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Memo: To: Palo Alto Unified School District Board of Trustees Fm: Wayne Martin/Palo Alto, CA Dt: January

2, 2012 Re: API Scores vs Per-Student-Education Costs For School Year 2011 in Six County San Francisco Bay Area. Relative to the issue of whether or not to require Algebra II as a requirement for graduation in the Palo Alto Unified School District (PAUSD), background data about educational attainment, costs, and parent involvement in the educational model is being submitted to the PAUSD Board of Trustees for its consideration. This particular document contains information about student performance and cost in the San Francisco Bay Area. Six-County API vs Cost-To-Educate Data The following data, taken from the California Department of Educations web-site, provides the API scores of the school districts in the six SF.BayArea counties vs the perstudent-costs-to-educate in those districts for the 2010-11 school year: San Mateo County
County Code 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 District Code 68999 68858 68940 68924 69005 69062 68890 68916 69013 69047 69070 68874 69039 Avg. Daily Attend. 2678.2 404.7 336.8 4716.9 8620 7602.4 3214.4 5737.9 2523.3 7994.1 8950 558.9 10249.9 Valid Tests 2579 299 256 3483 6634 5484 2454 4439 1922 6019 6781 422 7771 CostPerStudent $12,987 $8,884 $10,941 $8,550 $8,696 $12,273 $8,512 $7,273 $8,248 $11,703 $7,680 $10,634 $7,778

County San Mateo San Mateo San Mateo San Mateo San Mateo San Mateo San Mateo San Mateo San Mateo San Mateo San Mateo San Mateo San

District Name Ravenswood City Elementary Bayshore Elementary La Honda-Pescadero Unified Jefferson Union High Redwood City Elementary Sequoia Union High Cabrillo Unified Jefferson Elementary San Bruno Park Elementary San Mateo Union High South San Francisco Unified Brisbane Elementary San Mateo-Foster City

API 715 724 745 761 766 789 796 796 812 814 819 839 840

41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41

68932 68973 68882 68866 68965 68981 68957 69088 68908 69021

Mateo San Mateo San Mateo San Mateo San Mateo San Mateo San Mateo San Mateo San Mateo San Mateo San Mateo

Pacifica Millbrae Elementary Burlingame Elementary Belmont-Redwood Shores Element Menlo Park City Elementary Portola Valley Elementary Las Lomitas Elementary Woodside Elementary Hillsborough City Elementary San Carlos Elementary

844 884 899 907 934 941 965 968 969 N/A

3012.9 2100.4 2558 2868.4 2436.2 700.6 1199.7 422.6 1454.7 2705.2

2397 1707 2046 2311 1909 557 966 346 1209 N/A

$7,319 $7,447 $7,356 $9,056 $11,033 $16,981 $13,163 $19,088 $13,484 $8,225

API Scores vs Cost-To-Educate San Mateo County (2011) 969 941 API Scores 899 840 814 796 761 715 $0 $5,000 $10,000 Cost-To-Educate $15,000 $20,000 Cost-To-Educate

Santa Clara County


43 43 43 43 69427 69542 69617 69369 Santa Clara Santa Clara Santa Clara Santa East Side Union High Luther Burbank Mt. Pleasant Elementary Alum Rock Union Elementary 749 753 765 770 23456.7 544.6 2667.7 12392.4 16659 362 1980 9184 $8,671 $8,044 $8,278 $8,735

43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43

69450 69401 69633 69583 69666 69484 69625 69674 69690 69393 69591 69377 73387 69609 69575 69385 69435 69468 69534 69641 69500 69526 69419 69682 69492 69518 69708

Clara Santa Clara Santa Clara Santa Clara Santa Clara Santa Clara Santa Clara Santa Clara Santa Clara Santa Clara Santa Clara Santa Clara Santa Clara Santa Clara Santa Clara Santa Clara Santa Clara Santa Clara Santa Clara Santa Clara Santa Clara Santa Clara Santa Clara Santa Clara Santa Clara Santa Clara Santa Clara Santa Clara

