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Gravity conveyors have a justified reputation of being the most economical and cost effective solution for moving items from one place to another. Although they will not always be the best solution to the problem due to other factors, there are a great many cases where they are. They can be set up with greater ease than competing systems, because they need no external power source to be effective, and they will always be the most cost effective system in terms of energy because they simply don't use any.
There are two fundamentally different ways in which a gravity conveyor can operate. The first and most obvious way is by the use of what its name suggests, gravity. By making one end of the conveyor belt higher than the other, items will naturally slide from the high end to the low end. This can have significant advantages, in that it is a fast way to distribute goods, but there are a couple of problems. It really needs a workshop to be designed specifically with this type of conveyor in mind, and if you don't have a suitable structure you could be facing an expensive refit. The other disadvantage is that the steep incline needed to ensure the speedy movement of the goods can compromise the safety of any fragile items which need to be sent. This can be overcome somewhat by having the incline smooth out to a straight board, rather than using a vertical board to stop the item sharply. This will be more effective in stopping heavy items than light ones. The other way in which gravity conveyors can operate is by manual movement. The conveyor will be set up with little or no incline, and the movement will be facilitated by manual operation of the conveyor. In a way, this defeats the purpose of the automated conveyor, because the whole idea of automation is to take away the need for human intervention so that the worker time can be spent more productively. It does, however, still ensure that the operation remains power free, and for many organizations the saving in electricity will compensate for the need for employees to manually operate the system. There is no clear definitive answer as to which of the gravity conveyors is better. It is entirely up to you to make your own choice. If you only have a short distance between the two points, and have no further need to move the item beyond that point, then a genuine gravity conveyor may well be your best choice. It will free up the time of your employees to the optimum degree without any requirement for fuel consumption. If you have a need for the item to be moved a longer distance, you will probably be better off with a manual operation than a genuine gravity conveyor.
Several types of conveyor are available for many different applications. Below are some sample images and cutaways of the many different types of conveyor. If you have any questions about the best conveyor solution for your operation, please visit www.sjf.com contact one of our conveyor experts that can assist you in choosing the right kind of conveyor for your application.
Gravity Conveyors are non-powered, free flowing conveyors used in a push or level application to facilitate product movement. They can also be set up with declining stand heights to allow product to flow from a high to a lower elevation. Gravity conveyors are available in roller or skatewheel configuration. Both types can be used with a variety of powered conveyors to form a complete conveyor system.
Gravity Roller Conveyors can be used when conveying flat, smooth bottomed surfaces like cartons, packages or pallets as well as most other items with an uneven bottom surface such as drums, cans, molds, etc. While available in many custom lengths, gravity roller conveyor is typically sold in 10 foot sections while overall widths of 12, 18, 24, & 30 inches are considered industry standard. Several different roller sizes & types are also available.
Accumulation Conveyor Accumulation conveyor is typically used in conjunction with other conveyor types in a complete conveyor system. Zero pressure accumulation conveyor will eliminate package collisions on the conveyor line by leaving gaps between each individual box. tote boxes. This can include moving products one at a time onto a weigh station. or any other work station. while minimum pressure accumulation conveyor will place the individual boxes next to each other with little back pressure. or other machines will quickly become overloaded and will not function properly. Without it. It can be found everywhere from shipping areas to pick and pack stations. Here are several of the more common varieties.While gravity is a good all-purpose gravity conveyor. sort system. skatewheel is best when conveying flat. smooth bottomed surfaces such as cartons. Both aluminum and steel frame models for lighter or heavier duty applications are typically available. Skatewheel conveyor is typically used in situations where its lighter weight makes it easily moved or reconfigured to make space for storage of larger products. Power Conveyor Many Different Power Conveyor types can be used in a conveyor system. Accumulation conveyor consists of pop-up sensor rollers located in µzones¶ which use a pressurized air system to hold your product in a queue until it receives a signal to release it to the next stage of operations. Each has a different. . trays and plywood or masonite skids. Gravity skatewheel conveyor is a lighter-weight and more economical alternative to gravity roller conveyor. however two are more common than the others. case sealer. but important function. your sortation system. palletizer. Accumulation conveyor can be the most vital link in any large conveyor system. There are several types of common accumulation conveyor. packaging machine.
