing Types Burn out Printing Foam Printing Transfer Printing High Density Printing Glitter or Metallic Printing Bead Printing Dye (Polychromatic) or Hand Printing Digital Printing .
.Engraving An essential of printing is printing screens One screen is needed for each colour Engraving includes design process and screen making process Design process is completed prior to screen making in design studio on computers having soft wares installed for this purpose Manual designing is discouraged now a days due to slow process and extra cost.
820. width.125.Parameters of Rotary Screen Selection of Screens depends upon design. 3200 640-1018 mm 640.155 1280-3500 mm 1850. full tone/half tone.135.g.60. 1018 . 2800. depth and sharpness of colours e. Parameters Normal Range Mesh Length Repeat 11-220/inch Use in Chenab 30. style of printing.80. 914.
Engraving Process Flow Print Out Editing & Adjustment Scanning Amendment (if required) Colour Separations Screen Making Wax/Laser Jet .
Normal Water) (180oC for 2 hrs) Backing Degreasing (Chromic Acid) End Ring Fixing Checking & Touching Ready for Printing Drying Coating Exposing (on Wax Jet) (photosensitive Chemical) (25oC Drying for 15 min) .Preparation of Screen on Wax Jet at 160 C for 1 hr Rounding & Curing o Drying Developing (10-15 min.
Preparation of Screen on Laser Jet Rounding & Curing o Backing at 160 C for 1 hr (180oC for 2 hrs) Engraving End Ring Fixing Checking & Touching Ready for Printing Degreasing (Chromic Acid) (25oC for 15 min) Drying Drying (photosensitive Chemical) Coating .
Printing Machines Rotary Screen Printing Machine Flat Bed Screen Printing Machine Digital Printing Machine Transfer Printing Machines (Stork TC 1310) Roller Printing Machine .
Printing Machines of Chenab Zimmer 24 Colours 126” Zimmer 12 Colours 110” Stork 12 Colours 110” Stork 12 Colours 72” Stork Sampling 126” (30 m strike off) Stork Sampling 126” (10 m strike off) .
g.Pigments These are the colorants which are Insoluble in water Have no affinity with textile fabric being printed Fixed to the fibre by a suitable binding agent Fixation is dependent on temperature and time Suitable for all types of fibres except wool and silk Applicable by all printing techniques e. direct. discharge etc. Available both in liquid and powder form .
Pigment Printing Flow (110-120oC) Drying Printing Feeding on M/C Batched Fabric (upto 24 hours Storage (150-160oC) (5-4 minutes) Fixation Ready for Finishing .
Reactive Printing Flow (110-130oC) Drying (100-102oC) (7-9 min.) Ageing Printing Feeding on M/C Batched Fabric Washing Drying Ready for Finishing .
Printing Faults Print Out / Design Out Miss Print Flushing of Colours Variation (Side-Centre-Side) Matching Faults Uneven printing or tinting Screen touching faults (Opening of Screen Figures) – extra colour at more spots (patchy) Closing of Screen – the colour skips Kuchra or other extraneous matter mark Doctor line Blanket Marks Screen Dent(s) .
FINISHING & INSPECTION .
mechanically or the combination of both Actually it adds value to the fabric. . into them as per intended use or customer requirements.Finishing These are the series of operations conducted on the dyed/printed/bleached fabrics to impart desired properties and look. The properties are achieved chemically.
hard. limpy) Hand feel (soft. crisp) Drape (grace) Formability Wrinkle recovery Crease resistance Strength (tensile.Various Finished Fabric Properties Shade and Evenness Look (shine.) Handle (lusture. tear) Durability Pilling Shrinkage or dimension stability Colour retention or colour fastness Verified Physically Verified via Testing Formability and wrinkle recovery can also be confirmed through testing . sheen etc.
Broad Classification of Finishing Wet Finishing Dry Finishing various chemical treatments are wet finishing operation where as dry finishing is purely of mechanical nature. .
