Subjective Questions

Give three examples from IT organization where Pareto analysis of 80:20 holds good. 1. Defect Analysis 2. Failures found in production 3. Cycle/Delivery Time reduction 4. Employee Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction 5. Customer Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction 6. Help Desk problems The process for using Pareto charts is described in the following steps: 1. Define the problem clearly using any of the tools from Quality Toolbox (e.g., Use brainstorming, affinity diagrams, or cause-and-effect diagrams) 2. Collect a sufficient sample size of data over the specified time, or use historical data, if available 3. Sort the data in descending order by occurrence or frequency of causes characteristics 4. Construct the Pareto Chart and draw bars to correspond to the sorted data in descending order, where the ³x´ axis is the problem category and the ³y´ axis is frequency 5. Determine the vital few causes on which to focus improvement efforts 6. Compare and select major causes, repeating the process until the problem¶s root causes are reached sufficiently to resolve the problem 2. List down some Standard Helpdesk problem. 1. Terminal kbd locked 2. Terminal 123x is hung 3. Terminal shows no cursor on the screen 4. Unable to start session

5. Unable to print from E-mail 6. Terminal 324x can¶t access menu 7. Model X printer not printing 8. System logs user off 9. Unable to print reports 10. Terminal 789x unable to logon 11. Transactions abending 12. System drops session 13. Unable to get out of application 14. System accepts invalid data 15. Unable to connect with host 16. Users cannot catalog 17. Cannot log on to e-mail 18. Users hung in application 19. User unable to access printer 20. System sends error xxx 21. Not able to logon to the system 22. Printer not working 23. Email server Down 24. Hung system (Machine not responding) 25. Keyboard/Mouse not working 3. You have been asked by a systems development project leader for your help in developing a test plan. The project leader wants to know what should be included in a test plan. He has asked you to develop a brief table of contents for a test plan. What would you include in that table of contents and why? Test Plan Template, according IEEE 829 standards 1. Test Plan Identifier 2. References 3. Introduction 4. Test Items

5. Software Risk Issues 6. Features to be Tested 7. Features not to be Tested 8. Approach 9. Item Pass/Fail Criteria 10. Suspension Criteria and Resumption Requirements 11. Test Deliverables 12. Remaining Test Tasks 13. Environmental Needs 14. Staffing and Training Needs 15. Responsibilities 16. Schedule 17. Planning Risks and Contingencies 18. Approvals 19. Glossary 4. What are the steps that you would follow while doing Regression testing? Or The code has been given for regression testing. Write the process to be followed. In simple, 1. Identify the areas that are not changed 2. Select the type of regression testing that needs to be done i.e unit regression, regional or full regression 3. Determine if regression testing would be done with downstream applications 4. Check the availability of budget, resource, time 5. Select the testcases 6. Use a tool to expedite regression testing (if available) 7. Execute the testcases 8. In case any defects are observed, close it asap.

Risk-based Test Case Selection for regression testing Risk-based Test Selection approach has four main steps. Step 1: Estimate the cost for each test case: Cost is categorized on a one to five scale, where one is low and five is high. Two kinds of costs will be taken into consideration: 1) The consequences of a fault as seen by the customer, for example, losing market share because of faults, 2) The consequences of a fault as seen by the vendor, for example, high software maintenance costs because of faults. Step 2: Derive severity probability for each test case: For each test case, we compute severity probability depending on the number of defects and the severity of defects. Severity probability falls into a zero to five scale, where zero is low and five is high. Step 3: Calculate Risk Exposure for each test case: Risk Exposure is the multiplication of Cost and severity probability. To enhance or focus the results, we can also add weights to test cases that we need to give preference to. Step 4: Select test cases that have the highest values of Risk Exposure as Safety Tests (Safety Tests check that serious failures do not occur). Risk-based Test Scenario Selection Since end-to-end scenarios involve many components of the system working together, they are highly effective at finding regression faults. Our selection strategy obeys two rules: R1: Select scenarios to cover the most critical test cases. R2: Ensure scenarios cover as many test cases as possible. Based on a traceability matrix showing the relation between end-to-end test scenarios and test cases, our risk-based test scenario selection approach also has four main steps. Step 1: Calculate Risk Exposure REs for each scenario:

Provide input for estimating testing efforts QA-Kickoff meeting participation. 5. According to our selection rules. and rows for all the test cases covered by the scenario.QA ‡ Initiation . and re-calculate REs): When running the chosen scenario. all test cases covered by the scenario will be executed. What are the phases involved in SDLC? What. Step 4: Repeat Steps 2 and 3 as desired. In our approach. Project Plan Review.Using the traceability matrix. Giving Process training to the team. ‡ Definition Review of functional requirement document Design test strategy QA-Req Review. Step 2: Select the scenario with highest REs Step 3: Update the traceability matrix (remove selected scenarios and covered test cases. these test cases should not affect our selection any more. we can simply calculate the Risk Exposure for each scenario by summing up the Risk Exposure for all test cases that this scenario covers. where and why do QA and Testers play a role in these phases. Giving Tailoring Guidance ‡ System Design Review of system design doc. Ensure proper collection of review data & other metrics . Oversee Code reviews. when. We should focus on those test cases that have not yet been executed. interface agreement doc etc QA-Design Review ‡ Programming & Training Test plan/specification preparation Preparation of Test Data Preparation of Test environment QA-Test Plan Review. All of this is easily automated. we cross out the column for the chosen scenario. First point refers to Tester role & second .

system testing Test manager: oversees acceptance testing Tracking defects QA-Oversee integration & system testing according to the standard processes ‡ Installation & Operation o Ensure properly tested code is shifted to production QA-Ensuring Formal project closure & project data is submitted to Organizations Process Database Role of QA other than those in SDLC(in general): y y y y y y Developing policies. and the degree to which the current and future needs of the . ‡ the application of quantitative methods and human resources to improve the products and services supplied to an organization. What are the responsibilities of the following participants in Effective Quality Management? ‡ IT Management ‡ Quality Control Dept ‡ QA Dept It is important to understand Qlty Mgt before listing down & differentiating the responsibilities of different roles. all processes within an organization. recording. procedures and standards Acquiring and implementing tools and methodologies Marketing creating awareness of quality programs and concepts Measuring quality Defining. Quality management: ‡ a philosophy and a set of guiding principles that represent the foundation of a continuously improving organization.‡ Evaluation & Acceptance Perform various validation activities like integration testing. summarizing and presenting analyses Performing process analysis (statistical process control) 11.

and technical tools under a disciplined approach focused on continuous improvement. changed. Determine what new. which includes understanding the degree to which the current and future needs of the customer (internal as well as external) are met ‡ Executive management's commitment to quality should be expressed in writing to all employees in the form of a quality policy. 2. Develop a plan to assimilate and leverage the current function into the quality support activity needed to support both the corporate quality management program and IT quality responsibilities.customer are met. Determine the value added by utilizing IT QA analysts to support corporate quality management initiatives. ‡ integrates fundamental management techniques. Define the skills. 3. It is a culture change. More clearly :‡ Understand the concept of quality management. ¢IT Mgmt IT management involved in a corporate quality management program should undertake the following four actions in an effort to rethink and assign their quality responsibilities: 1. and continued quality responsibilities will be assigned to the IT group as a result of the corporate quality program. commitment. 4. existing improvement efforts. ‡ Adopt behaviors required to show commitment ‡ Accept the need to change to participative leadership ‡ Lead in the development of a quality management implementation plan ‡ Lead the formation of the implementation organization ‡ Lead the planning for process improvement teams ‡ Provide funds for training . Evaluate the capability of the IT group to deploy quality initiatives within and outside the group. and quality approaches currently available to line management.