irregularly shaped products. In addition to being a good general purpose powered conveyor. . return rollers and an external motor. Powered belt over roller conveyor provides much control over the orientation and placement of loads.Belt Driven Live Roller Conveyor Belt driven live roller conveyor consists of load rollers. Belt driven live roller conveyor can be used in accumulation. Belt Over Roller Conveyor (aka: Belt On Roller) With belt over roller conveyor. Belt on roller conveyor is very useful for transporting light and medium weight loads between locations. It provides limited capabilities for inclined movement or packages of differing shapes. Belt on roller conveyor is a fairly common type of powered conveyor and is what many people think of when they envision powered conveyor. the belt can be either sliderbed supported or supported by return rollers located underneath the load rollers. it also makes a good conveyor to use in induction and sortation conveyor systems. a drive belt. The return rollers are used to kep the belt in place under the conveyor as well as to maintain tension on the belt at all times. induction. belt over roller is also a desired solution for inclines or declines. The rollers move using a belt that is located underneath the load rollers which provides friction directly on the rollers and creates forward movement. and merge systems where product sizes and weights tend to vary. The load rollers make up the surface on which product is transported. which can be good for bulky. Because product orientation is easily controlled with belt over roller.
The belts also assist in reducing noise by holding the rollers firmly in place inside the frames which results in less rattling. Chain driven conveyor can also resist contamination by grease and other particulate matter better than other conveyor types. even ride. Chains drive sprockets on the load rollers which in turn drives a chain and the sprocket on the next roller. The driveshaft is powered by a motor. Some configurations of lineshaft conveyor allow the conveyor to run both forwards or backwards depending on the situation desired. These systems transmit the same amount of power to each roller thus insuring a smooth. . Chain Driven Conveyor Chain driven live roller conveyor (sometimes referred to as pallet conveyor) is typically used to transport heavier loads at controlled speeds.Lineshaft Conveyor Lineshaft conveyors can be used used for both transporting and accumulating products. lineshaft conveyor can easily be used for accumulation operations where there is a minimum amount of backpressure on the product being transported. today¶s lineshaft conveyor is typically quieter than traditional live roller conveyors. Chain Driven conveyor offers several advantages that other types typically do not or cannot. Lineshaft makes use of a drive shaft which runs the length of the underside of the conveyor. Chain driven live roller conveyor is also better able to tolerate uneven pallet bottoms or drums. For instance. Since the rollers are individually powered. because there is no belt(s) chain driven conveyor can transport both hot and cold loads that could damage other conveyor types. and drives the load rollers individually using belts. etc. Because there are fewer moving parts.
Sliderbed can easily carry loose components and other materials that roller conveyors have a harder time transporting. transportation and . but regular sliderbed conveyor does not usually have guard rails. Trash conveyor has guard rails attached to the sides of its frame to prevent materials from falling off the conveyor belt into the work area. Typical sliderbed applications include inspection. The sliderbed conveyor design also makes it useful for transporting loads on inclines and declines. Return rollers keep tension on the conveyor belt keeping it taut. Many capacities of sliderbed are available. It can help to create a better organized work area that will allow your employees to perform their work efficiently and without hinderance. The sliderbed design of trash conveyor also makes it great for transporting materials on inclines and declines.Trash Conveyor Trash conveyor and regular sliderbed conveyor are two very similar products with one important difference. Sliderbed Conveyor Sliderbed conveyor and trash conveyor are very similar products. thus allowing for the smooth transportation of many different load types. it does not create much noise. compactor or incinerator while keeping it out of the way of production areas. there are few moving parts to create noise. Since sliderbed conveyor has few moving parts. paper trash and other light-weight refuse to a disposal area. Since trash conveyor utilizes a sliderbed design. Trash conveyor is used mainly to transport empty boxes. but lighter weights are more common. Sliderbed conveyor uses return rollers to run a conveyor belt along a smooth bed.