Franklin-McKinley Elementary Campbell Union High Orchard Elementary Morgan Hill Unified San Jose Unified Gilroy Unified Oak Grove Elementary Santa Clara Unified Sunnyvale Campbell Union Mountain View Whisman Berryessa Union Elementary Milpitas Unified Mountain View-Los Altos Union Moreland Elementary Cambrian Evergreen Elementary Fremont Union High Los Gatos-Saratoga Joint Union Palo Alto Unified Loma Prieta Joint Union Elemen Los Gatos Union Elementary Cupertino Union Saratoga Union Elementary Lakeside Joint Los Altos Elementary Union Elementary

770 777 778 779 798 800 806 810 823 834 834 843 849 860 874 874 882 885 904 926 929 930 955 968 968 969 N/A

9617.9 7191.2 828.6 8668.7 30495.3 10324 11196.3 14102.1 6118.2 7128.6 4524.4 8139.9 9491.6 3510.7 3974.8 3116.1 12948.8 9860.5 3046.8 11252.3 386.5 2835.3 17643.9 2196.5 80.5 4207.4 4583.8

7239 5275 642 6699 23642 8129 8525 10544 4584 5367 3378 6278 7370 2562 2971 2481 10465 7483 2305 8814 325 2347 13641 1804 54 3351 N/A

$8,462 $8,825 $7,747 $7,350 $9,224 $7,869 $7,826 $9,647 $9,341 $8,005 $8,818 $7,264 $7,310 $13,157 $9,183 $8,132 $7,418 $9,172 $11,579 $13,376 $11,201 $9,311 $7,590 $10,547 $16,421 $9,549 $7,271

API Scores v s Cost-Per-Student Santa Clara County (2011) 968 929 API Scores 882 849 823 798 770 749 $0 $5,000 $10,000 $15,000 $20,000 Cost-Per-Student

Cost-Per-Student-To-Educate

Santa Cruz County


County Code 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 District Code 10447 69799 69765 69823 69807 69815 69849 75432 69781 69732 69773 69757 Avg. Daily Attend. NA 16837.6 1749 N/A 2134.6 N/A 1748.6 2467.8 98 111.9 124 122.3 Valid Tests 242 14075 1498 3403 1860 1391 1402 1974 72 73 79 93 CostPerStudent N/A $9,271 $8,337 N/A $8,643 N/A $7,556 $6,880 $9,781 $13,186 $10,150 $10,387

County Santa Cruz Santa Cruz Santa Cruz Santa Cruz Santa Cruz Santa Cruz Santa Cruz Santa Cruz Santa Cruz Santa Cruz Santa Cruz Santa Cruz

District Name Santa Cruz County Office of Ed Pajaro Valley Unified Live Oak Elementary Santa Cruz City High San Lorenzo Valley Unified Santa Cruz City Elementary Soquel Union Elementary Scotts Valley Unified Pacific Elementary Bonny Doon Union Elementary Mountain Elementary Happy Valley Elementary

API 601 717 757 775 828 832 833 880 887 907 910 925

API Scores Vs Cost-To-Educate Santa Cruz County (2011)

910 API Scores 887 833 828 757 601 $0 $5,000 $10,000 $15,000 Cost-To-Educate

Cost-To-Educate-Per-Student

Alameda County
County Code 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 District Code 61168 61192 61259 61291 61309 61218 61234 61242 61143 61200 61119 61150 61176 61127 75093 75101 61275 75119 Avg. Daily Attend. 726.9 19751.3 35825.9 8352.7 10514.5 47.3 6578.3 12423.3 8651.4 12333.3 9373.5 8554.7 31014.4 3660.2 5799.4 14395.4 2467.7 242.7 Valid Tests 514 14786 26718 6412 7985 39 4838 9329 6659 9441 6514 6755 23781 2748 4508 11350 1924 187 CostPerStudent $13,680 $8,962 $10,958 $7,709 $8,096 $8,707 $8,089 $8,182 $12,092 $7,993 $8,630 $7,429 $7,449 $8,356 $7,945 $7,599 $11,579 $8,416