‡ To determine whether the product conforms to a standard or procedure i. Measurement team and awareness Team Crosby ‡ Help define and implement the scope. ‡ Developing the company¶s approach to selecting quality-related competitive . standards for defect identification and removal. use.e. ‡ Defect measurement & deposit ¢QA ‡ Set up Quality Improvement Team. and management of the data and information that underlie the corporation¶s corporate quality management system ‡ Developing the company¶s base of data and information used for planning and day-to-day management.. compliance checks ‡ Create the Software V&V Plan ‡ Conduct Management Review of V&V ‡ Support Management and Technical Reviews ‡ Interface with Organizational and Supporting Processes ‡ Creation of V&V Report ‡ Software Change Control/Configuration Control (if CCB is a overseen by QC dept) ‡ Defect Management . ‡ Evaluation of how quality and data and information reliability.Usage of checklist. validity. and access are assured. timeliness.‡ Provide time for training and meetings ‡ Identify quality standards and measures ‡ Publicize and reward results ‡ Monitor and measure progress ‡ Provide personnel and other resources QC ‡ To identify the most logical points in the process to add controls.

(Schedule overrun) and over-budget. ‡ Improve standards by involving employees ± Deming and TQM ‡ Institute modern aids to training. or You are the QA Manager.. Therefore the only way to gain customer satisfaction back is to concentrate and solve the ³Customer dissatisfaction issue´. yet the project is consistently behind schedule.By reacting positively to their concern. State briefly what you think are reasons behind this and who's responsible.comparisons and world-class benchmarks to support quality planning. procedures etc. getting to the same wavelength and give undivided attention to the current issue 2. Get the facts-Ask questions. But the customer is dissatisfied. . There are well-defined standards. ‡ Determining how data and information are analyzed to support the company¶s overall quality objectives. obtain feelings and concerns 3. Listen carefully. Your development team strictly followed and produced the product. in place. process. What would you do now? Considering all these main considerations we cannot do much about the schedule overrun and the cost incurred through that. In a situation like this the best way to go about this would to be 1. Get on your customers wavelength. and improvement. evaluation. ‡ Institute training program to retrain and on statistical methods ‡ Defect Prevention 12. record conversations. Establish and initiate an action program ± Even if the requirements are not valid issues we still need to take consideration of the pressing issue and provide a solution for this. is over budget and the customer is unhappy. All processes and standards have been followed in the lifecycle of a particular project. Also the customer was not happy with the functioning. as the product was delivered very late.

5. Follow up with the customer to validate whether they are satisfied with the new solution being implemented Possible reasons could be: y y y Estimation of the efforts is not proper (Over Budget) ± Project Manager Project Plan is not properly developed -Project Manager Project Tracking is not proper .4. Your operational dept encounters production defect at the rate of 3 defects per 1000 lines of code. This company¶s production defect is 2 defects per 1000 lines of code. If required there could be sessions (JAD Sessions) where the customer and the development team could meet up and discuss any discrepancies.Project Manager is responsible for schedule slippage and Effort over run Change Control Process need to be looked into ± Configuration Controller Processes may need to be revisited and changed ± QA is responsible ± Look at standards for improvement ± Project Manager . Can negotiate a satisfactory resolution with the customer by suggesting a resolution and getting the agreement and implement the resolution with customer consent. During a vendor meet you come across another company XYZ that is of the same size of yours and in the same industry. 6.Deming Lack of emphasis on measurement No Defect Prevention ± Project Manager Defect Elimination is not done properly ± Project Manager Failure to determine the cost associated with defects ± Project Manager Failure to initiate programs to ³Manage defects´ ± Project Manager Most economical means for identifying defects unknown Management¶s unwillingness to accept full responsibility for all defects ± Deming and Crosby principle Inability to follow V-Testing to capture defects earlier in the lifecycle y y y y y y y y y y y 13. Can you conclude that the XYZ operation dept is better that yours. Can you use this for benchmarking? Explain. OR .

If two organisations with same standards. 4. while considering language differences. For example. Firstly. 1. testing effort. the modules in which few faults are discovered during testing may simply not have been tested properly. Another hypothesis is the popular software engineering assumption that small modules are likely to be (proportionally) less failure prone. Here. In some cases. The key missing explanatory data in this case is. it should be made sure that the two defect densities to be compared are normalized on common factors. a decision cant be taken on a pure objective basis as there are many other factors that need to be considered while comparing the two defect densities. most notably. It is recommended that more complete models that enable to augment the empirical observations with other explanatory factors. 6. Usually defect density normalization with respect to function points are preferred over KLOC. 5. one having 10 defects per 1000 KLOC and the other one having 12 defects per 1000 KLOC can be compared? Yes or No? Explain. empirical studies summarised in [Hatton 1997] suggest the opposite effect: that large modules have a lower fault density than small ones. 2. of course. 3. In other words small modules have a lower defect density. Those modules which reveal large numbers of faults during testing may genuinely be very well tested in the sense that all the faults really are 'tested out of them'. testing effort and operational usage. If you do not test or use a module you will not observe faults or failures associated with it for which operational usage has to be considered. the fact that Visual Basic doesn't readily lend itself to LOC counts makes Function Point sizing the more appropriate common base across all three projects. In fact. Some of other factors that need to be considered include y y y Complexity of the project Language Process capability .

Ellips. and formally approved by a responsible individual as mentioned above. . Changes to the code is normally controlled by the usage of configuration tools like Visual Source Safe. IT manager or Senior person in User department can approve it. Software Configuration Control 4. Software Release Management and Delivery Software Who is responsible? y y Configuration Controller is responsible for keeping track of changes. Software Configuration Status Accounting 5. all the changes should be in written format. Who is responsible for keeping track of changes in the software? Who has the authority to change? How do you ensure that change control is properly carried out? SCM Steps 1. However. it should be approved by Systems Planning steering committess/SCCB (Software Configuration Control Board). Changeman Concurrent Versioning System (CVS) Who authorizes changes? y If the change is major. Software Configuration Auditing 6. Management of the SCM Process 2.y y y History of defects Defect severity Common causes 14. y How to ensure Change Control y The nature of the proposed change should be explained in writing. Software Configuration Identification 3. For a minor change.

the tool selected should support the recording and communication of all significant information about a defect for better analysis.Documenting the proposed change clears up any initial misunderstandings that may arise when only verbal requests are made.test case or other source that found the defect Method ± SDLC phase of creation . the documentation system should be updated with all change sheets or change registers and printouts. As imperfect or flawed processes cause most defects. written proposals provide a history of changes in a particular system. y Finally. a defect log could include: o o o o Defect ID number Descriptive defect name and type Source of defect . The results should be recorded on program change registers and sent to the IT manager for approval. whom do you held responsible for the defect & why? y Individual should not be held responsible for defects. Usage of tool for change control for code and document y y 15. y y Developers should make changes and not the operations Someone independent of the person who designed and made the change should be responsible for testing the final revised program. If a defect occurs in the software product. Operations should accept only properly approved changes. In addition. Defect information should be used to improve the process. For example. processes may need to be altered to prevent defects. Perform Configuration Control Audit to ensure Change control. y The main intention of defect record should be for four major purposes: o o o To ensure the defect is corrected To report status of the application To gather statistics used to develop defect expectations in future applications To improve the software development process o y ‡ At a minimum.

o o o o o Phases ± SDLC phase of detection Component or program that had the defect Defect severity Defect priority Defect status (e. Security and Privacy of customer information are very important for ecommerce projects. Quality principles expect that management policies are a pre-requisite for good work process. Security measures keep information secured.more robust tools provide a status history for the defect Date and time tracking for either the most recent status change. origin of defects Use statistical processes to determine the root causes of the problem Close the gap by improving the process or updating the processes.g. Draft a policy for e-commerce security and privacy. design. (more . 16. user error. checklists etc if required. open. and so on) . and decrease the means of tampering. Identify the categories of defects. logs. or for each change in the status history Detailed description. closed. standards. Or Write a Security and Privacy policy for e-securities projects for your organization. unless that information will be used or disclosed with his or her permission. Security²relates to the means (process and technology) by which an entity protects the privacy of any sort of data/information. destruction. fixed. including the steps necessary to reproduce the defect Screen prints. or inappropriate access. Privacy²refers to the individual¶s right to keep certain information private. that will aid the developer in resolution process Stage of origination Persons assigned to research and correct the defect o o o o o y y y Finally. etc.