and versatile layouts such as straight.assembly line operations. They are all currently sorting product at a fraction of the cost that a new system would have set them back. ability to have sort points close together. controls etc. connected in a chain. Cross Belt Sortation Advantages of cross-belt sorters include quietness.but you're in luck . ³L´ or oval paths with inclines and declines. We have successfully put several systems just like the ones below into operation for customers just like you. programming and installation from one single source.my company. SJF believes that you don't need to invest a small fortune to incorporate one of these systems into your operation. layout. Sortation Conveyor Sortation systems complete with scanners. . tip to both sides. Take a look at the different types of sortation conveyor systems we can provide. dumping into chutes or sides. SJF specializes in previously owned sortation systems that will do everything the new systems will do. Low noise levels and ability to sort small. often cost more than the average company can afford to spend . Tilt Tray Sortation Trays. flat or delicate items are advantages.. sorting to the right or left. You'll have piece of mind knowing that we can provide everything from design.
this is used in conjunction with photo eyes that either puch the package onto an alternate lane or allow the package to continue down the main conveyor line to the correct lane. Sliding Shoe Sortation One of the fastest continuous sorters. They work by pulling heavy packages onto angled spurs at high speeds. The belt or chain used is matched to the package being handled. Typically. Pop-Up Belt/Chain Sortation These sort boxes or containers to either side of a main conveyor line. Packages travel in close proximity and only the slats under them will be activated to tilt. easing containers onto takeaway spurs. a row of sliding shoes travels across the sorter path smoothly.Tilt Slat Sortation The conveying surface is made up of slats that can be tilted to the right or left. .
Main-line belt conveyors are typically less noisy than most roller types.google.Pusher/Diverter Pusher diverters have spur or sort points located very close together and handle heavy products. FROM: http://knol.com/k/conveyor-types-and-uses# . Pop-Up Roller Sortation The pop-up roller is driven by its own motor at a higher speed than the main-line conveyor. the roller grabs the leading edge of the container and leads it off onto a spur. P/Ds are slow to medium speed because the diverter mechanism must return across the belt before intercepting the next package. Swivel Wheel/Roller Sortation This diverter can work with belt or roller conveyors to drive packages off to the right or left using a roller that will swivel in place to either allow the package to pass or be diverted. In sorting. Divert points can be as close as three-foot center.
and often times as spurs and curves in divert lanes from sortation equipment. and wooden slip sheets with smooth and even conveying surfaces are easily conveyed by gravity on wheel conveyors. Standard wheel conveyors are available in widths from 12 to 24" and in straight. Wheel conveyors are typically found in loading docks and pick lines. 60 degree and 90 degree curves and spurs.Gravity Conveyors . 45 degree. soft-bottom cartons. . or cans with chimes. Wheel conveyors should not be used when conveying bags. Wheel conveyors are light weight and easily assembled and disassembled. Gravity Wheel Conveyor . 30 degree. requiring very little inertia to start the product rolling. Gravity Wheel The gravity wheel conveyor design is very economical and has a very low coefficient of friction. Cartons. totes.
.) Gravity Roller Conveyor Standard widths are offered from 8" up to 76" and rollers from 1. Gravity conveyors are offered in straight and curved sections. On level conveyors. Inc. BIPCO. capacity. items are placed on the conveyor and manually pushed along to the next station or operation. Gravity roller conveyors can also be used in declines. and manufacturing applications. packaging. even up to 10. and bearing requirements Grades for declines Environment the conveyor is used in (foundry. warehouse.38" diameter up to 6. etc. Curved sections are also available with tapered rollers to help items being conveyed track correctly throughout the curve. offers gravity roller conveyors for very light and narrow loads up to extremely heavy and oversized loads. The following considerations must be taken into account in the design of gravity roller systems: y y y y y Product size.5" in diameter with over 40 different bearing options to ensure the right solution for your application. They are used extensively in distribution. outdoors. and type of bottom surfaces How the product is loaded and unloaded from the conveyor Roller spacing.Gravity Roller Gravity Roller Conveyor The gravity roller conveyor design is by far the most popular conveyor design in use today.000 lbs. where the items are placed on the conveyor and gravity takes over to convey the product forward. weight.
htm .com/products/conveyor/gravity. Since they are flexible. extendible conveyor design is used primarily in truck loading and unloading operations.bipcoinc. Flexible Gravity Conveyors The flexible. accumulation conveyor or other operations. saving floor space. but also provides great flexibility for other applications. These conveyors are offered in wheel or roller configurations as well as powered roller systems. Flexible Roller Conveyor http://www. and are easily extended when needed. which allows for moving product between lines or lanes to different truck docks. they can be set at angles and the product will convey following the pattern of the conveyor.. These conveyors typically collapse down into a small package when not in use.