Theoretically all the process where wetting of greige fabric involves e. dyeing. . bleaching. In common practice wetting process includes the processing where wetting involves of bleached.g. washing and chemical treatments.Wet Finishing The process where the fabric become wet (washing or chemical treatments) are called wet finishing processes and the phenomenon itself as Wet Finishing. dyed or printed fabric. printing.
Curing and rectification. Other functions are Heat Setting. Washers Where washing of chemically treated fabric (Resin treated cured fabric) is being carried out .Wet Finishing Machines Stenters Where chemical treatments are being done. Width adjustment.
Examples are calendaring.Dry Finishing The finishing where wetting of fbric is not being done is called dry finishing. It may involve treatment with steam. tension etc. snaforizing. mechanical pressure. raising .
Various Dry Finishing Processes Process Shearing Raising Shrinking Purpose Surface Cleaning and levelling Napping or Raising of fabric Shrinkage adjustment Machines Shearing Raising Relaxation Shrinkage or Steam Vaporizing Sueding/Microsand In Chenab Sueding/ Slight napping Microsand ing and Brushing .
Look Shrinkage Control All round properties Machines Emrizing Calendaring Sanforizing.Various Dry Finishing Processes Process Peaching Calendaring Shrinkage Kier Decatasing (K-D) Purpose Slight Napping Shine. Monforizing Kier Decatising (Biella Shrink Process or TMT or any other company Sanforizi ng In Chenab . Feel. Sheen.
however anti-shrunk and crease resistant properties can also be achieved on sanforizing and K.Some Specific Finishes Wrinkle Free/Wrinkle Resistant/Durable Press/Permanent Prss Anti-Shrunk Stain and Soil Release Rain/Water proof Flame Retardant Ultra Soft Ultra Fresh Special Coated Easy Care Mildew/Fungus/Antimicrobial Treatment All these are chemical finishes. .D.
Textile Finishing Chemicals Resins Softeners Hand Feel Accelerators Micro Emulsions Weighting Agent. Starches Any other special purpose chemicals .
Selection of Finishing Chemicals End Use Customer Requirements Statutory restrictions through certain legislation Conformance to Some standards Oeko Tex 100 standard EU legislation or ECO Standard Other labels e. Ultrafresh etc. .g. Nordic SWAN.
Finishing M/C in Chenab Machine Name Stenter Calendar Sanforizing Raising Microsand Ultra Soft Emrizing Quantity 10 3 2 2 1 1 1 .
Tears. Spots. Patches Holes.Finishing Faults Wrinkles/Creases Stains. Cuts Sanforizing Sleeve Marks Selvedge Stamping Variable Hand Feel Bowing/Skewing Uneven Raising/ Sueding/ Emrizing (Peaching) Distortion due to uneven/ extra tensions Tenderness Width Variation .
Internal Inspection Grades are separates acceptable ones from the rejected one (later may be given for rectification if possible).C) and to accept or reject. Performs 100% inspection External Inspection Accept or reject.B. Usually inspect the sample size but whole lot can also be inspected .Inspection It is the process by virtue of which the fabrics/articles are physically checked to grade/categorize (A.
Inspection standards These are the basis upon which the inspection is carried out and as the result of which the lot in question is accepted or rejected. Standard making bodies for these are ANSI ASQ BSI ISO (American National Standard Institute) (American Society for Quality) (British Standard Institute) (International Organization for Standardization) JISC (Japanese Industrial Standard Committee) Military Standards .
4 Point Standard AQL (a commonly agreed standard for Final/End product) . British Standard American 4 – Point Standard Japanese 10-Point Standard Demerit Point DP.Inspection Standards The most implemented and accepted Inspection Standards in Textile Industry are.
complain.Major and Minor Defects Major Defect Any identifiable deficiency of discrepancy in an item or product adversely affecting factors of appearance. serviceability. merchandising claims. or a similar expression of customer dissatisfaction. fit. life or customer appeal to a degree that would provide a discerning customer with justification for a return. Minor Defect Any deficiency or discrepancy not sufficient in degree to be classified as major defect and not considered to be justifiable reason for a return or complaint .