County Alameda Alameda Alameda Alameda Alameda Alameda Alameda Alameda Alameda Alameda Alameda Alameda Alameda Alameda Alameda Alameda Alameda Alameda

District Name Emery Unified Hayward Unified Oakland Unified San Leandro Unified San Lorenzo Unified Mountain House Elementary Newark Unified New Haven Unified Berkeley Unified Livermore Valley Joint Unified Alameda City Unified Castro Valley Unified Fremont Unified Albany City Unified Dublin Unified Pleasanton Unified Piedmont City Unified Sunol Glen Unified

API 702 715 726 738 741 751 773 775 790 832 842 865 877 881 885 906 930 939

API Scores vs Cost-To-Educate Alameda County (2011)


906 API Scores 877 832 773 738 702 $0 $2,000 $4,000 $6,000 $8,000 $10,000$12,000$14,000 Cost-To-Educate Series1

Contra Costa County


County Code 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 District Code 61796 61648 61697 61721 61754 61762 61663 61739 61655 61705 61671 61630 61812 61713 61804 Avg. Daily Attend. 27474 17812.3 1545.6 6751.9 32471.9 4466.6 1632.5 3796.4 7985.1 476.9 65.8 5399.7 3197.9 3110.5 27147.7 Valid Tests 20477 13179 1166 5211 25029 3504 1268 2992 6445 365 54 4012 2582 2486 22060 CostPerStudent $8,899 $7,578 $9,311 $7,519 $8,199 $6,909 $7,609 $7,555 $6,918 $7,824 $9,320 $9,327 $7,345 $8,422 $7,824

County Contra Costa Contra Costa Contra Costa Contra Costa Contra Costa Contra Costa Contra Costa Contra Costa Contra Costa Contra Costa Contra Costa Contra Costa Contra Costa Contra Costa Contra

District Name West Contra Costa Unified Antioch Unified John Swett Unified Liberty Union High Mt. Diablo Unified Oakley Union Elementary Byron Union Elementary Martinez Unified Brentwood Union Elementary Knightsen Elementary Canyon Elementary Acalanes Union High Walnut Creek Elementary Lafayette Elementary San Ramon

API 709 731 742 764 786 790 827 832 843 847 888 903 905 922 922

07 07 07

61747 61770 61788

Costa Contra Costa Contra Costa Contra Costa

Valley Unified Moraga Elementary Orinda Union Elementary Pittsburg Unified

955 957 N/A

1681.5 2387.5 9056.6

1386 1924 N/A

$8,734 $9,473 $7,995

API Scores vs Cost-To-Educate Contra Costa County (2011)

955 API Scores 905 847 827 764 709 $0 $2,000 $4,000 $6,000 $8,000 $10,000 API Scores

Cost-Per-Student-To-Educate

San Francisco County


County Code 38 38 District Code 68478 10389 Avg. Daily Attend. 48736.5 N/A Valid Tests 37196 372 CostPerStudent 9715 N/A

County San Francisco San Francisco

District Name San Francisco Unified San Francisco County Office of

API 796 412

API Scores vs Cost-To-Educate San Francisco (2011)

API Scores

796

API s

2,000

4,000

6,000

8,000

10,000

Cost-To-Educate ($$$)

Source: California Department Of Education Note(s): (1) The Cost-to-Educate data is for the school year 2009-2010. (2) API Tests reflect STAR testing of Grades 2-11, only. (3) Not all educational entities report API scores. (4) Expenditure Data May Not Include All Expenditures Of School Districts. Six-County Total Cost-To-Educate Data The following table provides the total-cost-to-educate expenditures for the six-county San Francisco Bay Area Yearly Total-Cost-to-Educate For Six-County San Francisco Bay Area
County Code 01 41 43 38 07 44 County Name Alameda San Mateo Santa Clara San Francisco Contra Costa Santa Cruz Totals: County Expenditures $1,679,650,000 $775,497,000 $2,164,890,000 $473,463,000 $1,264,570,000 $282,340,000 $6,640,410,000 Total Students 190,713 83,046 246,532 48,737 156,460 31,780 757,268 Exp. Year 2010 2010 2010 2010 2010 2010