It can move boxes UP against gravity . wood boxes. . The belt is moved by electric power. DOWN . A conveyor can move material BY GRAVITY This is called a GRAVITY CONVEYOR. A conveyor can do more.Hytrol's Book ABC Conveyor WHAT IS A CONVEYOR? A conveyor moves material. metal boxes and plastic boxes. . This is called a BELT CONVEYOR. . . or HORIZONTAL on a moving belt. A conveyor moves cardboard boxes. .
Now the shaft can turn easily. they cannot turn easily without bearings. The shaft turns on a bearing .WHAT IS A BELT CONVEYOR? It is a machine with a moving BELT. It comes in many sizes-many lengths-many widths. Pulleys are put on each end of the bed. WHAT IS A BEARING? When two pieces of steel touch each other. . Each pulley has a steel shaft through it. The pulleys are as wide as the "bed". and the pulley turns with the shaft. . . The machine is made with these parts: A BED This is a conveyor bed. Bearings use little steel balls to keep the pulley shaft and the conveyor bed from rubbing together. A PULLEY A pulley is like an IRON pipe.
The drive pulley is usually larger because it does the work. Pulley "B" is the tail pulley. WHAT IS A SPROCKET? A sprocket is a metal "wheel" with "teeth" on the outside.Pulley "A" is the drive pulley. A sprocket is put on the drive pulley shaft. A sprocket is put on the motor. . HOW THE DRIVE PULLEY DOES THE WORK The drive pulley is turned (driven) by a motor.
The reducer is connected to the drive pulley with a chain . . The SPEED REDUCER is put between the motor and the drive pulley. . . The chain turns the drive pulley. . The motor is connected to the reducer with a V-Belt (like the fan belt in your car) or a "C" Face Coupling. . The chain moves when the motor is started. . A SPEED REDUCER must also be used. . Because a motor turns very fast (1750 times per minute).HOW THE DRIVE PULLEY IS "DRIVEN" A chain is put around the Drive Pulley Sprocket and the motor sprocket. and the drive pulley) are called: . . Now the Drive Pulley turns slower. the speed reducer. All those parts (the motor. . BUT ! .
.THE CONVEYOR DRIVE They must be put together to take up as little space as possible . But what about the TAIL PULLEY? The tail pulley is located at the tail end of the conveyor and it turns freely. . . . and around . . . .so The motor and reducer are put under and within the conveyor BED. The Drive Pulley turns and moves the belt around . .So small rollers are put . BUT . . Now a "belt" can be put around the pulleys. and around. it is dangerous to have the belt hang down under the conveyor bed .
SOME TYPES OF BELTS STRETCH MORE THAN OTHERS What to do? 1. Now you can start the "take-up" procedure all over again.and just idle. Move the tail pulley! It can be moved to "take-up" the belt stretch. They are called "Return Idlers". Move these screws out slowly. REMOVE THE SHORT PIECE(S) OF BELT.and the belt still stretches? LONGER CONVEYORS ARE PROVIDED WITH ONE OR MORE SHORT PIECES OF BELT ADDED. There are "take-up" screws on both sides of the conveyor. . These turn freely -. What do you do when the take-up screws are still all the way out .into the Conveyor Bed to hold up the belt. Move them the same amount on both sides! This keeps the belt tight. 2.
