stefan arteni

byzantine painting: systems of perspective
Vatopaidi monastery, mount Athos, 14th century https://picasaweb.google.com/109059053374718315796/ImagesOfHolyWe ek#

a visual essay

century picasaweb.google.com/lh/photo/CSe9QD-KzoGQ-JTH2bc9qw

St Demetrios church, Suceava, Romania,

16th

solinvictus press 2011

‘ICONS AND THEIR INTERPRETATION Information for the objective student of Russian, Greek, and Balkan icons REVERSE PERSPECTIVE: ANOTHER ICON MYTH …most of those who write about inverse/reverse perspective do not know that the term comes not from some Medieval Slavic or Greek manuscript, but rather from writings from the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century: The Frenchman Gabriel Millet (1899) noted the “birds eye view” approach in medieval mosaics, combined there with the incompatible increase, with growing height, of receding lines. Dmitry V. Ainalov (1900) — in Russia — used the term ‘reversed perspective’ for stylized characteristics in icon painting, attributing it to the inability of the artist to make correct foreshortening (see http://kurt.plommon.se/ljuset/a2.htm — summary of “Inverted Perspective in Visual Art and Controversy: A History of a Critical Concept from the Past Century” [In Swedish], Uppsala University, 2001). The German art historian Oscar Wulff wrote of umgekehrte Perspektive (reversed perspective) in 1907, and in the 1920s the notion was taken up by the Russian writer Pavel Florensky. ‘ russianicons.wordpress.com/2011/09/01/reverse-perspective-anot...

This image, and the images that follow, are examples of the various perspective systems used by Byzantine painters

St George church, Kurbinovo, Macedonia, 12th century http://picasaweb. google.com/115 3418616328879 69580/Kurbinov oForArtManiacs Macedonia#

Panagia tou Arakou, Lagoudera, Cyprus, 12th century http://www.orthodoxy-icons.com/frescoes-of-cyprus/486frescoes-of-cyprus.html

Panagia tou Arakou, Lagoudera, Cyprus, 12th century http://www.orthodoxyicons.com/frescoes-of-cyprus/486-frescoes-of-cyprus.html

Manuel Panselinos, Protaton church, mount Athos, 14th century? http://www.eikonografos.com/album/displayimage.php?pid=3772&fullsize=1

Manuel Panselinos, Protaton church, mount Athos, 14th century? https://picasaweb.google.com/106715278846820766759/GreeceMountAthosTheHolyMountain#

St Nicholas the Orphan church, Thessaloniki, Greece, 14th century https://picasaweb.google.com/iconroom/ThessalonikiStNicholasOrphanos#

St Nicholas the Orphan church, Thessaloniki, Greece, 14th century https://picasaweb.google.com/iconroom/ThessalonikiStNicholasOrphanos#

St Nicholas the Orphan church, Thessaloniki, Greece, 14th century https://picasaweb.google.com/iconroom/ThessalonikiStNicholasOrphanos#

St Nicholas the Orphan church, Thessaloniki, Greece, 14th century https://picasaweb.google.com/iconroom/ThessalonikiStNicholasOrphanos#

Ivanovski rock-cut church, Bulgaria, 13th -14th centuries? https://picasaweb.g oogle.com/1053732 73489975162393/Iv anovskiSkalniTsark vi#

Ivanovski rock-cut church, Bulgaria,13th -14th centuries? https://picasaweb.google.com/105373273489975162393/IvanovskiSkalniTsarkvi#

Ivanovski rock-cut church, Bulgaria,13th -14th centuries? https://picasaweb.google.com/105373273489975162393/IvanovskiSkalniTsarkvi#

Ivanovski rock-cut church, Bulgaria,13th -14th centuries? https://picasaweb.google.com/105373273489975162393/IvanovskiSkalniTsarkvi#

Markov monastery, 14th century, Macedonia https://picasaweb.google.com/110565005054412411555/OLxKPH#

Markov monastery, 14th century, Macedonia https://picasaweb.google.com/110565005054412411555/OLxKPH#

Markov monastery, 14th century, Macedonia https://picasaweb.google.com/110565005054412411555/OLxKPH#

Markov monastery, 14th century, Macedonia https://picasaweb.g oogle.com/1105650 05054412411555/O LxKPH#

St Nicholas church, Balinesti, Romania, 15th century www.blogprinvizor.ro/2008/04/28/biserica-balinesti-suceava/