This is an added level of security. XYZ Company Online Privacy Policy This Policy relates only to our online information collection and use practices. we do the following: y We only collect personally identifiable information that you voluntarily and knowingly provide the rights of individuals or Consent/Authorization Issues/Procedures/Processes ) Security is more related to the availability of the information and policy for that should address the same with proper checks and balances taking care of that while privacy is some thing which ensures right information to the right person. and helpful in laboratories or purchasing departments with multiple users of a central computer. and do require a re-entry of the credit card number for each purchase. These suppliers are legally obligated to maintain the confidentiality of any information we provide them. SECURITY & PRIVACY POLICY y XYZ Company protocols adhere to the latest standards. In short. . your information is encrypted during your e-commerce sessions with XYZ Company. including your information. y y We do not share any information you provide us with anyone outside of XYZ Corporation. y y Security audits are conducted by third parties in order to further ensure security. We use the information that you provide us only for the purpose(s) for which you specifically provided it or for specific additional purposes for which we receive your prior consent. except for suppliers who assist us in maintaining and managing the activities on our site. We do not store credit card or purchasing card information on our web server.

we employ Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) software. Links To Other Sites . We use cookies to store visitors preferences. which encrypts information you input. as an additional security measure. customize Web page content based on visitors' browser type or other information that the visitor sends. correcting or removing this information . You are not identified by name or e-mail address. we use a technology called ³cookies´ to enhance your experience on our site. we (like all web sites) cannot warrant or guarantee 100% security of any information you transmit to us at our web site. record session information. However. The cookies XYZ Company uses do not contain any personally identifiable information and can not profile your system or collect information from your hard drive. Security We employ appropriate security measures to protect the loss. such as items that consumers add to their shopping cart. For our e-commerce activities. misuse and alteration of the information under our control. We employ appropriate security measures to protect the loss. and a means for updating. record past activity at a site in order to provide better service when visitors return to our site . We provide you with choice and control over the collection and use of any personally identifiable information that you provide us on-line. y y Cookies Like many companies. as no on-line data transmission can be guaranteed to be totally secure. misuse and alteration of any information you provide us.y We may use a technology called ³cookies´ to enhance your experience on our site. just by a unique string of numbers that we assign the first time you come to our site.

which is covered in Knowledge Domain 1. of QUALITY CONTROL points may be increased. Is it possible to implement too much quality control in an Organisation? Yes or No? Explain. the term ³TOO MUCH´ here may depend upon many factors which may be prevailing in the organization. resources and time are not prohibitive. Staff may resist/oppose this as they may feel it will hinder the faster progress of work because of more check points It is possible to do it wherein QA processes are set properly. quality control is necessary in a process to catch defects before they affect the outcome of downstream processes. In cases where there are chaos all around. Quality control procedures are considered appraisal costs. But as the CBOK says. 17. and if the cost. and increase the cycle time for building products and delivering services. First of all.XYZ Company does not guarantee the content of other sites for which we provide a link. Appraisal costs are part of the Cost of Quality. But. They add to the overall cost. increase the effort required. With this strategy quality is built into the products rather than tested at the end. The challenge is to . no. Implementation of too much Quality Control may have certain impediments to start with1. As standards and Do procedures are perfected. one of the quality management philosophy objectives is to continually improve process capability by reducing variation and rework. "Quality is Free". implementing too much quality control becomes easier as Philip Crosby says. it has to be driven top ± down by the management 2. and if you get the involvement of the top management. the need for extensive quality control is reduced. Staff may not like too many QC points 3. Where standards and Do procedures are not perfected. where there are too many complaints frequently from the customers.

Product quality risk analysis 4. Logical points are determined based on the following o o o o Risk severity Cost. Peer review. Project quality planning 2. Customer/user quality surveys 3. Project process validation 2. List various Cost of QualityCategories (from Hagan 1986) COQ Categories I. Supervisory) Impact on overall culture o 18. effort. Third Party audit. Marketing research for customer/user quality needs 2. Too much Quality Control is not required if y y y Standards are developed properly Processes are well defined Quality controls are installed at the logical points in the process to minimize the defects. effort and cycle time impact Availability of appropriate resources/people Strength of control method (Automatic. Project o o . Prevention Costs 1. and cycle time. Self-Checking.install the appropriate amount and types of controls to minimize cost. Requirements o o o o o 1. and to minimize the risk that defects will go undetected and "leak" into other processes. Prototyping for customer review 5. Quality must be built-in a product and not tested in. User requirements/specification reviews/inspections 1.

Training 4. Project configuration management 10. SQA program planning 6. and reporting 5. Quality metrics data collection 7. Salaries 2. analysis. Platform and tools 1. Reuse library o o o o 4. Salaries 2. Platform and tools development for quality 5. Metrology: data maintenance. Verification and validation activities . Design for quality: software component reuse 8. Formal inspections / peer reviews 9. Quality assessment of development platform and tools 4. SQA expenses 3. Expenses 3.o o o o o o o o 3. SQA salaries 2. Platform and tools 1. SQA administration o o o o o o o o o II. Supplier capability assessment 1. Software process and standards definition and publication 4. Process improvement 9. Supplied product testing 2. SQA performance reporting 7. Training 4. SQA education/training 8. Appraisal Costs 1. Expenses 3. Configuration management administration o o o o 5. Project appraisal costs o 1. Developer quality training 6. SQA process compliance audits 3.

External appraisals o o o III. Work products wasted due to design changes 1. Product quality audits 1. Rework 2. External failure costs 1. Special product evaluations o 3. setup. Defect measurement and reporting 2. Field performance trials 3. Defect analysis cost 2. Cost of obtaining product fix 3. Retest and integration IV.o 2. test execution and logging. Purchased product defect cost o o o o 3. Product design defect costs o o o o 1. Testing: planning. Technical support for responding to defect complaints 2. Defect fixing 3. Internal failure costs 1. Product returned due to defect 3. Fix inspection 6. Maintenance and release due to defects 4. Implementation defect costs y y y y y y 1. Causal analysis and reporting 2. Design corrective action 3. Defect notification costs . Project process corrective action 5. reporting. Rework and retest due to design corrective action 4. Cost of defect work-arounds 4. Process maturity evaluation 2. test data evaluation 3. platforms. test data generation. Causal analysis and reporting 4.

where feasible. excessive inventory is cost. We have to minimize total cost. To minimize total cost long-term relationship with suppliers is really important. Costs to maintain customer/user goodwill due to dissatisfaction (sales reports) 10. etc. Effective Subcontract Management and Oversight is a team effort and is critical for ensuring and/or improving subcontractor performance. Remember that defective units are cost. How will you improve the performance of your subcontractors Move towards single supplier for any one item. Deming favors the practice of working with a single supplier. not only the price.5. to reduce variability of incoming materials. and states that this practice should be built on a long-term relationship of trust and understanding between supplier and purchaser. Upgrade due to defect 6. Service agreement claims (warranty expense reports) 7. delay in delivery is cost. Penalties (product contract reports) 9. To improve Subcontractors' Performance ± y y ‡ Perform daily walkdown of subcontractor work activities ‡ Perform joint performance audits with Sub Contract Coordinator and subcontractor ‡ Ensures compliance with subcontract requirements y . you will receive better products so you will win and your supplier too. If you as a customer help your supplier to develop. Liability claims (insurance and legal reports) 8. In this way. To maintain long-term contracts. suppliers can produce materials that do a better job of fulfilling the needs of the organization. suppliers will be more likely to improve their own processes to provide better products or services. Lost sales due to quality problems (field salesperson reports) 19. To be competitive it is very important to have lower costs. on a long-term relationship of loyalty and trust. to improve the quality.