If they were carrying a box they would walk much slower. A person can walk about 4 miles per hour. B. BELT MOVES AT SPEED OF 65 FEET PER MINUTE (FPM) This is best speed to move objects from one place to another. This is called a "Crown". you may need to add an UNDERSIDE TAKE-UP to your conveyor. THE CONVEYOR DRIVE IS NORMALLY LOCATED AT THE END TO WHICH THE BELT MOVES. The drive pulley is completely covered with vulcanized rubber. Conveyors move boxes at about the same speed as a person carrying them. The drive pulley is larger in the center than the ends.NOTE: If a "Dutchman" was not provided. This helps keep the belt in the center. So an "Underside Take-Up" should also be used. 3. A. HOW CONVEYORS ARE MADE TO DO A BETTER JOB 1. DRIVE PULLEY IS CROWNED AND LAGGED. . It is called "lagging". 2. This keeps the pulley from slipping under the belt. This is about 65 feet per minute (or about 3/4 of a mile per hour). long conveyor than the regular take-up and dutchman will give. HOW TO GET MORE BELT TAKE-UP There is more belt stretch on a long. LONG (OR MORE) NOTE: AN UNDERSIDE TAKE-UP is often used when the overall length of conveyor cannot be changed and the TAIL PULLEY "take-up" cannot be used. WHEN TO USE UNDERSIDE TAKE-UP? ON CONVEYORS 60 FT.
move snub idler on side "Y" toward "B".move return idler nearest tail pulley on side "Y" toward "B".move return idler on side "X" toward "A". Then wait a few minutes to see if belt moves back to center. the pulley could turn and not move the belt. 4. If belt moves toward side "B" . 5. Only small adjustments are usually necessary. Reason . When belt runs in reverse and if it moves toward side "A" .move snub idler on side "X" toward "A". at a time. NOTE: If the belt movement were reversed. When the conveyor was fully loaded or when the belt stretched. It makes the belt hug more of the drive pulley surface. (Each side of snub idler can be adjusted independently). the pulley would be pushing the belt. The Snub Idler is ADJUSTABLE. HOW TO "STEER" THE BELT y y When belt runs forward and if it moves toward side "A" . If belt moves toward side "B" . It is ADJUSTABLE ON BOTH SIDES of the conveyor.The Snub Idler is used to steer the belt.SO A DRIVE PULLEY "PULLS" THE BELT. IMPORTANT: Move snub idler or return idler only 1/16 in. . THE SNUB IDLER The Snub Idler is closer to the drive pulley.
7. The box will not transfer. Drive pulley now "pulls" belt in either direction B. When overall length of conveyor cannot change (belt take up by tail pulley increases conveyor length) CENTER DRIVE SHOULD BE USED Because: A. POWER FEEDER (Used with incline Belt Conveyors) A. transfer of the box is positive. long or more) B. When belt movement is REVERSIBLE (on conveyors 40 ft. With a Power Feeder. The Power Feeder is driven from main conveyor by a short chain connection. . the box usually stops or "hangs up". CENTER DRIVE (Used with Horizontal Belt Conveyors) A.6. When boxes move from gravity conveyor to inclined belt conveyor. B. Take-up pulley can now be used to take-up belt.
. . To help objects move "easier" . ROLLERS . and with as little slant or slope as possible - WHEELS OR . ROLLER BED CONVEYORS When heavy total loads must be moved. . BELT CONVEYORS are often used with GRAVITY CONVEYORS. . it is best to use a conveyor bed with rollers (instead of regular conveyor bed). This is a Roller Bed belt conveyor Heavy total loads can be moved without using large motors when a ROLLER BED belt conveyor is used.8. . . You should know about GRAVITY CONVEYORS TOO! WHAT IS A GRAVITY CONVEYOR? A gravity conveyor moves objects without motor power. .
The number of wheels on each axle can vary. . Frames can be either STEEL or ALUMINUM. This determines the number of wheels per foot on the conveyor. This keeps wheels from moving from side to side on the axle.ARE USED The WHEELS or ROLLERS are put into channel frames held together with "bed spacers. Aluminum spacer tubes are put on the axle between the wheels. BUT . There should always be a minimum of 10 wheels under a box." Different widths can be made. centers). WHEEL CONVEYORS Wheels are put on axles. the axles are on 3 in. centers (also available in 1-1/2 in. . In the drawing above.