St Nicholas church, Balinesti, Romania, 15th century www.blogp rinvizor.ro/ 2008/04/2 8/bisericabalinestisuceava/

The fountain, Cozia monastery, Romania, 16th century? https://picasaweb .google.com/109 71505872671843 2361/Manastirea Cozia#

The fountain, Cozia monastery, Romania, 16th century? https://picasawe b.google.com/10 9715058726718 432361/Manastir eaCozia#

Zographer Toma from Suceava and his team, Dormition (Assumption) church, Humor monastery, Romania, 16th century

Zographer Toma from Suceava and his team, Dormition (Assumption) church, Humor monastery, Romania, 16th century http://www.flickr.co m/photos/fotravel/2 617555691/

Zographer Toma from Suceava and his team, Dormition (Assumption) church, Humor monastery, Romania, 16th century http://www.flickr.co m/photos/fotravel/2 617555155/in/photo stream/

Zographer Toma from Suceava and his team, Dormition (Assumption) church, Humor monastery, Romania, 16th century http://www.flickr.co m/photos/fotravel/2 617556679/in/photo stream/

Zographer Toma from Suceava and his team, Dormition (Assumption) church, Humor monastery, Romania, 16th century https://picasawe b.google.com/10 5439384446274 577188/Bucovin aManastiri#

Voronet monastery, Romania, 16th century https://picasaweb.google.com/menendez.raymond/RoumanieFresquesEtIcNesJuin2008#

Probota monastery, St Nicholas church, Romania, 16th century https://picasaweb.google.com/105373273489975162393/ManastireaProbota#

Probota monastery, St Nicholas church, Romania, 16th century https://picasawe b.google.com/10 5439384446274 577188/Bucovin aManastiri#

Probota monastery, St Nicholas church, Romania, 16th century https://picasaweb.google.com/menendez.raymond/RoumanieFresquesEtIcNesJuin2008#

Probota monastery, St Nicholas church, Romania, 16th century https://picasaweb.google.com/105373273489975162393/ManastireaProbota#

Probota monastery, St Nicholas church, Romania, 16th century https://picasaweb.google.com/menendez.raymond/RoumanieFresquesEtIcNesJuin2008#

Probota monastery, St Nicholas church, Romania, 16th century https://picasawe b.google.com/10 5439384446274 577188/Bucovin aManastiri#

Probota monastery, St Nicholas church, Romania, 16th century https://picasaweb.google.com/105373273489975162393/ManastireaProbota#

Probota monastery, St Nicholas church, Romania, 16th century https://picasaweb.google.com/105373273489975162393/ManastireaProbota#

Moldovita monastery, Annunciation church, Romania, 16th century https://picasaweb.google.com/105439384446274577188/BucovinaManastiri#

Dragos Coman zographer, Arbore monastery, Beheading of St John the Baptist church, 16th century https://picasaweb.google.com/107649257123081119178/Concediu2008#

St John the New monastery, St George church, Suceava, Romania, 16th century http://picasaweb.google.com/macariosu/

St John the New monastery, St George church, Suceava, Romania, 16th century http://picasaweb.google.com/macariosu/

St John the New monastery, St George church, Suceava, Romania, 16th century http://picasaweb.google.com/macariosu/

St John the New monastery, St George church, Suceava, Romania, 16th century http://picasaweb.google.com/macariosu/

St John the New monastery, St George church, Suceava, Romania, 16th century http://picasaweb.google.com/macariosu/

St John the New monastery, St George church, Suceava, Romania, 16th century picasaweb.google.com/lh/photo/glE5cq_9jG2EbROAAIT2Wg

St John the New monastery, St George church, Suceava, Romania, 16th century picasaweb.google.com/macariosu/DIV6Februarie

St John the New monastery, St George church, Suceava, Romania, 16th century picasaweb.google.com/macariosu

St John the New monastery, St George church, Suceava, Romania, 16th century http://lh6.ggpht.com/_mwGT5_Q_JGQ/SrlMP1I9oRI/AAAAAAAADbY/7_Q4H9Gcz7g/Pridvor,%20Sinaxar,%2024%20martie%20%20Sf.%20Iacov%20Marturisitorul%20(aici%20Ier.,%20in%20sinaxarul%20actual%20Cuv.)_%2025%20.tif.jpg

St John the New monastery, St George church, Suceava, Romania, 16th century picasaweb.google.com/macariosu/PetruPalamar1