Do You think that KLOC is a right measure for the code which your MIS has developed for Inventrory system.) y y ‡ Review subcontractor generated data ‡ Support Sub Contract Coordinator in conducting subcontractor investigations ‡ Provides lessons learned information to subcontractor ‡ Interfaces with all Operational Managers to support Project initiatives ‡ Coach subcontractor in developing and implementing corrective actions resulting from audits and self assessments ‡ Assure subcontractor submits benchmark Program results ‡ Identify and evaluate violations ‡ Prepare notices to subcontractor ‡ Sign / approve violation notices to subcontractors ‡ Transmit notices to subcontractors ‡ Approve subcontractor corrective actions and/or provide direction ‡ Monitor close-out of quality issues ‡ Chair progress review meetings ‡ Assess subcontractor performance (monthly subcontractor scorecard) y y y y y y y y y y y y 20.y ‡ Foster implementation of benchmarked programs (Benchmark Contractors' and Subcontractors' Performance By comparing current performance against other contractors and the rest of the industry in all relevant areas. We can also benchmark our subcontractor's performance across different projects and against other subcontractors and use the findings to create an effective model for predicting and preventing claims. we can determine areas where training is needed and continuously improve business processes. Now a days. Though LOC metric is easy to understand and widely used. Function Point metrics are getting more popular because of their normalized . there are certain intricacies involved which can mislead with wrong interpretations especially during the important calculations of defect density and Productivity.

Function Points A Function can be defined as a collection of executable statements that perform . LOC data do not reflect non-coding work such as the creation of requirements. the methods and algorithms used by different counting tools can cause significant differences in the final counts. Differences between physical lines and instruction statements (or logical lines of code) and differences among languages contribute to the huge variations in counting LOCs. Both the metrics are discussed in detail here: Lines Of Code (LOC) The LOC metric is anything but simple. Several variations that are significant are ± ‡ Count only executable lines ‡ Count executable lines + data defns ‡ Count executable lines + data defns + comments ‡ Count executable lines + data defns + comments + job control language ‡ Count lines as physical lines on an input screen ‡ Count lines as terminated by logical delimiters When straight LOC count data is used without normalizing. Therefore. the actual counting. the problems with LOC are more severe. For productivity. in which one physical line was the same as one instruction. though it is initially difficult to understand. Efficient design provides the functionality with lower implementation effort and fewer LOCs. In addition to the level of languages issue. size & defect rate comparisons across languages are often invalid. With the availability of high level languages the one to one correspondence broke down. specifications & user manuals. LOC definition was clear. LOC do not reflect the true productivity in this case. In the early days of Assembler programming. Even within the same language. A Basic problem is that the amt of LOC in a program is negatively correlated with design efficiency.calculations. The major problem comes from the ambiguity of the operational definition.

High cmplxity:15. Medium cmplxity:4. for the External O/P Component. measuring functions is theoretically promising but realistically very difficult. together with declarations of the formal parameters and local variables manipulated by those statements. iIf the number of data element types is 5 or fewer and the no. 2. Here. med. Medium cmplxity:10. 5. Data communications 2. of files types referened is 2 or more -> then complexity is HIGH. However. The five components and their usual weighting factors according to their complexities are given below (For e. High cmplxity:6. The second step involves a scale from 0 to 5 to assess the impact of 14 general system characteristics in terms of their likely effect on the application.g. if the number of data element types is 20 or more and the no. Here. External I/P: Low complexity:3. 4. Medium cmplxity:4. Medium cmplxity:7. High cmplxity:10. if defects per unit of functions is low. Distributed functions . of files types referened is 2 or 3 -> then complexity is LOW): 1.a certain task. 3. Then -> FC= {™i=1to5[™j=1to3(Wij*Xij)]} Where Wij is the weighting factors of the five components by complexity level (low. then the software should have better quality even though the defects per KLOC value could be higher ± when the functions were implemented by fewer lines of code. High cmplxity:7. External O/P: Low complexity:4. Logical O/P: Low complexity:5. high) Xij are the numbers of each component in the application. Medium cmplxity:5. The 14 characteristics are: 1. External Inquiry: Low complexity:3. first the Function Count (FC) has to be made using the following five components with their respective weighting factors which in turn are decided by certain guidelines and standards. Logical I/P: Low complexity:7. High cmplxity:6.

65+0. Multiple sites 14. of FPs are calculated by: FP = FC*VAF ---------------------------- . Resuability 11.3. Finally. Performance 4. Transaction rate 6. Enduser efficiency 8. Online data entry 7.01*[™i=1to14(Ci)]} Where Ci is the score for general system characteristic i. Cmplx processing 10. to arrive at the Value Adjustment Factor (VAF) Value Adjustment Factor (VAF) = {0. Facilitation of change The scores (ranging from 0 to 5) for these chrcs are then summed. based on the following formula. the no. Operational use 13. Heavily used configuration 5. Online update 9. Installation use 12.

or system-level requirements. 3. and data requirements that must be satisfied. external interface requirements. As Requirement analysis plays a major role in the s/w development life cycle. ‡ Consistent. Terminology should also be used consistently within the document: y A word has the same meaning every time it is used. ‡ Complete. Internal conflicts do not exist between requirements in the document that result in the requirements contradicting each other. list out the four key attributes of requirements & explain. Nonredundant: Each requirement is stated in only one place. 2. whether or not SRS includes (Checklist): 1. 1. Each requirement statement should have only one interpretation. automatically) because adverbs by nature are almost always ambiguous. action-oriented . 3. 2. ‡ Modifiable. and each requirement should be specified in a coherent. Each requirement should be stated in short. user. The requirements also do not conflict with higher-level requirements including business. For example. constraints. all the functions and nonfunctional requirements. y Two different words are not used to mean the same thing. 4. user-friendly. specific. ‡ Concise. easy-to-understand manner. Changeable: Each requirement can be changed without excessive impact on other requirements. The requirements document includes all of the necessary requirements information. For example. 1. ‡ Unambiguous. 1.2. the author searches for words that end in ³ly´ (for example. quickly. The requirements document is organized and written in a manner that will facilitate making future change: 1. Give two quality checklists for each of the attributes. 2.

Failures found in production<!--[endif]--> <!--[if !supportLists]-->3. techniques. standard. Give three examples from IT organization where Pareto analysis of 80:20 holds good. <!--[if !supportLists]-->2. 1. words like ³all. and tests. resources. implementation. 1. ‡ Traceable. <!--[if !supportLists]-->1. measurable limits or values should be stated for each requirement as appropriate. 1. user-level requirements. There exists a reasonably cost-effective way to determine that the software satisfies the requirement. ‡ Testable. -------------------------------------1. Specific. ‡ Feasible. Defect Analysis<!--[endif]--> <!--[if !supportLists]-->2. <!--[endif]-->Each requirement should be traceable back to its source (for example. <!--[endif]-->It should also be specified in a manner that allows traceability forward into the design. system-level requirements. <!--[if !supportLists]-->1.´ and ³throughout´ should be avoided in requirements statements.´ ³every. For example. [endif]--> Employee Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction<!-- . ‡ Finite. The requirement can be implemented using available technologies. ‡ Measurable.language. Cycle/Delivery Time reduction<!--[endif]--> <!--[if !supportLists]-->4. tools. and enhancement request). and personnel within the specified cost and schedule constraints. The requirement should not be stated in an open-ended manner.

