tzGihfpum;

awG;ac:qifjcifrI? bmoma&;ESihf EkdifiHa&;pepftoD;oD;\ tEÅdr &nfrSef;
csufrSm ]Nidrf;csrf;a&;} jzpfonfudk avhvmawGY&SdEkdifygonf/

xdkYjyif pnfyifzGYHNzdK;jcif;ESihf vlrIpD;yGm; zlvHkavmufirIudkvnf; arQmfvifh awmifhwMu\/
Nidrf;csrf;a&;ESihf pnfyifom,ma&;wdkYtwGuf &kef;uefvIyf&Sm;jcif;? jyKjyifajymif;vJjcif;? ,HkMunf
&mtwdkif; wnfaqmufMujcif;ESihf tawG;tjrifopfrsm; zGJYpnf;jcif;wdkYudk ordkif;wGif pOfquf
rjywf BudK;pm;cJhMuonf/ BudK;pm;aeMuqJyif/ vlom;wdkY\ þc&D;rSm rnfrQ wGifaeygoenf;/


todÓPfynm BuD;jrifhvmjcif;ESihftwl om,mvSyaom aecsifpzG,f vlYtodkuf
tNrHKwdkYudk &&Sd cHpm;aeMuonfh a'orsm;pGm &SdaeavNyD/ Nidrf;csrf;a&;ESihf vdkufavsm nDaxG
o[Zmw jzpfaeonfh xkdxdkaom ,Ofaus;rIwdkYudk pHjyKxm;tyfonfrSm xif&Sm;vSonf/

ausmif;ynma&;taejzihf rsufarSmuf jrefrmESihf urÇmBuD;wGif vdktyfvsuf&Sdonfh
Nidrf;csrf;a&;,Ofaus;rIudk pwifrdwfqufay;&ef wm0ef&Sdonf[k ,HkMunfxm;ygonf/
'Drkd ua&pDa&;ESifh Nidrf;csrf;aom,Ofaus;rIudk pwifysKd;axmifay;aeonfh ae&mrsm;taejzihf
ausmif;pmoifcef;rsm;\ ta&;ygrIudk todtrSwfjyKaeMu&onf/ þwGif ar;cGef;xkwfp&m
&Sdaeavonf/

ausmif;pmoifcef;rsm;twGif; usihfoHk;aeonfh pnf;rsOf;rsm;? enf;vrf;rsm;ESihf oif&dk;
nTef;wrf;rsm;u 'Drkdua&pDESihf Nidrf;csrf;aom ,Ofaus;rI zGHYNzdK;aprnfh vlYtzGJYtpnf;twGuf rnf
odkY jyifqifay;aeygoenf;/ ESpf 40 ausmf jrefrmhynma&;c&D;wGif oif&dk;nTef;wrf;rsm;udk tajccH
usus rajymif;vJEkdifao;yg/ enf;ynmESihf acwfpepfrsm;u ajymif;vJrIudk awmif;qdkaeNyDjzpf
onf/ rwlaom ,Ofaus;rIrsm; o[Zmwjzpfa&;ESihf yk*¾vtpGJ? *dkPf;*PtpGJ avsmhenf;a&;
twGuf tajccHpdwf,Ofaus;rIudk wnfaqmufMu&m0,f ausmif;oif&dk;rsm;ESihf ausmif;wGif;
qufqHa&;wdkYrSm ta&;ygvmjcif;yif/ &Sifoef? Ekd;Mum;aeaom ausmif;rsm;u ysKd;axmifay;
vdkfufonfh Nidrf;csrf;aom pdwfESvHk;om;wdkYrSm jrefrmhvlYtzGJYtpnf;\ Nidrf;csrf;a&;? wef;wl
nDrQa&;ESihf t&SnfwnfwHhrnfh zGHYNzdK;a&;wdkYtwGuf taocsmqHk;yifjzpf\/


þpdwf,Ofaus;rIudk jyifqifay;&ef rysufuGufoihfyg/

oif&dk;nTef;wrf; vGwfvyfcGihfrsm;? ajymif;vJcGihfrsm;? topfzefwD;cGihfrsm; &&SdMuoihfyg
onf/ vlYtzGJYtpnf;\ tm;omcsufrsm;? arQmfvihfcsufrsm;ESihf wl&lcsufrsm;udk A[kdjyKxm;onfh
oif&dk;rsm;wGif Nidrf;csrf;a&; ,Ofaus;rIudkvnf; jzefYusuf vTrf;NcHKapoihfygonf/ 5 ESpf t&G,f
jrefrmi,fwdkYonf yl;aygif;aqmif&GufEkdifrIESihftwl zGihfvSpfxm;aom pdwfjywif;rsm;jzihf oli,f
wef; pmoifcef;rsm; odkY 0ifa&mufvmMujcif;jzpf\/ olwdkYav;awG\ &SdESihfNyD;aom pdwf,Ofaus;rI
qufvufzGHYNzdK;&ef tvif;oif&dk;rsm;jzihf wHwm;cif;jcif;vnf;rnfygonf/

Nidrf;csrf;a&;twGuf tc&musaom vlom;A[dkjyKw&m; xGef;um;ygap/
armu©ynma&; r*¾Zif;
'DZifbm 2011
1

Maukkha

ewfawmfv 1373 ckESpf

CONTENTS
No. 8 December 2011

44

uAsm

5

Munfarmifoef;? aeEG,f? opfaumif;tdrf? okcocif? cefYrif;udk?
armifNidrf;at;? ololtdrf

umwGef;

15

18

26
27
28
30
32
41
42

opömazgufcHae&qJ rsKd;qufopf vli,frsm; vSa&T
tajccHvlwef;pm;rsm; tm;xm;&m buausmif; Munfa0
Into odkYr[kwf


cifaZmf
uav;rsm;\ vufOD;q&m

odef;Ekdif

44
46
50
52

EdkifiHwum ynma&;owif;

aersKd;at;? vdIif? uvsmrdaw? EkdifiHwum

jynfwGif;ESihf e,fpyf ynma&; owif;

175

uav;u@
uav; uAsm


pGefYpm;jcif;tufaq;? bmta&;BuD;qHk;vJ/
a&TUajymif; oifykef;BuD;zwfpm

t[uf[uf? t[m;[m;... vdrfrm&rwJhvm;
r[mzGHYNzdK;a&; bk&ifBuD;

owd? pmzwf&ef rarhygESihf

oihfpmusufpGrf;&nfudk b,fvdk jr§ihfwifrvJ/

124

aqmif;yg;

55

wkdif;jynftajymif;tvJESihf ynma&; tcef;u@

64

tifwmAsL;u@

108
2

32
urÇmhq&mrsm;aeY (2011) txl;u@
o0PfvTm


wef;wlnDrQ trsKd;orD;0g'
xbDcg;awmif;usKdufNyD;
urÇmhtqdk;0g;qHk; jyXmef;pmtkyfrsm;
Nidrf;csrf;om,maom e,fajrodkY
uav;rsm;\ b0ESihf tvS
urÇmudkzsuf vlYpeuf -pmpDpmuHk; -

UNESCO, EI, ILO

76

wifnTefY

oQiftEka&m"d
cs,f&Drdk;oJ

avjynfat; (rJaqmuf)
a':vSpdef (zefi)
aemf&dkrDxl; (SAW)

78
84
86
89
92
94

ynma&; okawoepmwrf;
Nidrfcsrf;a&;twGuf ynma&; (tydkif; 1)

odef;Ekdif

96

84

tufaq;
uRefawmfwdkY bmtwGuf ynmoif
pmoifjcif;


urÇmajr a&GUaeygonf

uGyfyspf0g' ay:xGef;vmjcif;

aZ,s
rdk;csKdoif;
rsKd;jrihfcsKd
ol&d,rsKd;

108
112
114
118

ynma&; [mo

122

bmom&yfwpfckudk uRrf;usif ydkifEkdif&if
udkcrf;em;&JU tbd"gef

179

EkdifiHwum ynma&;
'kwd,ajrmuf r[mqHk;jzwfcsuf

qmavmifrGwfodyfyg? &l;oGyfyg...

roefrpGrf;uav;rsm; ynma&;

pmzwfaom ,Ofaus;rI &SdrSom zGHYNzdK;rnf

jrwfyef;&Sif
pwdAfa*smh
jrihfjrifh
0ifhxef;

124
128
134
136

64
141
3

twdkifyifcH t,f'Dwm
t,f'Dwm

vufaxmuft,f'Dwm
&Hk;tzGJY

aeEG,f
odef;Ekdif
a':vdIif? &Jjrifhausmf
0if;0if;rif;? EG,feD? rsKd;rsKd;
cifav;i,f? vSa&T?
armifarmifoef;

Webmaster

Ko Blade

armu©pmvHk;'DZkdif;
rsufESmzHk;'DZdkif;

pmtkyftjyiftqif
twGif;yef;csD




jzefYcsda&;

qufoG,f&ef

kazu

Staff Writers

nnt

pmtkyfpifu@
vlwkdif;zwfoihfaom pmtkyf 30

ol&defrif;?
xG#fatmif? 0PÖaZmf?
usef;rma&;u@
ÓPfpdk;? yef;yHkjyif?
urÇmah &tdrfomaeY (10) jynfh
EG,feD? 'Dt,f

&Jjrihfausmf

141

rar

145

maukkha@gmail.com

obm0 ywf0ef;usif u@

www.maukkha.org

[dr0Eåmt&nfaysmfrI

apmjynfhndK
xkdif;a&BuD;rI


vSa&T
AD,uferf qeftdk;BuD; a&jrKyf
armifarmifoef;
tmwdwfa&cJjyif t&nfaysmfrI
apmjynfhndK
aomufa&oefYjzihf oef;MuG,folaX;jzpfEkdif ckdif&r®m

128

147
148
150
153
155

odyHÜESihf enf;ynm
,leD... wlnD... rltwnfjzpfzdkY
vlom; p ay:xGef;vmwJh ae&m
vloHk;rsm;vmwJh pudkuf

World Wide Web (WWW) ESpf 20

rdawzdk;
bDbDpD
pDaxmif;
okcocif

156
160
162
164

0w¬Kwdk
jrwfq&m 2 ql

aomfZif (csif;rkdif) 167
vGwfajrmuf&modkY vrf;avQmufxGufcGgjcif; t*¾jref 172
'Drdkua&pDodkY ajcvSrf; 90
nDapmvGif
175
zm;ul;&Gm&JU carmufyHkjyif
ckdifckdifapmvGif 179

118
4

86

uRefawmfh&JU awmf&kHwef&kHt"dyÜm,f
opfyifawG Nidrfouf
avuvJ Nidrfouf
ighrSmom iSufwpfaumifvkd *emrNidrf
pmuav;awG&JU cGef;wkHYoHukd Mum;rS
twåb0rSefukd atmufarhqifjcifrd&JU
i,fi,fwkef;u rSm;cJhw,f
BuD;vmawmh vGJcJhw,f
aoumeD;awmh bmvkyf&rSef;rod
0drkwådaumif;uifrSm ysHoef;zkdY
tawmiftvufu rpkH
cspfjcif;arwåmukd ,kHcJhw,f
'ku©opömukd ,kHcJhw,f
aiGukdawmh r,kHwpf0uf ,kHwpf0uf
oHo&mu nD§apmfeHaeNyD
tJ'Dyef;ykukd b,f[if;vif;jyifrSm xm;rvJ
yef;ykrSmukdu [if;vif;jyif &SdNyD;om;yg
&l;csifa,mifaqmifvkdY&w,f
tdyfcsifa,mifaqmifvkdY&w,f
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igh&JU jzpfwnfrIukd owfrSwfzkdY
ekdifiHom;u'fjym; wpfckyJ&Sdw,f
ckcsdefxd rdom;pk oef;acgif;pm&if;xJu
&kef;rxGufekdifao;
igh&JU a&TU ajymif;ykHpH
b,faeYrsm; b,folYxH a&mufrSmvJ
zsmwpfcsyfay:u i&JukdodcJhNyD
zdeyfwpf&Hay:u i&JukdodcJhNyD
wpfaeY xrif;eSpfeyf pm;ovkd
wpfaeY uAsmeSpfyk'fzwfzkdY rvkdtyfbl;vm;
acwfBuD;wpfckvkH; taMumay;xm;vkdufcsifw,f
owif;eJY enf;ynm acwfBuD;NyD;&if
uAsmacwfBuD; rvmbl;vkdY b,fol ajymekdifrvJ/ /
Munfarmifoef; (1963-2011)

5

(2)
rdef;rvSawG&,f
aiG&,f
tmPm&,f
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'gudkyJ &SdwfpyD;,m; a&;cJhw,f
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vlynm&Sd &[ef;ynm&SdawG a&;cJhw,f a&;cJhw,f
igvnf;yJ
raeEkdifrxdkifEkdif
rysif;r&d a&;rdygw,f 'gudkyJ

(1)
aemufausm"g;eJY txdk;cH&tNyD;
*sL;vd,ufqDZm
urÇmausmfatmif pum;wcGef;ajymcJhw,f
]atmf rif;vnf;ygoudk;}

(3)
rD;qvdkufuGufNyD; xdk;xm;ap
b&l;wufpf "g;udkifajr§mufxm;ap
eef;&ifjyif ½IyfaxG;aeap
aoG;tkdifxJ qDZmvJusaeap
pum;wcGef; ajymygap
ZmwfydkYoHpHkwD;0dkif;BuD; [D;aeap
um;vdyfcsap
ba&mh'fa0; jyZmwfMunhf vl,Ofaus; y&dowfBuD;

Mobm vufckyfwD;ap
um;vdyfjyefwifap
b½l;wufpfeJY qDZm jyefxGufvmNyD; MobmcH,lap
jAKef;qdk ESpfaygif; &mcsDoGm;ap
jAKef;qdk b½l;wufpfawG trsm;BuD;
rif;vnf;ygoudk;awG trsm;BuD;
jAKef;qdk ZmwdtmPmoDcsif;
jAKef;qdk aeckESpfpif; / /

opömazgufawG[m
opömazgufzdkY t&nftcsif; jynfhpHkolawG jzpfw,f
opömazgufawGu acwfudkpm;w,f
acwfu opömazgufawGudk pm;w,f
opömazgufawG acwfpm;w,f

aeEG,f
14? atmufwdkbm? 2011
(owårae tvmrSm urÇmysufudef;BuHK&yHk? a':rmrmat;
&JU ZmwdtmPmoDcsif; jyef em; axmifMunfhyg/ &dSwfpyD;
,m;&JU *sL;vd,ufqDZm jyZmwf jyefzwfMunfhyg/)

owårae tvmrSm

6

va&mifatmufu awmacG;rsm;
tdrfaygufaph rkkefYnif;aph&Smovkkd
jyu©'defxJ
aoewfwcsuf raygufzl;wJh aeY&ufw&ufukd
tdyfruf&if;eJY vdkuf&Sm
Mumvmawmh
ukkd,fhtemaz; ukkd,fxkdifcGmae&wmukkdyJ
t&omwckkvkdjzpfvm
'Pf&muif;rJhwJh ol&Jaumif;qkkdwm
vdrfnmNzD;jzef;olyJjzpfvdrfhr,f... vkkdYtqkkd&Sdav&m
reufwkef;qDu aMumhqkH;rSm
ESif;qD[m cGmvdyfvkdY
tcspfqkH;a&
ppf½IH;wmvnf;
ESpfokH;q,frjynfhao;ygbl;
EGm;&dkif;oGif;csdefvnf; qHk;NyD
nDtudkvHk;vHk; rodawmhbl;...
va&mifeJYaxmifzrf;
om;&JwGif;EIwfcrf;0rSm
vrif;u "m;&kkd;urf;vkkdY ...../ /
opfaumif;tdrf
(09 ? 18 ?2011)

7

[if;vif;jyifxJu ar;cGef;rsm;
vGwfvyfjcif;rdk;aumif;uifudk jrif&zdkY
tBudrfBudrf armhMunfcJh
ighudk,figawmiff oem;w,f/
idka~uG;aeMuwmvm;...
'DidkoHawGudka&m
b,folawGu Mum;EdkifrSmvJ /
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rsufuG,fjyKedkif&ufolawG
rjrifMuwmvm;
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ausmufaqmifawG b,favmufrmrm
awmifawG b,favmufBuD;BuD;
yifv,fqDawmh wpfaeY
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tvum;awmh r[kwfygbl;
oHvGifcufeJY csKd;iSufuawmh
cdkem;zdkY ae&m &Smaeav&JU /
/
okcocif
27 Mo*kwf 2011

8

jzpfpOf
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rdk;pyg;ysufvnf;ay; aEGpyg;ysufvnf;ay;
rdom;pkb0ta&; tysufcHNyD;
ay;qyf&wJh olawG/ /
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tajymif;tvJtwGuf
rSef;csufeJY ESrf;xGuf
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xyfrvJGcsifbl;av/ /
cefYrdk;udk
August 27,2011

9

qm,m
9 em&Ddxkd;NyD; wpfpuúefYrSm ausmif;a&mufvmwJh olawGudk rBudKufbl;
3 em&D 15 jynfhzkdY wpuúefY tvdkrSm tdrfjyefoGm;wJh olawGudk rBudKufbl;
pmoifcef;xJ aemufusrS 0ifNyD; apmapmjyefxGufwJh olawGudk rBudKufbl;
uav;awGudk pma&;ckdif;NyD; udk,fvkyfcsifwm vkyfaewJh olawGudk rBudKufbl;
pmaumif;aumif; roifbJ axG&mav;yg; avQmufajymaewJh olawGudk rBudKufbl;
pmoifwm wpfckwnf;udkyJ vkyfaewJh olawGudk rBudKufbl;
q&mtcsif;csif; wpfa,mufraumif;aMumif; wpfa,mufajymaewJh olawGudk rBudKufbl;
0goemygwJh tvkyfudk OD;pm;ay;NyD; vuf&dSq&mtvkyfudk 'kwd,ae&mxm;wJh olawGudk rBudKufbl;
q&musifh0wfodu©meJYtnD 0wfpm;qif,ifajymqdkjcif; r&dSolawGudk rBudKufbl;
ausmif;om;ausmif;olawGudk udk,fa&;udk,fwm udpöawG ckdif;aewJh olawGudk rBudKufbl;
uav;awG qlae&if ausmif;cef;tjyif xGufckdif;vkdufwJh olawGudk rBudKufbl;
uav;awG qlae&if pmroifawmhbJ xGufoGm;wwfwJh olawGudk rBudKufbl;
udk,fhtarvif tdwfxJu ydkufqHEIdufovkd cGifhcPcP ,lwwfwJh olawGudk rBudKufbl;
tpm;xkd; 0ifoifckdif;rS pdwfrygYwygeJY tpm;xdk; 0ifoifaewJh olawGudk rBudKufbl;

10

'De,fajr[m
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twåajray:rSm y&[dw tvHpkdufxl 0ifholawG&JU tjyma&mif e,fajrjzpfw,f
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ausmif;q&mtvkyfqdkwm rsKd;quftvdkuf
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vay:om;a& t½IyfxkyfawGeJY vkH;0 rxdkufwefwm taotcsm/ /
armifNidrf;at;

11

oif,lavhvmaeol wpfOD;yg
oif,lavhvmaeol wpfOD;yg?
usaemf awGYjrifEkdifwJh a&mifpHkawGudk tjcm;olawG rawGYjrifekdifovdk? usaemf cHpm;ekdifwJh *Dwudk
tjcm; b,folrS rMum;Ekdifovdk? usaemfh&JU vufxJrSm wpfckckudk qkyfudkifxm;wJh cHpm;rIudk
tjcm;b,folrS rcHpm;Ekdifovdk? usaemfh&JU ywf0ef;usif urÇmudk usaemf tm&Hkouf0ifovdkrsKd;
tjcm;b,folrS tm&Hk rxifekdifovdk? b,folurS usaemfhudk oifMum; ray;Ekdifygbl;/
b,folurS usaemfhudk oifMum; ray;ekdifygbl;/
oif,lavhvmaeol wpfOD;yg?
oifay;vdkYawmhjzihf r&bl;aygh? usaemf avhvmygw,f/ vlom;pifppfvnf;jzpfw,f vlrIa&;
owå0gvnf; rnfw,f? tJ'DtwGuf tjcm;olawGeJY wlwl avhvmygw,f/ tjcm;olawGqDuvnf;
avhvmwmyg? 'gayr,fh wu,f avhvmjzpfwJh t&mawGuawmh usaemhfudk oifMum; ay;cJhwmawG
awmh r[kwf&ygbl;? q&mwl oli,fcsif;awGeJY avhvmjzpfcJhwJh t&mawGvnf; r[kwfjyefbl;/
wpfOD;wnf; xD;wnf;oufoufyJ avhvmaejzpfwm/
oif,lavhvmaeol wpfOD;yg?
usaemf odjrifygw,f/ ywf0ef;usifurÇmudk odem;vnfzdkY&m tm&HkawGudk toHk;jyKw,f /
yHkoP²mefawGudk cGJjcm;w,f? edrdwfyHkawGeJY qifwlcdkif;EdIif;yHkawGuae yHkazmf em;vnfaeolyg/
usaemfhb0&JU &nfrSef;csufawGudk zefwD;zdkY&m &SmazGygw,f/
&Hcg &nfrSef;csufrJh pdwful;Munfhrdw,f/ pMum0VmBuD;xJrSm tjcm;olrsm;&JU &nfrSef;csuf pdwful;awG?
tjcm;olawG&JU b0 &nfrSef;csufawGudk rMumcP qdkovdk vufcHrdw,f/
12

oif,lavhvmaeolwpfOD;yg?
usaemfh&JU pdwfxJrSm pMum0VmBuD; wpfckudk wnfaqmufw,f? tJ'DrSm usaemf aew,f? oif,l
avhvmaewmeJY trQudk tcsdefwkdif;rSm yHkajymif;aewJh pMum0VmBuD;yg? vlom;tm;vHk;… cspfcifjrwfEkd;
&wJh olawG tygt0if… tcsdefwkdif;rSm a&GUavsmaewJh pMum0VmBuD; rSm aeaeMuw,f/ olwdkY udk,fwkdif
OD;aqmifwJh b0yHk&dyfawGudk vSpfceJom awGYvkduf&? wu,fawmhvnf; usaemfh&JU urÇmxJrSm
olwdkYawGu upm;olawGjzpfovkd? touf&SifoefaewJh olwkdif;u zefwD;xm;wJh
pMum0Vmrsm;pGmrSmvnf; usaemf[m upm;orm;wpfOD; jzpf&/
oif,lavhvmaeolwpfOD;yg?
usaemf q,foG,fygw,f? &kyfurÇmeJY AmusL&,f urÇmawGu vlom;awG? tkdif'D,mawGeJY usaemf
qufoG,fygw,f? tJ'D 2 ck tMum;rSm e,fedrdwfawGeJYvnf; cGJjcm;xm;rI ew¬d/ usaemf aexkdif
&Sifoef&m? tvkyfvkyfudkif&m? upm;ckefpm;&m? ul;vl;qufqH&m ewf0gYrsm;u (wqihf? jzwfvdkY?
twlwuG? yl;wGJ) avhvmygw,f/ qufoG,frIrsm;uwqihf usaemfh&JU ydkwef&S,fudk pOfqufrjywf
us,fjyefYapygw,f/ usaemf avhvmxm;NyD;wJh t&mrsm;&,f? urÇmBuD;eJY xdawGYqufqH&mu
urÇmBuD;u usaemfhtwGuf a&G;cs,f ay;xm;wJh t&mrsm;&,f? tjcm;olrsm;&JU vkyf&yfawGeJY pGufzufrI
awG… tJ'gawG tm;vHk;udk usaemf qufoG,frI jyKygw,f/
q,foG,fwJhtwGufaMumihf usaemfavhvmjzpfwm/
oif,lavhvmaeolwpfOD;yg?
tcsuftvufawG trsm;BuD;udk a&&Gwfekdifygw,f? tjcm;olwum&JU tawG;tjrifawGudk yJhwif
xyfekdifw,f? awmif;qdkcH&wJh tcgawGrSmawmh tcGihftmPm&Sdol q&mocifrsm;&JU tjrifoabmxm;
twkdif;yJaygY? 'gayrJh usaemfu rSDwif;aexkdif&m urÇmBuD;&JU ajymif;vJaewJh yuwd t&Sdw&m;udkom
13

&SmrSD;vdkolav? vlom; jzpfwnfrI&JU tZÑwåoabmpifppfudk odem;vnfvdkol? wpfOD;ESihf
wpfOD; r&Sdrjzpf tjyeftvSef trSDo[J jyKae&ygvm;qdkwJh todw&m;? tjcm;olawGudk
&GwfzwfzdkY&mxuf? tjcm;olawGudk wkyzdkY&mxuf usaemf udk,fhudk,fudkom odjrif
em;vnfcsif vGef;vSygw,f/
oif,lavhvmaeolwpfOD;yg?
pdwful;ÓPfuGefYjrL; awG;awmolyg? tm&HkcHpm;rI t&Sdw&m;&JU [dk; tjyifzufudk xGufvdkYvnf;
&olav? tJ'DrSmaygh… usaemfh&JU tdyfrufawGeJY &nf&G,f&m tjrifawGudk wnfaqmufjzpfwm?
wcgwcgrSmawmh vnf;… tjcm;aom olrsm;&JU vdktifqE´udk BudKqdkvufcHNyD; udk,fydkif
ae&mav;udk tJ'Du olwkdY&JU pdwful; urÇmawGxJrSmvnf; zefwD;wwfyg&JU .... usaemfhudk wefzdk;
jzwfxm;wJhtwkdif;vnf;yJ vufcHyg&JU? a&ppfovdk a&ToefYovdkawmh usaemfh&JU udk,fydkif
pMum0VmeJY tH0ifcGifus jzpfzdkYrQom/ rMumcPqdkovdkaygh? tcsdefumveJY arG;Zmwd&JU
rawmfwq jzpfrIawGaMumihf 0ef;usifvlom;awG&JU vlrI? bmom? pm&dwåeJY ekdifiHa&; pHwefzdk;
rsm;&JU jyXmef;cH wpfOD;ygyJ/ tJ'Dvdk tajctaeawGrSm udk,fydkif trSefw&m;udk zefwD; wnf
aqmufaeqJ? odkYaomfvnf;yJ vGwfvyfrItwGufawmhjzihf &kef;uefae&pNrJ? tjcm; [efYwm;?
ydwfqdkYrIawG&JU 'ku©Mum;rSmaygY/
oif,lavhvmaeolwpfOD;yg?
tjcm;olrsm;&Jh yHk0w¬KawGudk em;axmifygw,f? udk,fydkif yHk0w¬KawGudkvnf; ajymjywwfol…
ukd,fh zmomudk,f ajymjzpfw,f? olwumudk ajymjyw,f? yHk0w¬KxJu Zmwfvdkufausmfav...
udk,fwkdifa&;aum? olrsm;zGJY&mrSmaum/ udk,fhZmwf&kyfudk ukd,fwkdifyJ qHk;jzwf&- ZmwfuGuf?
Zmwfvrf;? '@m&D? Zmwforkdif;rsm;? tvdrftnmrsm;? rSefw,f xif&yHkrsm;? &dk;&mrsm;? upm;
enf;rsm;&JU a&morarT ryD0dk;w0g; tvif;zefwHk;atmufrSm - b0&JU yuwd t&Sdw&m; udk
,Sufazguf zGJYxHk;vdkY zefwD;xm;wJh t&IyfZmwfvrf;/ ypöKyÜef ZmwftdrfxJrSm aexkdifvdkY oif,l
aeolav… twdwfZmwfaMumif;rsm;udkvnf; ,Sufazguf? a&G;xkwf? jyefajymvdkY? oif,l
ygw,f/
oif,lavhvmaeolwpfOD;yg?
oifMum;jyocHwpfOD;awmh r[kwf&yg/
avhvmaeqJ/
ololtdrf
(paumhwvefjynfom;? ausmif;q&m? ynma&;ynm&Sif? trsKd;om; ynma&; ay:vpD tBuH
ay;? uAsmq&m? pma&;q&m John Connell \ I am learner uAsmukd bmomjyefqdk
onf/)
14

umwGef;

15

16

ausmif;om;rsm;\ pdwfyg0ifpm;rI wdk;wufa&;twGuf ausmif;q&mrsm; nDvmcH

17

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Sihf e,fpyf
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wif;
udk,fydkifausmif; Oya't& EkdifiHa&; oifMum;cGihf r&Sd

jynfaxmifpk vTwfawmfrS jyXmef;vdkufaom
udk,fydkifausmif; Oya'wGif udk,fydkifausmif; qdkonfrSm
ynm t&nftaoG; jrifhrm;a&;twGuf ynma&;0efBuD;
Xmeu jyXmef;xm;aom oif&dk;nGef;wrf;ESihftnD oif&kd;
rmwdumrsm;yg bmom&yfrsm;twdkif; jzpfap? tqdkyg
bmom&yfrsm;twGuf oifcef;pmrsm; xyfaqmif;í jzpf
ap avhusifh oifMum;ay;aom yk*¾vdu wnfaxmif zGifh
vSpfonfh ausmif;udk qdkvdkonf[k az: jyxm;onf/

]tpdk;&u jyXmef;xm;wJh oif&dk;nTef;wrf;udkyJ
oif&r,fqdkawmh bmxl;rSmvJ? 'kH&if;u 'kH&if;ygbJ/ edkfifiH
jcm; wdkif;jynfawGrSmu ynma&; vGwfvyfrItjynfh&Sdw,f?
oif&dk;nGef;wrf;u wausmif;eJY wausmif; rwlbl;? oif&kd;
aumif;rS ausmif;om;awG t&nftcsif;wufr,f qdkawmh
tNydKiftqdkif vkyfMuw,f? tpdk;&u olwdkY xkwfjyefxm;wJh
Oya't& qdk&if Student Center pepfeJY oGm;vdkY rjzpfbl;?
'Dpepft& qdk&if ausmif;om;awGrSm vGwfvyfpGm ar;ydkif
cGifh &Sdw,f? Oya'eJY rudkufnDwJh? jynfaxmifpk NydKuGJa&;udk
xdcdkufaprnfh oifMum;a&;udk roif&qdkawmh? oifwJh
q&mudk b,ftcsdefrqdk axmifxJ qGJxnfhvdkY&w,f qdkwJh
oabmygyJ} [k pD'DpDausmif;wGif oifMum;aeonfh q&m
wOD;u ajymqdkcJhonf/

udk,fydkifausmif;wGif oifMum;rnfh q&mrsm;
onf vkyfouf ig;eSpf &Sd&rnfNyD; ynma&;XmewGif yk*¾vdu
ausmif;q&m vkyfudkif&ef avQmufxm;&rnf jzpfonf/

]usru xdkif;edkifiHyk*¾vdu ausmif;awGrSm vkyf
vmwm q,feSpfausmfNyD? xdkif;tpdk;&qDrSm vufrSwf
vkyfp&m rvdkbl;? 'Duausmif;awGu vGwfvyfrI tjynfh
&Sdw,f? tpdk;&uvnf; bmrS 0ifa&muf pGufzufwm
r&Sdbl;} [k befaumufedkifiHwum ausmif;wGif oifMum;
18

aeonfh q&mr a':eSif;qDrS ajymqdkcJhonf/

udk,fydkifausmif; wnfaxmif&mwGif jynfyedkfifiH
tultnDjzifh wnfaxmifzGifhvSpfaom ausmif;rjzpfap&
[kyg&Sdonf/ edkifiHjcm; tzGJYtpnf;u OD;pD;wnfaxmifaom
ausmif;rjzpfap& [líyg&SdjyD;? omoemjyKausmif; rjzpfap
& [kvnf;yg&Sdonf/

]b,fedkifiHrSmrqkd yk*¾vduausmif;awGrSm yl;
aygif; aqmif&Gufr,fh edkifiHjcm;wuúokdvf (odkYr[kwf)
aumvdyfawGeJY yl;aygif; wnfaxmifMuw,f? tJ'Dvdk
yl;aygif; rwnfaxmifbJeJY jrefrmedkifiH taetxm;t&
qdk&if ykdcufcJr,f? tawGYtBuHK&SdwJh ausmif;awG&JU yHhydk;
ulnDrI vdktyfw,f? tpdk;&jyXmef;xm;wJh Oya't&qdk&if
olwdkYrBudKufwJh waeYrSm ta&;,lvdkY &aew,f? edkifiH
jcm;om; q&mawGudkac:r,fh udpöuvnf; 'DOya't&
qdk&if jzpfedkifajc odyfr&Sdbl;} [k pD'DpD ausmif;rS q&mu
axmufjy ajymqdkcJhonf/

pD'DpDausmif;wGif edkifiHa&;odyÜHeSifhordkif;bmom
&yfudk oifMum;aeonfh q&mOD;vSa&TrS ]'DOya'udk usaemf
avhvmMunfhw,f? a&;xm;wmawmh AvokH;wef &Sd&r,f
aygh? tJ'geJY ajymif;jyef jzpfaewJh tcsufu oifMum;&rnfh
bmom&yfeSifh oufqdkifjcif; r&Sdonfh edkifiHa&;? bmom
a&;awGudk rydkYcs& qdkNyD; ajymxm;w,f? 'gqdk&if ordkif;
oifwJhq&mudk olwdkY rBudKuf&if axmif'Pf weSpfuae
okH;eSpfeSifh usyfokH;odef;xufrydkwJh 'PfaiGudkyg aqmif&OD;
r,fh oabm&Sdw,f? ordkif;qdkwm edkifiHa&;udk oifwmyJ
av? 'D Oya't&qdk&if aemufusaewJh ynma&;u
aumif;vmr,fh tajctae r&Sdbl;} [k jrefrmtpdk;&\
ynma&;qdkif&m Oya'opfudk a0zefaxmufjycJhonf/
armu©ynma&;owif; (5? 'DZifbm 2011)

wkdif;&ifom; pmay ausmif;rSm oifMum;Ekdifawmhrvm;

trsKd;om; vTwfawmfrSm yk*¾vdu ausmif;awG
zGifhEdkifcGifh Oya'rlMurf; wckudk Ak'¨[l;aeYu twnfjyK
vdkufNyD; tJ'Dausmif;awGrSm tpdk;&u jyXmef;xm;wJh
oifcef;pmawGtjyif jznfhpGufbmom&yfawGvnf; oif
Mum;Ekdifw,fvdkY cGifhjyKxm;wJhtwGuf wdkif;&if;om;
bmompum;eJY pmayawG ausmif;rSm w&m;0if oifMum;
Edkifawmhrvm; qdkwJh arQmfvifhcsufawG ay:xGuf aeyg
w,f/ tck Oya'rlMurf;rSm yk*¾vduydkif;u axmifwJh
ausmif;awG taeeJY tpdk;&u ausmif;oifcef;pm tjzpf
jyXmef;xm;wJh bmom&yfrsm;udk roifrae& oifMum;&rSm
jzpfNyD; jznfhpGufbmom&yfawGudkvnf; oifMum;Ekdifw,f
vdkY cGifhjyKxm;aMumif; trsKd;om;vTwfawmfudk,f pm;vS,f
wOD;jzpfwJh OD;zkef;jrifhatmifu bDbDpDudk ajymygw,f/

'gYaMumifh tck Oya' t& wdkif;&if;om; bmom
oifMum; ydkYcsvdkwJh yk*¾vdu ausmif;awG taeeJY jznfhpGuf
bmom&yfwck tjzpf xnfhoGif; oifMum;EkdifrSm jzpf
aMumif; olu &Sif;jyygw,f/ tck Oya'rlMurf;udk trsKd;om;
vTwfawmfuom twnfjyKxm;ao;wJh tqifhrSm&SdNyD;
jynfolYvTwfawmfeJY jynfaxmifpkvTwfawmfawGu t
wnfjyKzdkY vdktyfaeygao;w,f/ jrefrmEkdifiHrSm wdkif;&if;
om; vlrsKd;rsm;pGm &SdayrJh jrefrmbmomeJY pmayuvGJvdkY
wdkif;&if;om; bmompum;eJY pmay oifMum;rI[m vGwf
vyfcGifh r&Sdwm[m ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm Mumjrifh aecJhwmyg/
bDDbDpD (8.Sept.2011)

ausmif;om; or*¾ taqmuftODyHk jyefvnf azmfjycGihf&

trsm;jynfolMum;xJ ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm yHkESdyfjzefY csd
cGihf r&cJhwJh ordkif;0if ausmif;om;or*¾ taqmuftODyHk
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pwif jzefYcsdvdkufygNyD/ jrefrmhvGwfvyfa&; Adokum AdkvfcsKyf
atmifqef;taMumif; a&;om;xm;wJh pmtkyf wpftkyfxJ
rSm or*¾taqmuftODykHukdyg yHkESdyfjzefYcsdcGifh &cJhwmyg/

AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;&JU rdwfaqGawG? vkyfazmf
udkifzufawGpojzihf pma&;q&mawG a&;om;cJhwJh aqmif;

yg; 57 yk'fudk pkpnf;NyD;awmh ]atmifqef;aemf? Adkvf csKyfaemf?
awZaemf} qdkwJh pmtkyfxJrSm ausmif;om;or*¾ t
aqmuftODyHkudkyg xnfhoGif; azmfjyxm;wmyg/ AdkvfcsKyf
atmifqef;&JU b0wavQmuf acwftoD;oD;udk xif[yf
wJh "mwfyHkawGudk u@awG cGJNyD; azmfjyxm;w,fvdkY 'D
pmtkyfudk xkwfa0wJh wdk;jrpfpmtkyfwkduf&JU xkwfa0ol
udk0if;aZmfvwfu ADGtkdatudk ajymygw,f/

]usaemfwkdYu 'DpmtkyfrSmawmh AkdvfcsKyfatmif
19

qef; Ouú|tjzpf aqmif&GufcJhzl;onfh &efukefwuúodkvf
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av; xnfhNyD;awmh azmfjyxm;wmaygYAsm/ NyD;awmh AdkvfcsKyf
"mwfykHawGudk azmfjywJhtcg AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;&JUausmif;
om;b0? aemufwcku ocifb0? aemuf &Jabmf okH;usdyf
b0? NyD;awmh AkdvfcsKyf&JU tdrfaxmifonfb0? aemuf
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rSmqkd&if ausmif;om;or*¾ taqmufftODudk xnfhxm;yg
w,f/}

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ausmif;om;or*¾ tzGJY0ifa[mif; OD;Ekdif;Ekdif; jzpfygw,f/

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usaemhfrSm "mwfykH aocsm &Sdw,f/

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'Drkdua&pDtzGJYcsKyf (NLD) udk ukd,fpm;jyKNyD; ykZGefawmif
NrdKUe,fuae a&G;aumufwifajr§muf cHcJh&wJh vTwfawmf
udk,fpm;vS,fwOD; jzpfovdk ESpf&Snf tusOf;uscJhwJh Ekdif
iHa&; tusOf;om;a[mif; wOD;vnf; jzpfygw,f/

(VOA) (9.Sept.2011)

ausmif;om; 20 &mckdifEIef;cefY rlvwef; ynm rNyD;qHk;

jrefrmEdkifiH w0ef;vkH;wGif rlvwef;tqifh pwif
wufa&mufonfh ausmif;om; ausmif;ol &mcdkifEIef; 20
cefY rlvwef;ynm rNyD;qHk;aMumif; pufwifbm 3
&uf wGif ukefonfBuD;rsm; [kdw,fü usif;yonfh ausmif;
jyify rlvwef;ynma&; tvSL&Sifrsm; *kPfjyKyJG tcrf;
tem;wGif ynma&; 0efBuD;Xme? 'kwd,0efBuD; OD;at;MuL
u trSmpum; ajymMum;&mwGif xnfhoGif; ajymMum;cJh
onf/

tqkdygudpöESihfywfoufí 'kwd,0efBuD; OD;at;
MuLu ]EkdifiHwpf0ef;vHk;rSm rlvwef; ausmif;ol ausmif;
om; wpfoef;ausmfavmuf pwufayr,fh &Spf odef;ausmf

20

avmufyJ rlvwef;ynm NyD;qHk;ygw,f/ 'gaMumihf
&mckdifEIef;eJY Munfh&if &mckdifEIef; 20 avmuf rlvwef;ynm
rNyD;qHk;wm awGY&w,f/ 'gaMumihf ausmif; jyify rlvwef;
ynma&;u tvGefta&;ygNyD; 'DtpDtpOf wkd;csJU aqmif
&GufEkdifzdkYtwGuf tm;ay;ulnDoGm;rSm jzpfygw,f} [k qkd
onf/
The Myanmar Post
(15.Sept.2011)

ausmif;q&mrsm; toif;csKyf zGJYpnf;wnfaxmifcGihf tqkdudk vTwfawmfu y,fcs

ausmif;q&mrsm;\ tvkyftudkif *kPfodu©m
eSihf vlrIpD;yGm; ajyvnfapa&;? q&mtcGihfta&;rsm;
umuG,f apmihfa&Smufay;a&;wdkYtwGuf vGefpGm vdktyf
vsuf&Sdonfh ausmif;q&mtoif;csKyf? q&mor*¾ zGJYpnf;
cGihftwGuf wifjyawmif;qdkrIudk vTwfawmfu y,fcsvdkuf
onf/

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BuD; rJqE´e,ftrSwf 10 rS OD;eku ]jrefrmedkifiH ausmif;q&m
rsm; toif;csKyf zJGYpnf; wnfaxmifcGifhjyK&ef tpDtpOf &dS^
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MuLu ynma&; 0efBuD;XmewGif OD;pD;Xme? wuúodkvf? 'D*&D
aumvdyef iS hfaumvdyrf sm;?wdik ;f a'oBu;D eSijhf ynfe,fynm
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jzihf pepf usepGm zJGYpnf;xm;NyD; jzpfygaMumif;? oufqdkif&m
tqifhtvdkufudk q&mq&mreSihf 0efxrf;rsm;tm; vpOf
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&SdygaMumif;? xdkYtjyif q&mq&mrrsm;taejzifh A[dk 0ef