Sofronie and Ion zographers, Sucevita monastery, Resurrection church, Romania, 16th century http://eisai.kosaiji.org/Romania/16-1-Manastirea-Sucevita/index.htm

Sofronie and Ion zographers, Sucevita monastery, Resurrection church, Romania, 16th century http://eisai.kosaiji.org/Romania/16-1-Manastirea-Sucevita/index.htm

Sofronie and Ion zographers, Sucevita monastery, Resurrection church, Romania, 16th century https://picasaweb.google.com/romaniadodoloata/GhidDeCalatorieMoldova#

Sofronie and Ion zographers, Sucevita monastery, Resurrection church, Romania, 16th century https://picasaweb.google.com/106182118122491020826/Aprilie2010PasteleInBucovina#

Sofronie and Ion zographers, Sucevita monastery, Resurrection church, Romania, 16th century https://picasaweb.google.com/106182118122491020826/Aprilie2010PasteleInBucovina#

Sofronie and Ion zographers, Sucevita monastery, Resurrection church, Romania, 16th century eisai.kosaiji.org/Romania/16-6-Manastirea-Arbore/index.htm

Sofronie and Ion zographers, Sucevita monastery, Resurrection church, Romania, 16th century www.culturaltoursto romania.3mt.ro/buc ovina.html

Sofronie and Ion zographers, Sucevita monastery, Resurrection church, Romania, 16th century picasaweb.googl e.com/lh/photo/P KyTzt1lTc_s66a V9rBF9w

Pantocrator monastery, mount Athos, 16th century http://www.orthod oxyicons.com/iconso fmountathos/293icons-of-thepantocratormonastery-athospart-ii.html

Russia, 16th century http://www.collezi oneorlericone.co m/images/16%20 SH.jpg

Russia, 17th century http://www.c ollezioneorl ericone.com /images/479 9%20NG.jp g

Russia, 17th century http://www.coll ezioneorlericon e.com/images/ 20%20sg.jpg

Neamt monastery, Romania, 15th -17th centuries paintings in the 15th century bell-tower https://picasaweb.google.com/116151610207867673083/Moldva#

Neamt monastery, Romania, 15th -17th centuries paintings in the 15th century bell-tower https://picasaweb.google.com/116151610207867673083/Moldva#

Russia, 17th century http://www.collezion eorlericone.com/ima ges/599%20GO.jpg

Russia, 17th century http://www.morsink.c om/russian-andgreekicons/evangelist-stmark

St Stephen church, Nessebar, Bulgaria, 11th – 18th centuries https://picasaweb.google.com/105373273489975162393/StStephenChurchNessebar#

Plataresti monastery, Romania, 17th century https://picasawe b.google.com/10 7640587292089 560018/LangaB ucurestiBisericile BoierestiDinFun deniSiManastire aPlataresti#

Russia, 17th century http://www.tothiko nen.com/images/d onotweepforMe.jp g

Russia, 17th century http://www.morsin k.com/russianand-greekicons/17annunciation

Greece, 17th century www.kunstauktionen duesseldorf.de/de/k atalogdetails/16/243 /3

Arnota monastery, Romania, 17th century, painted by Stroe from Targoviste, pronaos repainted in 1705 -1706 by Ioanichie sin Preda http://picasaweb.google.com/Oasenrast/Sibiu#

Arnota monastery,Romania, 17th century, painted by Stroe from Targoviste, pronaos repainted in 1705 -1706 by Ioanichie sin Preda https://picasaweb.google.com/108839677152717835690/LainiciPolovragiArnotaBistritaMiercuri#

Arnota monastery, Romania, 17th century, painted by Stroe from Targoviste, pronaos repainted in 1705 -1706 by Ioanichie sin Preda photo Tetcu Mircea Rares

Greek, Cretan School, 17th century http://www.t emplegaller y.com/main. php?mode= 3&p1=1996

Hurezi monastery, Romania, 17th century http://www.flickr.com/photos/28951908@N07/3087877264/sizes/o/in/photostream/

Hurezi monastery, Romania, 17th century http://www.flickr.com/photos/dslewis/6110667586/sizes/l/in/photostream/

Hurezi monastery, Romania, 17th century http://www.flickr.com/photos/greenalex/5318012168/sizes/l/in/photostream/

Hurezi monastery, Romania, 17th century http://www.flickr.com/photos/30234930@N08/5939824738/

