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# Circular Motion Force Horizontal & Momentum Nov 2011

Throughout these questions take the acceleration due to gravity, g as 9.81ms-2. 1. A boy swings a mass on a string in a horizontal circle at 120 revolutions per minute. The length of the string is 75cm and the mass is 50g. (a) Calculate the tension in the string. T=m
2

## r =m (2Tf)2r= 50 v 10-3 (2T x 120 / 60)2x 0.75 = 5.9N  [3]

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(b) He now swings the mass at the same rate in a vertical circle. (i) Using a diagram, explain how the tension in the string varies throughout the motion. (ii) Sketch a graph of tension against time for 2 rotations

T = m[2r W  W T T T T = m[2r  W

T = m[2r + W  W (b) (i) Diagram  [4] (ii) Calculate the maximum and minimum values of the tension. ii) W = mg = 50 x10-3 x9.81 = 0.49N m[2r = 5.9N (as above)  Max T = 5.9 + 0.49 = 6.39N Min T = 5.9 0.49 = 5.41N  .................................................................................................................................. [3] Total 10 marks

3. A coin is placed on the outside edge of a turntable of diameter 20cm. The speed of the turntable is gradually increased from zero.

Coin

The maximum force between the coin and the turntable is 0.6 time the weight of the coin. (a) Explain why the coin will eventually leave the turntable. (a) Centripetal force is provided by friction between turntable and coin  Higher rate of rotation, the greater the centripetal force required to maintain the motion of the coin  Maximum possible force is the limit of friction  When rate of rotation requires more than this, coin can no longer maintain circular motion and leaves turntable  [4] (b) Calculate the linear velocity with which the coin leaves the table Maximum friction force = 0.6 mg mv2/r =0.6mg Therefore v2/r = 0.6g v = 0.6 v 9.8 v 01 = 0.77m s-1 . v 2 = 0.6 rg

[4]

(c) Add an arrow to the diagram above to show the motion of the coin as it leaves the turntable. [1] Total 9 marks

Coin Coin

## 4. A car travels along a level road round a curve of radius 500m.

Friction force

W=mg

(a) Show on the picture above, the forces acting on the car and write down an expression for the centripetal force, when the car is about to skid. F = Friction force mv2/r = friction force r radius of the curve

[4] (b) If the largest force between the car and the road is 0.7 times the weight of the car, find the greatest velocity at which the car can travel round the curve. Friction = 0.7mg mv2/r = 0.7mg v2 = 0.7gr v= 0.7 v 9.8 v 500 =  = 58.56ms-1  ........................................................................................................................................ [3] (c) On the diagram below, show the path the car will take if it exceeds this velocity.

## [1] Total 8 marks

4) A 5.2 kg shot is thrown at 30o to the horizontal at a speed of 4 ms-1. Its kinetic energy is:A 20.8J B 24.0J C 36.0J D 41.6J E 83.2J

KE = mv2/2 KE = 5.2 x 42/2 =41.6J 5) Initially the ratio of the vertical to horizontal momentum in Q4 is:A 1/2 B 3 C 1 D 3 E 1/3

p =m V p vertical/ p horizontal = V vertical/ V horizontal p vertical/ p horizontal = 4sin (30)/4 cos (30) = 1/2/ = 1/ 10) A bullet of mass 10 g is fired horizontally with a velocity of 350 ms-1. The bullet embeds itself 2.5 cm into a target of mass 9.5 kg. The average force exerted by the target on the bullet is:A 24.5 kN B 49 kN C 233 kN D 245 kN E 23.3 MN

KE is transferred to work done by the bullet against friction KE lost = work done against friction mv2/2 = Avrege friction force x S 0.010 x350 2/2 = F x 0.025 F = 24500 N 11) In a cricket match the ball of mass 0.5 kg is bowled towards the batsman at 25 ms-1. If the batsman strikes the ball back along its original path with a speed of 30 ms-1, the magnitude of the change in the balls momentum (in kg m s-1 ) is:A 2.5 B 12.5 C13.2 D 15 E 27.5 m v = final momentum initial momentum m v = 0.5(30-(-25)) =27.5 kgms-1 12) A cannon of mass 700 kg fires a shell of mass 1.5 kg horizontally with a speed of 490 ms-1. 490 ms-1 momentum BI =momentum AI 700 0 = 1.5x 490-700v 1.5 kg V = (1.5x 490)/700 V =1.05 kg ms-1 to the left The initial recoil speed in ms-1 of the cannon is:Speed 0.41 0.95 Direction Right Left

A B

C D E

## Left Right Left

13) Which of A-E below correctly compares momentum and kinetic energy before and after an inelastic collision? Kinetic Energy No Change Greater After No Change Less After Less After Momentum Less After No Change No Change No Change More After

A B C D E

14) A 2 kg steel ball travelling at 20 ms-1 strikes another initially stationary ball of mass 6 kg. 20 ms-1

2 kg

6 kg

If the collision is completely elastic and the 2 kg ball returns along its original path, which of A-E below could show possible velocities for the balls ? Velocity of 2kg ball - 10 ms-1 - 60 ms-1 - 40 ms-1 40 ms-1 - 20 ms-1 Velocity of 6kg ball 10 ms-1 20 ms-1 40 ms-1 - 40 ms-1 60 ms-1

A B C D E

Questions 17-19 have the following answers:A B C D E if if if if if i, ii and iii are correct only i and ii are correct only ii and iii are correct only i and iii are correct iii only is correct

Since elastic KE BI = KE AI; momentum BI =momentum AI 2 x202/2 = 2 x v12/2 + 6 x v22/2 2 x 20 = -2v1+ 6v2 400 = v12 + 3 v22 20 = -v + 3 v

17) A Student makes the following statements about impulse:- B i It is the product of force and impact time ii The impulse is numerically the same as the change in momentum iii It is measured in Ns-1 Which are true of momentum?

18) Which of the following statements about momentum apply ? D i ii iii it is a vector quantity it is measured in units of kg m s-2 if external forces act during a collision, momentum is not conserved