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onfh oifwef;rsm; wufa&mufonfh tcgüvnf; wpf
aygif;wnf; pkpnf;pGm awGYqHkcGifh &&dSygaMumif;? eSpfpOf
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onf aejynfawmf&dS a&qif;pdkufysKd;a&; wuúodkvfwGif
usif;yaom ynma&; eDS;aeSmzvS,fyJGrsm;wGifvnf; awGYqHk
cGihf &&SdygaMumif;? xdkodkY awGYqHkcGihf &&SdcsdefwGif q&mq&mr
rsm;\ vdktyfcsufrsm;? wijfycsufrsm;udk ajz&Sif; ay;aeyg
aMumif;? xdkYtjyif q&mq&mrrsm;\ &ifzGihf wdkifMum;pmrsm;
udkvnf; tav;xm; pdppf ppfaq; aqmif&Gufvsuf &Sdyg
aMumif;? odkYjzpfygí avmavmq,f jrefrmekdifiH ausmif;
q&m toif;csKyfuJhodkYaom tzJGYtpnf;rsKd; xyfrH zGJYpnf;
&ef rvdktyfao;ygaMumif;jzi fh ajzMum;cJhonf/

jrefrmhynma&; okawoDwpfOD;u armu©odkY
ajymMum;cJh&mwGif q&mtoif;tzGJY? q&mor*¾rSm vGefpGm
vdktyfaeaMumif;eSihf þodkY wHk;wdwdjzihf vTwfawmfu y,f
cs vdkufjcif;rSm ausmif;q&mq&mrrsm; omrubJ jrefrmh
ynma&;twGufvnf; vGefpGmepfemrI &SdaeaMumif; ajymjy
cJhonf/

]0efBuD;jzpfoludk,fwdkifu 'Drdkua&pD ynma&;
rSm ausmif;q&m or*¾ vdktyfcsufudk em;vnfyHkr&bl;As}

w&m;0if ausmif;q&mor*¾ zGJYpnf;cGihf r&&Sd
ao;aomfvnf; yk*¾vdausmif;rsm;eSihf tcsKdUaom bu
ausmif;rsm;taejzihf pkaygif;vIyf&Sm;rIrsm; &SdaeaMumif;
vnf; owif;&&Sdygonf/
armu©owif; (31? atmufwdkbm? 2011)

NLD vli,f 8 OD; ydkvef 'Drkdua&pDpepfoGm;a&muf avhvm

ykdvef ekdifiHjcm;a&; 0efBuD;Xme&JU zdwfMum;csuf
t& trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pD tzJGYcsKyfu vli,f 8 OD;[m ykdvef
ekdifiH&JU toGiful;ajymif;a&; tawGYtBuHKawGukd wpfywf
Mum avhvmzkdY ykdvefekdifiHukd a&mufaeygw,f/

'Drkdua&pDekdifiH xlaxmif&mrSm b,fvkd tajccH
awG wnfaqmufcJhw,fqkdwJh tawGYtBuHKawGukd 'D
c&D;pOftwGif; avhvmNyD; jrefrmekdifiHrSm jyefvnf tokH;cs
ekdifrSmygvkdY avhvma&;tzJGY0if rat;at;Nidrf;u qkdyg
w,f/

1989 ckESpfu awGYqkHaqG;aEG;NyD; uGefjrLepf
tmPm&Sifpepfuae 'Drkdua&pD ekdifiHa&;pepfukd ul;ajymif;
ekdifcJhwJh ykdvefekdifiH&JU tawGYtBuHKawGeJY tJ'Dtcsdefu ay:
aygufcJhwJh ykdvefjynfolawG&JU Solicitor ac: aoG;pnf;
nDnGwfa&; vIyf&Sm;rItaMumif;ukd 'DZifbmv 17 &uf
txd avhvmMuygr,f/

ykdvefekdifiHNrdKUawmf 0gaqmrSmvnf; ykdvef tkyf
csKyfa&;pepfeJY ynma&;pepfawGukd avhvmygr,f/ (RFA)

21

2011 ckESpf
urÇmhq&mrsm;aeYudk BMTA
usif;y

2011 ckeSpf atmufwkdbmv 5 &uf? urÇmh
q&mrsm;aeYudk BMTA rSBuD;rSL;um xdkif;-jrefrm e,fpyf
rJaqmufNrdKY CDC ausmif;wGif pnfum;odkufNrdKufpGm
usif;ycJhaMumif; owif;&&Sdygonf/

tcrf;tem;odkY a&TUajymif; ausmif;q&m q&mr
rsm;? rJaqmuf c&kdifynma&; wm0efcHeSifh tpdk;& r[kwf
aom tzGJYtpnf;rsm;rS wm0ef&Sd yk*¾dKvfrsm; tyg0if pkpkaygif;
300 ausmf wufa&mufcJhonf/

wmhc&kdif 'kwd,ynma&;'g&dkufwm red'grS ]usr
wdkY xdkif;edkifiH&JU ynma&;aqmifyk'fu bk&if blrdabmonf
xdkif;vlrsKd;wkdY&JU q&mwql? todÓPf MuG,f0jcif;&JU
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q&mrsm; usifhBuH&rnfh tcsuf (5) csufeSifh ynm jzefYa0

GHRE-FED

oif&dk;nTef;wrf; pHEIef;rsm; a&;qGJ

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uav;rsm;twGuf pmoifausmif;rsm; zGifhvSpfxm;aom
ynma&;eSifh zGHYNzdK;wkd;wufa&; azmifa';&Sif; FED \ ynm
a&;XmerS ynma&;qkdif&m tvkyf&Hk aqG;aEG;yGJudk atmuf
wdkbm 13 &ufaeYrS 19 &ufaeYtxd xHkcrif; tv,fwef;
ausmif;wGif usif;ycJhaMumif; owif;&&Sd ygonf/

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jyKpka&;qGJjcif;? uav;A[dkjyK pmoifMum;enf;oifwef;eSihf

22

&mwGif xm;&Sd&rnfh oabmxm;wdkYudk wifjycJhonf/

]q&mrsm; vdkufem&r,fh tcsufuawmh (1)
ynmudk wefzdk;xm;&ef? (2) ynmudk xdef;odrf; apmifha&Smuf
&ef? (3) ynmudk wdk;wufatmif jyKvkyf&ef? (4) &SdNyD;om;
ynmeSifh ynma&; tzGJYtpnf;wGif yg0if&efeSifh (5) ynm
a&;u@wGif yl;aygif; aqmif&Guf&ef? pwJh tcsufawG &Sdyg
w,f} [k ajymjycJhonf/

r,fawmfaq;cef;rS q&mra'gufwm pifoD,m
armif? Thinking Classroom Foundation rS a'gufwm
OD;odef;vGif? a&TUajymif; ausmif;q&mrsm; tpnf;t&Hk;
BMTA rS q&mref;a&TESif;ESihf WE rS Mr. Greg Antos
wdkYuvnf; toD;oD; trSmpum;rsm; ajymMum;cJhMuonf/
armu©owif; (5 atmufwdkbm? 2011)

uav;oli,f umuG,fapmihf a&Smufa&; oifwef;wdkYudk
vnf; aqmif&GufekdifcJhaMumif; FED tzGJYtpnf;\ ynm
a&;Xme wm0efcH q&mOD;rif;odrf;ausmfu &Sif;jycJhonf/

7 &ufMum ynma&; aqG;aEG;yGJwGif FED \
ynma&;qdkif&m tBuHay;t&m&Sd q&mOD;odef;edkifu OD;
aqmifcJhNyD; q&reef;eDvmaxG;ESihf q&mrqkeE´mxGef; wkdY
uvnf; ynma&; pDrHcefYcGJrItaMumif; aqG;aEG;cJhMuonf/
armu©owif; (21 atmufwdkbm 2011)

ucsif 'ku©onf uav;i,frsm;
pdwf'Pf&m&

ucsifjynfe,ftwGif; ppfjzpfyGm;rIaMumifh xGuf
ajy; wdrf;a&Smifae&aom uav;i,frsm;onf pdwfydkif;
qkdif&m xdcdkufrIrsm;eSifh &ifqdkifae&aMumif; jrefrmEkdifiH
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aMunmcsufwGif azmfjyxm;onf/

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,HkMunfrI avsmhenf;vmNyD; pdwfvHkjcHKrI r&Sdonfh cHpm;
csufrsm; &SdaeMuonf} [k xkwfjyefcsufwGif a&;om;

xm;onf/

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BuHKawGYvsuf &SdaMumif;vnf; ¤if;tzGJYu qdkonf/

ucsif jynfe,f&Sd NrdKYe,f 11 NrdKYe,fwGif ,m,D
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csufwGif azmfjyxm;onf/

trsKd;om; ausmif;q&m tvGeftrif; &Sm;yg;vmae

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OD;a&xuf enf;aeNyD; tcsKdUausmif;rsm;wGif q&mrrsm;om
&SdMuonf[k &efukefNrdKU&Sd tajccHynmausmif;rsm;rS pHkprf;
od&Sd&onf/

taMumif;rSm wuúodkvf0ifwef; atmifjrif
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oGm;jcif;? olemjyKwuúodkvfESifh pD;yGm;a&; wuúokdvf rsm;rS
ty useftoufarG;0rf;ausmif; wuúodkvfrsm;onf
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trsKd;orD;tiftm; wdk;wufvmjcif;wdkYaMumifh ausmif;
q&mtjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifvdkonfh ausmif;om;rsm;

avsmhenf;vm&jcif; jzpfonfudkvnf; Mo*kwfv 31
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a&;ESifh pDrHcefYcGJa&; 0efxrf;rsm;[lí &Sd&m 0efxrf;tiftm;
pkpkaygif;\ 23 &m cdkifEIef;onfom trsKd;om;jzpfaMumif;
od&Sd&onf/

2011 ckESpf rwfv q&m tiftm; pm&if;t&
pkpkaygif; q&m? q&mr tiftm; 27300 xJwGif
trsKd;om;q&mOD;a&rSm 4800 ausmf&SdNyD; 17 'or 7 &m
cdkifEIef;? ausmif;? &Hk;0efxrf;tiftm; 45000ausmf teuf
trsKd;om; tiftm; 24600 ausmf &Sdojzifh trsKd;
23

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OD;a& pkpkaygif; 3 'or 18 odef;wGif trsKd;om; 23 &m cdkifEIef;cefY
wm0ef xrf;aqmif vsuf&Sdonf[kvnf; od&onf/

]trsKd;om;q&m &Sm;vmwJh udpörSmawmh
toufarG;0rf;ausmif; oabm obm0 xHk;pHudku
trsKd;om;q&mu trsKd;orD;xuf enf;udk enf;wmyg/
'DMum;xJrSmrS trsKd;om;q&m ydkNyD;&Sm;vm&w,f qdkwm

uawmh toufarG;0rf;ausmif; wuúodkvfBuD;awGrSm
trsKd;om;OD;a& wdk;ac:vmcJhwmawG aMumifhyg/ 'gudkvnf;
vTwfawmfrSm ajymcJhNyD;ygNyD/ ajym&&if q&mawG vkyfcsif
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usifrsKd;awmh zefwD;ay;oihfw,ff} [k &efukefynma&;
wuúokdvfrS tNidrf;pm; 'kwd, ygarmu©csKyfu ajymMum;
cJhygonf/ (3 .Sept. 2011)

vTwfawmftrwf aZurÇmOD;cifa&T &wJh a'gufwmbGJU twk jzpfae
Associates ukkrÜPDukd weSpf a':vm 2 odef;cGJausmf ay;NyD;
aZurÇmukkrÜPDykdif&Sif OD;cifa&Tuwqihf iSm;cJhygw,f/ 'g
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ppftpdk;& odu©mjyefwifekdifa&;twGuf tar&duef Public tar&duef PR ukkrÜPDawGeJY odu©mwufatmif BudK;pm;
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24

a&Tukd tar&duefekdifiH 0g&Sifwefwuúodkvfu ay;tyf wJh
Business Administration qkkdif&m *kkPfxl;aqmif a'guf
wmbGJY csD;jr§ihfwJh tcrf;tem;vkkyfwJhtaMumif; ppftpdk;&
owif;ukkd ukkd;um;NyD; tar&duef Washington Post
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(*sufz&D qef;armif)
news.uwstl.edu

25

uav;u@

uav;uAsm

oli,fcsif;rdk;
olYararqlxm;vdkYvm;
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26

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azjrihf? ESvHk;om; tm[m& &opmrsm; (2) rS...
Risking by Patty Hansen (Chicken Soup for the soul

27

Nidrf;csrf;a&; Edkb,f ESpf 100 jynfh txdrf;trSwf wHqdyfacgif;

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28

2011 Nidrf;csrf;a&; Edkb,fqk&Sifrsm;

,DrifEkdifiHrS EkdifiHa&; vIyf&Sm;ol
Tawakkol Karman

The Nobel Peace Prize

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Ellen Johnson Sirleaf

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2011 ckESpf? 'DZifbmv 5 &ufaeYwGif bk&ifrif;jrwfrSm oufawmf 84 ESpfjynhfNyDjzpfonf/

33

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bk&if tjzpf
arv 5 &uf? 1950
28 ZGefv? 1952
xD;eef;
qufcH/
bk&ifrif;jrwf
ZGefv 9?
blrdabmESihf rif;orD;
bk&ifblrdabmESihf
1946
&m*s0efoD&dacwf
rdom;pk befaumuf
udwd,um&wdkY\
NrdKUawmfodkY tNyD;wkdif
aphpyfaMumif;vrf;jcif;
jyefvmcJh/
bk&if
r*Fvm/
2 'DZifbm 1951
tmeE´m
19 ZGef? 1949
uG,fvGef/
ZGefv 9?
rif;orD;
1946
bk&ifblrdabmESihf
Oabm
rif;orD; oD&dacwfwdkY\
&wemudk
xdrf;jrm;r*Fvm/
zGm;jrif/
18 {NyDv? 1950
5 {NyD? 1951

1945

1950

rif;orD;
csKvmbGefudk
zGm;jrif
4 ZGef? 1957

rif;orD;
csKvmbGefudk
zGm;jrif
4 ZGef? 1957

rif;orD;
r[mcsufu&D
oD&d'Hkudk zGm;jrif/
2 {NyD? 1955/

1955

1960

35

bk&ifBuD;\ zGHYNzdK;wdk;wufrI t,ltq
yx0DtajctaeESihf &SifoefaexdkdifrI yHkpHwdkYtay: av;pm;
orI &Sd&rnf[kvnf; bk&ifBuD;u rdefYjrGufrSmMum;onf/


]vlxktay: uREkfyfwdkY\ tawG;tjrifwkdYudk
twif;tusyf roGwfoGif;oihfyg/ tBuHÓPf jyK&HkrQom
vkyfaqmifoihfonf/ olwdkYESihf awGYqHk&rnf/ olwdkY vkdtyf
csufudk odjrifem;vnfxm;&rnf/ ,if;aemufwGifrSom
olwdkY arQmfvifhcsufwdkY jynfh0ap&ef rnfonfwdkY vkyf
aqmifEkdifonfudk tBuHÓPfay;jcif;yifjzpfonf/}


bk&ifrif;jrwf \ tawG;tjrifwdkYrSm pHEIef;rsm;udk
csrSwfNyD; txufrS atmufodkY nTefMum;tkyfcsKyfonfh

zGHYNzdK;wdk;wufa&;\ &v'frsm;rSm vuf&Sd jyó AsL&dkua&pDpepfESihf qefYusifzufjzpf\/ vlxku yg0if
emwdkYudk ajyvnfatmif ajz&Sif;EkdifNyD; vlxkqDodkY wkduf&dkuf aqmif&Gufjcif;ESihf qHk;jzwfcsufcsrSwfjcif;wdkYjzpfonf/
a&muf&Sd &rnfvnf;jzpfonf/ ]&SifoefrItwGuf avmuf
]zwfpmtkyfrsm;udkomvQif wG,fuyf? zufwG,f
i&ef? pm;oHk;&eftwGuf avmufi&ef} rSonf ]jynhfpHkpGm
aexdkifjcif;ESihf tm[m&jynfh0pGm pm;oHk;Ekdifjcif;} qDodkY rxm;MuavESifh/}

csOf;uyfrIjzpf\/

bk&ifBuD;u qHk;rpum; ajymMum;cJhzl;onf/

bk&ifBuD;udkf,fwkdifvnf; ]&dk;pif;aom aexdkif
rI} udk vdkufemusihfoHk;onf/ þenf;vrf;jzifh wkdif;ol
zGHYNzdK;a&;orm;wdkYonf &yf&Gm vlYtodkif;t0dkif;
jynfom;wdkYvnf; rdrdwkdY\ b0 tajctae trSeftwkdif; twGif;&Sd vlrIa&;ESihf obm0w&m;wdkYESihf nd§EdIif; aqmif
jyóem t00udk &ifqkdif ajz&Sif;EkdifMuonf/ ol\ zGHYNzdK;a&; &Guf&rnf[kvnf; Mo0g' ay;cJhzl;onf/
'óetawG;tjrifwdkYudk trsm;jynfol odem;vnf
vG,frnfh acgif;pOfi,frsm;jzihf a&;om;jyKpkwifjycJhonf/

zGHYNzdK;wdk;wufa&; jyóemrsm;ESihf ywfoufNyD;
bk&ifrif;jrwf\ udk,fydkif 'óerSm þodkYjzpf\/ &kd;&Sif;
vG,fulpGm ajz&Sif;&efjzpfonf/ obm0w&m;\ tpOf
ajymif;vJaerI Oya'otwkdif; todÓPfynm &,lNyD;
vdkufavsmnDaxG trSDo[JjyK &Sifoefa&;yifjzpfygonf/
om"u aqmif&aomf a&xknpfnrf;rIudk oefYpif&mwGif
a&oefYjzihf vJvS,fz,f&Sm;a&; (odkYr[kwf) yHkrSef
'Da&twuftus pepfudk toHk;csNyD; a&udk oefYpifapa&;
jzpfonf/ aA'gyifi,frsm;udk pdkufysKd;xm;NyD; tnpftaMu;
rsm;udk pkyf,loefYpifaponhf enf;vrf;rsm;udkvnf;
toHk;jyKEkdif ygao;onf/

36

zGHYNzdK;a&; vkyfaqmif&m0,f a'owGif;vlxk?

r[mzGHYNzdK;rI bk&ifBuD;ESihf ol\ ukd,fydkif urÇmausmf 'óe

2006 ckESpf? arvwGif ukvor*¾ taxGaxG twGif;a&;rSL;csKyf udk
zDtmeefu vlom;zGHYNzdK;a&; woufwm pGrf;aqmif&nf atmifjrifrIqk Human
Development Lifetime Achievement Award udk xkdif;bk&ifBuD;tm;
csD;jr§ihfcJhonf/ bk&ifrif;jrwf\ ]jynfwGif;zlvHkavmufirI pD;yGm;a&;} Sufficiency Economy zGHYNzdK;a&; 'óetjriftay: wefzdk;xm;NyD; qkcsD;jr§ihfjcif;jzpfonf/


jrwfAk'¨\ oGefoifqHk;rcsufrsm;? rZÑdry#dy'g - tv,ftvwf
usihfpOf? zGHYNzdK;a&;\ tv,fA[dkwGif jynfolvlxk\ udk,f? pdwfESpfjzm csrf;om
a&;udk t"duxm;&ef? &dk;&mrysuf tjcm;enf;vrf;rsm;jzihf zGHYNzdK;a&;udk aqmif
&Guf&ef? pD;yGm;wdk;wufzGHYNzdK;rI yg&m'dkif;ta&GUtay: owdxm; csnf;uyf&ef
ponfh tawG;tjrifrsm;udk aygif;pnf;NyD; bk&ifBuD;u xdkif;jynfolwdkYtwGuf
udk,fydkifzGHYNzdK;rI 'óewpf&yfudk wnfaqmufay;cJhonf/


rsufarSmufacwf urÇmBuD;\ pD;yGm; zGHYNzdK;wkd;wufa&;wGifvnf;
ta&;ygvSonfh tawG;tjrif wpf&yftaejzihf vufcHxm;&SdMuonf/

Sufficiency
Economy
เศรษฐกิจพอเพียง

37

bk&ifrif;jrwf\ qif;&Jom;jynfolvlxktwGuf
awmf0if zGHYNzdK;wdk;wufa&; pDrHudef;rsm;

csufu&D rif;rsKd;quf\ udk;yg;ajrmufrif; jzpf
aom bk&if blrdabmvft'l,m'wf aexdkif&m awmf0if
eef;awmf0ef;twGif;wGif awmf0ifpDrHcsufrsm;twGuf prf;
oyf okawoe oD;ESHpdkufcif;rsm;? opfawmrsm;? tao;pm;
puf&Hki,frsm; xm;&Sdygonf/ pyg;pdkufcif;rsm;? opfoD;0vH
pdkufuGufrsm;? arG;jrLa&;jcHrsm;? ig;uefrsm;? pyg;Budwf puf
wpfvHk;? EkdYcsufpuf&Hk ponfwdkYvnf; yg&Sdonf/ þprf;
oyfrIrsm;? okawoersm; atmifjrifonfh tcg0,f v,f
orm;vlxkxH taMumif;Mum;NyD; enf;ynmtopfudk
toHk;jyKcGihf &&Sdaponf/ ausmif;om;rsm;? v,f orm;rsm;
ESihf jynfolvlxkudkvnf; eef;wGif; pDrHcsufrsm;tm;
vma&muf avhvmcGihf jyKxm;onf/

bk&ifrif;jrwf\ ESpf 60 ausmf xD;eef;oufwrf;
umvtwGif; NrKdU&Gm? aus;vuftESHY EkdifiHw0Srf;vHk;&Sd
tajccHvlxkxHodkY yHkrSef oGm;a&mufvnfywfavh&Sdonf/
txl;ojzihf a0;vHoDacgifNyD; zGHYNzdK;wdk;wufrI enf;yg;vS
aom aus;vufESihf awmifay:a'orsm;? qif;&JrGJawvS

38

aom vlxk tMum;odkY OD;pm;ay; oGm;a&muf avhvmavh
&Sdygonf/


tusKd;quftaejzihf 1952 ckESpfu pwifcJh
aom awmf0ifpDrHudef; Royal projects ta&twGufrSm
,cktcg 3000 (oHk;axmif) ausmf&SdavNyD/ tajccHvlxk
twGuf ynma&;? usef;rma&;? pD;yGm;a&;? obm0
ywf0ef;usif xdef;odrf;a&;? a&t&if;tjrpf umuG,fa&;
ESihf zGHYNzdK;a&; pDrHudef;rsm; jzpfonfhtwGuf aus;vufae
vlxkwdkY tcGihftvrf;rsm;pGm cHpm; &&SdapNyD; qif;&JrGJawrI
avsmhcsa&;ESifh jynfolYtusKd;pD;yGm; zGHYNzdK;a&;twGuf rsm;pGm
taxmuftuljzpfaponf/

21 &mpkwGif vlom;qefvSaom? jynfolwdkY
ESihftwl? jynfolYvlxk\ pdwåokc? um,okc jynfhpHka&;
twGuf aexkdif&Sifoefaom xl;jcm;onfh orkdif;wGifrnfh
bk&ifBuD; wpfyg;yifjzpfygonf/

bk&ifrif;jrwf oufawmf &mausmf&Snfygap/

xkdif;0efBuD;csKyf&ifvufESihf tpdk;&tzGJYu
bk&ifBuD;arG;aeYwGif *g&0jyKMuyHk

oufawmf&Snf bk&ifrif;jrwf\ 84 ESpfajrmuf arG;aeYwGif
Mo0g'rdefYcGef; ajymMum;pOf (5 &uf? 'DZifbm? 2011)

39

ukvor*¾\ vlom;zGHYNzdK;a&; woufwm
pGrf;aqmif&nfatmifjrifrI qk udk bk&ifrif;jrwfrS
vufcH&,lpOf (26 arv 2006)

jrefrmEkdifiH or®wBuD; ref;0if;armifESihf
xkdif;bk&ifrif;jrwf
(2-5 rwfv? 1960? &efukef)

acG;cspfaom bk&ifBuD;

40

owd... pmzwf&ef rarhygESihf

,aeYacwfrSm rD'D,mawG&JU
wdk;yGm;rI (Media Population) u rsm;
onfxuf rsm;vmonf/ ,cifu yHkESdyf
rD'D,m (Press Media) TV, Audio
Media wdk havmufom &dScJh&mrS ,aeY
wGif tGefvdkif;rD'D,m? aMumfjimbkwf? qdk
&S,feuf0ufcfrsm;? rdkbdkif;zkef;rsm; ponf
jzifh Media rsKd;pHk tvQKdvQKd ay:ayguf vm
Muonf/

txl;ojzifh
rD'D,mat;
(Cold Media) rsm; jzpfonfh pmtkyfpm
ay Press Media rsm;u Online, Internet uJhodkYaom Hot Media rsm;ESifh
,SOfvQif ,SOfNydKif EdkifpGrf;rsm; ododom
om usqif; vmMuonf/ txl;ojzifh
tifwmeufuJhodkYaom Hot Media wdkY
rSm toHk;jyKolrsm; od&dSvdkonfh owif;
tcsuftvufrsm;udk tcsdefwdktwGif;
vsifjrefpGm &SmazGay;Ekdifjcif;? t&kyftoH
ponhf Media pHk Munhf½I cHpm;Ekdifjcif;? toHk;jyKol user
tcsif;csif; Email? csufwif ponfwdkYjzifh qufoG,f
Ekdifjcif;? ponfwdkYaMumifh umvwdk twGif;rSm oHk;pGJol
ta&twGuf tqrwef rsm;jym;vmcJhonf/ tcsKdUaom
urÇmausmf owif;pmBuD;rsm;onfyifvQif ,if;wdkY\ Offline yHkESdyf xkwfa0aerIrsm;udk &yfqdkif;um Online Version wpfckwnf;jzifh ajymif;vJ &yfwnf vm&onftxd
Hot Media wdkYu atmifjrifrI o&zl aqmif;EkdifcJhonf/

ICT acwf&JU wdk;wufrIawGMum;rSm arG;zGm; vm
MuwJh Cyber Citizen vli,fawG[m Online, Internet
t&kyf? toH vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;awGeJY jynfhESufaewJh Multimedia urÇmBuD;rSmyJ olwdkY&JU b0awGudk jr§KyfESH xm;csifMu
ygw,f/ onfvdkqdk&if olwdkYwpfawGtwGuf Cold Meida awG[m rvdktyfawmhbl;vm;/ Cold Media awG&JU
usqHk;cef;[m uRefawmfwkdY&JU urÇmBuD;rSm pwifaeNyDvm;/

onfvdk ar;vmcJh&ifawmh pma&;ol
u r[kwfyg/ vHk;0r[kwfyg[k jywfjywf
om;om; jyef ajz&ygrnf/ rMumao;rDu
t*FvefEkdifiHrSm jyKvkyfcJhonfh okawoe
ppfwrf;wpfck& Online, Internet, Hot
Media rsm; tMum; arG;zGm; BuD;jyif;vmonfh
vli,fvl&G,fwdkYrSm pmtkyf? pmay? r*¾Zif;
ponfh Cold Media rsm; tMum;rSm arG;zGm;
BuD;jyif;vmaom vli,f vl&G,frsm;xuf
pOf;pm;awG;ac:EkdifrI?ÓPf&nfÓPfaoG;wdkY
edrfhusaeaMumif; taotcsm awGY&dS&yg
onf/ Hot Media wdkY\ oabmrSm t&kyf?
toH? vIyf&Sm;rIwdkYrSm cl;NyD;cyfNyD; toifhjyif
qifxm;NyD; jzpfojzifh OD;aESmuf\tvkyf
rvdktyfbJ ESvHk;om;ESifh toifh cHpm;&Hk jzpf
onf/ Cold Media wdkY\ oabmrSm Hot
Media \ ajymif;jyefjzpfonf/

txl;ojzifh ,aeY zGHYNzdK;NyD; EkdifiHBuD;
rsm; (Developed Country) wGif Hot Media rsm;ESifh Cold Media rsm;\ vTrf;rdk;rIrSm wef;wl
&nfwlrQom &dSvm aomfvnf; pma&;olwdkYuJhodkY zGHNzdK;qJ
EkdifiHrsm;wGif Hot Media rsm;\ vTrf;rdk;rIrSm tqrwef
tm;aumif; vm onfjzpf&m awG;ac:rIpGrf;&nfrsm;? wDxGif
zefwD;EdkifrIrsm; ododomom usqif;vmonfudk awGY&dS&
ygonf/ odkYjzpfí vli,fvl&G,frsm; taejzifh Hot Media
rsm;wGifom tcsdefukef vHk;yrf; raeMubJ Cold Media
rsm;bufodkYvnf; wpfvSnfhjyef vSnhfum rdrdwdkY\
awG;ac:rI pGrf;&nfrsm;udk jr§ifhwifMuyg[k wdkufwGef; a&;
om; vdkuf&ygonf/

]aus;Zl;jyKí ... pmzwf&ef rarhMuygESifh}
Ref: www.newyorktime.com

41

oifhpmusufpGrf;&nfudk b,fvdkjr§ihfwifrvJ
plan is plan for fail}

'DuaeY acwf[m ,SOfNydKifrIacwf Hyper Competition Age BuD; jzpfwmeJYtnD vli,fvl&G,fwkdif;[m
tcsdefwkdif; oif,lae? Learning vkyfae&ygw,f/ ,aeY
urÇmay:rSmvnf; pOfqufrjywf oif,lavhvmaeMuwJh
tzGJYtpnf;awG? EdkifiHawGuyJ atmifjrifrI o&zltvDvDudk
&,laeMuwm jzpfygw,f/

zl;ikHwkdY taeeJYvnf; 'Dvkd Learning Organization awGxJrSm ausmif;oifynma&;awGudk omru
Informal Education jzpfwJh udk,fwkdif avhvmoif,lrI
Self learning udkvnf; rjywf jyKvkyfaeMu&rSmyg/ wpf
zufrSmvnf; Formal Education vrf;aMumif; jzpfwJh
wuúodkvf0ifwef;? yxrbGJY First Degree awGudk omr
u 'kwd,bGJY Second Degree awG? rmpwmbJGY Master
Degree awG? a'gufwmbGJYawG? 'DyvkdrmawG rsm;pGm
oif,lMu&OD;rSm/

zl;ikHwkdY&JU oif,lavhvmrI Learning Process
rSm taxmuftuljyKapzdkY tcsuftvuf uav;rsm;udk
wifjy ay;vdkufygw,f/
1/ tcsdefpm&if; jyifqifa&;qGJrIESifh yef;wkdif (Planning Time-table
and Target)

tpaumif;rS taESmif;aocsmqdkwJh pum;ykH

twkdif; t&m&mwdkif;rSm tpjyKrI[m ta&;BuD;ygw,f/
txl;ojzifh usaemfwdkY jrefrmvlrsKd;awG awmfawmfrsm;rsm;
[m Planning a&;qGJwJh ae&mrSm tm;enf;avh &Sdygw,f/
'gaMumifhrkdY olwkdYEdkifiHawGrSm Planning eJY ywfoufvkdY tNrJ
wrf; ajymavh&SdwJh pum;av; wpfcGef;&Sdygw,f/ ]Fail for

42

] pDrHudef;qGJzdkY
ysufuGufjcif;[m usqkH;zkdYtwGuf pDrH
udef; qGJaejcif;yJ} wJh/ 'gaMumifhrdkY zl;ikHwkdY
taeeJYvnf; rdrdwkdY&JU pmoifESpfawG
ppcsif;uwnf;u b,f&uf b,f&uf
awGrSm b,fbmomawGudk tNyD;usuf
r,f? b,fvawGrSm b,fbmomawG
udk oif&kd;ukef avhvmNyD;vdkY jyefvnf
avhusifhcef; vkyfr,f pwJh udk,fh&JU
studying Process eJY qufpyfywf
oufwJh Mile stonesç Time-scale awGudk tao;pdwf
a&;qGJ jyifqif xm;oifhMuygw,f/ NyD;oGm;&ifvnf; Plan
u Plan twkdif;yJ &SdaevdkY r&ygbl;/ udk,fa&;qGJxm;wJh
pDrHudef; Plan eJY tnD vufawGY taumiftxnfazmf
vkyfMu&ygr,f/ tJonf vkd vkyfaepOf tcgrSmvnf; udk,fh&JU
Plan [m vufawGY usrus? udk,feJY udkufnD-rudkufnD
rjywf qef;ppfaeNyD; vdktyfwmrSeforQudk vkdwdk; ydkavQmh
vkyfNyD; Plan udk tNrJ wrf; Update vkyfaeoifhygw,f/
2/ pmusufonfhae&m (Studying Location)

pmusufwJh ae&muvnf; zl;ikHwkdY Learning
Process rSm rsm;pGm ta&;ygygw,f/ ckdifrmwJh okawoe
ppfwrf;awGt& ae&m wpfae&mwnf;rSmyJ tNrJwrf; pGJ
pGJNrJNrJ usufwJh olawG[m ae&mawG cPcPajymif;NyD;
pmusufwJh olawGxuf pmydk&? pmrSwfrdw,fvkdY qkdyg
w,f/ jzpfEdkif&if pmusufwJh ae&m[m tdyf&may:wdkY?
qdkzmay:wdkYxuf pmMunfhpm;yGJrSm jzpfoifhygw,f/ NyD;&if
udk,fh&JU pmMunfhpm;yGJay:rSm ausmif;pmeJY ywfoufvdkY
udk;um; (Reference) vkyfp&m Dictionary vkdrsKd; pmtkyf
pmwrf;awGudk xm;&Sdoihfovkd pmusuf&if; vdktyfr,fh
abmvfyif? cJwH? Line Pen pwJh pma&; ud&d,mawGudk
vnf; pmusufae&if; x&Smp&m rvdkatmif t&efoifh
xm;&Sd oifhygw,f/ NyD;awmh txl;ojzifh vufudkifzkef;&SdwJh
zl;ikHwkdYuvnf; wwfEkdif&if pmusufaewJh tcsdefrSm vuf
udkifzkef;udk ydwfxm;zdkY BudK;pm;oifhygw,f/ pmusufwJh
ae&m[m wdwfqdwfNidrfouf? taESmihft,SufawG uif;zdkY

vkdtyfovdk? tyltat; rQwNyD; vkHavmufwJh tvif; 4/ wwfEkdifoavmuf tvGwfusufrSwf&rnfh pmrsm;udk toHxGufí
a&mif &&SdzkdYvnf; vkdtyfygw,f/
usufyg

pm usufrSwfwJhtcg wcsKdU yg;pyfuae toH
3/ trsKd;rsKd;aom pmzwfenf;rsm; (Various Reading Style)
xGuf usufrSwfavh &Sdayr,fh wcsKdUuawmh rsufpdeJYyJ zwf
usaemfwdkY jrefrmausmif;om;awG awmfawmf NyD; toHxGufusufavh r&Sdygbl;/

rsm;rsm;[m pmqdkwmeJY wef;NyD; tvGwfusufzdkYyJ tm;oef
vl&JU OD;aESmuf[m taMumif;t&mwpfckudk
Muygw,f/ wu,fawmh bGJYvGef? a'gufwmbJGY pwJh tqifh rSwfom;wJh ae&mrSm vlYcE¨mudk,f&JU 'Gg&ayguf tm&kHcH t*Fg
qifh wufvSrf; jrifhrm;vmvdkY zwf&wJh? avhvm&wJh oif&dk; Sense Organs awGjzpfwJh rsufpd? em;? ESmacgif;? vQm?
awG? &nfnTef;pmtkyf Reference Books awG rsm;jym; udk,f? pdwf pwmawGuae Input Data tcsuftvuf
vmwJh tcg b,folrS tvGwf rusufEkdifawmhygbl;/ awGudk &,lygw,f/ 'gaMumifhrdkY rsufpdeJYyJ MunfhNyD; usuf
'gaMumifh pmtkyfawG? oif&kd;awGudk zwf½I avhvmMuwJh avh&SdwJh olawG&JU OD;aESmuf[m ol rSwf&r,fh taMumif;
ae&mrSm atmufrSm azmfjyxm;wJh Reading Style av; t&mudk rsufpdeJYyJ Scan vkyf rSwfom;EkdifNyD; em;eJY toHudk
awGeJY csdefxdk;okH;oyf zwf½IMur,fqkd&if ydkNyD;xda&muf rMum;Ekdifygbl;/ toHxGuf usufrSwfavh&SdwJh olawG&JU
atmifjrifygvdrfhr,f/
OD;aESmufuawmh rSwfom;&r,fh Input Data awGudk
rsufpdeJY Scan vkyf rSwfom;Ekdif&kH omru toHxGufNyD;

(u) tay:,H &Syfzwfjcif; ( Skimming)
usufrSwfwJh twGuf em;eJYyg toHudk rSwfom; Voice Re
oif&kd;wpfckvkH;? pmtkyfwpftkyfvkH;udk wpfcef; cord vkyfekdifygw,f/ 'gYtjyif Oyrm- pmar;yGJrSm pmawG
csif; tao;pdwf rzwf½IrD pmtkyf&JU qkdvdk&if;? tmabmfudk bmawG arhoGm;cJh&ifvnf; rsufpdeJY Scan vkyfxm;wJh
jcHKikHrdatmif tay:,H zwf½Ioifhygw,f/ NyD;awmh wcsKdU ykH&dyfawGudk OD;aESmufu jyefac:,lEkdif&kH omru em;eJY ReReference Books awGudk zwf½IwJh ae&mrSmvnf; udk,fh cord vkyfxm;wJh toH Voice awGudkyg jyefvnf Mum;
&JU oif&dk; Course eJY wkduf&kduf roufqkdifwJh tydkif;awGudk EkdifwmrdkY rSwfrEkdifzkdY tcGifhta&; ydkrsm;ygw,f/
Skimming Reading Style eJY zwf½I oifhygw,f/
5/ pdwfzdpD;rIrsm;udk avQmhcsyg/ (Reduce Your Stress)

(c) rSwfrdatmif usufrSwfzwf½Ijcif;

wwfEkdifoavmuf pmrusufrSwfcifrSm pdwfudk

Memorizing
ayghyg; Munfvifatmifxm;yg/ txl;ojzifh pmrusufcif

pmar;yGJrSm ar;avh ar;x&SdwJh taMumif;t&m w&m;xkdifwmvdkrsKd; (Meditation Exercise) udk 15 rdepf
awG? pmar;yGJtwGuf rodrjzpf odxm;&r,fh tcsuf avmuf vkyfay;Ekdif&if aumif;ygw,f/ 'grSr[kwf pm
tvufawGudkawmh tvGwf rSwfrdaeatmif Memoriz- rusufcif udk,ftESpfoufqkH; oDcsif;wpfyk'fudk zGifhNyD; 5
ing Reading Style eJY xyfum wvJvJ zwf½I&ygr,f/
rdepf 10 rdepf avmuf em;axmifyg/ udk,fh&JU Study Planç
Time-table udk a&;qGJwJh ae&mrSmvnf; awmuf

(*) odjrifem;vnfatmif zwf½Ijcif;
avQmuf pmusufwmrsKd;xuf wpfem&Davmuf usuf? 15

Realizing
rdepfavmuf em;NyD;&if jyefusuf ponfjzifh a&;qGJxm;

wcsKdU taMumif;t&mawG[m tvGwfusuf oifhygw,f/ Studying Process qkdwm[m pdwfeJY
rSwf&kHeJY rvkHavmufbJ aoaocsmcsm oabmayguf od wkduf&kduf oufqkdifwJh Process jzpfwmrdkY zl;ikHwkdY&JU
jrifem;vnf realize jzpfatmif okH;oyfzdkY vkdtyfygw,f/ pdwf[m Stress awG? Pressure awG uif;uif;eJY Munf
Oyrm- tkdif;pwdkif;&JU urÇmausmf Equation wpfck jzpfwJh vifaezdkY vkdtyfaMumif; wifjyvkdygw,f/
E=mc2 qdkwmudk tvGwfusufrSwf&if puúefYydkif;avmuf
aemifrSmvnf; tvsOf;oifh&if Studying skill
yJ tcsdefay;&ygw,f/ 'gayr,fh 'D Equation udk aoao Tips av;awGudk qufvuf azmfjycsifygao;w,f/
csmcsm oabmayguf em;vnf tokH;cs EkdifzkdYuawmh rvG,f
ygbl;/

(vif;okdufnGefY (jrefrmhajr) a&;om;aom jref
rmawG atmifjrifzdkY pmtkyfrS xkwfEIwfygonf/)
43

opömazguf cHae&qJ
rsKd;qufopf
jrefrmhvli,frsm;
vSa&T

44

vGefcJhwJh ESpf&ufavmufu azhpfbkwfrSm rdwfaqG wpf
a,muf wifvdkufwJh owif;udk zwfNyD; awmfawmfav; pdwfrtD
rom jzpfoGm;w,f/ ynmacwfrSm jrefrmvli,fawG &&SdaewJh
ynm t&nftaoG;eJY ywfoufvdkYyg/

armu©ynma&; r*¾Zif;rSm pmawGa&;jzpf? zwf jzpfawmh
urÇmhEkdifiH trsm;pkawG[m ynma&;rSm &if;ESD; jr§KyfESHrI tNydKiftqdkif
jzpfvmwmudk awGYjrifae&w,f/