Hurezi monastery, Romania, 17th century https://picasaweb.google.com/105439384446274577188/Oltenia#

Hurezi monastery, Romania, 17th century https://picasaweb.google.com/105439384446274577188/Oltenia#

Hurezi monastery, Romania, 17th century https://picasaweb.google.com/105439384446274577188/Oltenia#

Hurezi monastery, Romania, 17th century http://picasaweb.google.com/115943954889850607380/Valcea#

Hurezi monastery, the chapel, Romania, 17th century picasaweb.google.com/lh/photo/2ULlAsE-Enw_8c2GnmT7Lg

Hurezi monastery, the chapel, Romania, 17th century ortodox.dyndns.org/ro/Ionut-laptop/Colectii/Colectia%20FOTO/Ma...

Hurezi monastery, “Bolnita” church, Romania, 17th century photo Tetcu Mircea Rares

Novo Hopovo monastery, Serbia, 17th century? http://www.flickr.com/photos/halpert/12483090/in/set-304699

Novo Hopovo monastery, Serbia, 17th century? http://www.flickr.com/photos/halpert/12483140/

Crete, 17th century http://www.kunstauktione nduesseldorf.de/de/katalog details/24/244/2

Balkans, 17th century http://www.kunstaukti onenduesseldorf.de/de/kat alogdetails/15/23/3

Greece, 17th century http://www.kunstau ktionenduesseldorf.de/de/ katalogdetails/16/2 15/3

Crete, 17th century http://ww w.kunsta uktionen duessel dorf.de/d e/katalo gdetails/ 24/13/2

Aninoasa monastery, Parvu Mutu and Dima, Mihai and Badea zographers, Romania, 17th century, remodeled in 1722-1730 picasaweb.google.com/lh/photo/yWgf346oR07QTamSp1FbbQ

Aninoasa monastery, Parvu Mutu and Dima, Mihai and Badea zographers, Romania, 17th century, remodeled in 1722-1730 picasaweb.google.com/lh/photo/-kOXLvOulIMAeJqEvy4CRg

Sinaia monastery, the old church, Romania, 17th century https://picasaweb.google.com/115948385226835001241/SinaiaManastireaSinaia#

Sinaia monastery, the old church, Romania, 17th century https://picasaweb.google.com/marcela.hada/SinaiaManastireaSinaiaCastelulPelesCabanaSchiorilorAugust2008#

Corfu, Greece, 17th century http://www.flickr.co m/photos/7549203 @N04/5961569862 /in/photostream

Emmanuel Skordilis zographer, Greece, 1690 http://www.flickr.co m/photos/7549203 @N04/596166912 0/in/photostream/

Greece, 17th century http://www.kunstauktionen-duesseldorf.de/de/katalogdetails/24/17/2

Monastery of St Jacob, Rostov, Russia, 17th century? https://picasaweb.google.com/107802592269550831281/MoscowToVologda#

Kaisariani monastery, 17th century painting?, Greece https://picasaw eb.google.com/ iconroom/Kais ariane#

Kaisariani monastery, 17th century painting?, Greece https://picasaweb.google.com/iconroom/Kaisariane#

Holy Trinity monastery, Meteora, Greece, painted in the 17th – 18th centuries http://images.trav elpod.co.uk/users/ pilgrimthomas/2.1 265382670.fresco -last-supper-ht.jpg

Holy Trinity monastery, Meteora, Greece, painted in the 17th – 18th centuries picasaweb.google.com/lh/photo/zzU1AKrJawUTO_DQ8arujg

Holy Trinity monastery, Meteora, Greece, painted in the 17th – 18th centuries picasaweb.google.com/lh/photo/zzU1AKrJawUTO_DQ8arujg

Fedelesoiu hermitage, 1673 – 1700, 1770, Romania ilazu.blogspot.co m/2011/10/ionlazu-jurnalamerican-viiidoua-...

Fedelesoiu hermitage, 1673 – 1700, 1770, Romania ilazu.blogspot.co m/2011/10/ionlazu-jurnalamerican-viiidoua-...

Fedelesoiu hermitage, 1673 – 1700, 1770, Romania ilazu.blogspot.com/2011/10/ion-lazu-jurnal-american-viii-doua-...