. Rollers can be easily removed or replaced in Conveyor Channel frame.This helps you decide the number of wheels per foot to order. .The axle can be moved to one side. The spring also keeps the roller in place. Most axles are SPRING-LOADED.. . The rollers are put in the frame as close together - . This means. ROLLER CONVEYORS Rollers have their own axles..
LESS THAN 3 ROLLERS . These items can be wider than the conveyor. but center it carefully.or as far apart as necessary . BUT there should always be THREE (3) rollers under the box. flat bottom. 6 in. . over on each side is not too much. Extra wide items like plywood.) ..K. MOVE THESE ON WHEEL CONVEYORS (Any items with a smooth. can be moved O. . . box tumbles BEST-3 ROLLERS UNDER BOX AT ALL TIMES! This determines the ROLLER CENTERS to order. .
MOVE THESE ON ROLLER CONVEYORS Any Items with an uneven or open bottom. or with a rim on the bottom. .Tote boxes will not move easily Use as many wheels as possible for best results. These items should never be bigger around than the rollers are long.
) 3. 2. ALL SECTIONS HAVE COUPLINGS PORTABLE TYPE PERMANENT TYPE Sections can then be used together by coupling them to each other. PORTABLE SET-UP USS TRIPOD STANDS Always use one more stand than the number of conveyor sections (3 sections use 4 stands. PERMANENT SET-UP USES STATIONARY SUPPORTS Always use one more support than the number of conveyor sections (3 sections use 4 supports.) POWERED AND GRAVITY CONVEYORS CAN BE USED TOGETHER! .HOW GRAVITY CONVEYORS ARE SET UP 1.
Different widths and lengths of the tracks are usually available to order from the manufacturer in increments by the inch. They facilitate orders from the manufacturer to the distributor to the retailer. however.hytrol. The top of the box or package does not need to be closed.This is called a "Flow System".html What Are Gravity Conveyors and How Do They Work? By Jeremy P Stanfords Gravity conveyors are used to transport a variety of products and items. bumpy and round. Depending on where the product needs to go and what type of environment it is in. wheel-based and roller-based. they both require items with a solid. depending on the type of package being moved and the construction of the rest of the system. There are two basic types of these conveyor systems. such as bottles or loose foodstuffs cannot be processed effectively unless they are in a flat-bottomed container of durable quality so that it can ride across rollers and wheels. Construction Most systems of this type are made from aluminum or steel construction. . on loading docks and in storage rooms. They can be seen in warehouses. Aluminum material is lighter and associated more with portability. Curved pieces constructed at 45 or 90 degree angles can be used to change the direction of transport from Point A to Point B. As a result. a gravity conveyor can be set up to make handling more efficient and cost-effective.com/brandinfo/hcctraining/abc. products or packages that are loose. End pieces can be attached to ensure that loads stop at the end of the line. flat bottom for handling. FROM: http://www. To work effectively. Steel systems are used more for durability and stability for long-standing wear and heavy duty capacities.
Items with level.com/?What-Are-Gravity-Conveyors-and-How-Do-They- http://printfu. relatively solid bottoms can be transported using a roller conveyor. Made from medium.or light-duty construction. Packages that are lightweight and have a smooth. The rollers are mounted on spring-loaded axles. Wheels Wheel systems consist of a series of wheels in vertical and horizontal rows that move product from Point A to Point B. FROM: Work?&id=5770245 http://ezinearticles. they are made of metal tubes with bearings inside each end. They can be mounted at a sloping angle or be activated by a human or automated force moving the product across a level push line.org/read/non-powered-conveyors-2926. it can be simply pushed to the side and pulled out of its seating. solid bottom surface can be transported on a gravity-based wheel conveyor system. When it is time to replace or remove a roller.Rollers Gravity roller conveyor systems can work with a variety of set-ups.html?f=1qeYpurpn6WihSUpOGumKanh7re5JLE19zV5M7SlKnk29vR6OXX54qg46ybqJba6Y-g36mnlq6KzXl3dvktsXS0dGRsdiumZ-S2Iup56CpoZ-O1-rZ5KKUnng5aLU2uTK2Nvb1uTck9Ph1p3kytucsq3Do622lZ2ip5fe2MyXqOI . A new spring-loaded roller can be inserted in its place.
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