21 &mpk[m enf;ynm aygufuGJwJh &mpkESpf? ynma&;u
t&m&mudk OD;aqmifr,fqkdwJh acwfrSm usaemfwdkY&JU wdkif;jynf acgif;
aqmifawGu wuúokdvf taqmifawGudk [kdw,fvkyfr,fh pD;yGm;
a&; vkyfief;&SifawGqD avvHypf a&mif;pm;wmudk awGY&awmh
awmfawmfav; pdwfxdcdkuf&ygw,f/ todÓPf enf;yg;&avjcif;
qdkNyD; ,lusKH; r& jzpfrdygw,f/

usaemfwdkY rsKd;qufawG[m 1962 ckESpf uwnf;u
tkyfcsKyfolawG&JU zsufqD;rIudk pepfwus cHcJhMu &yg w,f/ ESpf 20 udk
rsKd;quf wcktjzpf owfrSwf&if tckqdk&if rsKd;quf oHk;ckavmuf
[m rw&m; zsufqD; cHvdkuf&ygNyD/

usaemfu 1992 ckESpfrSm ppfawG'D*&D aumvdyfudk
wufcGifh &ygw,f/ aumvdyf? wuúokdvfwdkYqdkwm ausmif;om;awG
okawoevkyf? tokH;jyKEkdifzdkY pmtkyfpmwrf;awG odyÜHokawoe

aqmif;yg;u@
vkyfr,fh "gwfcGJcef;okH; ud&d,mawG b,favmuf rsm;rsm;
pm;pm; &SdovJqdkwJh tcsufu ta&;BuD;ovdk ynm&Sif
awG&JU tcef;u@uvnf; awmfawmfav; ta&;ygyg
w,f/ usaemf wufa&mufcGifh &cJhwJh 'D*&D aumvdyfrSm pm
Munfhwdkuf Library oD;oefY r&Sdygbl;/

ausmif;om;wpfa,muf pmzwfcsifvdkY pmtkyf
iSm;csifoyqdk&if pmtkyfwpftkyf &zdkY em&DESifhcsD apmifhqdkif; &
ygw,f/ (0g&ifh ausmif;om;tcsKdU\ oifjycsuft& pmtkyf
jrefjref vdkcsif&if pmMunhfwdkuf 0efxrf;rsm;udk rkefYrsm;jzifh
vmbfxdk;xm;jcif;jzifh rdrdvdkcsifaom pmtkyfudk tjref &&Sd
edkifonfrSm udk,fawGY jzpfygonf )/

wuúodkvf ausmif;om; wpfa,muf&JU t"du
wm0efu rdrdbmom&yfESifh qdkifwJh pmtkyfpmwef;awG &Sm
azG zwf½I&ygr,f/ 'gayrJh usaemfwdkY ausmif;aepOf wuú
odkvf ausmif;om; trsm;pku pmzwfwJh tavhtusifh r&Sd
Muygbl;/ pmrzwfwJh tjyif pmar;yGJrSm cdk;cswJh tvkyfudkyg
vkyfMuygw,f/

ausmif;NyD;vdkY vlYavmuxJ usifvnf&r,fh
vli,fawG pmar;yGJrSm ckd;csaeMujcif;[m usaemfwdkY vlY
tzGJYtpnf; twGuf aumif;aom vu©Pm r[kwfygbl;/

usaemf 2001 ckESpfrSm xdkif;EkdifiHu emrnfausmf
csLvmavmifuGef; wuúokdvfrSm ynmoifaewJh rdwfaqG
wpfa,mufqDudk tvnftywf a&mufygw,f/ jrefrm
jynfu ausmif;om;awGeJY rwlnDwJh tcsufu pmzwfwm
ygyJ/ aeYvnfpm pm;NyD;wmeJY pmMunfhwdkuf (Library) rSm
pmzwfae&m wpfae&m &zdkYtwGuf tajy;tvTm; tvk
t,uf ,l&wJh taetxm;yg/ 2006 ckESpfrSm tdEd´,EkdifiH
u emrnfausmf *s0g[mvmae½l; wuúodkvfudk a&muf
awmh trdjrefrmjynfu ausmif;om;awG? tem*wf acgif;
aqmifavmif;awG b,ftxd acwfaemufus usefcJhNyDvJ
qdkwm awG;rdNyD; pdwfraumif; jzpfrdygw,f/

wuúodkvf tmPmydkifawGu pmMunhfwdkufudk
n (12) em&Dxd zGifhay;xm;w,f/ pmMunfhwdkufBuD; udk,f
wdkifu pmayavhvmaewJh ausmif;om; wpfa,muf&JU
pdwfydkif;qdkif&mawGeJY oif,l avhvm qnf;yl;vdkpdwfudk
wuf~uGEkd;Mum; apygw,f/ BuD;us,fwJh wuúodkvfawGeJY
ausmif;pmMunfhwdkufBuD;awG[m tem*wf acgif;aqmif
awG&JU tvkdtyfqHk;aom? r&Sdrjzpfaom &wemodkufawG
jzpfaeygw,f/ pma&;q&mBuD; jroef;wifh&JU pum;vkH;ukd
iSm;okH;&r,f qdk&if {u&mZfwdkY&JU b@mwdkufaygYAsm/ wdwf
qdwf NidrfoufpGmESifh pmay avhvmaewJh ausmif;om;

vli,fawG pmMunfhcef;xJrSm tjynfh/ awG;awm? a0zef
pOf;pm;&if; tem*wf urÇmudk udk,hfynm e,fy,f tvkduf
pdwful; yHkazmf aeMuyHkrsm;u tm;&p&m? tm;usp&myg/
&efukef wuúodkvfrSmawmh ausmif;om;awG pnfum;wJh
ae&mu vufzuf&nfqdkif jzpfaeqJ/

usaemfwdkY &efukefwuúodkvf yifrpmMunfhwdkuf
rSm pmtkyfzwfaewJh ausmif;om; wpfa,mufp ESpfa,muf
pu vGJNyD; usefolawGuawmh orD;&nf;pm; csdef;awGYwJh
olawG jzpfaeygw,f/ t"dywd vrf;rab;u opfyif
atmuf ckHwef;vsm;awG[m twGJawG cspfZmwfvrf;cif;wJh
ae&mrQom jzpfaewm pdwfraumif;p&m jzpfaeygw,f/

ausmif;om;awG 'Dvdkjzpfaeatmif zefwD;xm;
wmu ppftkyfcsKyfa&;atmufu ynma&;pepfyg/ awG;ac:
pOf;pm;wJJh? a0zefydkif;jcm;wJh vli,fawG rvkdbJ trdefYemcH
wwfrI wcktwGuf &nf&G,f wnfaqmuf xm;wJh edrfhus
wJh ynma&; pepfaMumifh jzpfygw,f/ vli,fxkudk vrf;
aMumif;vTJxm;w,f/ todynm zGYHNzdK;rItwGuf tqif
rajywJh wuúodkvf ynma&;yg/

urÇmhEdkifiH awmfawmfrsm;rsm;u acgif;aqmif
awG[m olYwdkYEdkifiH&JU tem*wf acgif;aqmifawG jzpfvm
r,fh vli,fawG twGuf ynma&; u@rSm tBuD;tus,f
&ifESD;jr§KyfESHrI jyKvkyfaeMuwmudk aeYpOf ESifhtrQ awGYjrif
ae&ygw,f/ (Worldwide Education and Library
spending) 0bfqdk'f pmrsufESmrSm az: jycsuft& tar&d
uef jynfaxmifpku ynma&; u@rSm a':vm bDvD,H
(500) eJY eHygwfwpf ae&mrSm &Sdaeygw,f/ *syef? *smreD? jyif
opfEkdifiHawGu 'kwd,? wwd,ESifh pwkwåae&m
toD;oD;rSm &SdaeMuygw,f/ tar&duef jynfaxmifpk[m
pmMunfhwdkuf wckwnf;rSm okH;wJh tokH;p&dwfu a':vm
12 bDvD,H &Sdygw,f/ 'Davmuf &if;ESD;jr§KyfESHrI vkyfaewm
awmif 2009 ckESpfu vkyfwJh (Program for International Student Assessments - PISA) ppfaq;rIrSm
tar&duef jynfaxmifpku ausmif;om;awG eHygwf (14)
ae&mudk a&mufoGm;wJh twGuf tkyfcsKyfolawG tkwfatmf
aomif;wif; jzpfcJh &ygw,f/ ynma&;0efBuD; (Arne Duncan) u qdk&if 'Dowif;udk Mum;NyD; wkefvIyf cJh&w,fvdkY
ajymqdkcJhygw,f/

or®w tkdbm;rm;uawmh (Spunik moment)
vdkY ajymqdkcJhygw,f/ Spunik moment qdkwm qkDAD,uf
jynfaxmifpku urÇmywf vrf;aMumif;xJudk N*dK[fwk vTwf
wif vdkufwJh tcsdef? tar&duefu acwf aemufus usefcJh
45

NyD qdkNyD; tar&duef jynfaxmifpkrSm jzpfay:cJhwJh okawoe
ESifh enf;ynm vIyf&Sm;rI taMumif; &nfnTef; ajymoGm;wm
jzpfygw,f/

aqmf'Dtma&;AD;,m;EdkifiH qdk&if (King Abdull
ah Science and Technology Institute) wuúodkvf
wckwnf;rSm a':vm 10 bDvD,H &if;ESD; jr§KyfESHcJhygw,f/ 'D
tcsufawGudk Munfh&if EkdifiHhacgif;aqmifawG[m ynma&;
udk b,ftwdkif;twmxd pdwf0ifpm;aew,f qdkwm od
omygw,f/

usaemfwdkY&JU tdrfeD;csif; xdkif;EkdifiHqdk&if tkyfcsKyf
olawG? ynm&SifawG? ausmif; tmPmydkifawG[m rMumcif
rSm jzpfay:vmr,fh (Asean Economic Community tmqD,H pD;yGm;a&;uGefjrLewD) 0ifqefYzdkY BudKwif jyifqif
aeMuwmudk awGYjrifae&wm awmfawmf tm;usp&m
aumif;ygw,f/ wm0ef&SdolawGom jyifqifwm r[kwfbJ
ausmif;om;awG udk,fwdkifu vmr,fh tem*wf umvrSm
jzpfay:vmr,fh EdkifiHa&;? pD;yGm;a&;? vlrIa&; ajymif;vJrIawG
tay: &ifqdkifzdkY jyifqif aeMuygw,f/ EkdifiHawmf bwf*suf
&JU 27 &mcdkifEIef;udk ynma&;u@rSm okH;xm;NyD; trsKd;om;
xkwfukef GDP ESifh wGuf&if ynma&; tokH;p&dwfu
urÇmheHygwfwpf ae&mrSm &Sdygw,f/

'gayr,fh usaemfwdkY jrefrmEdkifiH? ppftmPmydkif
awGu EdkifiHwck&JU usufoa&aqmif trsKd;om; pmMunfh
wdkufESifh wuúodkvfawGudk avvHwif a&mif;csvdkuf? ynm
a&; toHk;p&dwfudk tedrfhqHk;xm;vdkuf? vli,fxkudk
rawG;ac: wwfatmif ydwfqdkYvdkuf? axmifcsvdkuf? oif&dk;
udkvnf; ajymif;vJ jyKjyifcGifh ray;eJY urÇmhEkdifiHawGrSm
rjrifzl;? rMum;zl;wJh tvkyfawGudk vkyfaewm awmfawmf
&ifav;p&m aumif;vSw,f/ ynma&;udk b,fyHk? b,f
enf; wnfaqmuf yHkazmfaeMuovJ qdkwm pdk;&drfp&myg/

EkdifiH&JU vlOD;a& w0uf&SdwJh vli,fawG 21 &mpk
udk b,fynma&;? b,ftawG;tac:ESifh &ifqkdif jzwfoef;
MurvJ qdkwm tifrwefrS &ifav;p&m aumif;ygw,f/
jrefrmEkdifiHu rsKd;qufopf vli,fawG[m acwftquf
qufrSmvdkyJ tkyfcsKyfolawG tqufquf&JU opömazgufjcif;
udk cHae&qJygvm;vdkY awG;rdygw,f/
vSa&T

Sources;
Think Again, Education (Foreign Policy)
Worldwide education and library spending
Ministry of education (Thailand)

46

tajccH
vlwef;pm;rsm;
tm;xm;&m
buausmif;
Munfa0

udkat;xGef;u ol\ ,mOfarmif; vpmaiG
usyf 7 aomif;ESifh NrdKUe,fpnfyifom,mwGif oefY&Sif;a&;
tjzpf vkyfudkifaeaom ZeD;onf\ vpmaiG usyf 4
aomif;cefYu pm;avmuf&Hkom &SdNyD; ausmif;ae t&G,f
om;orD; 3 a,mufpvHk;udk ausmif;xm;&ef rwwfEkdif
aMumif; ajymjyonf/

]usaemfu qif;&Jayr,fh udk,fhom;orD;udk
awmh ynmwwf jzpfapcsifw,f/ om;orD; 3 a,muf p
vHk;udk tpdk;&ausmif;rSm xm;EkdifzdkY qdkwmuawmh usaemf
wdkY tajctaeeJY vHk;0rjzpfEkdifbl;} [k &efukefNrdKU vdIifom
,mNrdKUe,fwGif aexdkifol udkat;xGef;u qdkonf/

jrefrmEkdifiHwGif trsKd;om;ynm&nf jrifhrm;a&;
twGuf ESpf 30 pDrHudef; csrSwf taumiftxnfazmfcJhNyD;
xdkpDrHudef;wGif roifrae&pepf? tcrJhynma&;pepfwdkY

yg0ifaomfvnf; yDyDjyifjyif aqmif&GufEkdifjcif; r&SdcJhay/

tpdk;& ausmif;rsm;wGif ausmif;0ifaMu;? pm
tkyfpmwrf;zdk;? tm;upm;aMu;? pmMunfhwdkufaMu;?
ausmif;&efyHkaiG ponfwkdYtjyif pma&; ud&d,mtwGuf
vnf; ukefusp&dwfrsm; &SdaeaomaMumifh ausmif;om;
wpfa,muftwGuf wvvQif tenf;qHk; usyf 5 axmif rS
usyf 1 aomif;ausmftxd tukeftus cHEdkifrS tpdk;&
ausmif;xm;Ekdifaom tajctae jzpfaeaMumif; ausmif;
om; rdbrsm;u ajymonf/

]ausmif;0ifaMu;eJY ausmif;&efyHkaiGu ausmif;
tyfprSm ay;&r,f/ ausmif;tvdkuf aiGyrmPu uGmjcm;rI
&Sdw,f/ ausmif;om;wdkif; vpOf ukefaewmu pmtkyf
pmwrf;zdk;? pmar;yGJaMu;? oifMum;a&;ypönf; tvSLaiG
tJvdk acgif;pOfawGeJY vwdkif; tvSLaiG xnfhae&w,f/ pm
oifckHutp vdktyf&if 0,fvSL &wmrsKd;qdkawmh ausmif;
p&dwfu BuD;ygw,f} [k yJcl;NrdKUcH ausmif;om; rdbwOD;u
ajymMum;onf/

ynmoifMum;a&;twGuf vdktyfaom wjcm;
p&dwfrsm;udk rdbrsm;rS jznfhqnf; ay;ae&jcif;onf tpdk;&
rS csxm;ay;aom ynma&;bwf*sufaiG enf;yg;jcif;
aMumifhjzpfaMumif; tajccHynmOD;pD;XmerS twdkifyifcH
ynm&SifwOD;u oHk;oyf ajymqdkonf/

ynma&; wuúokdvfrS ygarmu©wOD;uvnf;
tpdk;&taejzifh ynma&;twGuf bwf*sufudk vHkavmuf
pGm csray;jcif;aMumifh ausmif;oHk;ypönf;rsm;? oifMum;a&;

ud&d,mrsm; rvHkavmufjcif;? ynma&;0efxrf;rsm; vpm
vHkavmufrI r&Sdjcif;? ynm oifMum;p&dwfudk ausmif;om;
rdbrsm;u rQcH jznfhqnf; ay;ae&jcif;rsKd; jzpfvsuf&SdNyD;
rjznfhqnf;Ekdifaom qif;&Jom;rsm;rSm ausmif; raeEkdif
onfh tajctaeodkY a&muf&SdoGm;aMumif; ajymonf/

]jrefrmEkdifiH&JU uav;oli,f 1 oef;eJY 2 oef;
Mum;avmufu t"dutm;jzifh rdom;pk pDyGm;a&; jyóem
awGaMumifh ausmif;rwufEkdifMuwmudk awGY&w,f} [k
ynma&; wuúodkvf tNidrf;pm; 'kygarmu© a'gufwmrsKd;
wifhu ajymonf/

jrefrmwEkdifiHvHk;wGif tajccHynm txufwef;
tv,fwef;? rlvwef; ausmif;aygif; 40900 ausmfwGif
q&m q&mraygif; 274000? ausmif;ol ausmif;om;aygif;
8 oef;ausmf&SdaMumif; od&Sd&onf/

ynma&;0efBuD;Xme taejzifh ynma&;u@
toHk;p&dwfrsm;udk tajccHESifh tqifhjrifh ynmu@[lí
cGJjcm; aqmif&Gufvsuf&Sdonf/ tajccHynma&;u@wGif
tajccHynmausmif;aygif; 4 aomif;ausmf\ toHk;p&dwf
rsm;yg0ifNyD; tqifhjrifh ynmu@wGif wuúodkvf?
'D*&DaumvdyfESifh aumvdyf 64 ausmif;vnf; yg0ifonf/

wjcm; wuúodkvf? 'D*&DaumvdyfESifh odyÜH
ausmif; 97 ausmif;ukdrl ouffqdkif&m 0efBuD;Xme 12 cku
wm0ef,lxm;onf/ ynma&;u@m toHk;p&dwf pkpkaygif;
rSm aiGusyfoef;aygif; 352584 oef;&SdNyD; ynma&;u@
pkpkaygif;onf 4 'ór 42 &mcdkifEIef; jzpfonf[k tpdk;&\
47

]bmaMumifh tckvdk tcrJhausmif;
xlaxmif &wmvJ qdkawmh 'Duav;awG
ausmif;rae&awmh vrf;ay:
a&mufukefr,f? udk,fhudk,fudk
rapmifha&SmufEkdifwJh vlawGtjzpf
BuD;jyif;vmr,fvdkY awG;rdawmh
raeEkdifawmh bl;/

w&m;0if xkwfjyefcsuft& od&Sd&onf/

]usaemfwkdYvdk qif;&Jom;awGtzdkY tpdk;&
ausmif;awGu wjznf;jznf;eJY tvSrf;a0;vmw,f/ &yf
uGufxJrSmvnf; usaemfhvdk b0wlawG rdbawG trsm;BuD;
yg/ om;orD;awGudk ynmwwfapcsifw,f? pm;0wfaea&;
uvnf; usyfwnf;vGef;awmh ausmif; rxm;EkdifbJ tcrJh
oifay;wJh bu (bkef;awmfBuD;oif ynma&;ausmif;)rSm
xm;vmMuw,f/ buausmif;awGuawmh tcrJhyJ? pm
tkyfzdk;vnf; ay;p&m rvdkbl;/ ausmif;0ifaMu;wdkY? tvSL
aiGwdkYvnf; r&Sdawmh usaemfwkdYvdk qif;&Jom; rdbawGt
wGuf awmfawmfav; tqifajyygw,f} [k udkat;xGef;u
ajymonf/

om;orD;udk ynmwwfapcsifaomfvnf; qif;
&JEGrf;yg;aom udkat;xGef;uJhodkY rdbrsm;twGuf bu
ausmif;[k ac:qdkMuaom bkef;awmfBuD;oif ynma&;
ausmif;rSm tm;xm;&m jzpfvsuf&Sdonf/ 2000 jynfhESpf
aemufydkif;wGif ynmoifMum;p&dwf jrifhvmjcif;aMumifh
bu ausmif;rsm; trsm;tjym; ay:xGufvmcJhonf/

,cktcg jrefrmwjynfvkH; twdkif;twmjzifh
tcrJh bu ausmif;aygif; 2500 ausmf&Sdum tqdkyg
ausmif;rsm;wGif oifMum;aeaom ausmif;om;aygif; 2
odef;ausmf&SdaMumif;? tqdkyg ausmif;om;OD;a&rSm jynf
wGif; ausmif;om; pkpkaygif;\ 16 &mcdkifEIef; jzpfaMumif;
tNidrf;pm; 'k ygarmu© a'gufwm rsKd;wifh\ bkef;awmfBuD;
oif ynma&;ausmif;rsm; tcef;u@ESifh jrefrmh ynma&;
48

qdkif&m pmwrf;wGif a&;om;xm;onf/

tqdkygpmwrf;wGif jrefrmEkdifiH twGif;&Sd qif;&J
EGrf;yg;aom uav;oli,frsm; pmwwfajrmufa&; twGuf
tcrJh bu ausmif;rsm;onf ,aeY jrefrmEkdifiH ynma&;\
t"du tcef;u@ w&yftjzpf yg0ifvsuf&SdaMumif; oHk;
oyf a&;om;xm;onf/

yJcl;NrdKU Zdkif;*Edkif;awmifydkif;? ynma&Tawmif
bkef;awmfBuD;oif rlvwef;vGefausmif;rS q&mawmf
OD;0dvmou ]bmaMumifh tckvdk tcrJhausmif; xlaxmif
&wmvJ qdkawmh 'Duav;awG ausmif;rae&awmh vrf;
ay: a&mufukefr,f? udk,fhudk,fudk rapmifha&SmufEkdifwJh vl
awGtjzpf BuD;jyif;vmr,fvdkY awG;rdawmh raeEkdifawmh
bl;/ ynmyg&rDjzpfatmif jznfhr,fqdkwJh pdwfeJY 'D
bkef;awmfBuD;oif ynma&;ausmif;udk pvdkufwmyJ} [k
rdefYonf/

pmoifausmif; pwifpOfu ausmif;om;rsm;
om&SdNyD; ausmif;&yfwnf&ef &efyHkaiG r&Sd? oifay;rnfhq&m
r&Sd? pmoifcHk r&Sd? ausmufoifykef; r&Sdaom tajctaejzpf
aMumif;? ,cktcg oli,fwef;rS &Spfwef;txd ynm
oifMum;aeaom ausmif;ol ausmif;om;aygif; 250
ausmf&SdNyD; q&m q&mraygif; 11 OD;&SdaMumif;? ausmif;rS
oHCm 3 yg; uvnf; ,Ofaus; vdrfrmap&ef oifMum;
ay;aeaMumif; od&onf/

]'Dvdk bu ausmif;awGuawmh tpdk;& ausmif;
awGrSm raeEkdifMuwJh uav;awGaygY/ olwdkY rdbawGu
qif;&JEGrf;yg;Muawmh ausmif;p&dwf rwwfEkdifbl;/ 'D
ausmif;rSmawmh ausmif;0ifaMu;vnf; r&Sdbl;? pmtkyf
pmwrf;up bkef;BuD;u wm0ef,l ay;xm;awmh qif;&J
om;awGu 'Dausmif;wufMuwm rsm;w,f/ ckawmh yJcl;rSm
vnf; 'Dvdk tcrJh ausmif;awG ydkrsm;vmw,f/ ausmif;
om;awGuvnf; rsm;vmMuwmudk;} [k OD;0dvmou rdefY
Mum;onf/

ynma&Tawmif bu ausmif;rSm 1993 ckESpf
wGif yJcl;NrdKU ü yxrqHk; zGifhvSpfcJhaom bu ausmif;jzpfNyD;
2010-2011 ckESpfwGif yJcl;ü bu ausmif; 27 ausmif;
txd &SdaMumif; od&onf/

&efukefwdkif;wGif 2010-2011 ynmoifESpfü
ta&SUydkif; c&dkif 12 NrdKU e,fwGif 53 ausmif;? taemufydkif;
c&dkif 9 NrdKUe,fwGif 23 ausmif;? awmifydkif;c&dkif 8 NrdKUe,fwGif
42 ausmif;? ajrmufydkif;c&dkif 8 NrdKU e,fwGif 55 ausmif; &Sd
aMumif; bu ausmif;rsm;ESifh ywfoufaom ppfwrf;xkwf

jyefcsufwGif azmfjyxm;onf/

tqdkyg ausmif;trsm;pkwGif aeYvnfpm xrif;
pm; qif;csdefü xrif;bl; rygaom uav;rsm; trsm;tjym;
&SdaeaomaMumifh bkef;awmfBuD;rsm;rSm pmoifMum;a&;
omru aeYvnfpm tm[m& auR;arG;a&;udkyg wm0ef,l
vmMu&aMumif; od&Sd&onf/

vdIifom,mNrdKUe,f atmify&[dw bkef;awmf
BuD;oif ynma&;ausmif;rS q&mrwOD;u ]'Du uav;
awGu awmfawmfav;udk EGrf;yg; Muygw,f/ uav;wdkif;
aeYvnfpm xrif;bl; ,lEkdifMuwm r[kwfbl;/ aeYvnfpm
tiwfcHaewJh uav;awG&Sdwmudk q&mawmfu odoGm;
awmh xrif;bl; rygwJh uav;awGudk [if;aygif;eJY auR;ay;
w,f/ wESpfxuf wESpf ausmif;om;awGu ydkydkrsm;
vmawmh q&mawmfvnf; rwwfEkdifawmhbl;} [k ajym
onf/

jrefrmEkdifiHwGif bkef;awmfBuD;oif ynma&;
ausmif;rsm;rSm udkvdkeDacwf uwnf;u &SdcJhMuNyD; 1982
ckESpf 0ef;usifwGif uG,faysmuf oGm;cJhonf/ 1992 ckESpf
aemufydkif;wGif jyefvnf &SifoefvmcJhNyD; ,cktcg tajccH
vlwef;pm;rsm;\ tm;xm;&m ausmif;rsm; jzpfvsuf&Sdonf/

buausmif;rsm;onf omoema&;0efBuD; Xme
\ pDrHcefYcGJrI atmufwGif &SdNyD; rlvwef;vGef? tv,fwef;
ESifh txufwef; txd zGifhvSpf oifMum; aeMuonf/ bu
ausmif;rsm;ü oifMum;ay;aeaom q&mq&mrrsm;
twGuf owfrSwf vpm[lí r&SdbJ ausmif;\taetxm;
ESifh aiGaMu; vdktyfcsufay: rlwnfí bkef;awmfBuD;
ausmif;rsm;uom ay;ae&jcif; jzpfonf/

atmify&[dw bu ausmif;rS q&mawmfu
]q&m q&mrawG&JU vpm? pm;0wfaea&;eJY uav;awG
twGuf pma&;ud&d,m pwmawGudk bkef;awmfBuD;awGu
oma&;? ema&;u &wJh aiGawGuae jznfhqnf; ay;ae
&w,f/ vpmxuf rkefYzdk;oabmrsKd;yJ ay;EkdifwJh tae
txm;&Sdw,f} [k rdefYonf/

tqdkyg bu ausmif;rsm;ü ynmoifMum; ay;
aeaom q&m? q&mrrsm;onf &&Sdonfh vpmEIef;xuf rdrd
cH,lcsufESifh qE´tavsmuf vma&muf oifMum; ay;aeMu
jcif; jzpfaMumif; od&onf/

ynma&Tawmif ausmif;wdkufrS q&mwOD;u
]wvudk aiG 2 aomif;aygY? bkef;bkef;u rkefYzdk; qdkNyD;
ay;ygw,f/ toHk;p&dwfeJYqdkawmh ravmufbl;/ ravmuf
ayr,fh acRwmNyD; oHk;aew,f} [k ajymonf/

olonf tpdk;&ausmif;rS yifpif,lNyD;aemuf
buausmif;wGif q&mtjzpf vkyfudkifcJhaMumif;? ,cifu
rkefYzdk;tjzpf wvvQif aiGusyf 7 axmif &&SdcJhaMumif;?
aemufydkif; ukefaps;EIef; jrifhwufvmonfh twGuf q&m
awmfrS 1 aomif;? 2 aomif; ponfjzifh wjznf;jznf; wdk;
jr§ifh ay;vmcJhjcif; jzpfaMumif; ajymjyonf/

vuf&Sd tajctaewGif jrefrmwEkdifiHvHk;&Sd bu
ausmif;rsm;wGif ynmoifMum;vsuf&Sdaom ausmif;om;
OD;a&rSm ESpfpOf wdk;vmaomaMumifh q&m? q&mr
vdktyfcsufrsm;&Sdvmjcif;? bkef;awmfBuD;ausmif;rsm; tae
jzifh taxmuftyHhrsm; ydkrdkvdktyfvmjcif;wkdY BuHKawGY ae&
aMumif; od&onf/

vdIifom,mNrdKUe,f&Sd atmifaZ,srif; bu
ausmif;rS q&mawmfu ]ausmif;om;OD;a&eJY q&m? q&mr
OD;a&u rvHkavmufbl; qkdwmvnf; bkef;bkef; odw,f/
'gayr,fh tajctae& xm;ae&wmygyJ/ bkef;bkef;
ausmif;rSmu rdbrJh uav;u 200 ausmf? ausmif;ynm
oifMum;ay;aewJh ausmif;om;uav;awGu 1200 &Sd
awmh bkef;bkef;vnf; awmfawmfav;udk tcuftcJ awGY
vmw,f} [k rdefYonf/

bu ausmif;rsm;tm; tpdk;&taejzifh ulnD
axmufyHhay;rnfqdkygu qif;&Jom; tajccHvlwef;pm;
rdom;pk0if uav;i,fwkdY\ tem*wfudk u,fwif ay;Ekdif
rnfh enf;vrf;wckjzpfaMumif; q&mawmfu qufvuf
rdefYMum;onf/

bu ausmif;rsm; taejzifh tcuftcJrsm;
&Sdaeaomfvnf; jrefrmhynma&; vdktyfcsufaMumifh quf
vuf oifMum;ay;Ekdifa&; arQmfvifhxm;aMumif; bu
ausmif;rsm;xHrS od&Sd&onf/

]om;BuD;udk 'DESpf tv,fwef;atmif&if tpdk;&
ausmif; ajymif;xm;&awmhr,f/ ausmif;p&dwfu ckvdkyJ
qufjrifhaeOD;r,f qdk&ifawmh usaemfwkdYvdk qif;&Jom;
awGtwGuf jyóemBuD;w&yf xyfjzpfaeOD;rSmyJ} [k
udkat;xGef; u ajymonf/

buausmif;rsm;udk qufvuf tm;udk;&rnfh
taetxm;jzpfaomaMumifh udkat;xGef;uJhodkY qif;&J
EGrf;yg;aom vufvkyfvufpm; rdbrsm; taejzifh om;
orD;rsm;udk tajccHynmtqifhwdkif;ü bu ausmif;rsm;
wGif xm;cGifh&a&; arQmfvifhaerdaMumif; ajymjyonf/
Munfa0 ({&m0wD)
49

Into (odkYr[kwf) pmoifcef;twGif;

owdjyKoifhonhf toHk;tEIef;wpfck
cifaZmf

usaemf trSwfw& &dSaeygao;onf/ rdom;pk
pD;yGm;a&;tm; wzufwvrf;rS ulnDaxmufyHh&ef twGuf
2001 ckESpf arv 13 &ufaeYwGif tdrfeD;csif; xdkif;EkdifiHodkY
usaemf a&muf&dSvmcJhonf/

xdkif;EkdifiHodkY a&mufvQif a&mufcsif; us
aemfESifh oifhavsmfonf[k ,lqonfh tvkyfudk&Smí r&yg/
2002 ckESpfwGif csif;rdkif tajcpdkuf ICFC (Intensive College Foundation Course) wGif ocsFm q&mtjzpf pwif
tvkyfvkyfygonf/

xkdpOfu usaemf\ ausmif;tkyfrSm vGefpGm
oabm aumif;vSNyD; ynm jynhf0aom uae'grS Lynn
Vasey jzpfygonf/ rSwfrSwf&& wpfaeYwGif 2 csdef qufwdkuf ocsFmoiftNyD; q&m? q&mrrsm; em;aecef;odkY
jyefa&mufcsdef usaemf\ ausmif;tkyfu usaemfhtm; ]cif
aZmf pum;enf;enf; ajymcsifvdkY tcsdef&rvm;} [k ajymvmygonf/ ]&ygw,f/ bmtaMumif; cifAsm; ajymcsif
vdkYygvJ/ usaemf aumfzDoGm;azsmfNyD; ajymMuwmaygY/}
[k jyefajymvdkufygonf/
50

]cifaZmf? rif;pmoif&if pum;oH tawmfus,f
w,faemf/}

][kwfuJh? bmjzpfvdkYvJ}

]igrif;udk tBuH wpfck ay;vdkY&rvm;}

]&wmaygYuG/ bmjzpfvkdY r& &rSmvJ/ ausmif;tkyf
BuD;uvnf;Asm..}

]rif;pmoifaewJh tcsdef igMum;w,f/ qdkygpdkY/ 3
into 2 equals 6 qdkwm rif;bmudk qdkvdkwmvJ/ igYudk
wqdwfavmuf ajymjyEkdifrvm;/}

]aMomf'gvm;/ q&mBuD;uvnf; 3 &,f 2 &,f
ajr§muf&if 6 jzpfw,fvdkY usaemf qdkvdkwmaygY/}

]'Dr,f q&mcifaZmf…. ukd,fwdkY English
pum;rSm 3 into 2 equals 6 qdkwJh tokH;tEIef; r&dSbl;uG/
tJ'Dawmh rif;&JU rSm;aewJh tokH;tEIef;av;udk jyifay;
apcsifw,fuGm/ bmjzpfvdkYvJqdkawmh igwdkYausmif;ol
ausmif;om;awG[m ICFC NyD;oGm;NyD; ynm oifqk &cJh&if
EkdifiHwum wuúodkvfawGrSm ynm qufoifMu&rSmrdkYyg/
Native speakers of English awG[m into udk

ajr§mufw,fqdkwJh t"dyÜg,f taeeJY rokH;MuvdkYyg/}

3 into 24 is 8

Lynn Vasey ESifh txufygtwdkif; ajymqdk
cJhMuNyD;aemuf usaemf pOf;pm;ygonf/ xdkYaemuf Oxford
Dictionary tygt0if Dictionary tawmf rsm;rsm;wGif
into qdkaom tokH;tEIef;ESifh ywfoufí tawmfrsm;rsm;
vdkufvH &SmazG Munfhrdygonf/ taMumif;rSm usaemf
i,fpOfurS pí &efukef pufrIwuúodkvfrS bJGY &&dScJhonfh
wdkif ocsFmtygt0if twGuftcsufrsm;ygonfh bm
om&yfrsm;tm; oifMum;ay;cJhonfh q&mq&mrrsm;
tm;vkH;u into qdkaom tokH;tEIef;tm; ajr§mufonf
qdkonfh t"dyÜg,ftjzpf okH;pJGcJhjcif;aMumifh jzpfonf/

,if;odkY &SmazG avhvmcJh&mwGif Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary wGif atmufyg
twdkif; awGY&dScJhygonf/

Used when you are dividing numbers: 3

into 24 is 8.

&Sif;oGm;ygNyD/ 3 u 24 udk pm;vQif tajzu 8
jzpfygonf/

xdktcsdefrSpí usaemf\ pmoifcef;twGif; into
qdkaom tokH;tEIef;tm; ajr§mufonf qdkonfh t"dyÜg,f
tjzpf okH;pJGjcif;udk a&SmifusOfcJhygonf/

,aeYxufwdkif tcsKdUaom q&m q&mrrsm;
onf into qdkaom tokH;tEIef;tm; ajr§mufonf qdk onfh
t"dyÜg,ftjzpf okH;pJGaeqJyifjzpfonfudk awGYjrif ae&yg
onf/

xdkYaMumifh pmoifcef;twGif; ynmoifay;ae
Muaom usaemf\ vkyfazmfudkifzuf q&m? q&mrrsm;tm;
into qdkaom tokH;tEIef;tm; ajr§mufonfh t"dyÜg,ftjzpf
okH;pJGaejcif;udk a&SmifusOfapvdkonfh twGuf þaqmif;
yg;jzifh wdkufwGef; vdkuf&ygonf/

tb,faMumifhqdkaomf usaemfwdkY\ tokH;
tEIef; rSm;,Gif;rIaMumifh ausmif;ol ausmif;om;aygif;
ajrmufrsm;pGm vGJrSm;oGm;Ekdifjcif;aMumifhyif jzpfonf/

tJvbwf tdkifpwkdif;

Pure mathematics is,
in its way, the poetry
of logical ideas.
Albert Einstein

Multiply, of, times, product of, multiplied

ponfh tokH;tEIef;rsm;onf
t"dyÜg,frsm;yif jzpfonf/
by

ocsFmppfppfqdkwm
olYenf;vrf;eJYolawmh
,kwådwefwJh
pdwful;pdwfoef;awG&JU
uAsmygyJ/

ajr§mufonfh

cifaZmf (CDC)
October 10, 2011.

51

uav;rsm;\ vufOD;q&m

vlrIpD;yGm; tqifajyí csrf;omMuG,f0Muol
rsm;\ om;orD;rsm;rSm ÓPf&nf ydkrdkxufjrufMuonf?
ausmif;ynma&;wGif ydkawmfMuonf [laom t,ltq
rSm aqG;ajrh a[mif;EGrf;cJhNyD; jzpfyg\/ rdbrsm;\ vpOf? eSpf
pOf 0ifaiG? csrf;om MuG,f0rI yrmP? aexdkif&mNrdKUe,f?
&yfuGufponfh vlrIpD;yGm;aemufcH tajctaersm;eSihf
ausmif;ynma&; atmifjrifrI qufEG,faerI qdkonfrSm
twdwfumvrsm;wGif ajymqdk aqG;aEG;cJhaom yHkpHrsm;
avmuf &dk;pif;vSonfawmh r[kwfyg/ trSefwu,fwGifrl
þ 2 ck\ tquftpyfudk &dk;&dk;om &IjrifcJhonfrSm tpOf
rrSefuefedkifaMumif;rsm;udk awGYjrifcJhjcif;yif/ qif;&J EGrf;yg;
aom rdom;pkrsm;rS uav;rsm;onfvnf; b0wGif
xGef;ayguf atmifjrifedkifpGrf; tb,faMumihf &&Sdaeyg
oenf;/

52

odef;Ekdif

tvSnfhtajymif;

]ausmif;ynma&;wGif atmifjrifrIudk rnf
onfhtcsufrsm;rS vTrf;rdk;aeoenf;} [laom ar;cGef;udk
rfdbrsm;tm; ar;jref; MunfhcJhzl;ygonf/ jzpfEdkifaom tajz
rsm;wGif ]tpm;tpm yHkrSef? aumif;aumif;rGefrGef auR;arG;
jcif;? i,fpOfuwnf;u (rlBudKt&G,f uwnf;u) ynm
a&; tajccHaumif; &&Sdjcif;? rdbrsm;\ aemufcHynm
tajccH? arG;pOf (tBuD;? ti,f? tvwf)? &kyfydkif;? pdwfydkif;
usef;rma&; ponfhtcsufrsm; yg0ifekdifygvdrfhrnf/ vl
trsm;pk owdrrl rdwwfonfh ta&;BuD;aom tcsufwpf
csufum; usef&Sdaeavonf/

þtcsufrSm tjcm;aom tcsufrsm;udk rsm;pGm
vTrf;rdkrI &Sdjyefygonf/ ,if;tcsufonf uav;rsm;\ pdwf
tajccH? oif,lavhvmrIeSihf tqHk;pGeftm;jzihf ausmif;

ynma&;atmifjrifrIwGifvnf; oufa&mufrI &Sdaejcif;
aMumihfyif jzpfonf/

þtcsufrSm ]rdbrsm; udk,fwdkif yg0if aqmif
&GufrI} yif jzpfawmhonf/ vlrIpD;yGm;aemufcH tajctae
ESihf ausmif;ynma&; atmifjrifrI wdkuf&dkuf qufEG,f
aeaom tcsufrsm;udk rjiif;y,fvdkyg/ odkY&mwGif rdbrsm;\
udk,fwkdifukd,fusyg0if aqmif&GufrIrSm þqufEG,faerI
wGif Mum;cHaomhcsufyifwnf;/

wenf;qdk&aomf uav; rsm;\ qif;&J? csrf;om
aemufcH taMumif;w&m;rsm;rSm rsm;pGm ta&;rBuD;vSjcif;
yif jzpfonf/ ta&;ygonfh tcsufrSmum; om;orD;i,f
rsm;\ ausmif;ynma&;wGif rdbrsm; udk,fwdkifukd,fus
teSpfom&&Sd&Sd xJxJ0if0if yg0if aqmif&GufrI&Sdjcif;? wuf
MuGpGm vkyfudkif aqmif&Gufay;jcif;? rdbrsm;\ yg0ifrIrSm
xifomjrifom &Sdjcif;wdkYyifjzpfonf/

txufwGif ar;xm;onfh ar;cGef;\ tajz
vnf; jzpfonf/ qif;&Jaom rdbrsm; \ uav;i,frsm;rSm
ausmif;ynma&;wGif atmifjrifrI &&Sdedkifjcif;eSihf rdb csrf;
omMuG,f0aomfjim;vnf; om;orD;wdkYrSm ausmif;ynm
a&;wGif atmifjrifrI r&&SdMuolwdkYtMum; jcm;em;csufudk
&Sif;jyedkifjcif;jzpfonf/ jrefrmpum;yHkwGif txifu& jzpf
aom ]vufOD;q&m? rnfxdkufpGmonf? ykAÁmp&d, rdeSihfz}
[lonfrSm rdbrsm;\ wm0ef0wå&m;udkvnf; azmfusL;
xm;jcif;yif/

rdom;pk z&dkz&Jjzpfjcif;udk i,fpOfu yifBuHKawGY cHpm;&
avonf/ rdcifjzpfolonf oHk;wef; tqihfom ausmif;ae
zl;NyD; pmayrwwfol jzpf&um; rdom;pkudk tvkyf 3-4 rsKd;
wNydKifwnf; vkyfum yifyef; qif;&JpGm vkyfudkif&SmazG
auR;arG;cJh&onf/

om; 2 a,muf vlvm; ajrmufvmap&ef jyKpk
ysKd;axmif ay;cJh&mwGif a'gufwmbefumqefESihf ol\ nD
jzpfolwdkYudk wDADG wpfcsdef vHk;Munfhaeonfxuf pmydkrdk
zwf&Iavhvm&ef Muyfrwf vrf;nTefcJhonf/ &ufowå
wpfywfwGif &kyfjrifoHMum; tpDtpOf 2ck? 3 ckudkom
Munfh&IcGifh jyKavonf/ aeYaeYnn usefaom tcsdef
trsm;pkudkum; pmay zwf&Ijcif;? avhvmjcif;wdkYjzihf ukef
vGef ap&onf/

trdjzpfolonf om; 2 OD;wdkY\ ynma&;wGif
edk;Mum;wufMuGpGm yg0if aqmif&GufcJh\/ ausmif;ynma&;
\ wefzdk;udk tpOfyif owday;avh&SdNyD; rjzpfedkifaomt&m
[lonf r&Sd[kvnf; pdwfcGeftm; wwfMuGzG,f&m ajymqdk
qHk;rwwfonf/ jrefrmedkifiHwGif txifu& wpfOD;jzpfol
wuúodkvf aumvdyf ausmif;tkyfBuD;? pmayynm&Sif
q&mBuD; wuúodkvf bkef;edkifrSm qif;&Jaom rdom;pk\ pm
awmfaom ausmif;om; jzpfcJhaMumif;udkvnf; a&;om;
aqG;aEG; cJhzl;ygonf/

pHerlem,lp&m

q&mq&mrrsm; taejzihf rdbrsm;eSihf rnf onfh
tcsdefwGif awGYqHkwwfygenf;/ rsm;aomtm;jzihf jrefrm
pmoifausmif;rsm;wGif ausmif;om;rdbeSihf awGYqHkrIrSm
jyóemjzpfonfh tcgwGifom jzpfavonf/ ausmif;om;
rsm; qdk;oGrf;onfhtcg? ausmif; pmar;yGJ us&HI;aomtcg?
cdkuf&ef jzpfyGm;onfh tcgwdkYwGifom xdkausmif;om;wdkY\
rdbrsm;eSihf awGYqHkavonf/ ]rdb? q&m yl;aygif; uav;
ynmaumif;} [laom ynma&; pum;yHk&Sdaomfjim;vnf;
uav;i,f wpfOD;csif; rdbrsm; taejzihfrl ausmif;tkyf?
twef;ydkfif? bmom&yfjy q&mq&mrrsm;eSihf awGYqHk
aqG;aEG;cGifhrSmrl rsm;pGm r&Sdao;aMumif; avhvmawGY&Sd &
jyefonf/ pmoifausmif;\ wpfeSpfwm ynma&; jyu©'def
wGif xnfhoGif; rxm;&SdMuao;yg/

aEG;axG;aom u&kPm&Sif tar

edkifiHwumwGif atmifjrifrI &&Sdaeaom OD;aESmuf
cGJpdwfuk orm;awmf? pma&;q&m? pdwfcGeftm; wufMuGzG,f
a[majymol a'gufwm befumqefonf touf 33 eSpf
t&G,fwGif *Refa[mhuif;aq;&HkBuD; (tar&duefedkifiH eSpf
pOf taumif;qkH; aq;&Hkqk 18 ck &&SdjyD;) \ uav;oli,f
OD;aeSmufcGJpdwfuk orm;awmf tvkyfudk &&Sdonftxd
atmifjrifrIeSihf ywfoufí rdcifjzpfol wpfOD;wnf;aMumihf
jzpfaMumif;udk xkwfazmf ajymqdkcJhavonf/ &ifcsif;quf
trTmudk cGJpdwfukool? rMumrMum owdvpf ]wuf} wwf
olvlemrsm;udk ulnDay;&eftwGuf OD;aeSmuf wpfjcrf;udk
cGJpdwfxkwfy,fonfh radical hemispherectomies
orm;awmf wpfOD;jzpfonf/

a'gufwmbefumqefrSm qif;&J EGrf;yg;NyD; rdb
tjcm;aom edkifiHrsm;\ ynma&; okawoe
rsm;rSm vifr,m; uGm&Sif;jywfpJxm;olrsm; jzpfavonf/ avhvm awGY&SdrIrsm;t& rdcif? zcif wpfOD;OD;rS uav;\
53

ynm&nf wdk;wufrIudk ausmif;q&mq&mrrsm;eSihf
vma&muf aqG;aEG;onfh tcg0,f ausmif;om;taejzihf
tjyKtrl? pdwfyg0ifpm;rIeSihf oif,l avhvm&mwGif ydkrdk
aumif;rGef wdk;wufrI &Sdjcif;yif jzpfygonf/ rdbrS
ausmif;odkY vma&mufonfhtwGuf aMumuf&GUH xdwfvefYNyD;
ajymif;vJvmjcif;[lí &Ijrifedkifonf/