Russia, 1700 http://www.tothikonen.co m/images/19_001.jpg

Russia, 1700 http://www.tothiko nen.com/images/1 1_007.jpg

Pantocrator (Transfiguration) church, Corfu, Greece, built in 1689 picasaweb.google.com/lh/photo/zzU1AKrJawUTO_DQ8arujg

Virgin Hodegetria, Greece, 18th century http://www.kunstau ktionenduesseldorf.de/de/ katalogdetails/24/1 9/2

Greece, 18th century http://www.kunstau ktionenduesseldorf.de/de/ katalogdetails/15/9 /3

Balkans, 18th century http://www.ikon engalerie-vonkuelmer.de/inde x_frame.php

Bistrita monastery, “Bolnita” church, Romania, 1513 (?), portico built in the early 18th century and painted in 1710 by Hieromonk (Ieromonachos) Iosif from Hurezi https://picasaweb.google.com/108839677152717835690/LainiciPolovragiArnotaBistritaMiercuri#

Bistrita monastery, “Bolnita” church, Romania, 1513 (?), portico built in the early 18th century and painted in 1710 by Hieromonk (Ieromonachos) Iosif from Hurezi https://picasaweb.google.com/108839677152717835690/LainiciPolovragiArnotaBistritaMiercuri#

Bistrita monastery, “Bolnita” church, Romania, 1513 (?), portico built in the early 18th century and painted in 1710 by Hieromonk (Ieromonachos) Iosif from Hurezi https://picasaweb.google.com/108839677152717835690/LainiciPolovragiArnotaBistrita Miercuri#

Russia, 18th century http://www.collezioneorl ericone.com/images/42 -sh.jpg

Polovragi monastery, Dormition church, Constantin zographer, Romania, 1713 http://fiifericit.blogspot.com/2011/08/o-gura-de-aer-la-manastirea-polovragi.html

Polovragi monastery, Dormition church, Constantin zographer, Romania, 1713 www.geolocation.ws/v/P/17637859/facerea-evei-dincoasta-lui-ad...

Polovragi monastery, Dormition church, Constantin zographer, Romania, 1713 www.faptelecre dintei.ro/pelerin ajemanastiri/mana stiri/sfanta-...

Polovragi monastery, Dormition church, Constantin zographer, Romania, 1713 http://www.flickr.com/photos/34129060@N05/4824518746/

Polovragi monastery, Dormition church, Constantin zographer, Romania, 1713 picasaweb.google.com/lh/photo/F5aH7ASuzgI1mUw1mJ1bwA

Polovragi monastery, Dormition church, Constantin zographer, Romania, 1713 http://amfostaco lo.ro/FOTO/GE NUINE/d009/96 40/6143_13989 _10.jpg

Polovragi monastery, Dormition church, Constantin zographer, Romania, 1713 http://amfostacolo.ro/FOTO/GENUINE/d009/9640/30_16269_17.jpg

Polovragi monastery, Dormition church, Constantin zographer, Romania, 1713 inromaniasepoate.blogspot.com/2011/09/manastirea-polovragi.html

Polovragi monastery, “Bolnita” church, Romania, 18th century picasaweb.google.com/lh/photo/F0iYQpfFpqYhxl2oDjmwgA

Polovragi monastery, “Bolnita” church, Romania, 18th century picasaweb.google.com/lh/photo/F0iYQpfFpqYhxl2oDjmwgA

Polovragi monastery, “Bolnita” church, Romania, 18th century https://picasaweb.google.com/114895779732749296805/PesteraPolovragiManastireaPolovragiPesteraMuierilor#

Polovragi monastery, “Bolnita” church, Romania, 18th century https://picasaweb.google.com/114895779732749296805/PesteraPolovragiManastireaPolovragiPesteraMuierilor#

Polovragi monastery, “Bolnita” church, Romania, 18th century https://picasaweb.google.com/114895779732749296805/PesteraPolovragiManastireaPolovragiPesteraMuierilor#

Polovragi monastery, “Bolnita” church, Romania, 18th century https://picasaweb.google.com/114895779732749296805/PesteraPolovragiManastireaPolovragiPesteraMuierilor#

Old St Elephterios church, Bucharest, Romania, 18th century http://amfostacolo.ro/FOTO/GENUINE/d005/5894/16488_24539_19.jpg

Govora monastery, Romania, 18th century https://picasawe b.google.com/ni sico84/06Manas tireaGovora#

Govora monastery, Romania, 18th century https://picasaweb.google.com/nisico84/06ManastireaGovora#

Govora monastery, Romania, 18th century https://picasaweb.google.com/nisico84/06ManastireaGovora#