(not counted) any defective portion which is not included in the length and given free of cost Acceptance Criteria: Usually settled between customer and manufacturer If not given then 5 major and 5 minor defects per 100 running yards acceptable Major and minor defects are flagged with different colours . Standard Forces and govt based corporate bodies adopt this usually for acceptance or rejection as the case may be.S. For each major defect allowance is given 4 and a half inch For each minor defect allowance is given 2 and a quarter inch N.B. It is based on major and minor defects in the fabrics and consequent allowance therein.C.
5 + 1x2.S.81 yd Net Payable Length: 105 – 0.31 yd N.: 18” or 0.B.C.25” or 0.50 = 0.81= 104.19 yd .31 + 0.25=11. Standard Example Fabric Role/Bolt: 1 Length in Yards : 105 Width in Inches: 60 Major Defects: 2 Minor Defects: 1 Defect Allowance: 2x4.5 yd Total Allowance: 0.
Penalty Points Systems
4 Point System Defective Length
less than 3” 3”- 6” 6”-9” above 9” upto 36”
10 Point System Defective Length Warp
less than 1” 1”-5” 5”-10” above 10” upto 36”
DP 4 Point Defective Length
less then 3cm 3-20cm 20-50cm Above 50cm upto 1 mtr
1 2 3 4
less than 1” 1”-5” 5” half width full width
1 3 5 10
1 2 3 4
Points to be Considered
Acceptance criteria or acceptable points are to be settled by the customer or with mutual agreement during contract review Inspection is subjected to a pass lab test report otherwise the lot will be rejected Not more than max (4 or 10) penalty points be assigned to one liner meter/yard, regardless of the number of defect with in that one meter/yard Any piece with a full width defect over six inches in length shall be rejected The distance between two major defects should be more than 20 meters Hole, torn, tear more than 0.25” is not acceptable Any continuous defect (more than 3mtr/yd) is not acceptable
Acceptance Quality Limits (AQL)
Previously AQL was named as Acceptable Quality Levels. This was as per ANSI/ASQC Z1.4-1993. but in 2003 the standard was named as stated above. Few changes in footnotes and title were endorsed.
How to Use AQL
Determine Lot/Batch Size Find out Sample Size in General Inspection Level column. (A,B,C, …) depending upon the lot/batch size Now see single sampling plan for normal inspection against A,B,C, … determined previously and sample size will be known Perform inspection on number of pcs as per the sample size (2nd step) against agreed AQL Accept or Reject as per number of defects written in the column. Ac means accept, Re means reject.
Sample Size Code Letter Lot or batch size 2 9 16 to to to 8 15 25 Special Inspection levels S-1 A A A S-2 A A A S-3 A A B S-4 A A B I A A B General Inspection Levels II A B C III B C D 26 51 91 151 281 501 1201 3201 10001 35001 to to to to to to to to to to 50 90 150 280 500 1200 3200 10000 35000 150000 500000 Over A B B B B C C C C D D D B B B C C C D D D E E E B C C D D E E F F G G H C C D E E F G G H J J K C C D E F G H J K L M N D E F G H J K L M N P Q E F G H J K L M N P Q R 150001 to 500001 and .
5 Re Ac 2.4 Re 0.65 Ac Re Ac 1 Re Ac 1.5 Re Ac 4 Re Ac 0 6.Single Sampling Plan for Normal Inspection Sample Size Letter A B C D E F G H J K L M N P Q R Sample size Ac 2 3 5 8 13 20 12 50 80 125 200 315 500 800 1250 2000 1 2 3 5 7 2 3 4 6 8 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 1 1 2 3 5 7 2 3 4 6 8 0 1 1 2 3 5 7 10 14 21 2 3 4 6 8 11 15 22 0 1 1 2 3 5 7 10 14 21 2 3 4 6 8 11 15 22 0 1 1 2 3 5 7 10 14 21 2 3 4 6 8 11 15 22 0 1 1 2 3 5 7 10 14 21 2 3 4 6 8 11 15 22 0 1 Acceptance Quality Limits 0.5 Re 1 10 11 14 15 21 22 10 11 14 51 21 22 10 11 14 15 .
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