þodkYum; r[kwf&ygav/ taumif;jrif
oabmxm; taejzihfom &Ijriftyfonf/ rdbeSihf ausmif;
om; eSpfOD;eSpf0twGuf ynma&; tjrpfudk cdkifrmap jcif;yif/
olwdkY\ ausmif;pmeSihf ausmif; ynma&;wGif rdbrsm;\
yg0ifywfoufrI? pdwf0ifpm;rI? tjcm; ausmif;om;rsm;eSihf
qufqHa&;? q&mq&mrrsm;eSihf qufqHa&;wdkYudk om;
orD;rsm;eSihf aqG;aEG;ajymqdkrIwdkYonf ausmif;ol ausmif;
om;rsm;rS ynma&;udk trSefwu,fpdwfyg0ifpm;rI jzpfay:
apygonf/ pdwftm; wufMuG zG,f&mvnf; jzpfNyD; ynma&;
pdwfcGeftm; &&Sdapum jzpfedkfifonfh vdkvm;tyfaom
ausmif; ynma&; &nfrSef;csufrsm; jrifhjrifh xm;&SdMuygonf/

yg0ifaqmif&GufrI? uav; ynma&;twGuf edk;Mum;
wufMuGrIwdkYudk ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;u rsm;pGm
wefzdk; xm;&SdaMumif;yif jzpfyg\/

vuf&Sd ausmif;ynma&; tajctae? oli,f
csif; rsm;tajumif;? olwdkY pdwfyg0ifpm;onfh bmom&yfrsm;?
tajumif;t&mrsm;? arQmfrSef;csufrsm;? tem*wftaMumif;
ponfwdkYudk uav;rsm;eSihf aqG;aEG;ajymqdkjcif;onf
oif,lavhvmrIudk wdk;wufap&ef rsm;pGm taxmuftyHh
jzpfapNyD; ausmif;ynma&;wGif atmifjrifrI &&Sd&ef twGuf
vnf; arQmfvifhedkifygonf/ teSpfom&tm;jzihf rdbrsm;\

uav;rsm;\ ynma&; atmifjrifrIrSm ausmif;
q&mq&mrrsm;omvQif wm0ef&Sdonff r[kwfyg/ q&m
q&mrrsm;enf;wl uav;rsm;? rdbrsm;? &yf&Gm vlYtzGJY
tpnf;eSihf tpdk;& tqihfqihfwGifvnf; tnDtrQ wm0ef
BuD;BuD;&SdygaMumif;/

ausmif;rsm;taejzihf eSpf0ufwdkif;wGif rdb
wdkif;eSifh twef;ydkif? bmom&yfjyq&mwdkY awGYqHk
aqG;aEG;jcif; tpDtpOfudk a&;qGJ xm;oihfonf/ ig;rdepf?
q,frdepfcefY awGYqHkjcif;rSm ynma&; tusKd;aus;Zl; rsm;pGm
&Sdygonf/ ynm&nfwdk;wufrI rSwfwrf; ay;ydkYNyD;onfh
tcgrsm;wGif uav;wdkif;\ rdbwdkif;eSihf awGYqHkjcif; tpD
tpOfyifjzpf\/ qdk;aom? awmfaom? nHhaom uav;
[lívnf; cGJjcm;xm;rI r&SdbJ rdbtm;vHk;eSihf tvSnfhus
awGYqHkjcif;jzpfonf/

xdkYtjyif tcgtm;avsmfpGm vdktyfcsufrsm;t&
vnf; awGYqHkoifhygonf/ tenf;qHk;tm;jzihf rdbwdkif;
onf uav;rsm;eSifh ausmif;ynma&;qdkif&mwdkYudk ajymqdk
aqG;aEG;edkifonf r[kwfygvm;/

uav;i,fwpfOD;&JU pdwful;udk
b,folodovJ/
Ekd&mb,f&D
Nora Perry (1831-1896)
tar&duef uAsmq&mr? pma&;q&m

54

odef;edkif

EkdifiHwum
ynma7;
owif;rsm
;
trdIufaumufNyD; uav;ausmif;
axmifcJhol tm* trsKd;orD;

uav; 1800 twGuf trdIufyHkrsm;rS pGefYypf
ypönf;rsm;udk aumuf,l a&mif;csNyD; pmoifausmif; axmif
cJholrSm tm* ygupöwef trsKd;orD;wpfOD; jzpfonf/

0efBuD;csKyf ,lqmhzf&mZ*DvefeDu rdbrJh? pGefYypf
cH uav;rsm;twGuf þtrsKd;orD;\ ukd,fusKd;pGefY tm;
xkwfrIudk ulnDay;&ef ½lyD;aiG 1 oef; csD;jr§ihfrnfjzpf
aMumif; aMunmvdkufonf/

*DvefeDu ½lbDem uk&m&SD\ tm;xkwfrIwdkYudk
Mum;od&ojzihf tvGefyif cHpm;cJh&aMumif; qdkonf/ ½l
bDemonf qif;&JvGef;vSonfh vm[kd;jynfe,fu uav;
i,f 1800 twGuf pmoifausmif;udk tdrfwumvSnfh
trdIufaumuf,lNyD; a&mif;cs&onfh aiGjzihf wnfaxmif
xm;oljzpfonf/

vltrsm; toHk; rvdkawmhojzihf pGefYypf ypönf;
rsm;udk vdkufaumufNyD; a&mif;cscJh&aMumif;? &onfh aiG
aMu;jzihf tcrJh ynmoifay;aMumif;? pmtkyfrsm;udk pGefYypf
cH qif;&Jom; uav;i,frsm; twGuf 0,fay;aMumif;
½lbDemu ajymjycJhonf/

&yf&GmtwGif;&Sd csrf;om~uG,f0olrsm;? pnf;pdrf
,pfaeolrsm; taejzihf tdk;tdrfrJh? pGefYypfcHvlxk\ uav;
i,frsm; ynma&;? pmoifausmif;wdkYtwGuf aiGaMu; vSL
'gef;oihfaMumif; tBuHjyKxm;onf/
Source: IANS
(3. August.2011)

tmz&du&JU opfyif arar uG,fvGef

uifnm or®wa[mif; 'efeD&,frdGKif;u 0ef*g&D
rmxD(Wangari Maathi) udk t½l;rvdkY ac:cJhonf/ aemuf
csrf;omolawG? tmPm&SdolawGeJY uifnmEkdifiH vkHjcHKa&;
twGuf tEÅ&m,f&Sdw,fvdkY ,lqNyD; olrudk &dkufESufonf?
axmifcsonf/

wu,fawmh 0ef*g&Du odyfxl;xl;jcm;jcm;awG
vkyfjywmr[kwf/ EkdifiHa&; tmPmudk pdefac:wm r[kwf/
olr vkyfwmu opfyifpkdufjcif;yJ jzpfonf/ opfyifpdkuf
jcif;u tmz&du&JU qif;&JrGJawrIeJY y#dyu©awGudk avQmhcs
Ekdifw,fvdkY ,HkMunfNyD; opfyifawG odef;oef;csDNyD; wpdkuf
rwfrwf pdkufcJholjzpfonf/ uifnmwpfEkdifiHvHk; opfyif
awGpkdufzdkY vIHYaqmfcJhonf/

tckawmh tz&du&JU opfyif rdcifudk wpfurÇm
vHk;u trSwf&aeMuNyD/ touf 71 ESpf&Sd tmz&du&JU
yxrqHk; trsKd;orD; Nidrf;csrf;a&;Ekdb,fqk&Sif 0ef*g&DrmxD
[m pufwifbm 25 &ufaeYu uifqma&m*geJY uG,fvGef
oGm;cJhNyD/ tmz&du wpfwdkufvHk;u ausmif;om;awGu
olrudk trSwfw&tjzpf opfyifpdkufMuonf/ urÇmhacgif;aqmif
awGu 0rf;enf;aMumif; o0PfvTmawG ay;ydkYcJhMu onf/

,HkMunfcsuftwdkif; uifnmrSm olr xlaxmif
xm;wJh vlrIa&; tzGJYtpnf;u Nidrf;csrf;a&;eJY obm0udk
atmifEkdifa&;twGuf opfyif oef; 30 ausmf pdkufcJhonf/
olr&JU vIHYaqmfrIudk tm;us twk,lNyD; ukvor*¾u wpf
urÇmvHk; opfyif 11 bDvD,H pdkufjzpfcJhonf/

rmxDu tar&duefjynfaxmifpkrS bGJY&cJhNyD;?
55

uifnmEkdifiHu Ekdif&dkbD wuúodkvfrSm ygarmu© vkyfcJhonf/
1998 ckESpfrSm uifnmNrdKU jyifu zkef;qdk;ajrawGrSm opfyif
pdkufzdkY pwif vIHYaqmfcJhonf/ tJ'DajruGufawGudk odrf;xm;
wJh tpdk;&eJY eD;pyfolawGu rmxDwdkY tzGJYudk av;cGawG
jr§m;awG cJawGeJY ypfcJhonf/ aemuf 0g;&if;wkwfawG? Mum
yGwfawGeJY &dkufcJhonf/ rmxD udk,fwdkif acgif;uGJNyD; aoG;
tvdrf;vdrf;eJY aq;&Hka&mufcJh&onf/

2004 ckESpf aemfa0EkdifiH Nidrf;csrf;a&; qkay;yGJ
tcrf;tem;rSm Ekdb,fqk aumfrwDrS 'g&dkufwm *D,m
vef'wfpw'fu ]rmxD vkyfcJhwm opfyifpdkufwmyg/ 'g
ayrJh 'gu odyfta&;BuD;ygw,f/ obm0 ywf0ef;usif
tjrifeJYwif r[kwfbl;? tmz&du oJuEÅ& jzpfaewm &yf
wefYzdkY? trsKd;orD;awG vlrIa&;? EkdifiHa&; tod pdwf"mwfawG
Edkf;Mum;zdkYeJY tmPm&Sif ',feD&,frdGKif; tpdk;&udk qefYusifhrI
awGyg vkyfEkdifcJhw,f/ obm0 ywf0ef;usif umuG,fa&;eJY
trsKd;orD; tcGifhta&;? 'Drdkua&pDa&;awGudk aygif;pyfí
vkyfEkdifcJhw,f} [k ajymcJhonf/

Ekdb,fqk vufcH &,lpOf rmxDu uifnm aus;
vufawm&Gmu olr&JU uav;b0 tawGYtBuHKawGudk
rdefYcGef;rSm xnfhajymcJhonf/ pD;yGm;a&;orm;awGu opf
awmudk tajymif&Sif;ypfyHk? opfyifawG r&SdvdkY a&awG rxdef;
EkdifyHk? ajrNydK urf;NydKawG jzpf&yHk? om;aumifawG aoqHk;&yHk?
qif;&JrGJawrI jzpfvmyHkawG ajymjycJhonf/

tmPm&Sif rGdKif; jyKwfNyD;? aemuftpdk;& vuf
xufrSm rmxDudk obm0 ywf0ef;usifeJY obm0&if;jrpf
xdef;odrf;a&; 'kwd,0efBuD; tjzpf cefYxm;cH&onf/

56

t&ifu olrtzGJY (Green Belt Movement)
u opfyifyJ oJBuD;rJBuD; pdkufaeNyD;? 'Drdkua&pDeJY Nidrf;csrf;
a&;taMumif; odyfrajymcJhayrJh? aemufydkif;rSm 'Drdkua&pD
taMumif; t&rf;ajymvmonf/ 'Drdkua&pD r&Sd&if obm0
ywf0ef;usifudk wm0ef,l xdef;odrf;zdkY rjzpfEkdifaMumif;
us,fus,favmifavmif ajymvmonf/

]opfyif[m uifnmEdkifiH 'Drdkua&pD BudK;yrf;rI
twGuf oauFwygyJ/ uifnmEkdifiHom;awG[m tmPm
tvGJoHk;olawG? t*wd vkdufpm;olawGeJY obm0 ywf0ef;
usif zsufqD;olawGudk pdefac:zdkY opfyifpdkuf&if; pnf;vHk;
nDnGwfrIawGeJY &J0hHrIawG &&SdvmcJhw,f} vdkY rmxDu
rdefYcGef;rSm xnfhajymonf/

Ekdb,fqk&NyD; aemufydkif; urÇmtESHYu tpdk;&
awGeJY tzGJYtpnf;awGu rmxD&JU vkyfaqmifrIawGudk ydkNyD;
todtrSwf jyKvmMuonf/

ukvor*¾ obm0 ywf0ef;usiftzGJYu 2006
ckESpf wpfurÇmvHk; opfyif 11 bDvD,H pdkufysKd;a&; UNEP'S
2006 Billion Tree Campaign [m rmxD&JU vIyf&Sm;rI
uae jzpfvmaMumif; 0efcHajymqdkcJhonf/

ukvor*¾ taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL; befuD
rGef;u rmxD[m vlYtcGifhta&;? qif;&JrGJawrI wdkufzsuf
a&;? tmz&du vHkjcHKa&;eJY obm0ywf0ef;usif umuG,f
a&;wdkYudk aygif;pyf vIyf&Sm;EkdifcJhwJh xll;jcm;wJh pHjyyk*¾dKvf jzpf
aMumif; ajymqdkcJhonf/
Source: AP (4.October.2011)

2011 ckESpf urÇmh tawG;ac:&Sif (100) pm&if;rSm yg0ifol a':atmifqef;pkMunfESihf
tvmt,f tufpf0geD

MoZmt&Sdeft0g BuD;rm;onfh Foreign Policy
r*¾Zif;BuD;u 2011 ckeSpf urÇmhtawG;tac:&Sif 100
twGuf ppfwrf;aumuf,l&mrSm? jrefrmedkifiHrS Nidrf;csrf;a&;
edkb,fqk&Sif a':atmifqef;pkMunftm; trSwfpOf 31
ae&mwGif a&G;cs,f azmfjycH&onf/

a':atmifqef;pkMunfeSifh ywfoufNyD; Foreign Policy r*¾Zif;u ]tu,fí jrefrmedkifiH ppftmPm
&Sif wHydk;atmufrS aemufqHk; &kef;xGufedkifcJhw,fqdkvQif?
a':atmifqef;pkMunf&JU edkifiHa&; uRrf;usifwwfyGefrIu
t"du tcef;u@uae yg0ifaevdrfhrnf} [k a&;om;
xm;onf/

,ckeSpf urÇmhtawG;ac:&Siftjzpf eHygwf 1 ae&m
a&G;cs,fcH&ol rSm tD*spfedkifiHom; oGm;q&m0efuae urÇm
ausmf pma&;q&mjzpfvmol tvmt,f tufpf0geD (Alla
Al Aswany) jzpfonf/ olY&JU 2002 ckeSpfrSm xkwfa0wJh
pmtkyf The Yacoubian Building u udkvdkeD oHajcusif;
tjzKwfcH&NyD;aemuf tD*spfedkifiH vlrIa&;eJY ,Ofaus;rI wpp
,dk,Gif;vmcJhyHkudk xl;jcm;pGm wifjyxm;onf/

aemufNyD; tufpf0geDu tD*spfrSm t*wd vdkuf
pm;rI wdkufzsufzdkY? rsKd;&dk;qufcHwJh tkyfpdk;rIpepfudk tqHk;
owfzkdY? ppfrSefwJh 'Drdkua&pD xlaxmifzdkYtwGuf edkifiHa&;
vIyf&Sm;rIrsm; aqmif&GufNyD; vli,fawG w[&D&m &ifjyif

ay: xGufvmatmif vHIYaqmf pnf;&Hk;cJhonf/ vli,f pma&;
q&mawGeJY aumfzDqdkifrSm tjrJ awGYqHkpnf;a0;wmaMumifh
tD*spf&JawGu olYudk trsKd;rsKd; taeSmifht,Sufay;cJhonf/

tD*spfawmfvSefa&;rSm qE´jyolawGeJY rlbm&uf
bufawmfom;awG tjyeftvSef &dkufeSufaepOfrSm tufpf
0geD tzdkY oHk;Budrfwdwd aoab; BuHKcJh&onf/ 'gayrJh awmf
vSefa&; vrf;aMumif; aysmufroGm;atmif tjrJ OD;aqmifrI
ay;cJhNyD;? rlbm&uf tpdk;&udk tNyD;wdkif jrifuGif;uae z,f
&Sm;ypfzkdY ppfwyfudk zdtm;ay;cJhonf/

tufpf0geDu eSpfaygif;rsm;pGm wdwfqdwfNidrf
oufaewJh tD*spfvlxk&JU toHawG xGufvmatmif rD;xdk;
cJhol jzpfonf/ olu ]awmfvSefa&;qdkwm tcspfZmwfvrf;
vdkygyJ/ wu,f cspfrdwJhtcg vlaumif;wpfa,muf jzpf
vmovdkyJ? awmfvSefa&;tay: wu,fcspfrdNyDqdk&ifvnf;
tepfemcHrI? pGefYpm;rIawG? pGrf;tm;awGeJY vlaumif; wpf
a,muf ydkjzpfvmw,f} [k ajymcJhonf/

Foreing Policy u a&G;cs,fwJh tawG;tac:
yk*¾dKvfausmf 100 pm&if;rS wpfOD;csif;pDtaMumif;udk rlv
qdk'fwGif avhvmedkifygonf/
http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2011/11/28/
the_fp_top_100_global_thinkers

57

jrefrmh'Drkdua&pDa&;udk tm;ay;ulnDcJhol
csufor®wa[mif;? tEkynm&Sif Am;pvAf [mA,fvf uG,fvGef

ta&SU Oa&myedkfifiHjzpfaom csufudkpvdk
aA;uD;,m; uGefjrLepftpdk;&udk jzKwfcscJhol jyZmwfa&;
q&mESifh csufor®wa[mif; Am;pvAf[mA,fvfonf
touf 75 t&G,fwGif uG,fvGefoGm;NyD jzpfonf/

1989 ckeSpfwGif eSpfaygif;av;q,fMum tkyfcsKyf
vmcJhaom uGefjrLepf tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfudk NzdKcsedkifcJhonfh
twGuf urÇmw0Srf; vlxk\ cspfcifav;pm;rIudk &&SdcJhol
vnf;jzpfonf/ pwmvifacwf tkyfcsKyfa&;wGif &efol
tjzpf owfrSwfcH&ol jzpfonf/ jyZmwfo&kyfaqmif?
aemufydkif;wGif 'g&kdufwm? ZmwfnGef;a&;q&m? jyZmwf
a&;om;oltjzpf vkyfaqmifcJhonf/ol\ Garden Party
jyZmwfonf edkifiHwumtxd ausmfMum;cJhonf/

uAsm? pmayrsm;a&;om; jzefYa0rIaMumifh uGefjrL

epftpdk;&\ zrf;qD;EdSyfpufrIudk cHcJh&onf/ tpdk;& qefYusif
a&;wGif xifay: ausmfMum;aom acgif;aqmifwpfOD; jzpf
vmcJhonf/ 1968 ckeSpfwGif qdkAuf,uf jynfaxmifpkrS
usL;ausmfNyD;aemuf ol\xifay:ausmfMum;aom (My
Beautiful Czech Land) ukd a&;om;xkwfa0cJhonf/

[maAvf\ ]wm0ef,lvdkpdwf} rdefYcGef;rSm urÇm
w0Srf; xifay: ausmfMum;aom 'óewpfck jzpfvmcJh
onf/ csufudkpvdkAufuD;,m; jynfaxmifpkwGif or®w
jzpfvmNyD; &ufaygif; 1000 tMumwGif qvdkAuf rsKd;cspfwdkY
onf csufudkpvdkaA;uD;,m; jynfaxmifpkudk csufeSifh
qvdkAuf [laom edkifiH eSpfcktjzpf cGJxkwfcJhonf/ [mAvf
onf csufor®wedkifiHwGif okH;Budrfwdkif or®wtjzpf a&G;
aumufwifajr§mufjcif;cHcJh&onf/

jrefrmh'Drdkua&pDta&; vIyf&Sm;rIudk tjynfht0
axmufcHcJhaom yk*¾dKvfjzpfonf/ a':atmifqef;pkMunf
Ekdb,fNidrf;csrf;a&;qk&a&; tqdkudk axmufcHcJholvnf;
jzpfonf/ ]eSpfpOfeSpfwdkif; a':atmifqef;pkMunf\ arG;aeY
yGJudk rdwfaqGrsm;ESihftwl usif;yavh&Sdygw,f/ wpfaeYus
&if atmifqef;pkMunfudk udk,fwdkifawGYNyD; arG;aeYpum;
ajymedkifr,fvdkY arQmfvifhaMumif;} ajymqdkcJhonf/

a':atmifqef;pkMunfESihf awGYqkHcGifh r&bJ ol
cspfaom csufjynfolESihf pmayudk pGefYcGmoGm;NyD jzpfonf/
(armu©owif;)

jynfcspf0g' oifcef;pmudk a[mifaumifausmif;q&mrsm; cg;cg;oD;oD;y,fcs

a[mifaumif\ tBuD;qHk; ausmif;q&m or*¾
u roifrae& w&kwfjynfcspf0g' oifMum;a&; tpDtpOf
udk vufrcH&ef NrdKUtmPmydkifrsm;tm; Ak'¨[l;aeYu arwåm
&yfcHcJhonf/

þESpfqef;ydkif;wGif NrdKUawmf\ xdyfwef; ynm
a&; tmPmydkifrsm;u ausmif;om;i,frsm; twGuf tqdkyg
tjiif;yGm;zG,f oifcef;pmrsm; roifrae& oifMum;a&;
tpDtpOfudk wifjycJh&m? wpfzufowf EdkifiHa&; tawG;
tac: &dkufoGif;rIrsm; jzpfyGm;awmhrnfavm[laom pdk;&drf
pdwfrsm; ay:aygufapcJhonf/
58

a[mifaumif ausmif;q&mor*¾\ ajyma&;qdk
cGifh&SdolwpfOD; jzpfaom *sdrf;[Gefu þtpDtpOfudk cg;cg;
oD;oD; y,fcscJhonf/

]'gu (usaemfwdkY&JU ynma&; pepfxJudk) EkdifiH
a&; t& 0ifpGufzufwmyJ qdkwm &Sif;aeygw,f} [k olu
qdkygonf/ xdkYaemuf ]ausmif;om;awG&JU bufpHk zGHYNzdK;
wdk;wufrIudk taESmifht,Suf jzpfapygvdrfhr,f/} [kvnf;
olu qufajymcJhonf/

,cifu NAdwdoQ udkvdkeDjzpfcJhNyD; 1997 ckESpfu
w&kwfjynfodkY jyefvnf vTJajymif;ay;cJhaom a[mif

aumifonf 4if;\ EdkifiHa&;ESifh w&m;Oya'a&;&m pepfudk
qufvuf xdef;odrf;cGifh &xm;aom w0ufwysuf udk,f
ydkiftkyfcsKyfcGifh& e,fajrjzpfNyD;? jynfrBuD;rSm r&&SdEkdifaom
jynfolY tcGifhta&;rsm; &&Sdaeonf/

vlOD;a& 7 oef;&Sdaom a[mifaumifü ab*sif;
tpdk;&tm; rMumcPqdkovdk uefYuGuf qE´jyrIrsm;
jzpfyGm;avh&Sdonf/

þoifMum;a&; tpDtpOft&qdkvQif ausmif;
om;rsm;onf ]trsKd;om; oifhjrwfrI? trsKd;om; vu©Pm
ESifh trsKd;om; aoG;pnf;rI wnfaqmufa&;} wdkY tay:
tajccHaom oifcef;pmrsm;udk wESpfvQif em&Daygif; 50
oif,lMu&rnf jzpfonf/

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AsL&dk\ vrf;nTefcsufrsm;t&qdkvQif pmar;yGJrsm;&Sdrnf
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oifMum;&mü tuJjzwfoGm;rnf jzpfonf/

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olwdkYtm; ]rdrdonf w&kwfjynfrBuD;rSm tBuHK;0ifonf
[laom todudk &&Sdaprnf}? ]trsKd;om; tm;upm;toif;
rsm;udk tm;ay;vmaprnf}? ]w&kwf ,Ofaus;rIudk wefzdk;
xm;vmaprnf} [k þoifcef;pmrsm;udk vdkvm;olrsm;
qdkygonf/

tzGJY0if &Spfaomif;ausmf (80000) &Sd (a[mif
aumif ausmif;q&m? q&mrrsm;\ 90 &mckdifEIef;) aom
ausmif;q&mor*¾\ ppfwrf; aumuf,l&&Sdcsufü avh
vm awGY&Sdxm;onfrSm þoifcef;pmrsm;udk tzGJY0if 70
&mckdifEIef;u qefYusifonf [líjzpfonf/

ausmif;om;rsm;tm; þomom&yfjzifh EdkifiHa&;
tawG;tac:rsm;udk wzufowf &dkufoGif;rnfudk 67 &m
ckdifEIef;u ]pdk;&drf} odkYr[kwf ]tvGefpdk;&drf} aMumif; ppfwrf;
aumuf,l &&Sdcsufu az: jyxm;onf/

þtpDtpOfudk twnfjyKjzpfygu þoifcef;
pmrsm;udk rlvwef;ausmif;rsm;ü vmrnfhESpfwGif4if;?
tv,fwef;ausmif;rsm;ü 2013 ckESpfwGif4if; pwif oif
Mum;oGm;rnf jzpfonf/
Source: APF - (23.August.2011)

pmoifausmif;rsm;twGif; vdifydkif;qkdif&m
aESmuf,SufrI tjzpfrsm;

tar&duef wuúokdvftrsKd;orD;rsm;toif;&JU
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vkdY ajymcJhygw,f/

tar&duef wuúokdvftrsKd;orD;rsm; toif;
[m yk*¾vduausmif;eJY tpdk;&ausmif;awGu rdef;uav;
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taerSm &Sdaeygw,f/

tJ'DxJrSmrS vdifydkif;qkdif&m xdyg;aeSmuf,Suf
cH&ol ausmif;olausmif;om;awG&JU 9 &mckdifEIef;avmufyJ
olwdkY&JU jzpf&yfawGudk ausmif;q&m? q&mrawGvkd ausmif;
wm0ef&SdolawGudk wkdifwef; tpD&ifcHcJhygw,f/ tJ'D tpD&if
cHpmxJrSm ausmif;wkdif; vdifydkif;qkdif&m aeSmuf,SufrIESihf
ywfoufNyD; rl0g'awG xm;&SdzkdY? trsm;odatmifvkyfzkdY
awmif;qkdxm;csufawG yg0ifygw,f/
(csKd;vif;jym 0bfqkdufrS...)
Feminist Majority Foundation

59

tdE´d,pwkdif w&m;bm0emusihf
BuH tm;xkwfjcif; Meditation udk avh
usihf oifMum;ay;aeonfh NAdwdef
pmoifausmif;udk tpdk;&u &efyHkaiG
ulnD ay;oGm; rnf jzpfonf/

vefuwf½Idif;,m;a'o? pu,f
rma';t&yf&Sd r[m&d&SDausmif;wGif
tdE´d,w&m;jy *k&kq&mBuD; r[m&d&SD
rJa[;a,m*D\ oifMum;rIrsm;ESihf
tusihftBuHwdkYudk oifMum; ay;vsuf
&Sdonf/ r[m&d&SdrJa[; a,m*D\
wynfhrsm;xJwGif *DwtEkynm&Sif?
tqdkausmfrsm;jzpfonfh The Beatles tzGJY0ifrsm; &SdcJhzl;onf/

aeYpOf ausmif;wuf&ufwkdif; ausmif;csdef rpwifrDESihf ausmif;qif;csdefrsm;wGif touf 4
ESpft&G,f uav;rsm;vnf; w&m;xkdifjcif; oifcef;pmrsm;udk wufa&muf avhvmMuonf/ tpdk;&
axmufyHhaMu;aiG &&Sdxm;onfh ausmif; 24 ausmif;wGif wpfausmif;jzpfaom r[m&d&SDausmif;u þodkY
w&m;bm0emudk avhusihf oifMum;ay;jcif;jzifh ausmif;ol ausmif;om;rsm;? wynfhrsm;taejzihf pdwfNidrf;
at;csrf;omrIudk &&SdcHpm;MuNyD; oif,l avhvmjcif; pGrf;&nfudkvnf; wdk;wufaponf[k qdk\/

tpdk;& axmufyHh ulnDaomfjim;vnf; trsKd;om; oif&dk;nGef;wrf;udk wpfyHkpHwnf; vdkufem
aqmif&Guf&ef rvdktyfyg/ Source: IANS/ Indo-asia news (7.Sept.2011)

w&m;xkdifjcif;udk avhusihfoifMum;onfh ausmif;udk
NAdwdef tpdk;& ulnD

uav; aq;
bufqdkif&m t
ar&duef orm;
awmftzGJYu t ouf
2 eSpfatmuf
uav;i,f a wG
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vHk;0 rMunfh
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owday;cJhonf/
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wpfapmif xkwfjyefcJhonf/

i,f&G,fvGef;ao;wJh uav;awGudk wDADG? uGef
ysLwm junfh&Iapjcif;jzifh rnfonfhynma&; tusKd;tjrwf
rS &&SdaprSm r[kwfaMumif; azmfjycJhonf/

abmfpwGefNrdKUrSm eSpfpOftpnf;ta0; vkyfwJh

touf 2 ESpfatmuf uav;udk
wDADG? uGefysLwm vHk;0
ay;rMunfhoihf

60

orm;awmfrsm;tzGJYu wDADGpc&if MunfhvGef;wJh uav;awG
uav;aq;cef;awGrSm pkjyHK a&mufaewJhtaMumif; ajymqdk
cJhonf/ uav;i,fawGudk wDAGDjyNyD; pmoifwm? tdrf
aemufaz;rSm rdbawG tvkyf&IyfaevdkY uav;udk wDADGa&SU
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aMumawGudk xdcdkufrIjzpfapw,f[k qdkonf/

aemufawGY&SdcsufwpfckrSm 8 eSpfatmuf uav;
awG[m w,fvDaA;&Sif;udk qifBuD;avmuf BuD;w,f[k
,lqvmNyD; iPod, iPad ESihf tjcm; wufbvufav;
awGudkyJ pGJpGJvrf;vrf;jzpfvmMuonf/ aeYpOf tJ'DrD'D,m
ypönf;i,frsm;eSifh uav;awG tcsdefjzKef; vmMuawmh
onf/

tar&duef orm;awmfrsm;tzGJYuawmh tJ'Dvdk
uav;awG rD'D,mypönf; pGJvrf;wmudk *kPf,lraezdkYESihf
a&&SnfrSm uav;b0twGufa&m olwdkY ynma&; twGuf
yg rnfonfh tusKd;tjrwfrS r&edkif[k wm;jrpfxm;onf/

&nfnTef;/ / The New York Times

uGefysLwmaMumihf OD;aESmufysuf rcHMueJY?
opfawmxJvnf; vrf;avQmufMuygOD;/

Facebook eSihf uGefysLwm*drf;ponfh enf;
ynmwdkYudk tvGeftuRH toHk;jyKjcif;onf uav;rsm;
twGuf vGefpGm tEÅ&m,f&Sdaeonf[k xdyfwef; OD;aeSmuf
tm&HkaMum odyHÜynm&Sifu xkwfaz: ajymqdkvkdufygonf/

]OD;aeSmuf acwåysufjcif;} eSihf &ifqkdifekdif&zG,f
&SdaMumif;vnf;qdkonf/

ynm&Sif Baroness Greenfield u uGefysL
wma&SUwGif em&Daygif;rsm;pGm xkdifaejcif;rSm uav;\
OD;aeSmuf tvkyfvkyfyHkudk a,muf,ufcwf? &IwfaxG;
apekdifNyD; uGefysLwm pGJvef;jcif; a&m*gvnf; &&SdekdifaMumif;
tckdiftrm ajymqdkcJhygonf/

olru tBuHjyK&mwGif vli,f ausmif;om;rsm;
taejzihf uGefysLwmudk ydwfNyD;? jyifyywf0ef;usifodkY oGm;
vnfywfoifhaMumif;eSihf avaumif;avoefYudk aysmf&Tif
pGm &I&dIufoihfaMumif; ajymjycJhonf/

wpfeSpftwGif;rSmyif uGefysLwm pc&if;udk
uav;i,frsm;onf em&Daygif; 2000 (eSpfaxmif) cefY
txd pl;pdkuf Munfhekdifonf[kvnf; qdkxm;onf/ tusKd;
quftaejzihf ]uGefysLwm pGJvrf;jcif;eSihf r&Sd-raewwf
a&m*g} pGJuyfjcif;udk cHpm;ekdifonf[k olru &Sif;jyonf/

enf;ynmrSm wDxGifzefwD;rI pGrf;&nfwdkYudk zGHYNzdK;
apekdifonfh tusKd;aus;Zl; rsm;pGm &Sdaeaomfjim;vnf;

tvGeftuRH toHk;jyKjcif;rSmrl aocsmayguf tEÅ&m,f
jzpfapekdifonf[k ynm&Sif Greenfield u tckdiftrm
ajymqdkxm;ygonf/

]pc&if enf;ynmawGu pdwftm; xufoefrI
udk tvGeftrif; vHIYaqmfay;ekdifwmyg/ tJ'DtcgrSm pGJvef;
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ydkif;e,f? Dorset NrdKU nDvmcHwGif olr &Sif;jycJhonfudk Sun
owif;pmwGif az: jycJhonf/

tm&HkcHpm;rI taMumif;t&m rsm;jym;vmonfh
tcg OD;aeSmuftwGif;ydkif;eSihf qufEG,f vkyfaqmif&rIrsm;
u ]acwårQ &yfwefY} oGm;ekdifaMumif;? ]pdwfudk av[m
e,fxJ vTifhypfvdkufovdk} jzpfwwfaMumif;vnf; olru
qdkygonf/

]odkYwnf;r[kwf OD;aeSmuf ,dk,Gif;ysufpD;jcif;
Dementia a&m*guJhodkYvnf; &&SdapekdifNyD; &moufyef
OD;aeSmuf ysufpD; apekdifonfh jzpfekdifacs &Sdaeavonf/}

]tjyifbufudk xGufMurS jzpfawmhr,f/ opfyif
ay: wufMunhfMuyg/ ajcaxmufatmufu jrufcif;
pdrf;pdrf;av;awG xdudkifMunfh? cHpm;MunfhygOD;/ rsufeSmay:

61

usa&mufvmwJh aejcnfaEG;&JU t&omudkvnf; cHpm;yg/}

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ukefvGefvsuf&SdjyD; Facebook udkom b0[kyif xifrSwf
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ydkYpfrsm;wGif yg&Sdaeonhf owif;rSm;? twif;tzsif;rsm;
aMumihfvnf; apmfum;cH&jcif;? tEÅ&m,f jzpfapekdifjcif;
wdkYjzihf &ifqkdifae&vsufvnf; &SdMuonf/

]tjcm;olawGu olwdkYudk &IjrifMuwJh twkdif;
om t"dyÜg,f zGihfqdk&if;eJY olwdkY&JU yifudk,fo&kyf[m b,fvdk
jzpfaeNyDvJ/} olru ar;cGef; xkwfcJhygonf/
armu© enf;ynmeSihf aq;odyÜHowif;

arG;&myg ocsFm awmfjcif;? nHhjcif;

ocsFmbmomeJY ywfoufNyD; vltawmfrsm;
rsm;[m bmaMumihfrsm; 'Davmufxdatmif nHhae&ovJ
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udef;*Pef;eJY arG;zGm;vmol tcsKdU &Sdayr,fh
tcsKdUrSmawmh wvHk;rS ygrvmcJhbl;wJh/

bmvfwDrdk; Johns Hopkins wuúodkvf?
pdwåaA' ynm&Sif tzGJYu touf 4 ESpft&G,f uav;i,f
200 ausmfudk prf;oyf ppfaq; avhvmrIt& 'Dvdk awGY&Sd
&jcif; jzpfygw,f/

udef;*Pef;rsm;eJY tvkyfvkyfEkdifzdkY qdkwm[m
arG;&myg BudKwif qHk;jzwfxm;NyD;om; jzpfEkdifygowJh/ udef;
*Pef;rsm;eJY arG;vmcJhw,f/ 'grSr[kwf wpfvHk;rS rygvm
cJhacsbl;/

ynm&Sif rmvpfqmvpfbmwyf OD;aqmifwJh
tzGJY[m ocsFm vHk;0 roifay;&ao;wJh uav;i,fav;
rsm;udk t"duxm; avhvmrI jyKcJhMuygw,f/

]udef;*Pef; tm&HkcHpm;rIESihf ocsFm pGrf;&nf
qufEG,faerI[m wu,fudk &Sdaewmyg/ ausmif;rSm
ocsFm bmomudk w&m;0if roif,lcif uwnf;uyJ/}
vpfbmwyfu qdkonf/

udef;*Pef; pGrf;&nfrSm tjcm;aom bufpHk
ÓPf&nfrsm;ESihf qufpyfyHkr&[kvnf; okawoDrsm;u
qdkygonf/
IANS/ London (25.August.2011)
62

EdkifiHjcm; wuúodkvfBuD;
blwefwGif wnfaqmuf

blwefedkifiH? NrdKUawmfoifzlNrdKUrSm edkifiHjcm; wuú
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aqmuf&ef pDpOfvsuf&Sdonf/

ajr{u 405 [ufwm ({u 1 ç000) us,faom
4if;wuúodkvf pDrHudef;vkyfief;onf ausmif;om; 15ç000
twGuf wnfaqmuf&ef &nf&G,fxm;jcif;jzpfonf/