Govora monastery, Romania, 18th century https://picasaweb.google.com/nisico84/06ManastireaGovora#

Govora monastery, Romania, 18th century https://picasaweb.google.com/nisico84/06ManastireaGovora#

Govora monastery, Romania, 18th century https://picasaweb.google.com/nisico84

Govora monastery, Romania, 18th century http://amfostacolo.ro/FOTO/GENUINE/d005/5203/6036_7545_7.jpg

Surpatele monastery, Romania, 18th century https://picasaweb.google.com/nisico84

Surpatele monastery, Romania, 18th century https://picasaweb.google.com/114895779732749296805/ManastireaDintrUnLemnManastireaSurpatele#

Holy Angels church, Romanii de Jos, Romania, 18th century, photo Tetcu Mircea Rares

Holy Angels church, Romanii de Jos, Romania, 18th century, photo Tetcu Mircea Rares

Russia, 1786 http://www.ru ssianicons.ne t/index.php?l ang=en&data =view&zoek= categorie&sh ow=fd&id=14 0

18th century http://www.asteart.co m/img/visualizzatore/ asta75_212.jpg

Russia, 18th century http://www.colle zioneorlericone. com/images/11 55%20go.jpg

Russia, 18th century http://www.te mplegallery.c om/main.php ?mode=3&p1 =1500

Kotor, Montenegro, 18th century http://www.ikone ngalerie-vonkuelmer.de/inde x_frame.php?ca t=4

Greece, 18th century http://www.ikone ngalerie-vonkuelmer.de/inde x_frame.php?cat =4

St Nicholas-Amaradia (Belivaca) church, Craiova, Romania, painted in 1794 http://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.115279218539691.13907.115251848542428&type=3

St Nicholas-Amaradia (Belivaca) church, Craiova, Romania, painted in 1794 http://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.115279218539691.13907.115251848542428&type=3

Greece, 18th century http://www.kuns tauktionenduesseldorf.de/ de/katalogdetail s/20/20/3

Greece, 1800 http://www.kunsta uktionenduesseldorf.de/d e/katalogdetails/1 5/44/3

Russia, 1800 http://www.tot hikonen.com/i mages/4_011.j pg

1800? http://www.au ktionhuell.de/asset s/pics_auctio n/205/487.jpg

Romania, 1800 http://www.iko nengalerievonkuelmer.de/in dex_frame.ph p?cat=4

Balkans, 19th century http://www.ikon engalerie-vonkuelmer.de/ind ex_frame.php? cat=4

Presentation of the Virgin in the Temple church (the town church or “biserica din targ”), Horezu, Romania, 1800-1804 https://picasaweb.google.com/nisico84/12BisericaDinHorezu#

Presentation of the Virgin in the Temple church (the town church or “biserica din targ”), Horezu, Romania, 1800-1804 https://picasaweb.google.com/nisico84

Capul Dealului Dormition church (the church with a horse), Dragasani, Romania, built in 1818 – 1824 https://picasaweb.google.com/107661561399823221378/BisericaDinCapuDealului2006 #

Capul Dealului Dormition church (the church with a horse), Dragasani, Romania, built in 1818 – 1824 https://picasaweb.google.com/107661561399823221378/BisericaDinCapuDealului2006#

Russia, 19th century http://www.wan nenesgroup.co m/img/visualizz atore/asta85_7 43.jpg

Russia, 19th century http://www. asteart.co m/img/visu alizzatore/a sta75_213.j pg

Russia, 19th century http://www.wan nenesgroup.co m/img/visualizz atore/asta43_3 54.jpg

Presentation of Christ in the Temple and Holy Archangels church, Paraieni-Livezi, Romania, 1825 https://picasawe b.google.com/10 1813645397123 107164/BiserDin ParaieniLivezi#

Presentation of Christ in the Temple and Holy Archangels church, ParaieniLivezi, Romania, 1825 https://picas aweb.google .com/101813 6453971231 07164/Biser DinParaieniL ivezi#

Presentation of Christ in the Temple and Holy Archangels church, Paraieni-Livezi, Romania, 1825 https://picasaweb.google.com/101813645397123107164/BiserDinParaieniLivezi#

St Nicholas wood church, Draghesti, Romania, 19th century, photo Tetcu Mircea Rares

Greece, end 19th century http://www.wannenes group.com/img/visual izzatore/asta85_773.j pg

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