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across the cross sectional area of the input, at time t = 0.

What is the concentration of dye exiting the ow as a function of time?

Dye Concentration at Exit f(t) (amount per unit time)

Residence Time t (time dye takes to exit)

Mean Residence Time

t =

_

0

tf(t)dt

Example: Newtonian ow in a circular pipe

P

1

> P

2

v

r

= v

= 0 v

z

=

P

4L

_

R

2

r

2

position.

t =

L

v

z

=

4L

2

P[R

2

r

2

]

Shortest residence time at centerline of pipe because the maximum velocity

is there.

t

0

=

L

v

max

=

4L

2

PR

2

(t at r = 0)

1

Residence Time Distribution

Range of residence times t

0

t

(note: some dye is at the wall and never exits)

Distribution: f(t)dt =

2rv

z

dr

Q

Volumetric ow rate: Q =

_

R

0

2rv

z

dr =

PR

4

8L

f(t)dt =

P

2L

[R

2

r

2

]rdr

PR

4

8L

f(t)dt = 4

_

r

R

2

r

3

R

4

_

dr

t

0

t

=

4L

2

/(PR

2

)

4L

2

/(P[R

2

r

2

])

=

R

2

r

2

R

2

= 1 (r/R)

2

(r/R)

2

= 1

t

0

t

r = R

_

1

t

0

t

_

1/2

dr =

R

2t

2

t

0

dt

_

1

t

0

t

_

1/2

f(t)dt = 4

_

_

1

t

0

t

_

1/2

R

_

1

t

0

t

_

3/2

R

_

Rt

0

dt

2t

2

_

1

t

0

t

_

1/2

= 2

_

1

_

1

t

0

t

__

t

0

dt

t

2

=

2t

2

0

dt

t

3

for t t

0

= 0 for t < t

0

2

Residence Time Distribution

Mean residence time:

t =

_

0

tf(t)dt =

_

t

0

2t

2

0

dt

t

2

=

2t

2

0

t

t

0

t = 2t

0

Comparison of residence time distributions

For pipe ow:

tf(t) = 4(t

0

/t)

3

= (

t/t)

3

/2

Figure 1: Extruder ow has a narrower residence time distribution than pipe

ow because the extruder has cross-channel ows and thus improved mixing.

3

TWIN-SCREW EXTRUSION

Figure 2: Dierent kinds of twin screw extruders: a) counter-rotating, inter-

meshing; b) co-rotating, intermeshing; c) counter-rotating, non-intermeshing;

d) co-rotating, non-intermeshing.

Figure 3: Various leakage ows in the extruder.

Get better axial mixing with a twin-screw than with a single-screw ex-

truder. Important for 2-phase blends.

4

Residence Time Distribution

Figure 4: Pressure build up in a co-rotating twin-screw extruder.

5

THE BREAKER PLATE

6

PELLETIZING

The multistrand die and slotted pulley keep hot strands from adhering

to each other.

7

VARIANTS OF PELLETIZING

8

Heat Transfer

C

p

dT

dt

= k

2

T (a diusion equation)

= density C

p

= specic heat k = thermal conductivity

(analogous to Ficks Law

dC

dt

= D

d

2

C

dx

2

)

Thermal diusivity

k

C

p

(m

2

/s)

dT

dt

=

2

T

Example: Cooling a cylindrical extrudate

T = T(r, t)

Where t/R

2

is dimensionless; T is the temperature at r;

T

0

is the extrudate melt temperature; T

1

is the bath temperature

9

Heat Transfer

Example: Pelletizing polystyrene

Thermal diusivity = 7 10

4

cm

2

/s

Extrudate T

0

= 200

C Bath T

1

= 40

C

When will the center of a 1mm radius extrudate reach T

g

= 100

C?

Center means r = 0

T T

0

T

1

T

0

=

100

150

=

2

3

From graph,

t

R

2

= 0.3

t =

0.3R

2

=

0.3(0.1cm)

2

7 10

4

cm

2

/s

= 4s

10

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