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edkifiHjcm;wuúodkvfrsm;udk qGJaqmifonfhtae
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blwefedkifiHonf emrnfBuD;ausmif;rsm;? wuú
odkvfrsm;ESifh tquftoG,f &Sdxm;NyD;jzpfonf/
www.courses18.com/index.php

touf 16 ESpfwGif Ph.D bGJY &onfh w&kwfausmif;om;

usef&SD,ef;rSm touf 10 eSpfeSifh wuúodkvf
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touf 13 eSpfrSm abusif;enf;ynm wuú
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touf 16 eSpfrSm abusif; wuúodkvfuae ocsFmbm
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usef&SD,ef;\ xl;jcm;rIaMumifh aemufqufwGJ
tjzpf w&kwfynma&;pepfudkyg 'Dbdwfvkyfp&mawG jzpf
vmonf/ uav;i,fawGudk twef;awG ckefysHwuf
atmif vkyfwJh w&kwfynma&;pepfu rSefuef&JUvm;? tJ'D
pmawmfwJh uav;awGuaum wu,fh todynm &ifh
usufjynfhpHkrI &Sd&JUvm;/

rMumcifu usef&SdD,ef;udk w&kwftpdk;& &kyfoH
CCTV u tifwmAsL;vkyfawmh olY&JU uav;qefrI? pdwf
aumufrIawG jrifMu&onf/ olYtwGuf rdbawGu
abusif;NrdKUv,frSm wdkufcef;wpfcef; 0,fray;&if? ol
ausmif;qufrwufawmhbl;qdkNyD; rdbawGudk tusyfudkif
cJhonf[k ajymjyonf/

tJ'Dvdk rdbawGtay: tusyfudkif pdwfaumuf
wJhtaMumif; olajymvdkufawmh w&kwftGefvdkif; y&dwf
owfawGMum; yGJqloGm;onf/ csKdUcsKdUwJhwJh &kef;uefae&wJh
rdbawGudk ol 'Dvdk rn§Of;qJoifhbl; qdkNyD;? ajymcsifqdkcsif
aeMuwJh ]tufwmeuf edkifiHom;] netizens awGtwGuf
vufwdkY vdkufovdk jzpfoGm;onf/

bGJY&rS udk,fh[mudk,f tvkyfvkyfNyD; aiGpk wdkuf
cef;0,foifhwmaygh? odyf twåBuD;wJh aumifav;yJ? olh
ynmu bmoHk;pm;&rSmvJ? pdwfaum yHkrSef[kwfao;&JUvm;
pojzifh../

wcsKdUuawmh oufoufn§mn§majymonf/ 'D
t&G,fqdkwm 'DvdkyJ rdbudk ylqmr,f? pdwfaumufr,f?
ykefuefcsifr,f? 'gjzpfavhjzpfxyJ/ ol&JU a'gufwmbGJYBuD;
aMumifh owif;pmawGxJygNyD; a&;BuD;cGifus,f ajymae
MuwmyJ? oem;p&mav;yg/

usef&SdD,ef;ukd va,mifeifjynfe,frS 0ifaiG
tv,ftvwf&Sd rdom;pkuae arG;zGm;cJhonf/ tpdk;&
0efxrf;jzpfol zcifu olYom; ynmyg&rDygwmudk tp
uwnf;u od&SdcJhonf/ i,fi,fuwnf;u ar;cGef;awG

ar;cdkif;? awG;cdkif;NyD; avhusifhay;cJhonf/ uav;t&G,frSm
w&kwfjynfordkif;uae tD&wfppfyGJ taMumif;txd
BuD;BuD;us,fus,fawG tmabmiftm&if;oefoef ajym
wwfonf/ olYtazESifh tjyeftvSef jiif;ckefMuonf/

'gayrJh olYynma&;c&D;rSm tcuftcJ umvawG
jzwfcJh&onf[k CCTV tifwmAsL;rSm ajymjyonf/
ausmif;pm rvkyfbJ uGefysLwm *drf;pGJoGm;awmh tazh
tBudrf;tarmif;cH&onf/ ausmif;taqmifrSm *drf;aqmh
aewmudk olYtaz jrifoGm;awmh om;tzawG jyóem
tBuD;tus,fwufMuonf/ tJ'Daemufydkif; olYtazu
olYausmif;pmvkyfwmudk tjrJapmifhMunfhaewwfonf/

olYrdbawG&Jh armif;eSifrIu olYtwGuf jyif;xef
vGef;onf/ tJ'D rdbawG&Jh zdtm;uyJ olYtwGuf &nfrSef;
csuf jzpfvm&onf/ rmpwmbGJY vkyfaepOfrSm bmom&yf
tcsKdU uscJhNyD;? bGJYudk vufavQmhzdkYtxdd jzpfcJh&onf/ aemuf
qHk; owfaozdkYtxdyg awG;cJhao;onf[k jyefajymjyonf/

CCTV u zcifudk tifwmAsL;&mwGif olu olY
om; tem*wf vSyzdkYtwGuf ysKd;axmiffcJhwm jzpfaMumif;?
olwdkYZeD;armifeSHu olYom;udk b,fvdk ysKd;axmifcJh ovJqdk
wJh taMumif; ]yOövufqefwJh ynmoifMum;a&;}trnf
ESihf pmtkyfwpftkyfyif a&;OD;r,f qdkwJhtaMumif; ajymjyonf/

olYom; rmpwmwef; wufaepOfrSm wdkufcef;
0,fay;&r,f? 0,fray;&if pmrvkyfawmhbl;vdkY jyóem
&Smawmh? olwdkY vifr,m;rSm a&G;cs,fp&m r&SdaMumif;?
abusif;rSm wdkufcef;wpfcef; oD;oefY olYtwGuf iSm;ay;
cJh&aMumif; ajymonf/ olYom;u abusif;NrdKU BuD;rSm
ausmif;oGm;wufuwnf;u &kyf0w¬KMoZm vTrf;rdk;cH&
aMumif; ajymjycJhonf/

16 eSpfom; usef&SD,ef;uawmh olYrdbawG&JU
tdyfrufu olY&JU tdyfruf jzpfvmaMumif;? rdbawGu olh
twGuf cufcufcJcJ &kef;uef&ovdk? olvnf; tjyif;txef
MudK;pm;&aMumif; ajymonf/ olYtazu aiGr&Sd&if 'ku©
a&mufr,fvdkY wzGzGajymNyD; BudK;pm;cdkif;onf[k qkdonf/

tck usef&SD,ef;u rD'D,mawGeJY tGefvdkif;ay:
awGrSm olYtaMumif; bmajymajym tjyKoabm jrif
aMumif;eJY edkifiH&yfjcm;rSm qufNyD; a'gufwmbGJY xyf,lOD;
r,fh taMumif; CCTV udk ajymcJhonf/
Source: Beijing Review & the Nation

63

tifwmAsL;

wkdif;jynftajymif;tvJESihf

ynma&;u@

q&m OD;odef;vGifESihf q&mOD;odef;EkdifwdkYudk
RFA q&mOD;opfqif;rS ar;jref;aqG;aEG;csufrsm;

aomw&Sifrsm;cifAsm; jrefrmekdifiHrSm tajymif;tvJawG pwifNyD; awGY
ae&NyDvkdY jynfwGif;jynfyu todtrSwfjyK ajymqkdMuwJh toHawG Mum;odcJh&
ygw,f/ eSpfaygif;av;q,fausmftwGif; Mum;aeus r[kwfwJh ekdifiH&JU yuwd
tajctaerSefeJY tifrwef eD;pyfwJh oHk;oyfajymqkdcsufawG or®w OD;odef;pdef&JU
EIwfzsm;u xGufay:vmwm? a':atmifqef;pkMunfeJY tpkd;&Mum; xdawGY qufqH
rIawG tcsdefpdyfNyD;awmhvmwm? t&ifwkef;u ayxuf tu©&m wifvkdY r&wJh
taMumif;t&mawG txkduftavsmuf a&;om;azmfjycGifh &vmwm? jrpfqHkqnf
udpörSm jynfolYaomuukd or®wu txkduftavsmuf ajzodrfhay;vkdufwm
pwmawGukd taMumif;jyKNyD;awmh jrefrmjynf wu,f ajymif;vJawmhrSmvm;vkdY
edkifiHwumuvnf; apmifhMunfhaewm jzpfygw,f/ 'gayr,fh ajymif;vJ pjyKNyDqkdwJh
jrefrmekdifiHrSm zGHYNzdK;wkd;wwfrI twGuf tajccH ya&m*suf jzpfwJh ynma&;u@
jyKjyifajymif;vJa&;eJY ywfoufwJh owif;awG aqG;aEG; jiif;ckHwJh toHawGuawmh
rsm;rsm;pm;pm; rMum;&ao;ygbl;/ tJh'gaMumifh tckwywf tm&ftufzfat (RFA)
we*FaEG pum;0kdif;rSm ]ajymif;vJp jrefrmekdifiHeJY ynma&;pDrHrI taMumif;}aqG;aEG;
wifjyzkdY pDpOfxm;ygw,f/ tJh'DtwGuf xkdif;ekdifiHtajcpkduf ynma&;yg&*l
a'gufwm odef;vGif? xkdif;jrefrme,fpyfrSm ynma&;vkyfief;awG aqmif&GufaewJh
q&mOD;odef;ekdifwkdYukd zdwfac:xm;ygw,f/ uJ uRefawmfwkdY pum;0kdif; pvkduf
&atmifvm;/
64

q&mwkdYcifAsm;? wu,fawmh ynma&;qkdwm
tifrwef us,fjyefY euf&Idif;wJh bmom&yfjzpfygw,f/
ynma&;qkdif&m t,ltqawG? oDtkd&DawGuvnf;
trsm;juD;yJ&Sdygw,f/ tJh'DtxJurS OD;qHk;yxr ynm
ta&;BuD;yHk taMumif;eJY pvkdufcsifygw,f/ 20 &mpk
aeSmif;ykdif; 1990 w0dkufavmufu ynmacwfqkdwJh
a0g[m& pjyD;awmh Mum;vmcJh&ygw,f/ urÇmBuD;[m ynm
acwfxJ 0ifvmNyDwJh/ tJh'Dawmh ynm&JU wefzkd;eJY ynmacwf
qkdwmuae pwifcsifygw,f/
ar;/ / q&ma'gufwmodef;vGifcifAsm;? ynmeJY ynmacwf
tay: q&m&JUtjrif odyg&apcifAsm/
a'gufwmodef;vGif/ /[kwfuJh pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;awGrSm?
tkyfcsKyfa&;rSm? pDrHcefYcGJa&;rSm 'D twwfynm? enf;ynm
awGeJY aqmif&GufzkdY vkdvmwJhtwGuf 'g ekdifiHwumrSm
ynmacwf qkdNyD;awmh ajymvmwmjzpfw,f/ aemuf vkyf
ief;uRrf;usifrIrSmvnf;yJ topftopf awGY&SdcsufawGu
rsm;wJhtwGuf xyfxyfavhvmqnf;yl;zkdY vkdw,f/ 'g
aMumifh ynmu tNrJwrf; qnf;yl;zkdY vkdw,f/ 'gaMumifh
ynmu ykdta&;BuD;vmw,f/ aemuf ynmu 'D ekdifiHwpf

ckrSm ekdifiH&JU pD;yGm;a&;? usef;rma&;? vlrIa&;? ,Ofaus;rI
utp tifrwef tajccHuswJh u@wpfckjzpfw,f/

'gaMumifhynma&;u ta&;BuD;w,f/ jrefrmekdif
iH jyKjyifajymif;vJa&; vkyfawmhr,fqkd&if ynma&;ukd
jyKjyifajymif;vJa&; vkyfEkdifrS jrefrmekdifiH wkd;wwfekdifr,fvdkY
uRefawmfem;vnfw,f/
ar;/
/ [kwfuJh? [kd q&mOD;odef;ekdif&JU tjrifvnf;
odyg&ap cifAsm/
q&mOD;odef;ekdif/ / [kwfuJhyg? ynmacwfvkdY ac:a0:
oHk;pJG&wJh t"dyÜg,fxJrSm &nf&G,fcsufawG trsm;BuD; &Sdyg
w,f/ qkdawmh 'DuaeYacwf tvkyfwkdif;[m todynmeJY
ÓPfynmeJY ,SOfNyD;awmh? twwfynmeJY ,SOfNyD;awmh
vkyfukdifrS jzpfr,fqkdwmukd ynmacwfu zGihfqkd ay;xm;
wmjzpfw,f/ 'DtwGuf uRefawmfwkdY&JU 'Dtqifhqifhwkdif;rSm
vkyfukdifaeMuwJh tvkyfawG? vkyfief;yHkoP²mef trsKd;rsKd;
awGtwGuf uRefawmfwkdY todynm? twwfynm vkd
tyfw,fqkdwmukd ynmacwfu awmif;qkdaewm jzpf
ygw,f/

65

ar;/
/[kwfuJhcifAsm;? jrefrmrSmvnf; 'D ]]ynm
a&Ttkd;vlrckd;}} ]]ynm&J&ifh yJGv,fwifh}} pwmawG pum;ykH
awG&Sdygw,f/ 'gawGu vlwpfa,mufcsif;ukdom &nfnTef;
wm r[kwfbJeJY ekdifiHawmfawG txdyg tusKH;0ifw,fvhkd
,lqrdygw,f cifAsm/ 'D ynmjynfh0wJh ol[m vlY tokdif;
t0kdif;Mum;rSm wifhw,fw,f qkdwJh twkdif;yJ ynm&J&ifhwJh
ynmwwf aygrsm;wJh ynmtqifhjrifhwJh ekdifiH[mvnf;
edkifiHwumtv,frSm wifhwifhw,fw,f &Sdw,fvkdh qkd&m
a&mufw,fvkdY xifygw,f/ tJh'gaMumifh ]]ynma&;rSm
&if;ESD;jr§KyfeSHyg? OD;aeSmufrSm &if;ESD;jrK§yfeSHyg}} qkdwJh ajymqkd
csufawG xGufay:vmaeygw,f/ pifumylqkd&if ynm
uRef;vkdhawmif ac: Muygw,f/ tJhawmh ynma&;rSm &if;ESD;
jr§KyfESHrI ta&;BuD;yHkukd q&mOD;odef;vGif ajymjyygOD;cifAsm/
a'gufwmodef;vGif/ / [kwfuJh? ynma&;[m 'g vlom;
t&if;jrpfjzpfw,f/ 'Dvlom; t&if;tjrpf&JU &if;ESD; jr§KyfeSHrI
jzpfw,f/ vlawG[m todynm &SdvmNyDqkd&if 'D tod
ynmeJY ukd,fhekdifiH ukd,fha'o ukd,fhywf0ef;usif aumif;
atmif aqmif&Gufedkifw,f/ 'D ynmeJY twwfynm? enf;
ynmawG wDxGifzefwD;edkifr,f/ ykdaumif;wJh vlYtzGJY
tpnf;ukd zefwD;edkifr,f/ ynmu tajccH usw,f? ynm eJY
pOf;pm; oHk;oyfekdifw,f? ykdif;jcm;a0zefEkdfifw,f/ 'DtwGuf
ynmu ta&;BuD;w,f/ tJh'DtwGuf ynmtwGuf
&if;eSD;jr§KyfeSHrI vkdw,f/ pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;rSm t&if;teSD;
jr§KyfeSHovkd 'D ekdifiHwpfck zGHYNzdK; wdk;wwfvmzkdY twGuf vlom;
t&if;tjrpfrSm &if;eSD;jr§KyfESHzdkY vkdw,f/ vlom;t&if;tjrpf
wkd;wufzdkY qkd&if ynma&;ukd t"du xm;&r,f/ 'D uRef
awmfwkdY edkifiHrSm eSpfaygif;rsm;pGmaygY? ynma&;ukd &if;eSD;
jr§KyfeSHrIrSm enf;vmwJhtwGuf uRefawmfwkdY ekdifiH[m 'DaeY
rSm ynma&;rSm aemufus usef&pfcJhw,f/ ckeu ajymwJh
pifumylekdifiHwkdY? tck xkdif;ekdifiHqkd&if ynma&;rSm &if;eSD;
jr§KyfeSHrIawG trsm;BuD; vkyfw,f/ 'D edkifiH toHk; p&dwfawG&JU
yrmP BuD;BuD;ukd ynma&;rSm oHk;w,f/ 'gaMumifh
xkdif;edkifiHu vlawG[m todynmawG wwfvmw,f?
uRrf;usifrIawG &Sdvmw,f/ 'gaMumifh xkdif;edkifiH&JU pD;yGm;a&;
[m wkd;wufvmw,f? vlaerI tqifhtwef;awG jrifhvm
w,ff/ 'gaMumifh uRefawmfwkdY ekdifiHuvnf; ynma&;rSm
trsm;BuD; pkdufxkwf oHk;pGJzkdY vkdygw,f/

oHk;w,fvkdh ajymMuygw,f/
q&mOD;odef;ekdif/ /uRefawmfwkdYqDrSm tck tifrwefrS
ynma&;toHk;p&dwf enf;w,fqkdwJhOpömukd vuf&Sd uRef
awmfwkdY ynma&;rSm &ifqkdifBuHKawGY ae&wJh tusyf
twnf;? tcuftcJawGukd Munfhjcif;tm;jzifh odomekdif
w,f/ trsm;BuD; wkd;jr§ifhzkdY vkdtyfaew,f qkdwmukdvnf;
uRefawmfwkdY ausmif;q&mq&mrrsm;? aemuf uav;
oli,frsm;&JU vuf&Sd ynma&; tajctae vkyfief;cGif tajc
tae? ynma&;vkyfief; tajctaeawGukd Munfhr,fqdkvkdY
&Sd&if txif;om; jrifekdifygw,f/ ausmif;raeekdifMu ao;
wJh uav;i,f oHk;yHkwpfyHkavmuf &Sdaeekdifw,fvkdY uRef
awmfwkdY okawoe &v'fawGt& awGYekdifw,f? aemufNyD;
awmhvnf; q&m? q&mrawG&JU tvkyf *kPfodu©meJY
ywfoufNyD;awmhvnf;yJ wkd;jr§ifhzkdY vkdtyfaew,f/ aemuf
t&nftaoG;ykdif; qkdif&mayghAsm/ ynma&; t&nftaoG;
twGuf tqifhwkdif;rSm tajccHynmtqifh rl?v,f?xuf
tqifh aemufNyD;vkdY&Sd&if 'D wuúodkvfynma&;? aemuf
toufarG; 0rf;ausmif;ynma&;? qkdawmh 'D ynmacwfrSm
vlY*kPfodu©meJYtnD aeekdifzkdYtwGufu ynma&;rSm r&Sd
rjzpfukd uRefawmfwkdYu &if;eSD;jr§KyfeSH&awmhrSm qkdawmh
uRefawmfwkdY vuf&Sd oHk;pGJaewJh yrmP[m acwf tquf
quf q,fpkeSpf awmfawmfMumMumrSm tifrwef enf;yg;cJh
w,f/ 'DtwGuf uRefawmfwkdY trsm;BuD; jyefNyD;awmh
pOf;pm;MuzkdY vkdtyfygw,f/ tqrwef ppf toHk;p&dwfukd
oHk;pGJ aewmukdawmh aocsmayguf avQmhcs NyD;awmh uRef
awmfwkdY ynma&;u@ukd jr§ifhwifr,f qkdvkdY&Sd&ifawmh
uRefawmfwkdYtwGuf tvm;tvm aumif;wJh ynma&;
pepfukd &ekdifygw,f/ 'Dawmh 'D vuf&Sd uRefawmfwkdY taeeJY
tenf;qHk; 6 &mckdifEIef;avmufukd oHk;oifhw,fvkdY ekdifiH
wumu tBuHjyKxm;wmawGvnf; &Sdw,f/ 'geJYtnD
vkdufygaqmif&GufzkdY ta&;wBuD; vkdtyfygw,f/

ar;/ /[kwfuJhq&m? tck uRefawmfwkdh 'D jrefrmekdifiH rSm
awGYae&wmuawmh 'D apmapmu ajymcJhwJhtwkdif; 'D
ynma&;p&dwfpuawGu enf;enf;BuD;rm;wm? rdbawG
u pD;yGm;a&; tqifhtwef; edrfhusvmwJh tcgrSm tckqkd&if
'Duav; awmfawmfrsm;rsm;u 'Dtpkd;&.. pmoifausmif;
ar;/ /[kwfuJh? uRefawmfwkdh 'DjrefrmekdifiHrSmawmh ekdifiH awGrSm raeekdifawmhbJeJY eD;pyf&m bkef;awmfBuD;ausmif;
awmf bwf*suf&JU 40 &mckdifeIef;u ppfwyfqDukd oGm;NyD; ynma&;bufukd OD;vSnfhoGm;Muwm rsm;aew,fvkdhvnf;
awmh ynma&;twGufu 2 &mckdifEIef; eD;yg;avmufav;yJ od&ygw,f/ Oyrm- 'D reÅav;u ausmif;wkdufqkd&if
66

ausmif;om;ta&twGuf axmifausmfavmuf &Sdaew,f
vkdh od&ygw,f/ tJh'grsKd; bkef;awmfBuD; ausmif;awGrSm
ausmif;om;ta&twGufawG rsm;vmawmh 'D..jrefrmekdif
iHrSm bkef;BuD;ausmif; ynma&;u enf;enf;rsm; jyefrsm;
OD;armh vmekdifwJh tajctaersm; &Sdygovm; q&mwkdY a&/
q&mOD;odef;vGif/ / [kwfuJh? 'Dbkef;awmfBuD;awG oif
ay;aewJh twGuf 'D uav;awG pmwwfaew,fvkdY uRef
awmf tJh'Dvkd jrif&NyD/ 'D..bkef;awmfBuD; ausmif;awG[m
p&dwf ray;&wJhtwGuf rdbawGu bkef;awmfBuD;ausmif;
ukd tm&kHpkdufvmNyD/ tJh'D tjyif bkef;awmfBuD; ausmif;awG
[m apwemxm; oifwJhtwGuf t&nftcsif; jynfhrDwJh
ynma&;ukd &w,f/ txl;ojzifh azmifawmfOD;ausmif;
qkd&if uav;awGukd *&kpkduf oifwJhtwGuf uav;awGu
aumif;aumif;pmwwfw,f? trSwf aumif;aumif; &
w,f/ qkdawmh tJh'DtwGuf rdbawGu 'D azmifawmfOD;
ausmif;xm;jcif;tm;jzifh p&dwfvnf;rukefbl;/ aumif;wJh
ynma&;&w,f/ tJh'gaMumifh rdbawGu bkef;awmfBuD;
oif ynma&;ukd tm;ukd;vmMuwm jzpfw,f/ tJhawmh 'g
aus;Zl;wifp&m aumif;w,f/ 'Dbkef;awmfBuD;awG aqmif
&Gufay;wJhtwGuf uRefawmfwkdY uav;awG 'D ynm
aumif;aumif; &aewmjzpfw,f/
ar;/
/[kwfuJh q&m 'D 20 &mpkrukefcifrSm 'D
a[mifaumif? pifumyl? awmifukd;&D;,m;? xkdif0rf (4) edkif
iH ayghaemf 'D.. zGhHjzkd;wkd;wwfvmwJh 'D ta&Shawmiftm&S ekdif
iH tcsKdU udk tm&Swkduf&Jh usm;ekdifiHawGvkdh ac:cJhMuygw,f/
tJhawmh uRefawmfwkdY orkdif;ukd jyefMunfhawmh 'D vGwfvyf
a&; &NyD;p tcsdefrSm jrefrmedkifiH[m a'owGif;rSm yxr
qHk;aom usm;jzpfr,fh vrf;ay:ukd pNyD;awmh a&mufcJhw,f
qkdwm ay:vGifaeygw,f/ tJh'D usm; ekdifiHawGrSmvnf;yJ
aemuf pD;yGm;a&; jyKjyifajymif;vJrIawG vkyfwmeJYtnD
wpfzufrSmvnf; 'D..ynma&; wkd;wwfajymif;vJrIukdyg
wNydKifeuf vkyfcJhw,fvkdh Mum;od&ygw,f/ qkdawmh tck
jrefrmekdifiHrSm pD;yGm;a&;jyKjyifajymif;vJrIawG t&ifqHk;OD;
vkyfaewmeJY tnD ynma&; jyKjyifajymif;vJrIawGrSm
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(csufpum;yHk)

74

2011
txl;u@

urÇmhq&mrsm;aeY 2011

Teachers for
gender equality

5 October www.5oct.org

Education International
Internationale de l’Education
Internacional de la Educación
Bildungsinternationale

United Nations
Cultural Organization

75

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Juan Somaviaç Director-General, ILO

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Irina Bokovaç Director-General, UNESCO
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Anthony Lakeç E_ecutive Director, UNICEF
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Helen Clarkç Administrator, UNDP
Fred van LEEUWEN General Secretary,
Education International

77

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a,mufsm;om; tmPmydkifrsm;udk qefYusif awmfvSef tmcH
cJhonf/

tDwvD pma&;q&mreSifh eef;wGif;ol (Christine de Pisan) uvnf; c&pf,mef t,l0g'yg t,ltq
rsm;eSifh or®musrf;pmyg tcsufrsm;udk axmufjy a0zefcJh
onf/ 17 &mpk ukefcgeD;wGif pma&;q&mr tawmfrsm;rsm;
ay:vmonf/ t*FvefrS Mary Astell onf trsKd;orD;rsm;
ynma&;eSifh ywfoufNyD; txl;wdkufyGJ0ifcJhol wpfOD;jzpf
onf/
trsKd;orD;wdkufyGJ yxrvIdif;

trsKd;orD; tcGifhta&; wdkufyGJtwGuf Feminism [lonfh a0g[m&udk 19 &mpktukeftxd rokH;pGJ
Muao;ay/ trsKd;orD;rsm;twGuf wdkufyGJ0ifaeolrsm;
onf 18 &mpktukef avmufuwnf;uyif vIyf&Sm;ae
MuNyDjzpfonf/ trsKd;orD; tcGifhta&; wdkufyGJtwGuf
yxrOD;qkH; vIyf&Sm;rIrSm trsKd;orD;rsm;onf trsKd;om;rsm;
eSifh wef;wltcGifhta&; &oifhonfqdkaom t,ltqom
jzpfonf/

xdkpOfu awmif;qdkcsufrsm;wGif trsm;jynfol
Mum; wef;wlnDrQ edkifiHol edkifiHom;wpfOD;taejzifh &yf
wnfcGifheSifh tdrfwGif;üvnf; tcsKdUae&mrsm;wGif wef;wl
tcGifhta&; &ydkifcGifhrsm; yg0ifonf/

xdktBuHtpnf pdwful;rsm;onf tar&duef
awmfvSefa&; (1775-1783) eSifh jyifopfawmfvSefa&;
(1789-1799) wdkYudk rsm;pGm oufa&mufrI&SdapNyD; vGwf
vyfjcif;? nDrQjcif;qdkonfh oabmw&m;rsm;udk tm;ay;
tm;ajr§muf jzpfapcJhonf/

jyifopfedkifiH trsKd;orD;a&; vIyf&Sm;olrsm;u
vGwfvyfjcif;? nDrQjcif;? cspfMunf &if;eSD;jcif;qdkonfh
rl0g'udk vufudkifxm;vQif tm;vkH; wef;wlnDrQ tcGifh
ta&; ay;&efvnf; vdkonf[k axmufjyMuonf/

tar&duef trsKd;orD;a&;&m vIyf&Sm;olrsm;u
wpfNydKifwnf;wGif tar&duef vGwfajrmufa&; aMunm
79

pmwef;ü trsKd;orD;rsm;twGuf vGwfvyfcGifh edkifiHom; jzpf
cGifh? ypönf;Opöm ydkifqdkifcGifhrsm;udk xnfhoGif; aMunmedkifcJh
onf/

t*FvefwGif Mary Wollstonecraft onf A
Vindication of the Rights of Women (1792) [l
onfh pmtkyfudk a&;cJhonf/ xdkpmtkyfwGif trsKd;orD;rsm;
twGuf wef;wlnDrQcGifheSifh ynma&; ydkrdkavhvm oifMum;
cGifhrsm;udk awmif;qdk wifjyxm;onf/ trsKd;orD;rsm;udk
ae&m ray; acsmifxdk;xm; MuonfhtjzpfESifh ,kwfnHhedrfh
usonfqdkaom t,ltqudk yxrOD;qkH; a0zefjypfwifcJh
onfh pmayvnf; jzpfonf/

19 &mpk tapmydkif;wGif NAdwdefedkifiHü vlvwf
wef;pm; trsKd;orD;rsm;onf tkyfpkav; wpfpkzGJYNyD; ynm
oifMum;a&;eSifh Oya'a&;&m (vufxyfrIqdkif&m) wdkYwGif
ydkrdk tcGifhta&; &&Sdapa&;? tvkyftudkif &&Sda&;? rJay;
ydkifcGifh&&Sda&;rsm;udk awmif;qdkcJhMuonf/

trsKd;orD;rsm;twGuf wef;wlnDrsS tcGifhta&;
ay;&ef oabmw&m;t& axmufcHaqG;aEG; a&;om;cJhol
rsm;wGif tawG;tac:ynm&Sif John Stuart Mill onf
xif&Sm;onf/ ola&;om;onfh The Subjection of
Women (1869) wGif xdkoabmw&m;rsm;udk a&;om;
cJhonf/ ZeD;jzpfol Harriet Taylor \ MoZmruif;aom
oabmw&m;rsm; jzpfonf[kvnf; axmufjyMuonf/

1850 aemufydkif; umvrsm;wGif trsKd;orD;a&;
vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;onf wef;wlnDrQ tcGifhta&; &&Sda&;rS rJ
ay;cGifh &&Sda&;odkY ul;ajymif;oGm;onf/ trsKd;orD;rsm; rJay;
ydkifcGifh vIyf&Sm;rI[lí vlodrsm;onf/

xdkwdkufyGJudk OD;aqmifolrsm;wGif tar&duef
edkifiHrS Susan B. Anthony eSifh Elizabeth Cady Stanton wdkY xif&Sm;onf/ aemufydkif; trsKd;orD;rsm; rJay;ydkifcGifh
onf e,l;ZDvef? qdkAD,uf,leD,H? *smreD? ydkvef? MopBwD;
,m;eSifh qGD'ifedkifiHrsm;odkY ysHUeSHYoGm;onf/

19 &mpk aeSmif;ydkif;wGif trsKd;orD;a&;&m vIyf&Sm;
olrsm;u trsKd;orD;rsm;twGuf ppfrsufeSmwpfck zGifhum
wdkufyGJ0if vIyf&Sm; vmMujyefonf/ trsKd;orD;rsm;onf
pmay? tekynmeSifh tjcm;vlrIa&; vkyfief;rsm;wGif trsKd;
om;rsm;eSifh wef;wltcGifhta&; &ydkifcGifhrsm;jzpfonf/

20 &mpkudk jyefajymif; MunfhvsSif ajrmuftar&d
ueSifh Oa&myedkifiHrsm;\ rD'D,mavmuwGif ]trsKd;orD;
opf} qdkonfh vIyf&Sm;rIudk awGY&rnfjzpfonf/ xdktrsKd;
orD; vIyf&Sm;rIjuD;\ pdefac:csufonf vlrItzGJYtpnf;
80

twGif; wef;wlnDrQ tcGifhta&; &ydkifcGifhrsm;tjyif? tpOf
tvmudk qefYusifcGifh? vGwfvyfpGm aexdkifydkifcGifh? a&G;cs,f
0wfqifcGifhrsm;vnf; yg0ifaeaMumif; awGY&onf/

1920 ckeSpfrsm;wGif trsKd;orD;a&;&m vIyf&Sm;ol
rsm;u wef;wlnDrQ qdkonfxuf trsKd;orD;rsm; bufudk
om tav;ay; pOf;pm; aqG;aEG;rIrsm;vkyfvmonf/ Oyrm
rdcifeSifh uav;rsm;twGuf zlvkHa&;eSifh apmifha&Smufa&;
wdkYudk OD;pm;ay; aqmif&Guf vIyf&Sm; vmMuonf/ xdk
vIyf&Sm;rIonf trsKd;orD;a&; vIyf&Sm;rI 'kwd,vIdif;twGuf
ydkrdk tajccdkifrmaponfh vIyf&Sm;rI vIdif;BuD;wpfck jzpfvm
apcJhonf/
trsKd;orD;wdkufyGJ 'kwd,vIdif;

'kwd, vIdif;vkH;BuD;awG wufvmap&ef wGef;
tm; ay;vdkufonfh vIyf&Sm;rIonf trsm;jynfeSifh ouf
qdkifonfh tcGifhta&;vIyf&Sm;rI wpfckrS pwifvdkufjcif; jzpf
onf/

1960 jynfheSpfrsm;wGif ajrmuftar&duwdkufü
ppfqefYusifa&; vIyf&Sm;rIrsm; acwfpm;vmonf/ Oa&my?
tm&SeSifh MopaMw;vQwdkYwGif ppfqefYusifa&; vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;
wdk;wuf rsm;jym;vmonf/ trsKd;orD; tcGifhta&;
vIyf&Sm;rItaejzifh udk,fydkif qkH;jzwfydkifcGifh? vdifcGJjcm;rI
r&Sda&;wdkYudk tar&duef&Sd trsKd;orD;xku wufMuGpGm
vIyf&Sm; vmcJhMuonf/

xdkt,ltqrsm;onf 1970 eSifh 1978 ckeSpfrsm;
wGif awmif;qdkcsuf 7 csuf jzpfay:vmap&ef taxmuf
tuljyKonfh tawG;tjrifrsm; [lívnf; qdk&rnf/
awmif;qdkcsuf 7 csufwGif...
(1) vkyfcvpm nDwlnDrQ &cGifh
(2) wef;wlnDrQ ynmoifcGifheSifh tvkyftudkif &&Sdedkif onfh
tcGifhta&;
(3) aiGaMu;eSifh w&m;Oya'qdkif&m
(4) uav;apmifha&SmufrIwGif 24 em&D wm0ef,l&jcif;
(5) vGwfvyfpGm y#doaE¨wm;ydkifcGifh? zsufcsydkifcGifheSifh
&,lydkifcGifh
(6) vdifqufqHrIqdkif&m vGwfvyfydkifcGifh? vdifwlcsif;
qufqHrIudk rdrdoabmus qkH;jzwfydkifcGifh
(7) twif;tusyf t"r®jyKum vdifqufqHjcif;wdkYrS
uif;vGwfcGifhrsm; yg0ifonf/

trsKd;orD;wdkufyGJ 'kwd,vIdif;\ tv,f
oabmw&m;rsm;onf wpfOD;csif;qdkif&m edkifiHa&; t,l
tqrsm; jzpfvmonf/

trsKd;orD; wpfOD;csif;pD\ cHpm;csufydkif;eSifh
rsm;pGm oufqdkifvmonf/ trsKd;orD;wpfOD;udk txD;usef
pGm ypfy,fxm;NyD; zdeSdyf csKyfcs,fxm;jcif;jzifh a0'em rcH
pm;apoifhqdkaom t,ltqrsm; acwfpm;vmonf/ xdk
tcsdefu vlrIa&;eSifh edkifiHa&; e,fy,fwGif trsKd;orD;rsm;
twGuf ae&m odyf r&Sdao;aomaMumifh jzpfonf/

xdkt,ltqrsm;onf jyifopf tawG;tac:
ynm&Sif Simone de Beauvoir eSifh tar&duef trsKd;orD;
a&; vIyf&Sm;ol pma&;q&mr Kate Millett wdkY\ tawG;
pmayrsm;jzifh xGef;um;vmapcJhonf/ taemufwdkif; vlY
abmif tzGJYtpnf;onf olwdkY\ ta&;tom;rsm;aMumifh
zdeSdyf cHae&rIrsm;udk ydkNyD; *&kpdkuf vmrdMuonf/

Beauvoir u olr\ The Second Se_
(1949) wGif taemufwdkif; vlYabmifu a,mufsm;awG
r[kwfwmvkyfvsSif omref[k,lqNyD;? rdef;rawG vdkufvkyf
vQif azmufjyefonf[lí ,lqMujcif;aMumifh rdef;rrsm;
onf ]oD;jcm;} jzpfoGm;&onf[k axmufjyonf/ trsKd;
orD;rsm;wGifvnf; txl;oD;oefY cHpm;csufrsm; &Sdonfudk
todtrSwf jyKMu&ef olu awmif;qdkxm;onf/

Kate Millett u olr\ Sexual Politics
(1970) wGif trsKd;om;rsm;onf t&m&mudk OD;aqmif&rnf
qdkonfh t,ltqudk rdom;pkeSifh ,Ofaus;rIwGif twif;
t"r® vufcHapjcif;? txl;ojzifh pmaye,fwGif ae&m,l
vGef;jcif;rsm;udk axmufjy a0zefxm;onf/

aemufydkif;wGif trsKd;orD; tcGifhta&; vIyf&Sm;
olrsm; aygif;pnf;nDnGwfpGmjzifh olwdkYtay: ,Ofaus;rI
t&vnf;aumif;? aemufcH ordkif;aMumif;t& vnf;
aumif; zdeSdyfrIrsm;udk wGef;vSef wdkufcdkuf&ef awmif;qdk
vmMuonf/

trsKd;orD;wdkufyGJ 'kwd,vIdif;onf trsKd;orD;
eSifh trsKd;om;rsm;onf &kyfydkif;eSifh pdwfydkif;qdkif&m uGJjym;
jcm;em;rIrsm;udk tav;teuf xm;vmMuonf/ pdwfynm
&Sif Sigmund Freud \ avhvm qef;ppfcsuft& vlom;
wdkif; twlwljzpfonfqdkonfh t,ltqudk axmufjyMu
onf/

trsKd;orD;rsm;onf trsKd;om;rsm;eSifh uGmjcm;
csufrSm cE¨mudk,f tcsKd;tpm;? [efyef taetxm;eSifh
udk,f0efaqmifjcif;? rD;zGm;jcif;wdkYomjzpfonf/ ,if;t

csufonf t"duusonfh tcsufjzpfNyD; a,mufsm;xuf
rdef;ru omvGefonfh tcsufyifjzpf&rnf/ xdkuGmjcm;csuf
aMumifh edrfhusrI rjzpfap&[lí axmufjyMuonf/

trsKd;orD;wdkY\ obm0onf tm;enf;csuf
r[kwf/ tm;enf;onf[lí r,lqoifhaMumif; wifjy
aqG;aEG;vmMuonf/ trsKd;orD;rsm;onf touftEÅ
&m,faMumifhvnf;aumif;? tvkyfcGifwGif tcsdefjynfh wm
0ef xrf;aqmifvdkonfh twGufaMumifh vnf;aumif;
vif,l om;arG;cGifhudk jyKcsifrS jyKedkifonfqdkonfh oabm
w&m;rsm;vnf; acwfpm;vmjyefonf/

trsKd;orD;wdkufyGJwGif owdjyKp&m tcsufrSm
a,mufsm;rsm;onf rdef;rrsm;udk vTrf;rdk;vdkjcif;? tm;EGJY
ol[lí qufqHjcif;rsm;jzpfonf/ Oyrm tar&duef
ynm&Sif Mary Daly u olr\ GynaEcology (1979)
pmtkyfwGif a,mufsm;awG BuD;pdk;onfhacwfwGif rdef;r
rsm;udk twif;tusyf umrqufqHjcif; cH&&eftwGuf
rdef;r jzpfae&jcif;eSifh? a,mufsm;awG xifwdkif; jyKrledkifcGifh
udk NidrfoufcH&ef jzpfae&jcif;udk axmufjyxm;onf/

trsKd;orD;vIyf&Sm;rIudk OD;aqmifaeMuolrsm;u
vdifrIqdkif&m tMurf;zufrIrsm;udk rdrd tdrfwGif;eSifh jyify
avmu cGJjcm;p&m rvdkaMumif;? rdrdZeD;r,m;qdkNyD; t"r®
usifhí r&aMumif;? a,mufsm;BuD;pdk;aom acwfqdkNyD; rdef;r
rsm;udk xifwdkif; eSdrfhcs qufqHí r&aMumif; aqG;aEG; vmMuonf/

trsKd;orD;a&;vIyf&Sm;olrsm;wGif xif&Sm;onfh
81

tar&duefrS Andrea Dworkin qdkolu a,mufsm;rsm;
onf trsKd;orD;rsm;\ 0wfvpfpvpfykHrsm;udk MunfhNyD;
tmomajzjcif;udk tMurf;zufrIeSifh EdIif;,SOf axmufjy
xm;onf/

trsKd;orD;rsm;onf rdrdudk,fcE¨mudk rdrdydkifqdkif
cGifh &Sdonfqdkonfh tcGifhta&;onf rdcifavmif;b0udk
cH,lcsifrS cH,lcGifh &Sdonfqdkonfh t,ltqeSifhtwl
wdkuf,lí &vmonfh oabmw&m;rsm;jzpfonf/

a,mufsm;awG BuD;pdk;vTrf;rdk;xm;í rdef;rqdk
onfrSm rsKd;qufjyefYyGm;a&;twGuf wm0ef&Sdonfqdkonfh
t,ltqae&mwGif rdef;rrsm;onf tem*wftwGuf
rdrdudk,fydkif a&G;cs,fcsufjzifh rsKd;quf xm;ydkifcGifh &Sdonf
qdkaomt,ltqrsm; 0ifvmonf/

tcsKdUaom trsKd;orD;a&; wdkufyGJ0ifolrsm;u þ
ae&mwGif tdrfaxmif&Sif trsKd;orD;b0 cH,l&efxuf
wpfudk,fwnf; tysKdBuD;b0 cH,lNyD; rdcifavmif;jzpfcGifh?
trsKd;orD;csif; vdifwl qufqH aygif;oif;cGifhrsm;udk wdkuf
yGJ0ifvmMujyefonf/
rsufarSmufacwf trsdk;orD;a&;&m

trsKd;orD;a&; wdkufyGJ0if vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;onf
Oa&myA[dkjyK vIyf&Sm;rIrsm; jzpfaeaMumif; awGY&onf/
Oa&myeSifh ajrmuftar&du ,Ofaus;rIrsm;udk tajccHum
wdkufyGJ0if vIyf&Sm;aeMujcif;jzpfonf/ txl;ojzifh vlrnf;
trsKd;orD;rsm;eSifh zGHYNzdK;qJ edkifiHrsm;rS trsKd;orD;rsm;twGuf
wdkufyGJ0ifrIrsm;jzpfonf/