API Scores vs Cost-to-Educate Recap (2011)

County San Mateo San Francisco Santa Cruz Santa Clara Alameda Contra Costa

Number of Districts 23 2 12 31 18 18

Avg. Expense $10,318 $9,715 $9,355 $9,204 $8,993 $8,153

High API 969 796 925 969 939 957

Low API 575 412 601 420 474 605

% Districts > 800 58.3 0 66.7 62.5 47.4 57.9

% Districts < 800 41.7 100 33.3 34.5 52.6 42.1

Note(s): Expenditure data for 2009-2010 school year. Observations The following observations can be made from the data above Most Counties are reporting APIs of 800 (or more) for their school districts. API scores do not nicely correlate with cost-per-student expenditures. High API scores tend to reflect high cost-per-student expenditures, but not necessarily. Low API scores tend to reflect low cost-per-student expenditures, but not necessarily. API scores correlate better with parent education than with cost-per-student expenditures (see link below). There is significant variance in per-student-expenditures between school districts in most counties. The total yearly cost of public education in the six-county San Francisco Bay area is almost $7B (and more when capital costs/financing are considered). This is clearly a significant public expense which for which only about 60% of the districts report API scores exceeding 800 (which is the California target for student proficiency).

To-Do: Data presentations such as this one invariably open more doors than they close. The following additional data would be needed to fully appreciate the API vs Cost-ToEducate data presented herein API scores of Basic Aid (BA) School Districts vs ADA School Districts Variance in Per-Student Funding Between BA and ADA School Districts. API Variances Between high cost districts, and low cost Districts. Determination of true expenditures for all school districts in SF Bay Area. Investigation of why some districts test high even though their per-student-costs are low.

Conclusion The depth and breath of the educational model that has emerged in California today is so complicated that any attempt to analyze the vast store of data available to the public almost defies any goal of understanding the reality of the system. Concepts like an Academic Performance Index (API), which reduce the year-long efforts of all of the staff, students, and the students parents, in a given school, a school district, a county and ultimately the whole state to a single number, can hardly express anything meaningful about the state of education of all of those involved in the educational process. It is, unfortunately, the best that we have at the moment to describe educational achievement in California. As to the state of academic performance of students in the Six-County San Francisco Bay Area, the following can be inferred from API data`, however- There are wide variances in API Scores In the San Francisco Bay Area. There are wide variances in per-student funding in the San Francisco Bay Area. API scores are not clearly related to high per-student expenditures API scores are not clearly linked to increasing teacher salaries/benefits. API scores show clear linkage to parent education. Education model linking student performance with high levels of public funding not clearly justified by results.

Whatever public education is, the data clearly shows that it is not being delivered in a uniform way to every student, in every community, within California. While so-called local control perhaps thwarts any chance of a uniform educational delivery model in every community, hopefully local control will be a tool to insure that all students are provided a path through the communitys schools that meets the needs of the largest number of students equitably, and pushes those students who are poor performers to do their best. Hopefully this data will help the Trustees of the PAUSD to address issues involving student performance with information that is appropriate to the issues presented to them for consideration, and needing resolution in a timely fashion. Wayne Martin Palo Alto, CA On-the-Net: API Scores vs Parent Education For Six SF.BayArea Counties: http://www.scribd.com/doc/76542173/API-Scores-vs-Parent-Education-2011-For-SixSan-Francisco-Bay-Area-Counties California Legislative Analysts Office--

The 2010-11 Budget: Proposition 98 and K-12 Education http://www.lao.ca.gov/analysis/2010/education/education_022510.aspx

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