or cause-and-effect diagrams)<!--[endif]-- > <!--[if !supportLists]-->1. where the ³x´ axis is the problem category and the ³y´ axis is frequency<!--[endif]--> <!--[if !supportLists]-->4. repeating the process until the problem¶s root causes are reached sufficiently to resolve the problem <!--[endif]--> 2. affinity diagrams. or use historical data. Collect a sufficient sample size of data over the specified time. Define the problem clearly using any of the tools from Quality Toolbox (e. Compare and select major causes.. Use brainstorming.g. Determine the vital few causes on which to focus improvement efforts<!--[endif]--> <!--[if !supportLists]-->5. [endif]--> Customer Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction<!-- <!--[if !supportLists]-->6. Help Desk problems<!--[endif]--> The process for using Pareto charts is described in the following steps: <!--[if !supportLists]-->1. Construct the Pareto Chart and draw bars to correspond to the sorted data in descending order. Sort the data in descending order by occurrence or frequency of causes characteristics<!--[endif]--> <!--[if !supportLists]-->3. if available<!--[endif]--> <!--[if !supportLists]-->2.<!--[if !supportLists]-->5. State some differences between SEI CMM and ISO 9000 ISO 9000:2000 ISO 9001:2000 ISO 9004:2000 ISO 9000-3:2000 ISO 9001:2000 Terminology translation Top Mgt Higher leve/Sr mgt Fundas n Vocabulary Requirements Gdliens for pefformance improvements Gdliens for the application for ISO 9000:2000 to Computer SW CMMI .

procedure work product. interested party Documented procedure Record Qlty mgt (very broad sense) Similarities ISO 8 Principles:- OSSP Prj Plan. Data Mgt Plan Customer. Stakeholder Plan for performing the process.7.3.8. M&C the process -PMC. Establish a efined Process -OPD. Assign Responsibility -GP2. SW Development Plan.IPM -GP3.Establish a defined Process -Focus of entire CMMI through cap n maturity levels -GP2. Provide Resources -GP2.10.DAR -SAM -CMMI is less specific abt "collaboration" -CMMI is more concerned with "control" Leadership Invovlement of People Process Approach System Approach Continual Improvement Factual Approach to Decision Making Mutually Beneficial Supplier Relationships .Identify n involve Relavant Stakeholder -GP2.4.MA.Train Ppl -GP2.1.1.5. Qlty Manual Qlty Plan Customer.IPM. Plan the Process -GP3.1. Identify & involve Relavant stakeholder -PP SP 2. record. Establish an Organizational Policy -GP2. Plan Stakeholder involvement -RD.6.Review Status with Higher Mgt -OPF -GP2.7.QMS.2.TS -CMMI is not as strong as ISO -GP2.evidence of implementation Qlty Mgt (& Qntive mgt) Customer focus -GP2. Sys Engg Plan.

Standard Broad direction One set of requirements to be satisfied No guidelines ofr implementation Requires interpretation for organizations with many programs Applicable for all kinds of organizations ISO 9000-3 gives the Gdliens for the application for ISO 9000:2000 to Computer SW Static in nature CMMI provides practices. n Prj level prc improvement activiteis CMMI very strongly emphasizes institutionalization through GGs n GPs. Details ISO is very sparse Guidance ISO hasn't provided detailed imppln guidance Process Improvement ISO 9004:2000 provides very igh level guidance for prc improvement Institutionalization ISO requires orgns to estblish QMS but doesn't explicitly required instituionalization -bldg strong prc infrastructure is left to the Orgn. This is a major strength of the CMMI and is critical to oveall prc imprvovment success Model Detailed Progressive steps (levels) Institutionalization & implementation guidance Accomodates organizations with many programs Applicable only to software development organizations Evaluationary in nature and espouses continuous improvement of the software .typical work products & amplifications CMMI has Capability levels n maturity levels CMMI is devoted to prc improvement -Distinguished Org. "determine and provide resources" is implemented in CMMI with GP2.Differences Language ISO uses 'SHALL' statements (prescriptive) CMMI doesn¶t More elaborated (e.g..2 & GP2.g..3 in all Pas) Compactness of stts in ISO e.subpractices.

Test reports include the number of defects that still exist. As a consultant to an organization involved in handling large S/w projects how would you impress on the mgt on the need for structured testing? ANS: Structured testing advantages are It tests the logic of the software. Design the product with the help of all the developers. Your mgt has decided to accept the contact. Your orgn requires a metrics program to be implemented However the mgt focus is only one net profit. 3. A large number of defects have been unearthed in testing which may result in a delayed release. Your organization is in testing a new version of sw. How would you impress on the need to measure cost overruns and schedule overruns? ANS: Without measures business cannot be conducted for a long time If there are no measures for cost/schedule overrun we would not be able to take appropriate measures before and hence the customer may be dissatisfied. Hence hidden defects could be found at earlier stages Parts of the software may be tested 4. ANS: Give them a detailed outline of the plan regarding the following questions Make a list of defects in the software unearthed during the testing Conducting a brainstorming session to find out the root causes for the defects Constructing a control chart to find solutions to the problems Make a plan of the steps involved in solving the problems as to who is responsible for what Keep them posted on the improvements made in the products Give them the test reports. code. test and implement in the production environment and monitor their progress to see if they are met. A potential customer of your organization requires a sw that can be provided only with new tools and technology and currently available in ur orgn. The mgt wants you to present the measures you have taken as QA mgr in the development of the software towards a quality product.development processes Contains 8 clauses Certification Audit is like an exam Contains 18 KPAs Final assessment is collaborative Result of assessment is a quantitative score of the maturity of the software development process Staged Result of certification is pass fail criteria Continuous 1. Prepare a detailed chart on the level of improvements made. . You have to present to the mgt on the initiatives of your team in building quality into the sw How would you justify ur actions to the mgt. 2. How should the project be planned for successful completion? ANS: Reallocate the resource for the project Get a detailed requirement from the customer so that they could be measured and tested to see if the objectives are met or not.

Usability of the product 10. During a vendor meet you come across another company XYZ that is of the same size of yours and in the same industry. support activites in case of problems. Can you use this for benchmarking. They should be willing to share their ideas Only one can speak at a time Decisions will be arrived at a consensus in a meeting 7. A payroll system has been developed and is to be rolled out to production. Your operational dept encounters production defect at the rate of 3 defects per 1000 lines of code. Make company visits. How will you ensure that the tools procured are used as well? ANS: Training. Benchmark with them. ANS: Reliability of the product. minor. Follow the same techniques as them and try and reduce your defects. For each of the attribute ask a relevant question that you would ask the customer and suggest a metric to evaluate the goal that has been set. Internal Design and Program Specs phases. Can you conclude that the XYZ operation dept is better that yours. what type of test end report will you prepare for the PL of the concerned project? What will you report and why? ANS: What are the issues that are still open A summary of the defects that were uncovered during testing (number of critical errors. But their implementation is poor among business users. major) Screen shots of the defects if any available Who detected the error Who corrected the error Number of days involved in detecting the error 11. after implementation monitor them 8. (7 marks) ANS: Yes it could be used for benchmarking as it is of the same size and the same industry as yours. Name three attributes of a product that you would ask the customer during a survey. ANS: Requirements ± Check for completeness External Design ± Supports the requirements 6. This company¶s production defect is 2 defects per 1000 lines of code. Suggest measures of effectiveness in the Checkpoint reviews in Requirement. . 9. What steps will you take to ensure that defects are caught as early as possible. Integrity of the product. Explain. Develop Standards on Meetings ANS: Everyone in the meeting should be given equal rights in participating in the meeting.5. External design. Find out what process they use for coding. vendors support. Your company has quite a number of tools procured from vendors. You as a QC person.

Errors due to this are 1000 per year and this resresents 1 % each wrong payment results in a loss of $1000 loss. What will you do? ANS: 1)Benchmark with other organizations to see what are the best practices followed 2)Brainstorm with the team to find out the reasons for defects 3)Implement the practice and measure the progress 4) By going around the PDCA cycle and continuously improving the process you can improve Plan security or risk environment in your organizati 14. As an IT head he wants you to determine the categories that can be calculated by you to determine whether the company can get the award.) ANS: 1) Get the latest criteria for qualifying for the mbnqa award 2) Compare the criteria with your organization. memory usage during peak hours. cpu time. your manager wants to go for mbnqa. ask the customer if this is the quality he expected 12. You want to reduce it to 2 defects per FP. What is the loss. He is aware of the categories. You have to make a presentation on the features of an ISO and TQM to program to your mgt What would be part of your presentation ANS: Define what ISO What are the objectives of ISO What are the different types of models available in ISO Which model is best suited for the organization Define TQM and objectives How do they benefit the organization What are the steps that need to taken to implement them 16. Ask them what reward means to them as reward is perceived differently by different people. SHow ur working ANS: 1000 * 1000 15. You have 4 defects per FP now. Due to this when the payment is postponed for a vendor it is written both in vendor to be paid and check book details. (for which categories you can calculate the points as an IT head. 3) Inform the management about the whether they qualify or not 4) If they qualify then with the managements approval apply for the award 13. People don¶t work for money. As Manager Q of an ISO 9001 company you have planned for a global quality award as the next milestone.ANS: Monitor the progress using logs. The vendor payment has not been managed properly. How would you impress on ur mgt the plans and gain approval of your plan ANS: Find opportunities to reward the people as and when possible. So convince the management by Quoting some of the Quality Gurus sayings like Joseph Juran Give them proven success/ positive outcomes of rewarding people by other organization .