Oyrm tdE´d,edkifiHol Gayatri Chakravorty
Spivak u t*Fvdyf-tar&duef trsKd;orD;a&; 0g'Drsm;
onf olwdkY\ oabmw&m;rsm;udk zGHYNzdK;qJ edkifiHrsm;odkY
oGyfoGif;um trsKd;orD;rsm;udk ]oD;jcm;} rjzpfjzpfatmif
taemuftjrifjzifh vkyfaeMuonf[k a0zefoGm;onf/

taemufr[kwfonfh edkifiHrsm;wGif trsKd;orD;
a&;&meSifhywfoufNyD; olYvrf;aMumif;eSifhol wdkufyGJ0ifae
Muonfom jzpfonf/ Oyrm vlrnf; trsKd;orD;rsm;udk
vlrsKd;pkt&? vdift& cGJjcm;qufqHjcif;qdkonfh t,ltq
onf tcsKdUedkifiHrsm;wGif jzpfedkifrnf r[kwfay/

tm&S? um&pfbD,HeSifh tar&duefa&muf tmz&d
uwdkufom; trsKd;orD;a&;0g'Drsm; taejzifh edkifiHa&;udk
tokH;csum vlrsKd;pk tpGrf;jya&;udk OD;pm;ay;aqmif&Gufae
Muonfrsm;vnf;awGY&onf/

vufwif tar&duedkifiH trsKd;orD;a&;0g'Drsm;
82

onf rsKd;EG,f? vlwef;pm;? vdifcGJjcm;rIrsm;udk wdkufyGJ0ifae
Muonf qdkaomfvnf; trsKd;orD;a&;&mudpörsm; tay:
wGifom tav;xm; aqmif&GufvGef;onf[k a0zefMu
onf/

tpövmrfbmom udk;uG,fonfh wdkif;jynfrsm;rS
wdk;wufonfh tjrif&Sdaom bmoma&; acgif;aqmifrsm;
onf trsKd;orD;rsm;tay: cGJjcm; qufqHrIrsm;udk qefYusif
wdkufzsufay;vmNyD jzpfonf/ w&m;0if ZeD;r,m; rsm;pGm
,ljcif;? tdrfwGif;ykef;ae&jcif; qdkonfh t,ltqrsm;
omru vifa,mufsm;udk uGm&Sif;vdkvsSif uGm&Sif;ydkifcGifhrsm;
udkyg tav;xm; pOf;pm;vmMuNyD jzpfonf/

tdE´d,edkifiHwGif trsKd;orD;a&;vIyf&Sm;olrsm;u
vufzGJYaMu;rsm;pGm ay;aqmif&onfh "avhudk wdkufzsuf
aeMuNyDjzpfonf/ vufzGJYaMu; aemufuG,fwGif jzpfay:vm
onfh ]aorif;vufzGJYaMu;} udpörsm;onf tdE´d,edkifiHwGif
BuD;rm;vmonf/

owdkYorD; jzpfolbufu vufzGJYaMu; rsm;pGm
wif awmif;&jcif;ajumifh ray;edkifonfh rdbrsm;onf
&Suf&SufeSifh rdrdwdkYorD;udk owfjzwfvdkuf&rI rsm;vm
onfhtcg tdE´d, vlYabmifwGif vufzGJYaMu;udk wdkufyGJ0if
onftxd jzpfvmonf/

vdifwlqufqHjcif;udk axmufcHonfh pma&;
q&mrrsm;u trsKd;orD;a&;vIyf&Sm;rIonf olwdkYvufcH
aom pHudk ta&;rxm;aMumif; axmufjy a0zefcJhonf/
tar&duef uAsmq&mr Adrienne Rich qdkolonf
trsKd;orD;csif; vdifwlqufqHrIudk oD0&Drsm; xkwfum
wifjy aqG;aEG;cJhonfh vIyf&Sm;olwpfOD; tjzpf xif&Sm;
onf/

olru trsKd;om;rsm; taejzifh trsKd;orD;rsm;udk
rsKd;qufjyefYyGm;a&;twGuf r&Sdrjzpf vdktyfaom olrsm;
tjzpf oabmxm;um qufqHaeoa&GU xdk oabmw&m;
udk qefYusifonfh taejzifh vdifwlcsif; aygif;oif;aexdkif
qufqHjcif;udk jyKoifhaMumif; axmufcH aqG;aEG;xm;
onf/

vlrnf; trsKd;orD;a&;&m vIyf&Sm;olrsm;uJhodkY
Rich onf edkifiHa&;wGif yGifhvif;pGm ajymqdk aqG;aEG;ydkifcGifh
&SdouJhodkY vdifudpöwGifvnf; vGwfvyfcGifh &SdoifhaMumif;
ajymqdkaqG;aEG; vIyf&Sm;cJhonf/

trsKd;orD;rsm; vGwfvyfcGifheSifh ywfoufNyD; t
awG;tjrif wifjycsufrsm;pGm &Sdygonf/ txl;ojzifh NAdwdef
edkifiHwGif rmhufpf0g' trsKd;orD;a&; oabmw&m;u ydkNyD;

acwfpm;onf/ *smrefqdk&S,fvpf oabmw&m;a&; q&m
BuD;rsm; jzpfMuonfh rmhufpfeSifh tdef*s,fwdkYu trsKd;orD;
rsm;eSifh ywfoufonfh tcGifhta&;udk pD;yGm;a&;eSifh
edkifiHa&;wGif tjynfht0 &&Sdedkifa&; OD;aqmifaqG;aEG;cJh
Muonf/

vkyfief;cGiftwGif; usm;r vdifcGJjcm;rI rjyKa&;?
uav;oli,frsm;ukd rcdkif;apa&;? wef;wlnDrQ tcGifh
ta&;ay;a&;wdkYtwGuf oDtdk&Drsm; xkwfum jyKpk a&;om;
cJhMuojzifh aemiftcg qdk&S,fvpf? uGefjrLepf edkifiHrsm;
twGif; trsKd;orD;xk\ tcef;u@onf a&SUwef;odkY
a&mufvmcJh&onf/

tar&duefedkifiHwGifvnf; &kyf0g' trsKd;orD;
a&; vIyf&Sm;rIrsm; acwfpm;cJhonf/ trsKd;orD;rsm;onf
&kyftajctae? vlrIqufqHa&; taetxm;rsm;t&
vlwef;pm;wpf&yftaejzifh oabmxm;um eSdrfhcs qufqH
jcif; cHae&onf[k olwdkYu axmufjyMuonf/

rsufarSmufumvwGif trsKd;orD;a&; wdkufyGJ
rsm;onf acwfvGef0g' wpf&yftaejzifh aeSmif;umv
tawG;tac:rsm;udk wdkufyGJ0ifaeMuonf/ trsKd;orD;wdkif;
wef;wltcGifhta&;udk tjynfht0 &ydkifcGifh&SdaMumif;? aemif
tem*wfumvwGif wdkufyGJ0if&ef rvdkonfh taetxm;
&&Sdonftxd vGwfvyfcGifheSifh wef;wl nDrQ &ydkifcGifh
&Sd&rnf[k wdkufyGJ0ifaeMuNyDjzpfonf/

tar&duefeSifh NAdwdefedkifiHwdkYü ,aeYwdkif vGwf
vyfpGm y#doaE¨zsufcscGifheSifh wpfvifwpfr,m; pepfwdkY
twGufwdkufyGJonf rNyD;qkH;ao;onfh wdkufyGJBuD; jzpfae
ao;onf/
trsKd;orD;wdkufyGJ\ oufa&mufrIrsm;

trsKd;orD; wdkufyGJ0ifolrsm;aMumifh trsKd;orD;
a&;eSifh ywfoufNyD; rsufarSmufumvwGif tawmfav;
owdrlvmMuonf[k qdkedkifonf/ wef;wlnDrQ rjzpfrI? eSdrfh
cspGm qufqHcH ae&rIrsm;udk vlwdkY tav;teufxm; pOf;
pm; vmMuonf/

vkyfief;cGiftwGif; trsKd;orD;rsm;\ tqifht
wef;eSifh rnfodkYjyKrl qufqHae&m ay;&rnfrsm;udk xnfh
oGif; pOf;pm;vmMu&onf/ vkyfief;cGiftwGif; tvkyf&Sif
(odkYr[kwf) txuft&m&SdwdkY\ xduyg;? &duyg;vkyfrI?
t"r® qufqHcdkif;aprI? vdifrIqdkif&m tMurf;zufrIrsm;udk
rjyKvkyf0Hhonftxd jzpfvmMuonf/

aqmufvkyfa&; vkyfief;cGifrsm;wGif trsKd;orD;

rsm;u trsKd;om;rsm;enf;wl wef;wl vkyfaqmifjy vmedkif
Muojzifh trsKd;orD;twGuf oD;jcm; pOf;pm;&rIrsm;? vkyfc
jyóemrsm; r&Sdonfh acwfodkY a&mufvmonf/

trsKd;orD;wdkufyGJonf vlYabmif ,Ofaus;rIudk
vnf; rsm;pGm vTrf;rdk;cJhonf/ rD'D,mavmuwGif owif;
vdkuf? owif;,l owif;a&;&onfh udpörsm;wGif usm;r
cGJjcm;í r&edkifatmif wef;wlnDrQ tcGifhta&;awG &vm
onf/ trsKd;orD;rsm;\ tawG;eSifh ta&;udkvnf; vlwdkif;
vufcH vmcJhMuonf/

trsKd;orD; wpfOD;onf trsKd;om;rsm; enf;wl
ae&mteSHY wm0ef,l vkyfaqmifrIrsm;? vIyf&Sm;rIrsm; &Sdvm
onf/ attdkif'Dtufpf vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;? vdifcGJjcm; qufqHrI
rjyKa&;? enf;ynm? ppfyGJponfh ae&mwdkif;vdkvdkwGif
trsKd;orD;rsm;\ tcef;u@onf avQmhwGufí r&edkifay/

tcsKdUtrsKd;orD;a&; vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;onf EsLuvD;
,m; vufeufrsm; xdef;csKyfa&;? Nidrf;csrf;a&;? ywf0ef;usif
xdef;odrf;a&;eSifh qufEG,fvmonfudkvnf; awGY&onf/
enf;ynmydkif;wGif rsKd;qufjyefYyGm;a&;qdkif&m t,ltq
opfrsm;? tiSm; udk,f0efaqmifrIrsm;udk trsKd;orD;rsm;udk
trsKd;om;rsm;u wm0efwpf&yf taejzifh owfrSwfxm;
jcif;? xdef;csKyfedkif&ef BuHaqmifjcif;wdkYrS uif;vGwfap&ef
tm;ay;axmufcH wdkufyGJ 0ifvmrIrsm;vnf; vkyfvmMu
onf/

trsKd;orD;a&; wdkufyGJrsm;onf rsufarSmuf
acwf umv\ rekóaA'? vlrIaA'? pdwfynm? pmay
a0zefa&;? ordkif;? bmoma&;eSifh odyHÜynm&yfwdkYudkvnf;
rsm;pGm oufa&mufrI &SdapcJhonf/

trsKd;orD;xkudk udk,fpm;rjyKonfh tawG;
tjrifrsm;udk trsKd;orD; ynmwwfrsm;u nDnGwfpGm
vufwGJNyD; wdkufyGJ 0ifcJhjcif;aMumifh trsKd;orD; qdkonfrSm
edrfhusonfh vlwef;pm;rsm; r[kwfawmh/ b0&Sif rdef;rom;
rsm;[lí [pfaMuG;edkifa&;twGuf ay;qyfcJh&onfawGu
rsm;pGm &SdcJhonfrSm trSefjzpfonf/

trsKd;orD; qdkonfrSmvnf; vl/ trsKd;om; qdk
onfrSmvnf;vl/ ae&mwum a,mufsm;eSifh rdef;rqdkonf
r&Sd/ vlYabmifwGif vlawGu vlYvkyfief;rsm; vkyfaqmif&if;
jzifh csDwufaejcif;jzpfonf qdkjcif;u vlom;ordkif; wpf
acwfudk qef;opfapcJhonfuawmh trSefyif/
wifnGefY
Ref: http://www.crlp.org/worldwide.html
http://www.feminist.com/

83

Gender Issues in
Teaching Profession

xbD cg;awmif;usKdufNyD;
acgifrdk; wufzmae&aom
jrefrmtrsKd;orD;
ausmif;q&mrrsm;

84

jrefrmekdifiH teSHYtjym;wGif trsKd;orD; ausmif; q&mr OD;a& tqrwef
rsm;jym;aeNyD; trsKd;om;rsm;u ausmif;q&mtvkyfudk jiif;qefaecsdefwGif urÇmhekdifiH
rsm;\ ynma&; pepfwGifvnf; jyóemwufaeygonf/

vlrIpD;yGm; rajyvnfonfh tvkyftaejzihf vnf;aumif;? *kPfodu©mt&
usqif;aeonfh tvkyftaejzihf vnf;aumif; jrefrmhynma&;wGif trsKd;om; ausmif;
q&m &Sm;yg;rI jyóemudk q,fpkeSpfrsm;pGm &ifqkdifae&NyD;vnf; jzpfonf/ aemufquf
wGJ qdk;usKd; rsm;pGmudk avhvmoihfMuygNyD/

ausmif;q&mi,frsm;rSmvnf; vufzuf&nf qkdifwGif vlod&SifMum; ]usaemf
ausmif;q&m vkyfygw,f} [k xkwfazmf ajymqdk&ef &Suf&GHU 0efav;MuaMumif; armu© u
owif;&&Sdxm;onf/

þodkYjzihf a'o teSHYtjym;&Sd tajccHynm ausmif;rsm;wGif trsKd;om;
ausmif;q&mrsm; &&Sda&;rSm pdefac:rI wpfckvnf; jzpfvkdYvmayNyD/ e,fzuf aus;vuf
a'orsm;wGifvnf; ,ckvdk rkd;wGif;umvwGif acgifrdk; wufzm&ef? eSD;wufcsnf&ef
twGuf &Sdpk? rJhpk ausmif;q&m wpfa,mufrSmvnf; tdrfeD;csif;wkdif;jynfwGif tvkyfvkyf
&ef xGufoGm;avNyD/ usm;usm;vsm;vsm; wpfa,muf wpfavrS r&SdaomaMumihf
tcuf awGY ae&avonf/

jrefrmq&mrrsm; udk,fwkdif xbD cg;awmif;
usKdufNyD; acgifrdk; wufzmae&avawmhonf/


acgifrkd;wufzm&ef rvdktyfaom ekdifiHrsm;wGifrl
trsKd;om;ausmif;q&m &Sm;yg;rIrSm wpfrsKd;wpfbmom jzpf
aejyefygonf/

0efBuD;csKyf a';Apfuifr&Gef;rS t*FvefedkifiH\
ynma&;0efxrf;rsm; tajymif;tvJvkyf&ef aMunmNyD;
aemuf jyifopfedkifiHrSvnf; tvm;wl jyKjyifajymif;vJrI
vkyf&ef jyifqifaeonf/

or®w qmudkZD\ tBuHay;yk*¾dKvfrS ]q&mrawG
t&rf;rsm;aew,f? tajctae rQrQww jzpfzdkYtwGuf
jyKjyifajymif;vJrI vkyf&r,f? trsKd;om; ausif;q&mawGudk
vpmwdk;jr§ifh ay;NyD;awmh ac:,l&ygr,f? q&mrawG rsm;
vmwJh taMumif;&if;u olYwkdY&JU aexdkifrI ykHpHeSifh udkufnD vdkY
jzpfw,f? tcsdefydkif;vkyfwmu ausmif;awGudk ydkrdk xdcdkuf
apw,f? usaemfwdkY vdkcsifwJh q&mrsKd;u (100) &mcdkifEIef;
tcsdefjynfh tvkyf vkyfzdkY jzpfygw,f} [kajymqdkcJhonf/

vGefcJhaomeSpf 60 cefYrS pí tjcm;aom
t aemufedkifiHrsm; enf;wl jyifopf\ ynma&;avmuwGif
q&mrrsm; ydkrdk rsm;jym;vmcJhonf/ rlvwef;wGif 1954 u
65 &mcdkifEIef; &Sd&mrS ,cktcsdefwGif 82 &mcdkifEIef; txd
wdk;jr§ifh vmcJhonf/ yk*¾vdu ausmif;rsm;wGif q&mr ta&
twGufrSm 91 &mcdkifEIef;txd jrifhwufcJhonf

trsKd;om;rsm;rSm ausmif;q&mtvkyfonf *kPf
odu©mrJhonfhtwGuf tvkyftopf ajymif;a&TU cJhMuonf/
odkY&mwGif okawoeuJhodkYaom tvkyfrsm;onf vli,f
rsm;udk pGJaqmifedkifcJhonf/ 4if;tvkyfrSm q&mtvkyfxuf
aiGaMu; jrufjrufuav; &&SdrIaMumifhjzpfonf/

ynma&;Xmeü tvkyfvkyf&mwGif trsKd;om;eSifh
trsKd;orD;tMum; tjrifcsif; rwlnDMuay/ ynma&;
okawoe ynm&Sifrsm;rS avhvmcJh&mwGif q&mrrsm;rS
uav;rsm;eSifh twlwlae&jcif;eSifh yk*¾dKvfa&;b0eSifh
toufarG;rIwdkYtMum; rQrQww jzpfvdkonfhtwGuf
q&mrtvkyfudk eSpfoufaMumif; ajymqdkcJhMuNyD;? trsKd;
om;rsm;rSm tpdk;&vkyfief;rsm;üom vkyfvdkaMumif; ajz
Mum;cJhMuonf/

jyifopfynma&; uRrf;usifol (Marcel PorS
chard) jyifopfynma&;wGif q&meSifh q&mr tcsKd;nD
jzpfa&;onf jzpfedkifajc r&SdaMumif;? q&mr rsm;aejcif;onf
ausmif;om;rsm;rS vlYtzGJYtpnf;tay: tjrifvGJrIawG jzpf

ay: edkifaMumif;? ynma&; wm0ef&Sdolrsm; taejzifh *&k
wpdkuf udkifwG,f&ef owday; ajymqdkcJhonf/

ynma&;qkdif&m uRrf;usifol Jean-Louis Auduc a&;om;onfh tufaq;wGif uav;rsm;\ i,fpOf
b0wGif q&mrrsm;om t"du ae&m,lvsuf&SdaMumif;?
olwdkY ausmif;aepOf umvwGif av;pm; tm;usavmuf
aom q&mrsm; r&SdaMumif; wifjycJhonf/

ausmif;om;rsm;onf ausmif;olrsm;uJhodkY oif
cef;pm vkdufedkifrI r&SdbJ ausmif;om;rsm;rS pdwftvdk rusrI
rsm;aMumifh pmar;yGJ us&IH;&ef vG,fulaMumif;? ausmif;om;
tenf;i,fom txufwef; atmifjrifcJhaMumif; wifjy
xm;onf/

odkY&mwGif tjcm;aom edkifiHrsm;wGif avhvmcJh
aom okawoe ppfwrf;rsm;t& ynma&;wGif ausmif;
om;rsm;\ atmifjrifrIrSm (q&m) usm;? r tajccHjcif; r&Sd
bJ? ausmif;om;-q&m qufqHa&;om ta&;BuD;onfh
taetxm;wGif&SdaMumif; uae'gedkifiHrS okawoe ynm
&Sifrsm;u wifjycJhonf/

ynm oifMum;a&;wGif tcuftcJ &Sdaom
ausmif;om; trsm;pkrSm qif;&Jaom rdom;pkwGif arG;zGm;
vmolrsm;jzpfNyD;? 4if;rdom;pkrS vmaom ausmif;om;rsm;
onf usm;-r tajccHNyD; wnfaxmifxm;onfh a&S;&kd;pGJ
ausmif;rsm;wGifom oifMum;vdkolrsm;jzpfaMumif;? q&mr
rsm;udkvnf; jyóem &Smavh&SdaMumif; jyifopf ausmif;
q&m wOD;u ajymqdkcJhonf/

odkY&mwGif ynma&;qdkif&m uRrf;usifolrsm;rS
ausmif;rsm;wGif trsKd;om;q&mrsm; cefYxm;a&;udk oabm
wlnDMuonf/


jrefrm ausmif;q&mrsm;\ vuf&SdvpmaiGrSm
wpf0rf;pmrQ r0/

vpmaiG rwkd;ay;ekdifygu ynma&; wdk;wuf&ef
aqmif&GufrIrSm tcsnf;eSD;yifjzpfrnf[k jynfwGif; ynma&;
okawoD q&majru armu©udk ajymjycJhonf/

ukefaps;EIef;ESihf vlY*kPfodu©mESihf tnD t*wd
w&m; uif;&Sif;pGm &yfwnfEkdifap&ef jrefrmhynma&;
wGifvnf; ausmif;q&mq&mrrsm;twGuf vpmaiG tedrfh
qHk; usyf oHk;odef; cefY ay;oifhaMumif; tBuHjyKpmrsm;vnf;
armu©u &&Sd xm;ygonf/
oQiftEka&m"d
udk;um;/
/ armu©jynfwGif;owif;rsm; & Times
85

urÇmhtqdk;&Gm;qHk; jyXmef;pmtkyfrsm;
cs,f&Drdk;oJ

urÇmhEkdifiH toD;oD;u ausmif;ol ausmif;om;
rsm;rSm aeYpOf pmoifcef;wGif; 0ifNyD; tNydKiftqdkif pmoif
,laeMu&onf/ odkYaomf olwdkY oif,laeaom oifcef;pm
tcsKdUrSm rSm;,Gif;ae&HkrubJ tEÅ&m,f &Sdaewmudkyg awGY
Mu&onf/

atmufwGif azmfjyxm;wJh EkdifiHawGrSm ausmif;
om;rsm; oif,lae&wJh qdk;&Gm; oifcef;pm tcsKdUudk avhvm
zdkY azmfjyvdkufygonf/

toHk;jyKvmonf/ tD&ef jynfwGif;rSmawmh bmoma&;
t,ltq oGwfoGif;zkdY ausmif; yHkESdyfpmtkyfawGxJ trsm;
tjym; xnfhvmonf/

avhvmawGY&Sdcsuf wpfckt& tD&ef 7 wef;
ausmif;oHk; zwfpmtkyfwpftkyfrSm ]rlqvif vli,fwdkif;
onf tv’mt&Sifawmfjrwf\ &efolwdkif;ESifh rdpäm[k
owfrSwfxm;olwdkif;udk xdk;ESufwdkufcdkufjcif;? ypfrSwfudk
wdus uRrf;usifpGm ypfcwfEkdifjcif;jzifh rdrdf\ aMumuf&GHUrItm;
ESvHk;om;xJrS armif;xkwfypfMu&rnf} [k oifMum;xm;
tD&ef
onf/ tD&ef Oya't& vli,fwdkif; touf 19 ESpfwGif
rjzpfrae 18 v ppfrIxrf;&rnf jzpfonf/
Lesson plan : bmoma&; ppfyGJESifh usm;rjyóem

2010 ckESpf 0g&Sifweftajcpdkuf Freedom
bmom&yf taMumif;t&m/
House tpD&ifcHpm t& tD&ef tpdk;&u tD&ef ausmif;om;

tD&ef acgif;aqmif rsm;u olwdkY EkdifiHa&; ruf awGudk tpövrf vlrsKd;BuD; pdwf0ifatmif oifMum;ay;ae
aqhcsfawG wurÇmvHk;udk ysHUESYHapzdkY twGuf ]rD'D,mopf} udk onf[k azmfjyxm;onf/ tD&ef EkdifiHa&; pepfu usm;r
86

cGJjcm;rI? vlrsKd;a&; cGJjcm;rIrsm; jyKvkyf xm;onf/ trsKd;om;
awGudk yxrwef;pm; EdkifiHom; pdwfudef;atmif oGwfoGif;
vsuf&Sdonf/ trsKd;orD;awG udkawmh tdrfwGif;rSm aecdkfif;NyD;
'kwd,wef;pm; EkdifiHom; jzpfatmif oifMum;aeonf/
jyXmef;pmtkyfrS taxmuftxm;/

]rlqvif bmoma&;ppfyGJ ]*sD[m'f} udk um
uG,fjcif;onf vli,fwdkif;? vlBuD;wdkif;? trsKd;orD;wdkif;&JU
tv’mt&Sifawmfjrwfay; wm0efjzpfonf/ þjrifh jrwf
aom ppfyGJtwGuf vlwdkif; vHk;0OóHkyg0if qifETJ&rnf/
igwdkY&JU wdkufyGJ0if ol&Jaumif;rsm;twGuf igwdkY pGrf; tm;&Sd
orQ ulnD wdkufcdkufoGm;&rnf.....} (tD&efEkdifiHxkwf owå
rwef; tpövrf,Ofaus;rIESifh bmoma&; ausmif;oHk;
zwfpmtkyf rS aumufEIwfcsuf)/

wJh pmrsufESm Oyrm Munfhyg/

]eefusif;NrdKUudk *syefwdkYu odrf;ydkufvdkufonf/
eefusif;NrdKU rk'drf;usifh cH&rIyif jzpfonf/ *syefwdkYu vl
300000 (oHk;odef;) ausmfudk owfjzwfNyD; urÇmhordkif;wGif
t&ufpufqHk; aMumuf&GHUzG,f taumif;qHk; vlowfyGJ
BuD;udk zefwD;cJhonf} [k qdkNyD; tBuD;rm;qHk; vlowfyGJ[k
oHk;EIef;xm;onf/ ( *syef ordkif;pmtkyfawGrSmawmh ]tpk
vdkuf tNyHKvdkuf owfcJhonfh jzpf&yf} [k oHk;EIef;xm;onf/
w&kwfwdkYu olwdkY rvdkwJh ae&mrsm;wGif toHk;tEIef;rsm;udk
csJUum;EkdiforQ csJUum;xm;onf/

aemuf *syefwdkYudk ckcH wGef;vSefEkdifrIrSm w&kwf
wdkY&JU pnf;vHk;nDnGwfrIESifh ppfa&; uRrf;usifrIwkdYaMumifhom
jzpfonf[k a&;xm;onf/ tar&duefwyfawG ppfyGJudk OD;
aqmifwdkufcdkuf ay;cJhwJhtaMumif; vHk;0 azmfjyrxm;yg/

jyXmef;pmtkyfrS taxmuftxm;/

]'kwd, urÇmppfwGif *syefwdkY tay: w&kwfwdkY
atmifjrifrI&&Sdjcif;\ t"du taMumif;rSm xl;jcm;vSaom
Lesson plan: yHkrSefr[kwfwJh ordkif;
w&kwf uGefjrLepf ygwDu wpfEkdifiHxJudk pkpnf;EkdifcJhonfh
bmom&yftaMumif;t&m/

w&kwfwdkYrSm rdrd udk,fudk urÇmhtiftm;BuD; qlyg yifrtaMumif; w&m;aMumifhom jzpfonf....} (trsm;
yg0g tjzpf jrifMunfhzdkY csDwHk cswHk jzpfae[ef&Sdonf/ vuf&Sd jynfoloHk; w&kwf ordkif;pmtkyfrS aumufEIwfcsuf)/
oifMum;aeaom w&kwfordkif; zwfpmtkyfrsm;wGif a&SU
aemufrnD 0da&m"drsm;ESifh jynfhaeonf/ oef;aygif; rsm;pGm aqmf'Dtma&AD,
aom ausmif;om;awG&JU rsufpdwGif w&kwfjynfqdkwm
vHk;0 &dk;om; tjypfuif;pifNyD; ppfa&;tiftm;csJUxGifrI usL; Lesson plan: ,HkMunfrI&JU &efolawmfrsm;
ausmfrIwdkYESifh bmrS rywfoufwJh EkdifiH[k jrifxm; Mu bmom&yftaMumif;t&m/
9^11 tar&duef ukefoG,fa&;pifwm wdkuf
onf/ odkYaomf pmtkyfawGrSm odkodyfrIESifh ~uGm;0grI wNydKif
cdkufcH&rIrSm av,OfawG jyefay;qGJol 19 a,mufteuf
ufxJ a&maxG;aewwfonf/

w&kwfausmif;oHk; jyXmef;pmtkyfawGrSm 1950 15 a,mufu aqmf'DEkdifiHom;rsm; jzpfonf/
9^11 jzpfNyD;aemuf bk&iftbf'lvmu aqmf
ckESpfu wdbufudk 0ifa&mufusL;ausmf owfjzwfwJh t
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yfawGudk jyKjyifajymif;vJrI vkyfcJhonf/ t&if
aMumif; azmfjyxm;jcif; r&Sd/ uarÇm'D,m;udk 0ifa&mufcJhwJh
AD,uferfwdkY tay: wkHYjyefcJhonfh 1979 w&kwf-AD,uf erf jyXmef;pmtkyfawGrSm c&pf,mef? uGefjrLepf? ZD,Gef0g'DESifh
ppfyGJtaMumif;udk vHk;0azmfjyrI r&Sd/ w&kwfqdkwm b,f taemufrS vljzLawGudk ]bmoma&; r,HkMunfolrsm;}
awmhrS usL;ausmfolr[kwf? rdrdudk,fudk umuG,folom (non-believers) [k owfrSwfxm;NyD;? rlqvifwdkY&JU
jzpfaMumif; vuf&Sd ordkif;pmtkyfrsm;u oifMum;onf/ OD;pm;ay; rdpäm&efolrsm; tjzpf oifMum;cJhonf/
odkYaomf q,fESpfausmf MumvmayrJh ajymif;vJ
1958 ckESpfrS 1961 ckESpftxd Ouú|BuD;armf&JU r[m
ckefysHausmfvTm;a&; vrf;pOfaMumifh vloef; 50 ausmf ao oifMum;rI tusKd;&v'fu ododomom wdk;wufrIr&SdcJh/
qHk;rIeJY iwfrGwfacgif;yg;rIwdkYudk &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; a&;om; 2006 ckESpfrSm tjcm;bmomuGJ vlrsKd;uGJrsm; tay:
onf;rcHrIudk azmfjyoHk;EIef;xm;wJh pmydk'frsm; jzKwfay;
xm;rIr&Sd/

w&kwf ausmif;oHk; jyXmef;pmtkyf wpftkyfrS 'kwd r,fvdkY bk&ifhtpdk;&tzGJYu w&m;0if uwday;cJhayrJh?
, urÇmppfESifh *syefqefYusifa&; ppfyGJtaMumif; a&;xm; aqmf'D uav;i,fawGu *sD[m'fppfyGJ taMumif;eJY *sL;
w&kwf

87

rkef;wD;a&; pmydk'frsm;udk atmfusufaeMuwkef;yif/ vuf&Sd
tar&du? NAdwdef? jyifopf? *smrPDESifh wl&uD EkdifiHrsm;&Sd
aqmf'Dydkif ausmif;awGrSmvnf; tvm;wl zwfpmtkyfawG
udkom oifMum;vsuf&Sdonf/

,ckaemufqHk; aqmf'D tpdk;u xyfaMujim
onf/ aqmf'D bk&ifhEkdifiHtwGif;&Sd ausmif;rsm;? aqmf'DrS
axmuffyhHrI &,lxm;aom wurÇmvHk;&Sd ausmif;rsm;rS
zwfpmtkyfrsm;udk vmrnfh oHk;ESpftwGif; jyefvnf ppfaq;
oHk;oyfrnf qdkwJh taMumif;/

jyXmef;pmtkyfrS taxmuftxm;/

]atmufyg uGufvyfrsm;wGif oifhavsmfaom
pum;vHk;rsm; jznfhpGuf yg/

urÇmay:&Sd bmomwdkif;onf ...................
bmoma&;avmuf rrSefuefbJ rSm;,Gif;aeonf/
tpövmrf bmom r,HkMunf rudk;uG,faomol rnfolyJ
aoao ................ odkY oufqif;oGm;&rnf/ (aqmf'D
yxrwef; zwfpmtkyfrS)/

a&;u xdyfqHk;u yg0if aeonf/

au*sDbD axmufvSrf;a&;rSL;rS or®&mxl; ESpf
quf ,lcJhNyD; ,ck 0efBuD;csKyfvkyfaeol Avm'Drmylwifu
ausmif;oif&dk;nTef;wrf;rsm; jyifqifa&;qGJzdkY tm;xkwf
cJhol jzpfonf/ pwmvifEdkufaZ;&Sif; vkyfzkdYtwGuf olY
tac: ]taumif;jrifordkif;} (positive history) oif&dk;
nTef;wrf;awG oifMum;a&; tqufrjywf vkyfonf/
pwmvif&JU aumif;uGufawGudk twif;&SmazG EIdufcRwf
trTef;wifNyD; uav;awGudk oHNydKifatmfcdkif; Zmwfwdkuf
cdkif;aeonf/

ylwifacwf ordkif;pmtkyfopf wpftkyfwGif
pwmvif acgif;aqmifrIatmuf? 1932-33 ckESpf pdkufysKd;
a&; ay:vpD rSm;,Gif;rIaMumifh jzpfysufcJh&wJh tiwfab;
BuD;udk az: jyxm;onf/ 'kwd, urÇmppftwGif; zufqpf
wdkYukd wdkufyGJqifEkdifrIrSm tjcm;r[mrdwf EkdifiHawG&JU tcef;
u@udk trsm;BuD; avsmhcsypfcJhonf/ qdkAD,uf jynf
axmifpk a&TxD;aqmif;umvudk txyfxyf azmfjyxm;
onf/

&k&Sm;

jyXmef;pmtkyfrS taxmuftxm;/
Lesson plan: pwmvif

]pwmvif onf qifjcifwHkw&m; &SdpGm t&m&m
udk aqmif&Gufwwfol jzpfonf/ uGefjrLepfudk umuG,f
bmom&yftaMumif;t&m/
apmifha&Smufol? qdkAD,uf tifyg,mudk yHkazmfcJhol? urÇmh

&k&Sm; acgif;aqmifBuD; pwmviftaMumif; tjyK tiftm;BuD; pufrIEkdifiHBuD;udk pGrf;aqmifEkdifcJhol jzpfay
oabmaqmif ajymzdkYrSm cufcJvSonf/ ol&JU OD;aqmifrI onf..} (&k&Sm;ordkif; 1900-1945 pmtkyfrS)/
atmufwGif &k&Sm; oef; 20 ausmf toufqHk;½IH;cJh&onf/
odkYESifhwdkif ,aeY &k&Sm;rsKd;qufopf acgif;aqmifrsm;&JU BudK;
&nfnTef;/ Foreign Policy
pm; vkyfaqmifrIwdkif;wGif pwmvifudk jyeftzwfq,f
cs,f&Drdk;oJ

ynma&; udk;um;p&m
jyXmef;pmtkyfudk roifygESihf?
jyXmef;pmtkyfESihf oifyg/
Do not teach the textbooks,Teach with the textbook.

88

arwÅmw&m;xGef;um;&m jidrf;csrf;om,maom e,fajrodkY
avajyat; (rJaqmuf)

rdk;OD;us? ausmif;zGifhp&JU ra&S;raeSmif; tcsdefrSmyJ
xdkif;e,fpyfu a&TUajymif;ausmif;rsm;&JU ordkif; oif&kd;nTef;
wef; tvkyf&kHaqG;aEG;yGJESifh odyÜHbmom&yfoifMum;enf;
tvkyf&kH aqG;aEG;yGJudk usif;ycJhaMumif; od&ygw,f/

odkYaomf usef;rma&; tajctaeaMumifh xdk
aqG;aEG;yGJodkY rwwfjzpfcJhyg/ Mo*kwfvxkwf armu© r*¾Zif;
yg aqmif;yg;av;wpfckrSm arwÅmekdifiHawmfwdkY? trsKd;om;
&ifMum;apha&;wdkYqdkwJh a0g[m&awGaMumifh tJ'D aqmif;yg;
av;udk pdwf0ifwpm; zwfMunfhrdvdkufw,f/ zwfNyD;wJh
aemuf MunfEl;yDwdESifhtwl tawG;wpfcsuf 0ifvmrd
w,f/

i,fpOfausmif;om;b0 yx0D0if bmom&yf

oifMum;pOfu jrefrmekdifiHajryHkudk tBudrfBudrf qGJjzpfcJhMu
w,f/ yx0Dbmom&yf q&mruvnf; toiftjy
aumif;? yHktqGJaumif;? ajrjzLudkifxm;wJh olYvufuav;
awG wGefYvdkufwmeJY bvufbkwfay:rSm tifrwef tcsKd;
us vSywJh uRefawmfwdkY&JU jrefrmedkifiHajryHk[m wr[kwf
csif; ay:vmygawmhw,f/

uRefawmfwkdYuvnf; yHkqGJ0goemygawmh rl&if;
jyXmef;pmtkyfygyHkudk pau;tuGufcs? qGJvdkwJh pmrsufESm
ay:rSmvnf; tuGufcsvdkY jyXmef;ygyHkeJY wxyfwnf; us
atmif pau;udkuf qGJvdkufygw,f/

&cdkifuef;&kd;wef;u pqGJ&w,fqdkwJh tavh
txudkvnf; q&mruoifjyw,f/ tJ'DurS {&m0wD jrpf
89

0uRef;ay:? aemuf weomF&D [kd;atmufbufpGef;? aemuf
rS csif;jynfe,fbuf jyefwufqGJ? qufNyD; ucsifjynfe,f
xdyfxd? tJ'DurS atmufjyefqif;? &Srf;jynfe,f? aemuf
qufqif; weoFm&D? usefwJhbufudk ydwfvdkufMuw,f/

NyD;awmhjrpfawGqGJ? NrdKUawGxnfh? pau;udkufrdkY
yHkeSdyfeJYrjcm; wlvSwmrdkY udk,fqGJwJh ajryHkMunfhNyD; MunfEl; cJh
Mu&w,f/ udkf,fhwdkif;jynfudk cspfwJhpdwfeJY qGJaecJhwm
aMumifh ydkvdkYrsm; vSaewmvm;/

jrefrmpmq&muqdk ]wkdYekdifiH ajryHkudk Munfh
vdkufMuprf;/ NrD;qHudkcs? v,fudkMuGvsuf? vSyausmharmh?
&ifudkaumhxm;? Oa'gif;zdk&Jh [eftvm;} vdkY wifpm;NyD; ajym
w,ff/

wpfeSpfvHk; qGJvdkuf&wJh ajryHk? aemufydkif;rSm
awmh pau;udkuf tuGufawG rcsawmhbJ vufwef;
tcsKd;usus qGJekdifonftxd tavhtusifh &vmw,f/
'DajryHkudk qGJ&if;eJY o,HZmw aygMuG,f0wJh rdrdekdifiHudk &if
xJrSm udef;atmif;aewJh pdwfuav;u vQyfwjyuf tajy;
tvTm;av; *kPf,lvdkufrdao;w,f/

'DjrefrmhajryHkudk tv,fwef;tqifh av;eSpf
vHk;vHk; awGYxdcJh&awmh b,fvdkvkyf arhekdifrSmwJhvJ/ vlrSef;
odwwfpuwnf;u udk,fhekdifiHudk cspfwJhpdwf? 'geJYwpfyg
wnf; AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;udk cspfwJhpdwf? b,folurS
rwdkufwGef;&bJ? &ifxJtonf;xJuudk jzpfaerdwmyg/

'DjrefrmekdifiHajryHkudk wpfykdif;wpfpavmuf qGJ
jzwfxkwfMunfh&if b,fvdkrS rvSawmhwm b,fvdkrS
usufoa& r&Sdawmhwm trSefyJ/ rl&if;e*dktwdkif; pmr&D
iSufuav;twdkif;om vSaewmyg/

pdwful;u jrefrmekdifiH wvTm;&SdwJh wdkif;&if;om;
wdkYqD a&muf&SdoGm;rdygw,f/ &kd;&m ,Ofaus;rIawG? &kd;&m
t0wftpm;awG? olwdkY&JU cspfcifp&m p&kdufav;awG at;
csrf;pGm aexdkifpm;aomufwwfwJh "avhawG? bmom
w&m; &kdaoudkif;&kdif;rI? tekynmawG[m a&mifpHkyef;rsm;
ozG,f zl;yGifh a0qmaeovdk? uRefawmfwdkY wdkif;jynf[m
vnf; wu,fawmh a&mifpHkjzm yef;rmvmawG yGifhzl;aewJh
O,smOfBuD;eJY wlvSygawmhw,f/

odkYaomfvnf; tcktcsdeftcgxd at;csrf;rI?
Nidrf;csrf;rIawG r&ao;? wpfa,mufeJY wpfa,muf owf
Muwkef;? jzwffMuwkef;? ypfMuwkef;? cwfMuwkef;/ 'D tuk
odkvf tvkyf&IyfawGeJYyJ jrefrmjynf[m urÇmwnfoí oGm;
Mu&awmhrSmvm;/ tmCmwawG? tpGJawG? tmPm&l;awG?
BuD;ekdifi,fn§if; 0g'awG? ÓPfua&SUu roGm; vufeuf
90

tm;udk;olawG? aomuawG rsuf&nfawGeJYyJ urÇmukef
us,foí umvawGudk ukefapawmhrSmvm;/

tcsif;csif; &efjzpfaewmeJh tcsdefawGom ukef
oGm;NyD; b,fawmhrsm;rS zGHNzdK; wdk;wufMuawmhrSmvJ/
jrefrmekdifiHom;wdkY&JU b0u usD;vefYpmpm;? tdk;ypftdrfypf
,rf;aiYG waxmif;axmif;b0eJY a&pkef arsmawmhrSmvm;?
qdkwJh tawG;awGu &ifxJrSm rcsdrqefYatmifygyJ/

ordkif;&JU tjzpftysufrSefawGudkawmh EIwfy,f
vdkY rjzpfygbl;/ rSm;wmawG oifcef;pm,l? rSefwmawG&Sd&if
twkcdk;ekdifzdkYudkom ordkif;q&mwdkYu vrf;nTefzdkY vdkygw,f/
tmCmwawG? emusnf;csufawG? *dkPf;*P tpGJawG?
vlrsKd;tpGJawG uif;NyD; vlYtzGJYtpnf; wpfckvHk;udk tusKd;jyK
apwJh ordkif;bmom&yfrsKd;? tem*wfudk a&S;&I aumif;rGef
aprJh puf,EÅ&m;udk armif;eSifolrsm;jzpfatmif q&mu
vrf;nTef&rSm jzpfw,f/

'ghtjyif rdbrsm;eSifhyg tvkyf&kH aqG;aEG;yGJrsm;
jyKvkyfNyD;? rdbrsm;uyg 'Dvkd tem*wfa&; a&S;&I ay;ekdifr,fh
tm;vHk;&JU tusKd;udk a&S;&IwJh pdwfrsm; rQa0cHpm;&mu rdrd\
&ifaoG;udk wpfzufwpfvrf;rS 0ifa&mufxdef;nd§ ac:
aqmif oGm;ekdifzdkYudk pDrHoifhygw,f/ ordkif;bmom&yfrS
tydkawG? trSm;awG? rcdkifvHkwmawGudkawmh txl; a&Smif&
ygvdrfhr,f/ ordkif; trSefxJrSmawmh edkifiHa&;uawmh
qufEG,fNyD;omyg? rygvdkY r&ygbl;/