Yadav is the new IS Manager of an investment company.17. Laloo P. Get feedback from the QC Make appropriate changes to the standards . Yadav approach this to get the software developed with the best quality and within schedule? ANS: First form a team of subject matter experts and developers to conduct a checkpoint reviews Brainstorm with them as to phases in which checkpoint reviews needed to be conducted (Requirements phase. How should Mr.g. There should be a consensus on the decisions made in the above mentioned points for delivering a quality software on the customer specified date. Adequate training should be given to the person who is conducting the review regarding the intents of the review. Product quality are concerned with results Process Quality people are cost.. Coding phase). So you have been called to have a re-look at the standards. on what date they will be conducted. Make appropriate changes and retest the software. QA. Standardization Group etc. Differentiate between Product Quality and Process Quality and the role of Quality analyst in each of them. An organization has implemented standards. Product quality focuses on external Quality(market) Process Quality focus on process. 18. ANS: Process Quality helps in achieving the product quality Process Quality are Internal Quality focus(operation). developer. His team needs to develop an online trading system within 2 months with no increase in team size. If the actual result does not meet the criteria mentioned in the plan brainstorm the root causes for the problems. Design phase. what are the criteria¶s to be met (eg An online (buy/sell) transaction has to be completed within 2 seconds and the online search should not take more than 5 seconds) before proceeding to the next phase so that defects could be found at the earliest possible and hence reduces the cost and time of reworking at the end of the project. However the implementation is weak. Prepare a plan as to who will be responsible for conducting the reviews. An online (buy/sell) transaction has to be completed within 2 seconds and the online search should not take more than 5 seconds. what are the statistical tools that would be used to measure the processing performance. QC. reviewers) so that they are aware of their roles and responsibilities to produce the software on time. Mr. Conduct the checkpoint reviews Compare the actual result with the expected result with the help of the statistical tools that were mentioned in the plan. Plan should be documented sent to the all the concerned people(IT manager. What would be role of different actors involved (e. Product quality people are investment 19. Ensure everyone complies with the plan.) ANS: Role of QA Form standards by benchmarking with other industries Review the implementation of the standards.

losses incurred by the organization) 21. procedures. Suggest three attributes of a defect that are important. Team. Severity. You are Software test Manager. as a QA manager. Long time back 10 years before IT department wrote few standards. Your testers ask you what attributes of a defect they need to note down as they are doing the testing. get feedback etc). And Write the responsibility of each Standard . select tools which become popular in the org. The tools in your organization were selected using that procedure but still the tools were ending up as shelfware. 22. ANS: Type. the people are not using the tools after deployment. ANS: If the defects are not rectified by the development team then inform the management telling them the consequences(like product may not be delivered on time or defective product will be delivered to the customer which spoils the credibility of the organization. How will you. Users did not follow them. Have a dedicated and skilled person for training and solving problems related to the tool 4) Deploy those tools 5) Measure the effectiveness of the tools to see if they have added any value to the work products or process. scenarios ‡ Conducts.Role Of QC Implement the standards Standardization Group 20. schedules meetings ‡ Moderates inspection meetings ‡ Logs and tracks action items to resolution ‡ Writes test plans. Effort required to detect and correct the error 23. train the user. Roles and responsibilities during a software inspection ANS: Expanded QA Role ‡ Prepares inspection checklists. You have been asked to solve this problem by forming a standard committee. You are now QA manager of the organization. user acceptance testing 24. Employees consent should be got before using the tool 2) Get managements approval 3) Train the users with those tool. as in. participates in functional/regression testing ‡ Conducts system validation. Write the members of Standards Committee. State how would you focus the attention of your management on the defects identified by the QC group. ANS: 1) Brainstorm with the employees as to what are tools that they require to do their job effectively. The procedure of tool selection was given (define needs. but not rectified by the dEv. You can even visit other organizations to see what tools they use and how effective it is and make a recommendation.

‡ QA groups Respond to questions from the users on software standards. Brainstorm with the team as why the project went beyond schedule. 28. Do You think that KLOC is a right measure for the code which your MIS has developed for Inventrory system. 26. Suggest the customer the actions that are going to be taken. lifecycle. Program Management. and quality topics. Responsibilities) QA Group (Responsibilities) Users (Responsibilities) IT Organization (Responsibilities) ANS: ‡ QA Group develops an annotated bibliography on software standards and standards-related topics. ANS: Train them by explaining to them the concepts (eg standards) Give them a project/ assignments as a part of the training Meet with the team every once in 3-4 weeks. managements approval. Give him the details as to who will resolve the problem and when would it be resolved Implement the action that was agreed upon. ‡ QA groups authors/reviews articles on software standards topics and disseminating these through the newsletter and via the web. Program Design and Planning.Committee (Who are the members . ‡ QA groups participating on the US TAG (Tech'l Advisory Group) for ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7 which is concerned with developing/reviewing international standards on software engineering. especially those related to the Body of Knowledge. . Find out the causes for delay. 27. ‡ Providing opportunities for tutorials and training the users about standards and t their development. Design a mentoring program to transfer knowledge from seniors to juniors. Program Evaluation. ‡ The IT organization supports the standards committee by providing adequate resources and funding ‡ They provide commitment to follow the standards and communicate to the all levels of the organization their roles and responsibilities in adhering to the standards 25. 2. 4. which are the organization you want to benchmark against. ‡ QA groups works cooperatively with the IEEE Software Engineering Standards Committee on software quality-related standards. Review their assignments and provide feedback in 1. Discuss the alternatives that could be taken to solve the problems. Get his approval. 3. What should be done before benchmarking? ANS: Before Benchmarking you need to prepare what are the objectives of your visit. ANS: Apologize to the customer for the delayed delivery and the project going over the budget. how will it benefit the customers. Program Operations. what are the actions that will be taken on completion of the benchmark. process.

Vision is a term that tells what the organization wants to achieve. Your responsibility as a leader is to get line management to do many of the tasks that you previously did as a quality assurance manager.75 coding defects per function point [Capers 1995] [Rubin 1995]. Many industry averages exist. How do you explain to your IT director the difference between a vision and a mission? ANS: Tell the manager what is vision and what is mission. At that time. Excellent means of quantifying software product quality as well as to assess the effectiveness of the testing process.6 defects / KLOC. For example. Tell him the purpose of redefining the vision and mission 31. Your Organization recently implemented a total quality management program.9 defects per function point as a world-wide industry average. and define the organization ideally would like to accomplish. Your IT function had a QA started in 1987 which was terminated in a cost cutback in 1989. Financial at 3. and his vision is to accomplish that mission. You know that the tasks previously performed by the quality assurance group should. You know that a vision must be expressed in terms external to the organization. This has caused you to change your role from a quality assurance manager to a quality leader. 29. most of which are in the area of 10-20 defects per one thousand lines of code (KLOC) during system testing. be incorporated into the day-to-day work programs of the IT function. Benefits that you would offer to the company by doing both the jobs 30. He tell you that the IT function already has a mission. You were recently appointed quality assurance manager. Mission tells you the purpose of the organization.ANS: studies conducted in mis (management information systems) environments show that. Rubin also reports 0. in fact. If such trends are not realized between prerelease and postrelease of software. The Malcom Baldrige NQA defines one of the roles of a leader as establishing a vision. the employees of the quality assurance function personally performed most of the quality efforts. one of Ford's visions was to have customers that brag about their products. such as conduction reviews and writing standards. . function points based measures satisfy the criterion. Defect densities should drop ten-fold between testing and maintenance phases [Grady 1992]. You have asked your IT director to develop a vision for the function.1 defects / KLOC and System Software 2. This metric should also be used in parallel with the percentage of effort spent on testing. Rubin reports defect rates from a world-wide survey per industry sector with Aerospace at 4. while Capers Jones reports 1. Limited testing time allocated will result in few defects detected prerelease and many detected postrelease. for both development and maintenance. then this is an indication that the testing process is not effective.0 / KLOC [Rubin 1995]. What strategy will you use to get buy in from first-line supervisors to incorporate quality leadership as part of their day-to-day job function? ANS: Tell them that you would be able to do both the jobs. while prior to and including system testing values are up to 200 defects per KLOC [Humphrey 1996].

ANS: Techniques Why you selected it? a ) Brainstrom and use cause and effect diagram to find the root cause of the problem_________________ __________________________________________ _________________ _________________________________________ b) Use of statistical tools like control charts to reduce the variation in the process _________________ __________________________________________ _________________ __________________________________________ 34. Before developing a quality practice check the inventory of the process that is already existing to suit the process. So decides to set up the Department to test software and a librarian for documentation in the project etc. Estimation for the current projects will be based on the success of previous projects. understands Customer satisfaction is the goal etc. Mr. He is a quality conscious person . Masor as leader on a scale of 1 to 5 * Rate his approach on the Quality principles * Explain why? ANS: Rating level . Projects could be easily planned and tracked which results in stability A separate department has been set up to test the software the developers could spend more time on development. doing a interview with the company employees about the product functionalities through benchmarking Assess if the product if produced by the company will be welcomed by the market or not 33. A process map could be created for this purpose 32. In order to bring about improvement in the testing process and help your team members come up with guidelines on ( 2 steps each) a) How to stop testing? . Show 2 techniques you would use to reduce the negative impact. Masor is an IT director. fixed in the 30 days time. A product that your organization is about to produce is already available in the market.3 He has decided to document the processes. You however feel this has a negative impact on the QA department.What approach would you like to incorporate quality practices into the software development processes? ANS: Create an inventory of the quality practices that have been created with their title. * Rate Mr. You are asked to come up with a process to evaluate the design of this product. status Store them in a library that is accessible by all the employees of the organization Assess the process. The QA department publishes a status on error reporting. ANS: Form a team to collect information how the customers perceive the quality of the product in the market (customer survey). 35.

If the problems cannot be solved and there is a time constraint on the product to be developed then advice the developers about the problems that are existing and get their consent before outsourcing the product 38. Your organization has planned to purchase a third party tool for timesheet entry. Generally products are outsourced for the reason of problems in the organization is not adequately addressed. Helping management recognize it must be personally committed to participating in the program raises the level of visibility for quality and ensures everyone¶s cooperation so long asthere is progress. How will IT department solve the problems to keep the customers? ANS: Find out the frequently occurring problems. If the problems could be overcome easily then advice the management to develop the product in house. Your boss asked for your advice. Accomplishment. 37. Usually these test cases will be testing important functionality of the product or the high risk requirements with valid data. emphasisizing the need for defect prevention. Zero defects. As Quality analyst how will you decide on whether to purchase or develop in-house ANS: Find out why the organization has chosen to outsource the development.Explain Philip Crossby 10-14 principles. Bring together representatives of each department to form the quality improvement . the results of motivation are shallow and short-lived.b) How to test with constraint on resources Test with valid data. Tell him that outsourced products will not be supported by the organization and hence make its implementation difficult.´ The results of communication are real and long-lasting. Discuss the need for quality improvement with management. But there is opposition from the project leaders that there are people with skills to develop the product in-house. the most important functionality 36.´ Agree that quality improvement is a practical way to profit improvement. users may also be asked to test the product When the QC team faces time constraints ask them to assign priority to the test that are important to be performed and only those test cases will be performed. Prepare a quality policy that states each individual is expected to ³perform exactly like the requirement or cause the requirement to be officially changed to what we and the customer really need. Brainstorm with the development team as to what could be the root causes for the problems Implement the solutions along with logs so that the problems could be tracked easily Do an adequate in house testing. Step 1: Management Commitment Action. Do not confuse ³communication´ with ³motivation. A Helpdesk has been instituted to collect the problems from the you agree´. Substantiate with reasons? Ans. Step 2: Quality Improvement Team Action.

existing attitudes toward quality. a measurement of quality management performance has been established in the company¶s system. Explain their roles²which are to cause the necessary actions to take place in their departments and the company. COQ is not an absolute performance measurement. it is an indication of where corrective action will be profitable for a company. and so it is necessary at this point to get more accurate figures. The real benefit of communication is that it gets supervisors and employees in the habit of talking positively about quality. More important. And it sets the basis for the corrective action and error cause removal steps. Service and administrative people should be included just like everybody else. The comptroller¶s office must do this. All the tools necessary to do the job are now together in one team. Record quality status to show where improvement is possible and where corrective action is necessary and to document actual improvement later. This is done by training supervisors to orient employees and by providing visible evidence of the concern for quality improvement through communication material such as booklets. It is time now to share with employees the measurements of what nonquality is costing. which are sometimes difficult to establish Step 4: Cost of Quality Evaluation Action. It aids the process of changing. films and posters. Nonmanufacturing measurements. It is necessary to determine the status of quality throughout the company. It is a sharing process and does not involve manipulating people. the more corrective action that needs to be taken. Orient the team members as to the content and purpose of the program. They should be provided with detailed information on what constitutes COQ.quick scheme. Preferably. involving not just the defects found by inspection. Accomplishment. Quality measurements for each area of activity must be established where they don¶t exist and reviewed where they do. The higher the cost. Step 5: Quality Awareness Action. audit or selfevaluation. but also less obvious problems²as seen by the working people themselves² . opportunities for correction come to light. Having the comptroller establish COQ removes any suspected bias from the calculation. This is an important step. Initial estimates are likely to be shaky (although low). As people are encouraged to talk about their problems. Accomplishment. or perhaps clarifying. It works well to appoint one of the members as the chair of the team for this phase Step 3: Quality Measurement Action. It may be the most important step of the department heads should participate² at least on the first go around. Accomplishment. These should be people who can speak for their departments to commit operations to actions. Don¶t confuse this with some getmotivated. Step 6: Corrective Action Action.

right from the start. Step 7: Establish an Ad Hoc Committee for the Zero Defects Program Action.that require attention. All should be specific and measurable. the team should take action to establish them in that department. one-page form. The quality manager must be clear. the new commitment to a specific goal takes over. Accomplishment. Select three or four members of the team to investigate the zero defects concept and ways to implement the program.and 90-day goals. Making a day of the zero defects commitment provides an emphasis and a memory that will be long lasting. Step 8: Supervisor Training Action. In particular. Establishment of zero defects as the performance standard of the company should be done in one day. there should be 30-. 60. Setting up the ad hoc committee to study and prepare the implementation ensures the goals of the program will be firmly supported by the company¶s thought leaders. Its purpose is to communicate to all employees the literal meaning of the words ³zero defects´ and the thought that everyone should do things right the first time. That way. This is not a suggestion system. The proof of understanding is the ability to explain it. Conduct a formal orientation with all levelsof management prior to implementation of all the steps. Accomplishment. Accomplishment. Step 9: Zero Defects Day Action. During meetings with employees. All managers must understand each step well enough to explain it to their people. the ad hoc group should seek ways to match the program to the company¶s personality. and the improvement begins. Usually. By the time zero defects day is reached. as much as a year may have gone by and the initial improvement will be flattening out. The habit of identifying problems and correcting them is the beginning. Individuals soon see the problems brought to light are being faced and resolved on a regular basis. Improvement comes with each step of the overall program. Ask individuals to describe any problem that keeps them from performing error free work on a simple. Eventually all supervisors will be tuned into the program and realize its value for themselves. If a specific functional area does not hold such meetings. Supervisors should explain the program to their people and do something different in the facility so everyone will recognize it is a ³new attitude´ day. These problems must be brought to the supervision meetings at each level. Then they will concentrate their actions on the program. This phase helps people learn to think in terms of meeting goals and accomplishing specific tasks as a team. All they have to . Those that cannot be resolved are formally passed up to the next level of supervision for review at their regular meeting. Step 11: Error Cause Removal Action. At that point. This must be transmitted to every member of the team. Accomplishment. everyone understands it the same way. Accomplishment. Step 10: Goal Setting Action. that zero defects is not a motivation program. each supervisor requests they establish the goals they would like to strive for.