,aeY a&TUajymif;uav;rsm;&JU pdwfawGxJudk 0if
Munfhvdkufjyef&ifvnf; udk,fhekdifiH udk,fhvlrsKd;udk bm&,f
vdkYrS a&a&&m&m rodao;wJh uav;awG? udk,fhekdifiH t
aMumif; rodao;wJh uav;awG? udk,fh,Ofaus;rI t
aMumif; Za0Z0g jzpfaeao;wJh uav;awG? jrefrmjynfrSm
bmawG jzpfcJhovJ? rodMubl;/ zufqpfawmfvSefa&;aeY
rodbl;/ tmZmenfaeY taMumif; ar;vnf;yJ rodbl;/
tmZmenfawG b,feSpfa,mufqdkwmvnf; rodbl;/
ordkif;todvnf; a&;aw;aw;? q&muay;vkdY atmf
usuf xm;wmyJ &Sdw,f/ &ifxJrSmawmh bmrSr&Sdbl;/

bmom&yf awmfawmfrsm;rsm;udkvnf; usuf
pmvdkY oabmxm;NyD; atmfusufwJh tusifh p&kdufudk 'Du
aeY &Sif;zdkY tcsdefwefNyD/ a&TUajymif;uav;awG[m NrdKU BuD; jy
BuD;u ajymif;vmwm tawmfenf;ygw,f/ NrdKUi,f? &Gmi,f
e,fpyf a&mufvmMuolawG? trdrJh tzrJh rdbrJh pGefYypfcH
b0awGeJY uav;awGrdkY olwdkYav;awG&JU b0'Pf&m 'Pf
csufawG[m emusnf;aeqJrdkY bmudkawG;vdkY bmukd
ta&;w,l vkyf&r,fqdkwmudk awmfawmf a&a&&m&m

rod&SmMubl;/

wcsKdUuav;awG[m ausmif;udkom vmw,f
ynmoifcsifpdwfawG r&SdMubl;/ 'gudk q&mawGu pdwf
&Snfonf;cHNyD; ausmif;oifcef;pm wpfzuf? olwdkYav;awG
&JU vdr®ma&;jcm;&Sdr,fh taMumif;t&mawG? A[kokwawG?
ynmoifcsifpdwf &Sdvmedkifr,fh tqHk;trawGudk aeYpOf
oifcef;pmeJY wGJzufvdkY uav;awG&JU pdwfudk jznfhqnf;ae
rSom todw&m;jrifhNyD; ausmif;aeaysmfpdwf 0ifvmaprSm
jzpfygw,f/

ordkif;bmom&yfudk oifMum;&mrSmawmh wkdif;
jynfeJY vlrsKd; (wpfrsKd;om;vHk;) udk cspfwwfvmatmif? cspf
pdwf0ifvmatmif q&mawGu b,fvdkoifMum;ay;rvJ/
wpfOD;eSifhwpfOD; tmCmwawG? emMunf;csufawG wif
usef raeatmif b,fvkdoifrvJ/ wpfOD;eSifhwpfOD; cspfcif
uRrf;0ifNyD; vnfyif;zuf aygif;oif;ekdifwJh Nidrf;csrf;a&;
b0udk eSpfoufvmatmif b,fvdk vrf;nTefrvJ/ Nidrf;csrf;
wJh tem*wf ordkif;jzpfvmzdkY ordkif;udk oifMum;&mrSm
owdjzifh apmifha&SmufzdkY vdkaeygNyD/

rJaqmufNrdKU u Love And Care ausmif;q&m
BuD; &SD&IdxGef;&JU The Union of Matta Land ]arwåmEkdifiH
awmf} t,ltqudk eSpfoufaxmufcHygw,f/ 'grSr[kwf
tvm;wl t"dyÜg,frsKd;jzpfr,fh trnfudk trsm;oabmwl
'Drdkua&pDusus 'Dxufaumif;atmif a&G;cs,f ay;ekdif&if
awmh twdkif;xuf tvGefygyJ/

'Dae&mrSm tiftm;rsm;wJh vlrsKd;u oabmxm;
BuD;zdkY vdkygvdrfhr,f/ t&ifwkef;u ajymajymaeMu jzpfwJh

r[mvlrsKd;BuD;0g' qdkwmrsKd;vdkaygh/ rnfolrqdk 'D0g'awGudk
twdwfrSm xm;cJhzdkY oifhygNyD/ wdkif;&if;om;pHHk omwlnDrQ jzpf
aom Nidrf;csrf;wJh ekdifiHawmfBuD;udk wnfaxmif&mrSm
trsKd;om; jyefvnf&ifMum;apha&;twGuf tekpdyfuav;
utp tMurf;xnftqHk; owduyfNyD; 0dkif;0ef; pOf;pm;Mu
&rSmyg/ tajymeJY r&ygbl;/ &ifxJu eSpfeSpfumum vkyfrS
tvkyfjzpfrSmyg/

q&mBuD; *dktifum&JU pum;eJY ajym&vQif
wu,f Nidrf;csrf;csif&if ]wpfOD;csif; wpfa,mufcsif;pDu p
Nidrf;csrf;zdkY vdkygvdrfhr,f}/ 'gaMumifh uRefawmfwdkY ekdifiHBuD;
udk urÇmwnfoí arwåmw&m;awG jynfheSufaewJh
avmuygvw&m;eJYtnD tkyfcsKyfwJh 'Drdkua&pD ekdifiHawmf
opffBuD; jzpfcsifvSygjyD/

,aeY vdktyfcsufBuD;uawmh uRefawmfwdkYekdifiH
rS uav;rsm;tm;vHk;twGuf rSefuef wduswJh ordkif;oif&kd;
tjref vdktyfaeygNyD/ ordkif;rSefrS oifcef;pmrsm; &,lekdifNyD;
tem*wf arwÅmekdifiHawmfBuD;? Nidrf;csrf;wJh ekdifiHawmfBuD;?
wpfOD;eJY wpfOD; udk,fcsif;pmw&m; &SdaeMuwJh ekdifiHawmf
BuD;rSm 'Duav;awG[m ordkif;q&mBuD; a'gufwm
oef;xGef;&JU pum;eSifhqdk&vQif ]ordkif;oifwm rtatmif
uG} vdkY qdkwJhtwdkif; r taom ekdifiHom;rsm; jzpfvmNyD;
wkdif;jynftwGuf todynm&Sifrsm;? twwfynm&Sifrsm;
jzpfvmMurSm rvGJygaMumif;/
avajyat; (rJaqmuf)

rD;tdrf tpOf vif;xdefaezdkY rD;tdrfxJudk
qD rjywf xnfhay;ae&rSmyJ/
rmomx&DZm
Mother Teresa (1910-1997)
qif;&JEGrf;yg;olrsm;pGmudk ulnDay;cJhol?
1979 ckESpf Ekdb,fNidrf;csrf;a&;qk&Sif

91

jrefrmh

tzJGYjzpfwJh ynma&;ESifh zHGYNzdK;wkd; wufrI azmifa';&Sif;
(Foundation Education and Development) (FED) tzJGYonf zefic&dkif
wuGmyg NrdKU cdcwf &GmrSm &dSNyD; jrefrmhtvkyform;rsm;ESihf olwdkY uav;rsm;&JU
zGHYNzdK;wkd;wufrI? ynma&;? usef;rma&;? vlrIa&;? trsKd;orD;ta&;? tvkyf
orm;ta&;pwJh vlrIa&; vkyfief;awGudk yHhydk; ulnDay;aeygw,ff/ qlemrD r[m
a&vdIif;'Pfudk cHcJhMu& tNyD; 2005 ckESpfuwnf;uyg/

usrqdk&if FED u zGifhay;cJhwJh pmoifausmif;awGxJu pmoif
ausmif; wpfausmif;rSm q&mr wpfa,muftjzpf yg0if tusKd;jyKcJhwm ynm
oifESpf 7 ESpf &dScJh ygNyD/ uav;trsKd;rsKd;ESifhvnf; BuHKcJh qkHcJh&ygw,f/ vdr®mwJh
uav;? qdk;wJh uav;? tm;i,faewJh uav;? tNidrf raeEkdifatmif aqmhwJh
uav;pwJh p&dkuf trsKd;rsKd;&dSwJh uav;awGudk ynma&;omru vdr®ma&;jcm;&dSzkdY
enf;rsKd;pkHESifh oGefoifjyo qkH;rcJh&ygw,f/ tJ'DtxJrSm rarhEkdifp&m uav;
wpfa,mufESifh usr qkHcJhygw,f/

2006 -2007 ynmoifESpf Zlvkdif 1 &ufaeYrSm uav;wpfa,mufudk

uav;rsm;\ b0ESihf tvS
a':vSpdef (zefi)

92

NGO

rdbawGu ausmif;vmtyfMuyg w,f/ yef;&HqdkufwpfckrSm
aewJh yef;&Htvkyform; wpfOD;&JU uav;yg/ jreffrm rdb
awG&JU xkH;pHtwkdif; uav;ausmif; vmtyfNyD qdk&if ]q&m
r &dkufom&dkuf usr uav;u qkd; w,f &kdufrS&r,f} qdkwJh
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r&dSygbl;/ olY pdwfESifh rawGYwJh ausmif;om;wpfa,muf&JU
a&SUrSm q&mBuD; wpfa,muf tdkifwifESifh vlom; pm;csif
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ygw,f/ tcsif;csif;vmwdkifvdkY usr ac:,l ar;jref;wJhtcg
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vkyfjywwfawmh oabmusp&mygyJ/ usr Munfhaumif;
ovdk? oabmuscJhovdk? olY ywf0ef;usifuvnf; Munfh
aumif;aumif;eJY MunfhcJhvdkY 'Duav;rSm p&dkufqdk;uav;
pJGvmwmvdkY xifygw,f/

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tultnD awmif;&w,f/

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r,fh ypönf;awGudk OD;atmif ,lvdkufw,f/ 'ef;pD;r,f
qdk&ifvnf; olYxufOD;atmif pD;vdkufMuw,f/ olcH&awmh
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wGuf ta&;ygaeNyD - ]udkudkawG oGm;ajym? om; upm;csif
vkdY? om;udkvnf; ay;upm;ygvdkY ajymckdif;&w,f/

tpOD;awmh rajymbl;? BuD;oludk i,folu
&dkao&w,f/ ol tEkdif,lcJhwJh olY tazmfawGudk udk,fcsif;
pm wwfatmif EIdif;,SOfjycJh&w,f/ wpfv? ESpfvavmuf
jyKjyifvkdufwJh tcsdefrSm csKdomwJh pum;eJY &dkaowwfrI
awGudk olYrSm usr awGYvkduf&w,f/

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vSypGmeJY ajrrSefa&rSef ae&m rSefrSm vef;vmNyDaygY&Sif/ yDwd
jzpfvdkYrS r0cifrSmbJ uav;u ausmif;rwwfvdkY pkHprf;
Munfhawmh rdbawG yef;&Hqkduf ajymif;vkdY ygoGm;NyD/
ausmif; rwwfEkdifawmhbl;qdkwm odvdkuf&ygw,f/ usr
wdkY FED u zGifhxm;wJh ausmif;awGESihf teD;tem; ausmif;
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pdwfraumif; jzpfrdw,f/ vdr®m ,Ofaus;vmNyDjzpfwJh olY&JU
trlt&mav; aysmufysufroGm;ygapeJYvdkY qkawmif;&kH
uvJGNyD; bmrS rwwfEkdifawmhygbl;/


aMomf... a&TUajymif; jrefrm tvkyform;awG jzpf
ae wmudk; -- &Sif/

a&TUajymif; jrefrmtvkyform;awGudk usr wpf ck
today;csifwmu uav;yJ Munfhaumif;w,fqdkNyD;
udk,ftrlt&m? EIwftrIt&m pdwf&dkif;uav;awGudk oGef
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udk ajymif;vJapzdkYtwGuf xdkdif;EkdifiHudk a&mufaewJh jrefrm
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taetxdkifu tp oefY&Sif;oefY&yfNyD; pnf;urf;&dSzdkY vdkyg
w,f/

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xkdif;EkdifiHudk a&mufvmMuayr,fh ,Ofaus;wJh vlrsKd;yg
qkdwm odjrifapcsifygw,f/ 'gaMumifh ykHoGif;&vG,fwJh
uav;awGudk odwwfcgp t&G,fuwnf;u vdr®m,Of
aus;wJh uav;wpfa,mufjzpfzdkY usrwdkY q&m q&mr
rsm;omru vufOD;q&mjzpfwJh rddbESifh ywf0ef;usifu
vnf; txl;yif vkdtyfygaMumif; today; vdkufcsifygw,f
&Sif /

uav;rsm;b0 xm0& vSyEkdifygap/
a':vSpdef (zefi)

93

urÇmudkzsuf vlYpeuf (pmpDpmuHk;)
aemf&dkrDxl; (SAW ausmif;)

vlonf ,Ofaus;rIqkdaom vufeufudk qJG
udkifum wd&pämefavmurS vrf;cJG xGufvmaom owå0g
jzpfayonf/ vlom;wkdYonf urÇmOD; tprS ,aeYxufxd
wkdif avudk ½I½Iduf? a&udk aomufokH;NyD; tpmt[m&rsm;udk
pm;okH;um touf&Sif aexdkifcJhMuygonf/ xdktcgwGif vl
om;wdkYtwGuf r&dSrjzpf vkdtyfaeaom t&mrSm ]obm0
ywf0ef;usifac: Moumoavmuyif}jzpfavonf/ o
bm0 ywf0ef;usif qdkonfrSm awm?awmif? a&? ajr? av?
yifv,f? ork'´&mrsm; tm;vkH; aygif;pyfzJGYpnf; xm;onfh
qef;Mu,faom arSmfavmuyif jzpfayonf/ vlom;wkdY
onf xdkMoumoavmuxJwGif aexdkif usufpm;MuNyD;
todÓPfrsm; wdk;wuf jrifhrm;vmMuygonf/ xdkYtwl
avmb? a'go? arm[w&m;[laom twåudk tajccHí xdk
w&m;rsm;vnf; twlwuG arG;zGm;vmcJhMuygonf/

]b,folrjyK rdrdrI} qdkaom pum;ykHudk vlom;
wkdYu taumiftxnf azmfvmNyDjzpfaMumif;udk ,aeY
acwfBuD;u om"ursm;ESifhwuG azmfjyaeavNyD jzpf
onf/ ,cifu arSmfavmuyrm qef;Mu,frIrsm;ESifh jynfh
ESufaeaom obm0ywf0ef;usifonf ,cktcgwGifrI
wpfpwpfp ,kd,Gif; ysufpD;vmcJhygonf/ taMumif;&if;rSm
vlom;wkdY\ wpfudk,faumif;qefrIaMumifhyif jzpfonf/
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emrsm;udk vuf&dSavmuwGif urÇmhEkdifiHtoD;oD;ü ydkrdkBuHK
awGYae&ygonf/
94

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udk w&m;r0if twkdif;tqrJhpGmjzifh ckwfvSJaerI rsm;aMumifh
opfawmrsm; jyKef;wD;Mu&ygonf/ xdkYtjyif wdk;wufvm
aom urÇmhvlOD;a&t& pm;okH;&ef pkdufysKd;ajrrsm;udk wkd;csJU
jcif;wkdYaMumifhvnf; opfawmrsm; jyKef;wD;Mu&jyefygonf/
opfawmrsm; jyKef;wD;jcif;\ aemufuG,f ZD0 oabmt&
qufoG,frI wpfckjzpfaom a&wdkufpm;rIrsm; jzpfay:vm
NyD; opfyifopfawmrsm; enf;yg;vmjcif;\ aemufuG,f
wGifvnf; tusKd;qufrsm; taejzifh ajrom;? ajrqDvTm
rsm; xdckdufvmEkdifygonf/ xkdYtjyif opfyifrsm;ESifh ywf
oufaeaom &moDOwkrSmvnf; tyifrsm; enf;yg;jcif;
aMumifh yljyif;um ajrqDvTmrsm; cef;ajcmufukefygonf/
,if;tcsufonf vlom;wkdY\ pm;eyf&du©mtwGuf tvGef
owdxm;&rnfh tcsufyifjzpfygonf/

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rI? obm0tavsmuf awmrD; rsm; avmifrIudk wpfrdepf
vQif ]wpfpwk&ef;} rdkifEIef;jzifh avmifuRrf;aeaMumif;
awGY&ygonf/ xdktcgwGif tqdkyg awmukd trSDjyKae&aom
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ygonf/ xdkuJhodkY opfawmrsm; jyKef;rI aMumifh &moDOwk

azmufjyefajymif;vJum aMumufruf zG,faumif;aom
obm0ab;qdk;rsm;ESifh &ifqkdif BuHKawGY &ygawmhonf/

xdkYaemuf BuD;rm;aom pufrIvkyfief;BuD;rsm;
aMumifhvnf; opfawmrsm; jyKef;wD;um avxk? a&xkukd
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rsm;vnf; jzpfay:apygonf/ a&eufqdyfurf;ESifh ywfouf
aom usef;rma&;twGuf qdk;&Gm;aponfh npfnrf;rIrsm;
teuf Air Pollution ac: avxknpfnrf;rIrSm vludk tEÅ
&m,f tay;EkdifqkH; npfnrf;rIwpfck tjzpf ynm&Sifrsm;u
axmufjyavh&dSygonf/ avxk npfnrf;rIrsm;aMumifh wpf
ESpfvQif vlOD;a& (2) oef;cefYonf tcsdef rwdkifrD aoqkH;
oGm;Muonf[k (WHO) ac: urÇmhusef;rma&; tzJGYBuD;u
cefYrSef; ajymqdkygonf/ xdkuJhodkY avxk npfnrf;rIrsm;
onf zHGYNzdK;NyD;ESifh zHGYNzdK;qJEkdifiHrsm;wGif vlwkdif;tm; xdckduf
apEkdifaom ywf0ef;usifqkdif&m usef;rma&; jyóemwpf ck
jzpfygonf/

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tusefrsm;? tEÅ&m,f&dS pGefYypfypönf;rsm;udk yifv,f ork'´
&mxJodkY pnf;urf;rJh pGefYypfjcif;aMumifh yifv,fae a&owå
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ypönf;rsm;? a&eHrsm; o,f,l ydkYaqmifaeMuaom oabFm
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owif;rsm;udk Mum;&avh&dSygonf/ xdkYaMumifh oEÅm
ausmufwef;rsm;vnf; a&aeowå0grsm;ESifhtwl ysufpD;
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tdwfrsm;tm; us,fjyefYpGm tokH;jyKaejcif;yif jzpfonf/

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uljcif;? aps;EIef; oufomjcif;? tayta&cHjcif;wdkYaMumifh
aps;uGufrsm; ESifh vlrIywf0ef;usifwGif tokH;rsm; vmMu
onf/ okH;pJGrI EIef;rSmvnf; wpfESpfxuf wpfESpf wkd;vmcJh
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rpD;bJ wnf&dSae vQif ESpfaygif; (1000) cefY wnfNrJ aeEkdif
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aoqkH;rIudk jzpf aponfh tjyif rD;½IdUonfh tcgwGifvnf;
xGufvmcJhaom rD;ckd;aiGYrsm;onf touf½Ivrf;aMumif;

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enf;aom &yf0ef; rsm;ESifh vlaexlxyfaom NrdKU BuD;rsm;wGif
yvyfpwpfrsm;udk pnf;urf;rJh pGefYypfrIaMumifh a&ajrmif;
rsm;wGif trIdufrsm; ydwfqdkYjcif;? BuD;rm;aom yvyfpwpf
trdIufykHBuD;rsm; jzpfay:um teYHtoufESifh avxk? ajrxk
rsm;udk npfnrf;apNyD; a&m*grsm;udk &&dSapygonf/

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rjzpfay:ap&efESifh obm0ab; tEÅ&m,frsm;rS umuG,f
Ekdif&ef opfyifrsm; jyefvnf pkdufysKd;jcif;ESifh yvyfpwpf
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avxknpfnrf;jcif;? ajrqDvTmrsm; avsmhusjcif; ponfh
tajctaersm; jzpfay:vsuf&dS&m vlwkdif;wGif obm0 ywf
0ef;usif xdef;odrf;jcif;ESifh ywfoufí rdrdwkdY\ ,Ofaus;rI
uJhodkY tod&dSaeoifhaMumif;} udk ajymMum;Muygonf/

xdkYtjyif uREkfyfwkdYtm;vkH; tNrJrSwfrdae&rnfh
qifjcif okH;oyf&rnfh xdkif;EkdifiH tajcpdkuf Fair Earth
Consulting Co. Ltd tBuHay; wpfOD;jzpfol obm0 ywf
0ef;usif xdef;odrf;a&; ynm&Sif Jeff Rutherford \ pum;
rSm ]vlom;awGu ajrqDvTmudk rdcifajrvdkY ajymMuw,f/
'gayrJh udk,fhrdcifudk aumif;aumif;rGefrGef qufqHjcif;
r&dSbl;/ xGef,ufNyD; rD;½IdUwm? tqdyfzsef;wm? aq;awG
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yif jzpfonf/ xdkaMumifh uREkfyfwdkYonf ]urÇmudkzsuf vlYp
euf }qdkaom pum;udk acszsufEkdif&ef BudfK;yrf;NyD; þ urÇm
ajrBuD;tm; pdrf;vef;ap&ef tm;vkH; 0dkif;0ef; ulnDMuyg&ef
wdkufwGef;vdkuf &ygawmhonf/
aemf&kdrDxl;
e0rwef;(14)ESpf
SAW txufwef;ausmif;

95

ynma&; okawoe

Nidrf;csrf;a&;twGuf ynma&;

Peace Education

(tydkif; 1) t,ltqESihf enf;pepf

96

odef;Ekdif

ed'gef;


]... vlvlcsif;owfjzwfrIawG? vlvlcsif; &ufpufrIawG urÇmajrudk
tusnf;wefapNyD? vlvlcsif; n§if;yrf;rIawG? vlvlcsif;&ufpufrIawG? 'gawGudk &yfzdkY
oifhNyDav/ ...}

jynfwGif;ppfoDcsif; (trftufzf*sD) 2003/


]...trSm;udk jrifvmjcif;... wkHYjyef&efvdkjcif;? twåtpGJrsm; jynfhESuf
w,loef NydKifqdkifaerIrsm;... ....urÇmajr Nidrf;csrf;a&;... urÇmajr... vSya&; twårme
uif;ap (rmew&m;awG uif;a0;ap)....}

... urÇmajr..... Nidrf;csrf;a&; urÇmajr.... vSya&;... todÓPfpGrf;tif
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urÇmajr Nidrf;csrf;a&; oDcsif;
(vGdKifaumfESpfjcif; toif;awmf 1997)/

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vJrIrsm;pGm jzpfxGef;cJhygonf/ EkdifiHa&;? odyÜHESifhenf;ynm?
vlrIa&;ESifh pD;yGm;a&;tp&Sdonfh e,fy,f toD;oD;wGif
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vHk;udk &Gmi,fav;ozG,f (urÇm&Gm) jzpfay: vmapcJhyg
onf/

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rsm;rS rajz&Sif;ay;Ekdifonfh jyóem rsm;pGmxJwGif wef;wl
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tnGwf vdkufavsmnDaxG &Sifoefaexdkifjcif; ponfwdkYrSm
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a&;qdkif&m rnDrQrIrsm;? aemufqufwGJ jyóemrsm;ESifh
usifh0wfqdkif&m pHEIef; wefzdk;rsm;ESifh ywfoufívnf;
qdk;0g;pGm &ifqdkifaeMu&qJyif jzpfonf/

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ESuf aeqJjzpfonf/ ajrurÇm\ ouf&Sd rsKd;EG,fpkrsm;wGif
vlom;rsKd;EG,fpkonf todÓPfydkif;qdkif&m tzGHYNzdK;qHk;
wdk;wufvmcJhaomfjim;vnf; tjcm; wpfzufwGifrl twå
vGefuJjcif;? oD;oefY aexdkifvdkjcif;? onf;cHjcif;w&m;
acgif;yg;vmjcif;rsm; tygt0if rdrdudk,fudkESifh obm0
ywf0ef;usifudk zsufqD;olrsm; taejzifhvnf; wnf&Sdae
avonf/ ,ck 21 &mpk tpydkif;umvü urÇmt0Srf;wGif
Nidrf;csrf;a&;ESifh nDnGwfaom vlrItodkif;t0dkif;twGuf
BuD;rm;aom pdefac:csufrsm;jzpfonfh atmufyg tusyf
twnf;rsm;? ta&;ay: tajctaersm;jzifh &ifqdkif
aeMu&onf/




vnf; þuGm[csufudk ajz&Sif;&ef jzpfedkifacs

enf;vrf;rsm; &Smr&ao;jcif;/


vufeufqef;rsm;ESifh tPkjrLpGrf;tif enf;ynm

rsm;udk tNydKiftqdkif wDxGif wyfqifrIrsm;aMumifh

vlom;rsKd;EG,fpk wpfckvHk;\ &SifoefrIudk Ncdrf;

ajcmufvsuf&Sdaejcif;/


tqifhwdkif;wGif yHkpHtrsKd;rsKd;ESifh cGJjcm; qufqHrIrsm;?

zdESdyfcsKyfcs,frIrsm;? y#dyu©rsm; tMum;wGif acgif;yHk

jzwf tjrwfxkwfrIrsm; &Sdaejcif;/


tMurf;zufwdkufcdkufrIrsm;? tMurf;zuf ajz&Sif;rI

rsm;? vlrsKd;a&;cGJjcm;jcif;rsm;udk þurÇm\ oGifjyif

vu©Pm wpf&yftaejzifh jrifawGYEkdifNyD; vlom;

rsKd;EG,fESifh tajccH pHEIef;wefzdk;rsm; wdkufpm; cHae

&jcif;/


vlOD;a&aygufuGJrIaMumifh obm0 t&if;tjrpfrsm;

udk tvGeftuRH oHk;pGJ&onfhtwGuf obm0 ywf

0ef;usif npfnrf;jcif;? a*[aA'qdkif&m nDrQacs

udk zsufqD;cH&jcif;ESifhtwl vlom;rsKd;EG,ftouf

&Sifoef aexdkifrIudk tcsdefjynfh Ncdfrf;ajcmufvsuf

&Sdaejcif;/


usOf;ajrmif;onfh yk*¾v tusKd;pD;yGm;tay: tajcjyK

í pOf;pm;awG;ac: jcif;ESifh twårme vGefuJrI (rdrd

vkyfief;? y&dk*sufESifh tzGJYtpnf;udkom t[kwfxif

jcif;)aMumifh vlom;rsKd;EG,fonf e,fy,f toD;

oD;wGif *dkPf;*P? tkyfpki,frsm;pGmjzifh uGJjym;vsuf

&Sdaejcif;/


ypöu© urÇmh vlYtzJGYtpnf;\ &Sifoef aexdkifEkdif
&eftwGuf awmif;qdkcsufrsm;wGif usOf;ajrmif;onfh trsKd;
om;a&; tjrifrsm;xuf urÇmt0Srf; vGrf;NcHK pOff;pm;awG;
ac: jcif;? vlrsKd;a&;ESifh ,Ofaus;rIqdkif&m tpGef; a&mufjcif;
,Ofaus;rI? EkdifiHa&;? pD;yGm;a&;ESifh vlrIa&; qdkif&m xuf onf;cHjcif;w&m; xGef;um;apjcif;? tjyeftvSef
uGm[csufrsm;\ tusKd;qufaMumifh Opöm"e em;vnfrIudk wnfaqmufjcif;ESifh ,Ofaus;rI A[k0g'
ydkifqdkifrIwGif csrf;omolrsm;ESifh qif;&Jolrsm;Mum; usifhoHk;jcif;? vltenf;pk twGufom tcGifhxl;cH jzpfae
BuD;rm;onfh uGm[csuf &Sdaejcif;? zGHYNzdK;wdk;wufNyD; onfh odyÜHESifh enf;ynmt& cGJjcm;jcif;xuf enf;ynmt&
EkdifiHrsm;ESifh zGHYNzdK;wdk;wufqJ EkdifiHrsm; Mum;wGif
pkpnf;Ekdifjcif; tp&Sdonfh taMumif;csif;t&mrsm; yg0if
97

onf/ vlwef;pm; tvTmwdkif;wGif tMurf;rzufjcif;?
onf;cHjcif;w&m; xGef;um;apjcif; paom vdkvm;tyf
onfh ,Ofaus;rIrsm; xGef;um;apjcif;jzifh ydkrdkí Nidrf;csrf;
om,monfh ,Ofaus;onfh vlYabmifudk wnfaxmifEkdif
rnf jzpfonf/

ynma&;qdkif&m uRrf;usifolrsm;? tawG;tac:
ynm&Sifrsm;? odyÜHynm&Sifrsm;ESifh EkdifiHa&; acgif;aqmifrsm;
taejzifh vlYpHEIef; wefzdk;rsm;udk jyefvnf &Sifoefap&ef
twGuf vdktyfcsufudk umvMumjrifhpGm uwnf;u od
jrifcJhMuonf/ þajrurÇm\ a&&Snf wnfwHhEkdifrnfh
Nidrf;csrf;a&; twGuf wpfckwnf;aom arQmfvifhcsufvnf;
jzpfonf/

tmPmESifh &kyf0w¬K ypönf;aemufodkY tarm
waum vdkufygvsuf vlom;wdkYonf obm0w&m;\
tajccH Oya'jzpfaom ]rdrdESifh tjcm;olrsm; twlwuG
&Sifoef aexdkif&jcif;} oabmw&m;udk arhavsmh aecJhNyD
vnf;jzpfonf/ þtcsif;t&mudk todtrSwfjyK xnfh
oGif; pOf;pm;vsuf urÇmhukvor*¾ ynma&;? odyÜHESifh
,Offaus;rI tzGJYtpnf; (,leufpudk) rS txl;cefYtyf
wm0efay;cJhonfh 'Davmf(pf) aumfrpf&Sif\ tpD&ifcHpm
jzpfonfh ]oif,ljcif; &wemtwGif;rSm - Learning: The
Treasure Within (1996)} wGif ]twlwuG touf
&Sifoef aexdkifzdkY oif,lavhvmpdkY} [laom tcsufudk
ynma&; r@dKifBuD; av;&yfteuf t"du ynma&;
axmufwdkif wpf&yftaejzifh vrf;nTef tBuHjyK cJhygonf/

rsufarSmuf urÇmBuD;wGif 0rf;enf;zG,f&m vdk
tyfaeonfh nDnGwfaom vlYtodkif;t0dkif; wnfaqmuf
a&;ESifh Nidrf;csrf;pGm tjrifoabmxm; zvS,fjcif;wdkYudk þ
tpD&ifcHpmwGif rD;armif;xdk; wifjycJhonf/ acwf tpOf
tqufwGif todynmESifh twwfynmqdkif&m uRrf;usif
onfh um,? ÓP vkyfom;xkudk arG;xkwfay;&ef twGuf
ynma&;udk toHk;cscJhonf/ ,cktcgwGifrl yk*¾v zGHYNzdK;
wdk;wuf&efESifh vlrIqufqHa&; wdk;wufjrifhrm;ap&ef
twGuf ynma&;rSm tajccH tusqHk; jzpfonf[lí tjrif
oabmxm; ajymif;vJvmcJhNyD jzpfonf/

Nidrf;csrf;aom vlrItodkif;t0dkif;twGuf rwl
uGJjym;onfh ,Ofaus;rIrsm; o[Zmw jzpfapa&;ESifh vlrI
jyKjyif ajymif;vJ a&;wdkYwGif tajccHynm ausmif;rsm;rSm
tc&musonfudk vspfvsL&I cJhMu\/ vlrItodkif;t0dkif;
twGif; ydkaeNrJ? usm;aeNrJ tajctaeudk xdef;odrf;xm;
Ekdif&ef twGuf vuf&Sd tajctaeESifh wpfyHkpHwnf;? wpf
98

]]ppfyGJrsm; tm;vHk;onf vlom;wdkY\
pdwfwGif;rS tpjyKí jzpfay:
vmjcif;aMumifh Nidrf;csrf;a&;udk xdef;odrf;
umuG,f apmifha&Smuf&efrSm vlom;wdkY\
pdwfwGif;üyif jzpfacsonf/}}
y#dyu©rsm;? ppfyGJrsm;ESifh
twd jynfhESufaeqJ jzpfonfh
þajrurÇmwGif Nidrf;csrf;a&;udk rnfodkY
rnfyHk &,lwnfaqmuf Ekdifygoenf;
qdkonfh ar;cGef;rSm acwftqufquf
'óe jyóem wpf&yf taejzifh
wnf&SdcJhNyD; jzpfonf/

xyfwnf; jzpfap&efom &nf&G,fcsufrsm; xm;&Sdonf/
þodkYjzifh pmoifausmif;rsm;\ tcef;u@rSm arS;rSdefí
vm&onf/

pD;yGm;a&;t& zGHYNzdK;wdk;wufNyD; EkdifiHrsm;udk trD
vdkufedkif&efESifh ,SOfNydKifEkdif&eftwGuf BudK;pm;aepOf zGHYNzdK;
wdk;wufqJ EkdifiH trsm;pkwGif vlYpHEIef; wefzdk;qdkif&m a&&Snf
&nfrSef;csufrsm;ESifh pm&dwå? eDwdqdkif&mrsm;udk ynma&;
wGif OD;pm;ay;jcif; r&Sdygacs/ odkYjzpfygí ynma&;onf
EkdifiHom;wdkYtm; Nidrf;csrf;aom ywf0ef;usifESifh Nidrf;csrf;
aom ,Ofaus;rI zGHYNzdK;xGef;um;ap&ef? onf;cHHjcif;w&m;
xGef;um;ap&ef? 'Drdkua&pD pHEIef; wefzdk;rsm;? vlY tcGifh
ta&;ESifh wm0ef0wå&m;rsm;udk od&Sdem;vnf vdkufem ap
&ef twGuf jyifqifay;Ekdif&rnf jzpfonf/

ausmif;ynma&;ESifh Nidrf;csrf;a&;twGuf
ynma&; okawoe ar;cGef;

jrefrmEkdifiH ausmif;ynma&;ESifh Nidfrf;csrf;a&;
twGuf ynma&;qdkif&m okawoejyK avhvm wifjy
aqG;aEG;&m0,f ar;cGef;i,f (7) ck tay:wGif tajcjyKí
avhvm wifjyygrnf/
okawoear;cGef;rsm;
(1) ajymif;vJaeonfh urÇmBuD;wGif Nidrf;
csrf;a&;qdkif&m jiif;cHk aqG;aEG;rIrsm;udk avhvm&ef/

(2) ]Nidrf;csrf;a&; t,ltq} udk &Sif;vif; zGifhqdk
&ef?

(3) Nidfrf;csrf;a&;twGuf ynma&; tpDtpOf\
wefzdk;ESifh vdktyfcsufudk owdjyKrdap&ef/

(4) ausmif;oifbmom&yf e,fy,f toD;oD;
wGif Nidrf;csrf;a&;twGuf ynma&;qdkif&m avhusifh oif
Mum;jcif;udk rnfodkY ,SufEG,faygif;pyfí ]aygif;pnf;
oif&dk;nTef;wrf;} taejzifh oifMum;Ekdifrnfh enf;vrf;rsm;
udk &SmazGaz:xkwf&ef/

(5) Nidrf;csrf;aom vlY tzGJYtpnf;wpf&yfudk
wnfaqmuf&eftwGuf vdkvm;tyfonfh vlrIywf0ef;
usifudk rnfonfh ynma&;tpDtpOfrsm;? enf;vrf;rsm;rS
wqifh jyKpk ysKd;axmifEkdifygoenf;/

(6) Nidrf;csrf;a&;twGuf ynma&; oif&dk; nTef;
wrf;qdkonfrSm tb,fenf;/ vuf&Sd ausmif;ynma&;
oif&dk;nTef;wrf;rsm;ESifh rnfodkY qufpyf aygif;pnf;í vkyf

aqmif&rnfenf;/

(7) vlY tzGJYtpnf;twGif; zGHYNzdK; wdk;wufrIESifh
Nidrf;csrf;om,m 0ajymap&eftwGuf r&Sdrjzpf vdktyf
onfh ]Nidrf;csrf;aompdwf ,Ofaus;rI} wnfwHh cdkifNrJ aeap
&ef rnfonfh oif,ljcif;-oifMum;jcif; enf;pepfrsm;udk
toHk;jyK&ygrnfenf;/

Nidrf;csrf;a&;qdkonfrSm

Nidrf;csrf;a&;udk tpOftquf t"dyÜg,f trsKd;rsKd;
zGifhqdkcJhMuonf/ ½IyfaxG;í t"dyÜg,f zGifhqdk&ef cufcJonfh
t,ltq wpf&yftaejzifh wnf&SdaeqJvnf; jzpfonf/
y#dyu©rsm;? ppfyGJrsm; r&Sdjcif;[laom &dk;&Sif;onfh t"dyÜg,frS
tpjyKí y#dyu©rsm;? ppfyGJrsm;ESifhtwl &Sifoefaexdkif
Edkifjcif; pGrf;&nf[lonfh ydkrdk½IyfaxG;aom t"dyÜg,f zGifhqdk
csuf trsKd;rsKd;udk avhvm awGY&Sd&onf/

ordkif; pOfqufxJwGif Nidrf;csrf;a&;udk pdwf\
csrf;omjcif; (pdwåokc)? udk,fwGif; Nidrf;at;jcif;ESifh ,SOf wGJ
az: jycJhonf/ &Sifawmf jrwfAk'¨\ w&m;a'oemrsm;wGif
þoabmw&m;? t,ltqESifh tusifhtBuHwdkYudk txif
t&Sm; avhvm awGY&SdEkdifonf/ ]avmuwGif pdwfonf
t&mtm;vHk; (trIcyfodrf;) \ a&SUaqmifyifjzpfonf}
(pdawåe ed,awavmaum-"r®y') [laom w&m;udk
`rGufMum;awmfrlcJhjcif;onf xif&Sm;onfh om"u jzpf
onf/ ukvor*¾? ,leufpudk\ zGJYpnf;yHk tajccHOya'
aMunmcsuf ed'gef;wGif ]ppfyGJrsm;tm;vHk;onf vlom;wdkY\
pdwfwGif;rS tpjyKí jzpfay: vmjcif;aMumifh Nidrf;csrf;a&;udk
xdef;odrf; umuG,f apmifha&Smuf&efrSm vlom;wdkY\ pdwf
wGif;üyif jzpfacsonf/} y#dyu©rsm;? ppfyGJrsm;ESifh twd
jynfhESufaeqJ jzpfonfh þajrurÇmwGif Nidrf;csrf;a&;udk
rnfodkYrnfyHk &,lwnfaqmuf Ekdifygoenf; qdkonfh
ar;cGef;rSm acwftqufquf 'óe jyóem wpf&yf
taejzifh wnf&SdcJhNyD; jzpfonf/

odkY&mwGif vlom;wpfOD;csif; pD\ udk,fwGif;?
pdwfwGif; Nidrf;at;jcif;ESifh todÓPfynm zGHYNzdK; wdk;wuf
jcif;udk &SmazGavhvm? usifhBuH tm;xkwfaeqJrSmyif vlY
todkif;t0dkfif;\ vlrIa&;ydkif;qdkif&mrsm;rSm vspfvsL½I cHxm;
&qJ jzpfygonf/ tMuifyk*d¾Kvf\ vGwfajrmuf&mESifh tod
ÓPfydkfif;qdkif&m jynfhpHka&;wdkYtwGuf BudK;yrf;jcif;rSm þ
vlrI todkif;t0dkif; twGif;üyif jzpfav&m 19 &mpk

99

aESmif;ydkif; todynm ÓPftjrif qef;opfcJhonfh acwf
umvtwGif; taemufwdkif; tawG;tac: ynm&Sifrsm;rS
vlrI ywf0ef;usif tajctaersm;ESifh EIdif;,SOfí avhvmcJh
Muonf/

txl;ojzifh odyÜHenf;us qdk&S,fvpf0g' Scientific Socialism xGef;um;vmjcif;ESifh twl ydkrdkí
xJxJ0if0if avhvmcJhMuonf/ okdY&mwGif rmhufpf0g'D
Marxists rsm; taejzifhrl wpfoD;yk*¾v Nidrf;csrf;jcif; t,l
tqudk OD;pm;ay;jcif; r&SdawmhbJ yk*¾voabm arS;rSdef
vmNyD; vl\ &Sifoefaexdkif&m vlrItodkif;t0dkif;\ wnf
aqmufyHkESifh vlYtzGJYtpnf; (vlrItaqmufttHk) udk
tav;xm; avhvmcJhMuonf/ ]Opöm"eudk nDwlrQwl
cJGa0a&;} tay: tav;xm;onfh qdk&S,fvpf tjrif
oabmxm;t& yk*¾vydkifqdkifrIonf vlrItedXm&Hk tvHk;pHk
ESifh tMurf;zuf tEkdiftxuf jyKusifhjcif;wdkY\ taMumif;
&if; jzpfonf[lí ,lqMuonf/ odkYjzpfav&m olwdkYrS
Nidrf;csrf;a&;qdkonfrSm tpDtpOfwus tMurf;zufcH&jcif;
rS uif;pifjcif;yif jzpfonf/

vlom;wpfOD;pD\ todynmÓPfzGHYNzdK;wdk;wuf
ajymif;vJjcif;ESifh ,aeYacwf tMurf;zufjcif;? jyóemudk
&kef;&if;qefcwf ajz&Sif;wwfonfh vlrItodkif;t0dkif; wnf
aqmufyHkudk jyKjyif ajymif;vJjcif;wdkYrSm cGJjcm;í r&Ekdifygay/
vlrItaqmufttHkESifh vlrIa&;qdkif&m vufawGY jzpfysuf
aerIrsm;udk Oayu©mjyKí tMuifolwpfOD;\ pdwfat;
Nidrf;csrf;omjcif; taMumif;w&m; (pdwåokc)ESifh todÓPf
ynm wdk;wufjcif;wdkYudk ajymqdk aqG;aEG;&efrSm rjzpfEdkifyg/
xdkYtwl wpfOD;csif;pD\ tcef;u@ESifh vlom;tm;vHk;\
todynmÓPf wdk;wuf jrifhrm;a&;wdkYudk rsufuG,fjyKí
tcGifhtmPmqdkif&m qufoG,f aqmuf&Gufjcif;onf
vnf; vdkvm;tyfonfh aumif;usKd; csrf;omw&m;rsm;udk
raqmifusOf;ay;Ekdifacs/ odkYjzpfav&m Nidrf;csrf;a&;\ þ
t,ltq ESpf&yfpvHk;rSm '*Fg;jym;\ acgif;ESifh yef;ozG,f
avhvm awGY&SdEdkifNyD;vQif wpfck r&Sdygu tjcm;wpfck\
t"dyÜg,f &SdrIrSm ar;cGef;xkwfzG,f&m jzpfonf/

r[wår*ED´rS ydkrdkí us,fjyefYonfh t"dyÜg,f
zGifhqdkjcif;udk jyocJhonf/ Nidrf;csrf;a&;udk &Sif;vif;zGifhqdk&ef
tMurf;zufjcif;oabmudk azmfjycJhonf/ olYtaejzifh
tMurf;zufjcif; qdkonfrSm- EkdifiHwpfEdkifiHrS tjcm;EkdifiH
wpfEkdifiHtay:? vlwpfOD;rS tjcm;olwpfOD;tay:? trsKd;
om;rsm;rS trsKd;orD;rsm;tay:? pepfwpfckrS tjcm;pepf
wpfcktay:? pufypönf;rsm;rS vlom;rsm;tay:wGif - EdkifiH
100

a&;? pD;yGm;a&;ESifh vlrIa&;t& acgif;yHkjzwf tjrwfxkwf
jcif;? cs,fvS,fjcif;yifjzpfonf/ tMurf;zufjcif;\ qefY
usifbufjzpfaom tMurf;rzufjcif;wGif oGifjyifvu©Pm
&Spf&yf tenf;qHk; yg&Sdavonf/

,if;wdkYrSm - Nidrf;csrf;a&;? wef;wla&;? aMumuf&GHU
jcif;rS uif;a0;a&;? rdrdudk,fudk ESdrfhcsjcif;? cspfjcif;arwåm?
rdrdudk,fudk xdef;csKyfEkdifjcif;? trSefw&m;ESifh onf;cHjcif;
w&m; (cEDÅ) wdkYjzpfMuonf/ þtcsif;t&mrsm;rSm tjyef
tvSef qufpyfaejcif; jzpfaomfjim;vnf; Nidrf;csrf;a&;
qdkonfrSm tMurf;rzufjcif;\ aemufcH taMumif;&if;yif
jzpfavonf/ r[wår*ED´ taejzifhrl rnfonfh yHkpHESifhrS
acgif;yHkjzwf cs,fvS,fjcif; vHk;0r&Sdonfh tMurf;zufrI
uif;pifaom vlrI todkif;t0dkif;udk arQmfrSef;cJhonf/ olY
taejzifh þuJhodkYaom vlYtodkif;t0dkif;udk ynma&;wnf;
[laom ud&d,m toHk;jyKjcif;jzifh wnfaqmufEkdifonf
[lí ,HkMunfcJholjzpfonf/ *ED´BuD;\ Nidrf;csrf;a&; t,l
tqwGif trSefw&m;? tMurf;rzufjcif;? rdrdudk,fwdkif
tepfemcHjcif;? vlrIqufqHa&; enf;vrf;rsm;ESifh &v'frsm;
rSm ta&;BuD;avonf/ vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;ESifh aemuf
qufwGJ &v'frsm; ESpfckpvHk;rSm ta&;BuD;onf[lí ,HkMunfoljzpfonf/ ESpfq,fhwpf&mpk ynma&;vrf;aMumif;
azmfxkwfjcif; tpDtpOft& ,leufpudk\ ]twlwuG
touf&Sifoef aexdkifEkdifzdkY oif,lavhvmpdkY} Learning
to Live Together t,ltqrSm *ED´\ Nidrf;csrf;a&; 'óe
udk a&mifjyef[yfaMumif; avhvm awGY&SdEkdifonf/ tjcm;
olrsm; tay:wGif tMurf;zufjcif;tpm; rdrdudk,fudk tepf
emcHjcif;ESifh]opömj*[}(tmPm&SifqefYusifa&;wGif vlxk
wpf&yfvHk; tEkenf;jzifh trdefYtmPm zDqefa&;) udk a[m
ajym aqG;aEG;cJholjzpfNyD;vQif zdESdyfolrsm;udk wefjyefzsufqD;
jcif;ESifh tjypf'Pfay;jcif;wdkYonf trkef;w&m;ESifh tMurf;
zufjcif; oHo&mudkomvQif &Snfaponf[lí tcdkiftrm
,HkMunfol jzpfavonf/ EkdifiHwumynma&; ynm&Sif
rsm;rS ,aeYacwf urÇmBuD;ESifh vlrItodkif;t0dkif; twGif;
wGif vlrsKd;a&;? bmoma&;? vlwef;pm;? Zmwfedrfh? Zmwfjrifh?
vlrsKd;pkESifh vdifydkif;qdkif&m cGJjcm;jcif;? tMurf;zuf jyKrljcif;
rsm;udk txift&Sm; awGYjrif&av&m (Nidrf;csrf;om,m
aom urÇmhtpDtpOfopfudk wnfaqmufEkdif&efrSm tem
*wf EkdifiHom;rsm;tm;vHk;udk tjrifhrm;qHk;aom onf;cH
jcif;w&m; zGHYNzdK;apjcif;ESifh trSefw&m;zufrS &yfwnfa&;
twGuf ynmoifMum;jcif;onf ta&;wBuD; vdktyfcsuf
jzpfaMumif; wifjy xm;Muygonf/) odkYjzpfav&m *ED´\

'óersm;rSm rsufarSmufacwfwGif ta&;ygqJyif jzpfav
onf/

þpmwrf;wGif Nidrf;csrf;a&;qdkif&m ,lqcsuf
rsm;udk atmufygtwdkif; wifjy avhvm aqG;aEG;vdkygonf/

(1) wif;rmrIrsm;? y#dyu©rsm;ESifh ppfyGJrsm;
r&Sdjcif;?