it is necessary to set up a new team of representatives and begin again. Accomplishment.Is it possible to implement too much quality control in an organization? Yes / No? Explain. Or give a special lunch for all employees. Ans: It is possible to implement too much quality control ‡ Wherein QA processes are set properly ‡ If the cost. Therefore. ‡ We make a lot of changes in response to telephone calls. it will never happen. Or . Accomplishment. Typical inputs might be: ‡ This tool is not long enough to work right with all the parts. as individuals. ‡ The sales department makes too many errors on their order entry forms. Subjective Questions-Quality principles 1. the appropriate functional group (for example. ‡ Quality must be built-in a product not tested in. turnover and changing situations will have wiped out most of the education effort. Step 13: Quality Councils Action. They also bring the professionals together on a regular basis. Step 14: Do It Over Again Action. It is wise not to attach relative values to the identification of problems. ‡ I don¶t have any place to put my pocketbook. Problems identified during the error cause removal stage should all betreated the same way because they are not suggestions. Genuine recognition of performance is something people really appreciate. Recognition is what is important. ³part of the woodwork. participate in the awards. It is important that any problems listed be acknowledged within 24 hours. Repetition makes the program perpetual and. They will continue to support the program whether or not they. resources and time are not prohibitive ‡ If u get the involvement of top management. Accomplishment. For instance. People now know their problems can be heard and answered.list is the problem. industrial engineering) will develop the answer. and many of them end up having to be done all over again. The point is that the program is never over. Step 12: Recognition Action. implementing too much Quality control becomes easier as Philp Crossby says ³Quality is free´. The prizes or awards should not be financial. the program can go on forever. By that time. Once employees learn to trust this communication. Accomplishment. These councils are the best source of information on the status of programs and ideas for action. thus. The typical program takes a year to 18 months. Bring the quality professionals and team chairpersons together regularly to communicate with each other and determine actions necessary to upgrade and improve the solid quality program being installed. Establish award programs to recognize those who meet their goals or perform outstanding acts. mark zero defects day as an anniversary.´ If quality isn¶t ingrained in the organization.

An inspector incorrectly records the results of an inspection for fear of exceeding the quota of allowable defects.Too much QA is not required if ‡ Standards are developed properly ‡ Processes are well defined ‡ Quality controls are installed at logical points in the process to minimize the defects based on following: o Risk severity o Cost. Explain Drive out fear. reviews and testing in the appropriate phases. JAD (joint Application Development ) sessions will have to be arranged with which the customer can be involved from the beginning.One related aspect of fear is the inability to serve the best interest of the company through necessity to satisfy specified rules. Points: ‡ Conduct JAD sessions ‡ Requirement Specification Sign off ‡ Change control procedure ‡ Service level agreement to be set up ‡ Customer to be involved in all phases ‡ V testing concept 3.If two organizations with same standards. freezing of requirements . Ans. the program is good and the requirements given by the customer was not good. b. Eliminate Numerical Goals. one having 10 defects per 1000 KLOC and other one having 12 defects per 1000 KLOC can be compared? Yes / No? Explain.Numerical goals often have a negative effect through frustration. Common causes 4. But developer says.4a. Two organizations can be compared on the basis of b. two organizations can be compared. How will you tackle this situation as a QA Manager? As a QA manager . Complexity of the project c. signing-off at each stage. or to satisfy a production quota. a. the programme developed is not good. Ans. Language d. Example: During Inspection. Eliminate numerical goals.No. These devices are management's lazy way out. or to cut costs by some specified amount. They indicate . Every phase will be done with the acceptance of both the parties This is done with frequent meetings . effort and cycle time impact o Availability of appropriate resources/ people 2. Drive out Fear.4b. Ans 3. History of defects f. Customer says. Process capability e. Every organization has its own process and standards.

Slogans. Goal Setting 11. Explain Deming principles.Explain Philip Crossby 10-14 principles. 11. Working under this discipline requires personal commitments and understanding. it is necessary that all members of the company participate in an experience that will make them aware of this change. Zero Defects is a revelation to all involved that they are embarking on a new way of corporate life. Acc to Philip Crossby.desperation and incompetence of management. Create a Structure in Top Management that Will Push Every Day on the Above 13 Points 5. etc. Reduce the Number of Vendors 5. ³Zero defects. Corrective Action 7. He proposed 14 principles to achieve defect free and quality product by: 1. Improve Supervision 8. Drive Out Fear 9. Substantiate with reasons? Ans. Deming has suggested 14 principles that can better overcome this By: 1. The Quality Improvement Team 3. Sign Their Work as an Autograph. Institute Modern Aids to Training on the Job 7. Supervisor Training 9. Pictures. Institute a Vigorous Program for Retraining People in New Skills 14. Recognition 13. It never helped anyone do a better job. 4. Quality Councils 14. Quality Measurement 4. Look Carefully at Work Standards 12. Therefore. How Deming has elaborated the principle on that basis. ZD Day 10. Error-Cause Removal you agree´. Create Consistency of Purpose in the Company 2. Do it Over Again . Ans 5a. Posters Urging People to Increase Productivity. The Cost of Quality 5. Zero Defects Planning 8. Learn the New Philosophy 3. Management Commitment 2. Break Down Barriers Between Departments 10. There is a better way. Quality Awareness 6. Institute a Massive Training Program for Employees in Simple but Powerful Statistical Methods 13. Eliminate Numerical Goals. Explain in brief? Ans. Require Statistical Evidence of Information Technology Quality 4. Use Statistical Methods to Find Sources of Trouble 6.

such as conduction reviews and writing standards. ABC is a software company. Explain How their perspectives are taken care during SDLC (5 Marks) Ans 2: The other customers: ‡ IT Manager ‡ Project manager/ test manager ‡ QA ‡ Information resource manager/ internal control officer/ system security officer ‡ SSS/ICS ‡ Tester 3. Apart from user give three other customers who use the software product. As a Quality Analyst you have been asked to prepare a Sample QA report. QA 4. be incorporated into the day-today work programs of the IT function. You know that the tasks previously performed by the quality assurance group should. One of the customers called the help desk and told that there is a problem in the software and the system is not working.Subjective Questions On Quality Leader Ship 1. You were recently appointed Quality Assurance Manager. What would be minimum content of such a report and what would be your approach in arriving such a report (10 Marks) . in fact. focused on Software Services. Mission. the employees of the quality assurance function personally performed most of the quality efforts. Come out with Vision. How will you go about handling it? Be specific about the time frame? (10 Marks) Ans-3. How do you measure Management Commitment towards Quality in your organization? ( 5 Marks) Explain the responsibilities of any 3: Project manager. The help desk referred the problem to you. 4 . (10 Marks).refer content for KD-2 Ans 1: KD-2 content part 2. Goal and Values. What approach would you like to incorporate quality practices into the software development processes? (10 Marks) 6. Your IT function had a QA started in 1995 which was terminated in a cost cut-back in 1997. IT manager . The user of the software is not only the customer. 5« KD2 Content part 5. At that time.

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