(2) tMurf;rzufaom vlrIpepf (tpDtpOf&Sd&Sd
tMurf;zufjcif; uif;pifaom vlYtzGJYtpnf;)?

(3) rnfonfhyHkpHrsKd;ESifhrS acgif;yHkjzwfjcif;ESifh
w&m;rQwrI uif;rJhjcif;wdkY r&Sdjcif;?

(4) EkdifiHwumqdkif&m od&Sdem;vnfrIESifh yl;
aygif;aqmif&GufrI?

(5) obm0ywf0ef;usif\ a*[aA'qdkif&m
nDrQajc &Sdjcif;ESifh xdef;odrf;umuG,fjcif;?

(6) pdwf\ csrf;omjcif;?

odkYjzpfí Nidrf;csrf;a&;udk aexdkifrIyHkpH? cH,lcsuf
tjrifoabmxm;? wnfNidrfjcif;ponfjzifh azmfjyEkdifyg
onf/ rdrd\ udk,fwGif; tZöswåoP²mef Nidrf;at; csrf;om
jcif;ESifh tjcm;olrsm; tay:wGif arwåmw&m; xm;&Sdjcif;
jzpfonf/ (Nidrf;csrf;onfh urÇmhtpDtpOfopfudk wnf
aqmufEkdif&efrSm wpfOD;csif;pD\ vkyf&yfrsm;onf rdrdESifh
tjcm;olrsm; aumif;usKd;csrf;omudk xnfhoGif; pOf;pm;jcif;
rS pwifavonf/ wpfOD;csif;pD\ tcGifhta&;rsm;ESifh &ydkif
cGifhrSm wpfOD;csif;pD\ wm0ef 0wå&m;rsm;udk xrf;aqmif vdk
pdwfESifh qufEG,faerIrSvnf; pwifavonf/) usKd;
aMumif; qDavsmfpGm pOf;pm;awG;ac: jcif;rSvnf; pwifyg
onf/

yk*¾vtpGJtvrf;rsm;? bufvdkufrIrsm;? trkef;
w&m;rsm;? trsKd;Zmwdrmef vGefuJjcif;rsm;? zdESdyfcsKyfcs,f
jcif;rsm; uif;pifjcif;rsm;rSvnf; pwifygonf/ t&Snf
wnfwHhEkdifrnfh Nidrf;csrf;a&;udk &&Sd&efrSm rdrd\ pdwfwGif;
tajctaeudk od&Sd em;vnfjcif;pGrf;&nf zGHYNzdK;apjcif;jzifh
tpjyK&ygvdrfhrnf/ pOf;pm;awG;ac: jcif;rsm;? pdwfqE´rsm;?
tajymtqdkESifh tjyKtrlrsm; [efcsuf nDapjcif; jzpfonf/
pdwfwGif; tZöswårS jzpfwnfvmonfh Nidrf;csrf;a&;wGif
oefYpifaom tawG;tjrifrsm;? oefY&Sif; aom cHpm;csufrsm;?
oefY&Sif;aom pdwfqE´rsm;ESifh cH,lcsufrsm; yg&Sdavonf/

odkYjzpfav&m Nidrf;csrf;a&; t,ltqrSm pHwefzdk;
rsm;pGm yg&Sdvsuf vGefpGm us,fjyefY euf½Idif;onfudk avhvm
awGY&Sd&onf/ a'oqdkif&m nDvmcHwpf&yf jzpfaom EkdifiH
wumynma&;ESifh vlYpHEIef; wefzdk;rsm;qdkif&m ynma&;

Nidrf;csrf;a&;ESifh rQwnDnGwfaom
vlyk*¾dKvf wpf OD;csif;pD taejzifh
uav;rsm; &SifoefBuD; jyif;&mwGif
oifhavsmfaom pdwfESvHk;om;ESifh
tjrifoabmxm;rsm; zGHYNzdK;ap&ef
wm0ef0wå&m; wpf&yf taejzifh
ausmif;rsm;wGif wnf&Sdaeavonf/
onf;cHjcif;w&m;? wef;wl&nfwla&;?
w&m;rQwa&;? vdifydkif;qdkif&m
wef;wltcGifhta&;? tkyfpktvdkuf
yl;aygif;aqmif&GufwwfrI? vlrI0efxrf;
pdwf"gwf &Sifoefa&;ESifh y#dyu©rsm;
ajz&Sif;wwfonfh pGrf;&nf
zGHYNzdK;a&;wdkYtwGuf jyifqif xm;&Sdonfh
oif,lavhvm&ef ywf0ef;usifrS wqifh
uav;rsm;\ pdwfESvHk;om;rsm;wGif
Nidrf;csrf;a&; ,Ofaus;rIudk wnfaqmuf
Ekdifygvdrfhrnf/

101

twGuf tm&S-ypdzdwfuGef,uf (Asia-Pacific Network (rwl? uGJjym;jcm;em;jcif;rsm; &Sdvsufyif twlwuG tvkyf
for International Education and Values Education vkyfEdkifjcif;)? y#dyu©rsm;udk Nidrf;csrf;aom enf;vrf;rsm;
(APNIEVE – 1995) rS Nidrf;csrf;a&;? vlYtcGifhta&;? 'Drdk jzifh ajz&Sif;jcif;? rwluGJjym;aom ,Ofaus;rIrsm;udk av;pm;
ua&pDESifh t&SnfwnfwHhaom zGHYNzdK;wdk;wufrIESifh quf Ekdifjcif;? vufcHwefzdk;xm;jcif;? vlenf;pkrsm;? tkyfpki,frsm;
EG,faeaom pHwefzdk;rsm;? taxmuftyHhrsm;qdkif&m oGif tay: av;pm;jcif;? ,Ofaus;pGm ajymqdkjyKrljcif;? tjrif
jyif vu©Pmrsm;udk avhvmwifjycJhonf/ Nidrf;csrf;a&; us,fí yGifhvif;aom pdwfxm;&Sdjcif;?
t,ltqwGif cspfjcif;arwåm? u&kPm? nDnGwfjcif;?
onf;cHjcif;? ulnD jyKpk apmifha&Smufjcif;ESifh rQa0jcif;? (5) ulnDjyKpk apmifha&Smufjcif;ESifh rQa0jcif;
tjyeftvSef trSDo[JjyKjcif;? pmempdwf? eDwdESifh pdwfydkif;
cspfjcif;arwåm? olwpfyg;twGuf pdk;&drfpdwfESifh
qdkif&m zGHYNzdK;jcif;ESifh aus;Zl;w&m;udk odjrifjcif;wdkY yg&Sdonf/ apwem o'´gw&m; xufoefjcif;wdkY yg&Sdonf/


þyifrpHwefzdk;rsm;ESifh qufEG,faeonfh tjcm; (6) tjyeftvSef trSDo[JjyKjcif;?
aom pHEIef;rsm;rSm
touf&Sifoefjcif;wGif tjcm;aomolrsm;ESifh
(1) cspfjcif;arwåm
qufpyfae&jcif; oabmudk odjrif cHpm;Ekdifjcif;? rnfolrQ

rdrdudk,fudk wefzdk;xm;jcif;? ,HkMunfjcif;? av; NyD;jynfhpHkjcif; r&Sdonfh w&m;oabmudk odjrifem;vnfjcif;?
pm;jcif;? tjyKoabmaqmifaom rdrdudk,fudk a0zefa&;? pGefYOD;wDxGifzefwD;vdkpdwfESifh twlwuG wm0ef,l vkyf
&dk;om;yGifhvif;jcif;? wm0efodpdwf&Sdjcif;? tjcm;olrsm; t aqmifvdkpdwf? yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufjcif;wdkYyg&Sdonf/
wGuf pOf;pm;ay;jcif;? opöm&Sdjcif;? pGefYvTwftepfemcHvdk
pdwf? ajyvnf&majyvnfaMumif; aqG;aEGG;nd§EIdif; wdkifyif (7) eDwdESifh pdwfydkif;qdkif&m pm&dwåzGYHNzdK;jcif;
vdkpdwf? owåd&Sdjcif;? El;nHhodrfarGYjcif;ESifh onf;cHEkdifjcif;wdkY
pdwfwGif;? udk,fwGif;Nidrf;at;jcif;? touf&Sif
yg&Sdygonf/
oefjcif; (b0) tay: tav;tjrwfxm;jcif;? vlwdkif;\
&kyfydkif;? pdwfydkif; taumif;qHk; jzpfwefpGrf;udk todt
(2) u&kPm
rSwfjyKjcif;? vlom;xk zGHYNzdK;wdk;wuf&ef trSefwu,f qE´

Muifemoem;wwfjcif;? pdwf"gwfcGeftm;&Sdjcif;? &Sdjcif;? vlYpdwfpGrf;tm;tay: ,HkMunfrI&Sdjcif;? vGwfvyfpGm
tjcm;olrsm;\ vdktifudk odjrif cHpm;Ekdifjcif;? pdwfaumif; awG;ac:pOf;pm;cGifh? ,HkMunf udk;uG,fcGifhESifh todynm
ESvHk;aumif;&Sdjcif;? jyKpkapmifha&Smufwwfjcif;? tultnD &SmazGcGifh&Sdjcif;? &dk;om;ajzmifhrwf rSefuefjcif;? rdrd tjyKtrl
taxmuftyHh ay;wwfjcif;wdkY yg&Sdonf/
tajymtqdkwdkYudk jyefvSefoHk;oyf avhvmwwfjcif;?
orm"dw&m; zGHYNzdK;apjcif;wdkY yg&Sdonf/
(3) nDnGwfjcif;


tjyeftvSef,HkMunfrIESifh em;vnfrI&Sdjcif;? yg
1999 ckESpfwGif *syefEkdifiH? wdkusKdNrdKUwGif
0if aqmif&GufcGifh&Sdjcif;? ,Ofaus;rI pHwefzdk;rsm; rQwjcif;? urÇmhukvor*¾? ,leufpudkrS BuD;rSL;usif;ycJhonfh ]Nidrf;
yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufjcif;? twlwuG vkyfaqmifjcif;? xd csrf;a&;ESifh EkdifiHwum em;vnfrI xGef;um;a&;twGuf
a&mufaom qufqHa&;&Sdjcif;? bHktusKd;pD;yGm;twGuf q&mtwwfynm} Teacher Education for Peace
xnfhoGif;pOf;pm;jcif;? ajyvnf&m ajyvnfaMumif; aqG; and International Understanding nDvmcHBuD;
aEG;nd§EIdif; wdkifyifvdkpdwf? trsm;oabmxm;udk av;pm; rSvnf; tzGJY0ifEkdifiHwdkif;\ q&mtwwfynm oifwef;
rsm;wGif xnfhoGif; oifMum;&eftwGuf pHEIef;wefzdk; (10)
vdkufemjcif;wdkY yg&Sdonf/
&yfudk azmfxkwf aqG;aEG;cJhMuonf/ Nidrf;csrf;a&;ESifh
tjynfjynfqdkif&m em;vnfrI xGef;um;a&;twGuf &nf
(4) onf;cHjcif;

tjyeftvSef ,HkMunfrI&Sdjcif;? &ifxJrS vufcH &G,f&if; jzpfonf/ þpHEIef;wefzdk; (10) &yfrSm (1) vlY
Ekdifjcif;? tjcm;olrsm;udk ae&may;jcif;? ,Ofaus;rI pHEIef; tcGifhta&;ESifh wm0ef0wå&m;rsm;? (2) tjyeftvSef em;
rsm;ESifh yk*¾vrwl? uGJjym;jcm;em;jcif;rsm;udk av;pm;jcif; vnfrI&Sda&;? (3) 'Drdkua&pD? (4)onf;cHjcif;w&m; (cEDÅ)?
102

Nidrf;csrf;a&;twGuf ynma&;ESifh
Nidrf;csrf;a&;twGuf oifMum;jcif;[k
qdk&m0,f
]odrIe,fy,fESifh cHpm;rI e,fy,f}
ESpf&yfpvHk;twGuf jzpfygonf/
udk,f&nf udk,faoG;qdkif&m zGHYNzdK;
wdk;wufap&eftwGuf oifcef;pm
acgif;pOftvdkufESifh uav;\
touft&G,ft& oifMum;jcif;
enf;pepfrsm;udk jyKjyifajymif;vJjcif;
jzpfonf/

(5) udk,fwGif;pdwfwGif; Nidrf;at;jcif;ESifh nDnGwfrQwjcif;?
(6) vlY *kPfodu©m? (7) t&SnfwnfwHhcdkifNrJaom wdk;
wufzGHYNzdK;rI? (8) EkdifiHwum yl;aygif;aqmif&GufrI? (9) ul
nDapmifha&Smufjcif;ESifhrQa0jcif;? (10) touf&Sifoef jcif;
(owåavmu) wGif w&m;rQwrI&Sdjcif;? rwluGJjym; jcm;em;
jcif;rsm;udk todtrSwfjyK wefzdk;xm;jcif;wdkY jzpf Muonf/

Nidrf;csrf;a&; t,ltqESifh wpfxyfwnf;wnf&Sd
aeaom t"du pHEIef;rsm;jzpfonfh tjyeftvSef odem;
vnfa&;? yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufa&;? onf;cHjcif;w&m; xGef;
um;a&;? owåavmu wpfckvHk;twGuf w&m;rQwrI
&Sda&;? vlY tcGifhta&;ESifh wm0ef0wå&m;rsm;rSm Nidrf;csrf;a&;
twGuf r&Sdrjzpfvdktyfonfh tpdwftydkif;rsm; jzpfaMumif;
xif&Sm;onf/

4if;tjyif eDwdESifh pm&dwåydkif;qdkif&m zGHYNzdK;a&;rSm
vnf; Nidrf;csrf;a&; wnfaqmuf&mwGif vspfvsL½Ixm;í
r&ygacs/ þpHwefzdk;rsm;udk vufqifhurf; oGm;Ekdif&ef tm;
xkwfMu&rnf jzpfonf/ odkYjzpfav&m ynma&;rSm ta&;
BuD;NyD; tjyKoabmaqmifonfh tcef;u@wpf&yf tae
jzifh ,cifumvrsm;uxuf ydkrdk vdktyfvsuf &Sdaeav
onf/

Nidrf;csrf;a&;ESifh rQwnDnGwfaom vlyk*¾dKvf wpf
OD;csif;pD taejzifh uav;rsm; &Sifoef BuD;jyif;&mwGif oifh
avsmfaom pdwfESvHk;om;ESifh tjrifoabmxm;rsm; zGHYNzdK;
ap&ef wm0ef0wå&m; wpf&yf taejzifh ausmif;rsm;wGif
wnf&Sdaeavonf/ onf;cHjcif; w&m;? wef;wl&nfwla&;?
w&m;rQwa&;? vdifydkif;qdkif&m wef;wltcGifhta&;? tkyfpk
tvdkuf yl;aygif;aqmif&GufwwfrI? vlrI0efxrf; pdwf"gwf
&Sifoefa&;ESifh y#dyu©rsm; ajz&Sif;wwfonfh pGrf;&nf
zGHYNzdK;a&;wdkYtwGuf jyifqif xm;&Sdonfh oif,lavhvm&ef
ywf0ef;usifrS wqifh uav;rsm;\ pdwfESvHk;om;rsm;wGif
Nidrf;csrf;a&; ,Ofaus;rIudk wnfaqmuf Ekdifygvdrfhrnf/

ausmif;ynma&;tpDtpOf - Nidrf;csrf;a&;twGufynma&;

jrefrmEkdifiHonf wdkif;&if;om;aygif;pHk rSDwif; ae
xdkifvsuf &Sdonfh zuf'&,f jynfaxmifpk EkdifiHwpfEkdifiH
jzpfonf/ rwl? uGJjym;jcm;em;aom ,Ofaus;rIrsm;ESifh
vlrsKd;pkrsm; aygif;pnf; aexdkifvsuf &SdMu&m &dk;&m"avhrsm;
toD;oD;vnf; &Sdaeygonf/ odkYjzpfjcif;aMumifh jrefrmh
ynma&;onf &kyfydkif;qdkif&m zGHYNzdK;wdk;wufjcif; wpfckwnf;

103

udkomvQif OD;wnfxm;jcif; r[kwfrlbJ eDwd oabm
w&m;ESifh udk,fwGif;? pdwfwGif; Nidrf;at;jcif;rsm; yg0ifvsuf
bufpHk ynma&; twGufudk OD;wnf oifhygonf/

twlwuG touf&Sifoef aexdkifEkdifzdkY oif,l
avhvmpdkY t,ltqrSm jrefrmwdkif;&if;om;wdkY\ rsuf
arSmufordkif; vdktyfcsuf jzpfaMumif;vnf; avhvm
awGY&Sd&onf/ þonfrSm A[k,Ofaus;rI vlrI todkif;
t0dkif;jzpfonfh jrefrmh vlYabmif\ tem*wf Nidrf;csrf;
om,mjcif;ESifh zGHYNzdK;wdk;wufjcif;twGufvnf; tajccH
jzpfavonf/ ordkif;tarGtESpf xkxnfBuD;rm;onfh
jrefrmwdkif;&if;om;wdkY\ pdwfESvHk;om;wdkYwGif wnf&Sdonfh
arwåmw&m;? onf;cHjcif;w&m;ESifh avmuygv w&m;rsm;
rSm t&SnfwnfwHhaom Nidrf;csrf;onfh vlYtzGJYtpnf;
wnfaqmufa&; twGuf 21 &mpk EkdifiHwum pHwefzdk;rsm;
jzpfonfudkvnf; avhvm awGY&Sd&ygonf/

rnfhonfh taMumif;w&m; (vdifydkif;? vlrsKd;a&;?
,HkMunfudk;uG,frI? vlrIpD;yGm; tqifhtwef;)aMumifhrS
wpfOD;csif; taejzifh wef;wl&nfwl &ydkifcGifh? w&m; rQwrI
&Sdjcif;ESifh vlrIvGwfvyfcGifhrsm;udk rxdcdkufap&ef tajccH
Oya'wGif jyXmef;ay;&rnf jzpfonf/ þonfrSm Nidrf;csrf;
aom? zdESdyfjcif;uif;aom? tMurf;rzufaom jrefrmh vlY
tzGJYtpnf;twGuf tajccH vdktyfcsufvnf; jzpfav
onf/ wqufwnf;rSmyif EdkifiHawmf\ ynma&;qdkif&m
rl0g'rsm; csrSwfa&;wGifvnf; þtcsufrsm; tay:wGif
tajcjyK&ygrnf/

oif&dk;nTef;wrf;\ tqifhwdkif;wGif Nidrf;csrf;a&;
twGuf vrf;aMumif; azmfaqmif ay;Ekdifrnfhrlrsm;? vuf
awGY usifhaqmifEkdifrIrsm;udk xnfhoGif; ay;oifhygonf/
urÇmha&;&mrsm;ESifhtwl rsufarSmuf jrefrmh vlYtodkif;
t0dkif;\ vdktyfcsufrsm;? &ifqdkifae&onfh tusyftwnf;
rsm;? vlrI vGwfajrmufa&;twGuf vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;?
tMurf;zufrI uif;pifa&;? Nidrf;csrf;a&;ESifh vlYtcGifhta&;
xGef;um;a&; ponfh tcsuftvufrsm;udk oif&dk;
nTef;wrf;? pHEIef;rsm; tnTef;abmifESifh oif&dk; rmwdum
rsm;wGif xnfhoGif; a&;qGJEkdifavonf/

q&mtwwfynm oifwef;rsm;wGifvnf;
ypöu© jrefrmh vlYabmifa&;&mrsm;ESifh Nidfrf;csrf;a&; ,Of
aus;rI xGef;um;ap&ef ynma&; tpDtpOfrsm;udk rdwf
quf oifwef;ay;jcif;? pmoifcef;twGif; vkyfaqmifEdkif
onfh oifMum;a&; tpDtpOfrsm;udk a&;qGJjcif;wdkYudk
xnfhoGif; oifhygonf/
104

Nidrf;csrf;aom tdrf

rdbrsm;? nDtudkarmifESrrsm;? tjcm;aom
aqGrsKd;pk0ifrsm;jzifh xdawGY qufqHjcif;rS tpjyKí
uav;\ vlrIqufqHa&; pwifygonf/ onf;cHjcif;
w&m;? tjcm;olrsm;udk av;pm;jcif;? pmempdwf&Sdjcif;?
yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufwwfjcif;? tcsdefav;pm;jcif;? ulnD
apmifha&Smufjcif;ESifh a0rQcHpm;jcif;? &dk;om;ajzmifhrwfjcif;
tp&SdonfwdkYESifh oufqdkifaom yxrqHk; oifcef;pmrsm;
udk tdrfwGif pwif avhvm Mu&jcif; jzpfonf/ rdbrsm;rS
tzdk;tzGm;rsm;? aqG;rsKd;om;csif;rsm;ESifh tjcm;aom ouf
BuD;&G,ftdkrsm;udk jyKrlqufqHyHkrsm;onf uav;rsm;\
udk,f&nfudk,faoG; zGHYNzdK;rItay: rsm;pGm oufa&mufrI &Sdyg
onf/

n§dEIdif;aqG;aEG;jcif;rsm;? tjyeftvSef em;vnfrI
&Sdjcif;? o'¨gw&m;xufoefjcif;? bufvdkufrIr&Sdaom quf
qHa&;rsm;onf uav;rsm;\ udk,f&nfudk,faoG; xuf
jrufapjcif;? taumif;jrifoabmxm; zGHYNzdK;apjcif;wdkY
twGuf rsm;pGm taxmuftyHh jzpfapygonf/ aeYpOf
y#dyu©rsm;? tdrfwGif; tMurf;zufrIrsm; tygt0if w
usufusuf &efjzpfaeaom rdom;pkESifh twlaexdkifí
z&ko0gpm pum;rsm;jzifh qJa&;wdkif;xGmjcif;? &dkufESufí
tjypfay;jcif;rsm; tpOf cHpm;&onfh uav;rsm;rSmrl yk*¾v
zGHYNzdK;wdk;wuf&efESifh udk,f&nfudk,faoG;qdkif&m vdkvm;
tyfaom aumif;rGefonfh p&dkuf vu©Pmrsm; &&Sdap&efrSm
rsm;pGm tcuftcJ &Sdavonf/ arG;csif; nDtudk? armifES
rrsm; tcsif;csif; tjyeftvSef qufqHa&;rsm;rS wqifh
yl;aygif; aqmif&Gufwwfjcif;ESifh tEkdif,lvdkpdwfjzifh ,SOf
NydKifjcif;? a0rQ cHpm;jcif;ESifh remvdk0efwdkjcif; oabm wdkYudk
oif,l avhvm Muygonf/

vlrItodkif;t0dkif;ESifh ausmif;wGifjyKrlqufqHyHk
rsm;ESifh toHk;jyKonfh pum; toHk;tEIef;rsm;rSm tdrfwGif;
qufqHa&;ESifh &dk;&m,Ofaus;rI tpOftvmrsm;rS vufcH
&&Sdxm;jcif;yif jzpfonf/ tm;vHk;tay: wpfyHkpHwnf;
qufqHjcif;? bufvdkufwwfjcif;? cGJjcm;qufqHjcif;? &efp
wwfjcif;? trsufa'go xGufvG,fjcif;ESifh tm;enf;oludk
ESdrfwwfjcif; oabmwdkYudk rdom;pk0ifrsm;ESifh xdawGY
qufqHjcif;rsm;rS yxrqHk; taejzifh vufcH oif,l vmMu
NyD;vQif &yf&Gm vlY todkif;t0dkif;ESifh ausmif;rsm;rS þ
tcsif;t&mrsm;udk avmifpmqDozG,f tm;jznfhjcif;udk BuHK

awGY&ygrl uav;rsm; ydkrdk qdk;0g; vmEkdifavonf/ odkYjzpf
ygí tdrf? ausmif;ESifh&yf&Gm vlY todkif;t0dkif; tm;vHk;wGif
uav;rsm; rnfodkYaom yHkpHrsm;jzifh BuD;jyif;vmap&efrSm
wm0ef&Sdavonf/ vdkvm;tyfonfh ,Ofaus;rI pHEIef;
rsm;udk vufqifhurf; ay;&eftwGuf þae&mrsm;rS yHhydk;
jznfhqnf; ay;Ekdifygonf/

odkYjzpfygí Nidrf;csrf;a&; oabmw&m;rsm;ESifh
tpDtpOfrsm;udk uav;rsm;ESifh olwdkYtay: jyKrlqufqHyHk
rsm;udk rdbrsm; owdjyKrdapjcif;rsm;? udkf,f&nfudkf,faoG;
qdkif&m oufa&mufrIrsm;udk odem;vnfjcif;rsm;rS wqifh
OD;pGm pwif&rnf jzpfonf/ uav;rsm;rS arG;csif;rsm;?
aqGrsKd; om;csif;rsm;? &yf&GmwGif;&Sd tjcm;aomolrsm;ESifh
qufqHa&;Mum;wGif nd§EIdif; aqmif&GufEkdifolrsm;rSm rdb
rsm;yif jzpfavonf/ þqufqHa&;rsm;onf uav;\
vlrI aygif;oif;qufqHa&; 0ef;usifudk us,fjyefY vmap
jcif;ESifh rdrdudk,fudkESifh vlYtodkif;t0dkif; tay:wGif tjyK
oabm aqmifaom oabmxm; tjrifrsm; zGHYNzdK;vmap&ef
rdbrsm;rS ulnD yHhydk;Ekdifygonf/ þenf;jzifh uav;
rsm;onf vlY todkif;t0dkif;twGuf Nidrf;csrf;a&;udk jrwfEdkf;í
arwåmw&m; jynfh0aom olrsm; jzpfvmEkdifygrnf/

Nidrf;csrf;aom &yf&Gm? vlY tzGJYtpnf;

vlwdkif;onf rdrd &Sifoefaexdkif&m &yf&Gm vlY
todkif;t0dkif;twGif;\ vlrIywf0ef;usifrS wpfoufwm
vHk; pOfqufrjywf oif,l avhvmvsuf &SdMuonf/ þ
vlrIywf0ef;usifrSaeí vlwdkif;\ ynma&; tay:wGif
rsm;pGm vTrf;rdk;vsuf &Sdaeavonf/ &yf&Gm vlY todkif;t
0dkif;\ tawG;tac:? t,ltq oabmw&m;rsm;? ,Of
aus;rIESifh &dk;&mtpOftvmrsm;? pHwefzdk;rsm;rSm vlwdkif;
tay:wGif oufa&mufvsuf &Sdaeonf/ wHcg;ydwf 0g'
usifhoHk;í acwfaemuf jyefqGJaeonfh tawG;tac:
vTrf;rdk;aom &yf&Gm? vlY tzGJYtpnf;twGif; &Sifoef vlvm;
ajrmufvmMu&onfh uav;rsm;ESifh vGwfvyf yGifhvif;í
wdk;wufa&; tjrif&Sdonfh vlY todkif;t0dkif;twGif; BuD;jyif;
vmMuonfh uav;rsm;\ rwl? uGJjym; jcm;em;csufrsm;udk
txift&Sm; avhvmEkdifygonf/

odkYjzpfav&m rdbrsm;? q&m? q&mrrsm; tae
jzifh uav;rsm;udk Nidrf;csrf;aom vlrIywf0ef;usif twGif;
wGif &Sifoef BuD;jyif;vmMuap&eftwGuf tcGifh tvrf;rsm;

ESifh Nidrf;csrf; om,maom ywf0ef;usifudk zefwD;oifhyg
onf/

Nidrf;csrf;a&;ESifh pmoifausmif;

,Ofaus;rIrsm;ESifh pHwefzdk;rsm;udk vufqifhurf;
o,faqmifay;onfh ,OfrSm ynma&;yif jzpfygonf/ vlrI
qufqHa&; xGef;um;aponfh ywf0ef;usifudk zefwD;ay;
EkdifpGrf;rSmvnf; ynma&;yif jzpfavonf/ ,Ofaus;rI
rsm;ESifh &dk;&m pHwefzdk;rsm;t& tem*wf EkdifiHom;rsm;\
udk,f&nfudk,faoG;ESifh yk*¾vzGHYNzdK;rIudk yHkazmf&ef twGuf vlY
todkif;t0dkif;rS wnfaxmifxm;&Sdonfh w&m;0if Xmersm;
taejzifh pmoifausmif;rsm;udk zGifhvSpfxm;&SdMujcif; jzpf
onf/ uav;oli,fwdkY\ tzGJYtpnf;BuD; wpfck taejzifh
vnf;aumif;? ydkrdkus,fjyefYonfh &yf&Gm? a'o? EkdifiHawmf
ESifh urÇmhtqifhwdkif;wGif yg0ifaqmif&Guf EkdifMuapjcif;
tvdkYiSg oif,lavhvmjcif; "gwfcGJcef; wpfcktaejzifh
vnf;aumif; pmoifcef;rsm;u wm0ef ,lxm;ygonf/

ausmif;odkY rvmrDuwnf;uyif uav;rsm;
onf vlrIqufqHa&; qdkif&mrsm;pGmudk awGYBuHK em;vnf
xm;Muygonf/ ,aeYrsufarSmuf owif;ESifh enf;ynm
acwfwGif pdwful;,Of Zmwfvrf;rsm;? yuwdjzpf&yfrsm;?
&yf&Gm a'owGif;omru EkdifiHwumjzpf&yfrsm; tp&Sdonfh
urÇmBuD;\ tawGYtBuHK trsKd;rsKd;udk owif;pm? a&'D,dk?
wDAGD&kyfoHESifh pmtkyf pmwrf;rsm;rSwqifh tcsdefjynfh vufcH
&&SdaeMuygonf/ azsmfajzwifqufrIrsm;? owif; tcsuf
tvufrsm;? aMumfjim rD'D,mrsm;rS aeí tcsuf
tvufrsm;pGmudk ausmif;ESifh pmoifcef;twGif; oif,l
avhvmrIrsm;ESifh ,SOfNydKifíjzpfap? qefYusifbufrsm;udk
jzpfap uav;rsm; vufcH &&SdaeMuygonf/ vlBuD;rsm;?
&G,fwlrsm;ESifh qufqHa&;rsm; twGufvnf; oufa&mufrI
rsm;pGmudk jzpfaponf/

,leufpudk\ 'Davmpfaumfrpf&SifrS wifjyxm;
&Sdonfhtwdkif; vlYtzGJYtpnf;ESifh vlrIywf0ef;usifqdkif&m
jyóemrsm;udk ausmif;0if;wHcg;? *dwf0 tjyifbufüom
xm;&Sdí r&Ekdifawmhyg/ ,aeY rsufarSmuf jrefrmESifh EkdifiH
wum vlrIjyóemrsm; jzpfMuonfh- qif;&JEGrf;yg;jcif;?
iwfrGwfacgif;yg;jcif;? zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fcH&jcif;? tMurf;zuf
jcif;? 'Drdkua&pD qdwfokOf;jcif;? vlY tcGifhta&; csKd;azguf
cH&jcif;ESifh rl;,pfaq;0g; jyóem ponfwdkYrSm uav;

105

rsm;ESifh twl pmoifcef;rsm; twGif;odkY 0ifa&muf vmMu
avonf/ odkYjzpfav&m pmoifausmif;rsm;onf þ
jyóemrsm;udk cGJjcm;odjrifjcif;? &ifqdkifEkdifjcif;wdkYtjyif
ausmif;ol? ausmif;om;rsm;ü ydkrdkvdkvm;tyfonfh tjyK
trlESifh tavhtusifhrsm;udk zGHYNzdK;apjcif;jzifh olwdkY\
pGrf;tm;rsm;ESifh EkysKdopfvGifaom pdwfESvHk;om;rsm;wGif
tjyKoabmaqmifonfh tjrifrsm;? vlrIjyKjyif ajymif;vJ
a&; twGuf trSefw&m;ESifh Nidrf;csrf;a&;udk jrwfEkd;pdwfrsm;
udef;atmif;aeap&ef jyKpk ysKd;axmif&rnf jzpfygonf/ xdkY
twGuf pmoifausmif;rsm;onf ,aeY rsufarSmufacwf
rNidrf;csrf;ao;aom urÇmBuD;wGif ydkrdkta&;ygonfh ae&mü
wnf&Sdaeonfudk avhvm awGY&Sd&onf/

pmoifcef;twGif;rS a0'emrsm;


þae&mwGif q&m q&mrrsm;rS txl; owd
xm;í *&kwpdkuf udkifwG,faqmif&Guf&rnfh ausmif;ol
ausmif;om;rsm;\ tjyKtrlqdkif&m oGifjyifvu©Pm
wpf&yfjzpfonfh onf;rcHEkdifrIESifh ywfoufí aqG;aEG;
vdkygonf/ ,leufpudkrS rlvwef;ESifh txufwef;tqifh
ausmif;ol? ausmif;om;rsm;\ onf;rcHEkdifrIESifh ywfouf
í q&mq&mrrsm; taejzifh pmoifcef;twGif; awGY&Sd
Ekdifonfh oGifjyifvu©Pm tcsuf (15) csufudk azmfxkwf
xm;&Sdonf/ ,if;wdkYrSm - (1) uav;rsm; oHk;EIef; ajymqdk
onfh bmompum; (pum;vHk;) - emrnfzsufac: jcif;?
vlrsKd;a&;ESifh vlenf;pkwdkYudk xdcdkufaponfh ykwfcwf
ac:a0:jcif;? odkYr[kwf uav;tcsif;csif; xdcdkufaponfh
tykwfcs ac:a0:ajymqdkjcif;? (2) yHkaoum;cs owfrSwfí
yHkpHoGif;jcif; - avSmifajymifoa&mfjcif;? jyuf&,fjyKjcif;?
t*wdw&m;jzifh rvdkrkef;xm;jcif;? bufvdkufjcif;? w,l
oef tpGJtvef;? rdrd (odkYr[kwf) rdrdtzGJY tm;enf;csufudk
tjcm;olwpfyg; tay: tjypfyHkcsjcif;? (Oyrm - tm;
upm;NydKifyGJwGif rdrd (odkYr[kwf) rdrdtoif;\ ½IH;edrfhrI?
ratmifjrifrI? ruRrf;usifrIwdkYudk tzGJY0ifwpfa,muf
a,muf (odkYr[kwf) tenf;pk tay:wGifom tjypfwif
jcif;? (3) cGJjcm;qufqHjcif; - MuOfz,fjcif;? 0dkif;z,fjcif;?
(twef;om;wpfOD;OD; (odkYr[kwf) tenf;pk tay:wGif
tjcm;olrsm;rS pum;rajymbJ aejcif;? twlwuG pmoif
cef;wGif; vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;wGif ryg0ifapjcif;)? (4)
taESmuft,Sufay;jcif;? apmfum;jcif;- rvdktyfbJ wrif

106

vkyfaqmifjcif;? pmtkyf? pm&GufponfwdkYudk a&;jcpfí
zsufqD;jcif;? (tjcm; ausmif;om;wpfOD;\ yef;csDum;udk
zsufvdkzsufqD;pdwfjzifh rifpufvdkufcsjcif;? ausmif;pmudk
ysufpD;apjcif;? tv[ó tcsdefjzKef;apjcif;? (5) tEkdif
usifhjcif;? &efvdkjcif;? &efpjcif;? Adkvfusjcif;? BuD;Ekdif
i,fn§Of;jcif; - rdrdtzGJYrS wrifoufouf xkwfy,fjcif;?
0dkif;MuOfxm;jcif;? cGJjcm;qufqHjcif;? txD;usefjzpfapjcif;?
zdESdyfqufqHjcif;ESifh aESmuf,Sufjcif; ponfwdkY jzpfMu
onf/

þoGifjyifvu©Pm tcsuf 15 csufwGif t
Ekdifusifhjcif;? &efvdkjcif;? &efpjcif;? Adkvfusjcif;? BuD;Ekdif
i,fn§Of;jcif;udk jrefrm pmoifcef;wGif;ESifh ausmif;rsm;wGif
trsm; qHk; awGYBuHK&aMumif; avhvm awGY&Sd&onf/ q&m
q&mrrsm; taejzifh ydkrdk cufcJpGm &ifqdkif&wwfonfh þ
uJhodkY jyKrlaom uav;rsm;\ tjyKtrlESifh cHpm;csufwdkYudk
enf;rSefvrf;rSefjzifh udkifwG,f xdef;ausmif;jcif; rjyKygu
tMurf;zufvdkpdwfESifh &efvdkpdwfrsm;aMumifh Adkvfus pdk;rdk;í
zdESdyf cs,fvS,fwwfonfh vlBuD;rsm;? txufzm; atmufzd
vlBuD;rsm;tjzpf BuD;jyif; vmEkdifavonf/

Nidrf;csrf;a&;twGuf ynma&;ESifh Nidrf;csrf;a&;
twGuf oifMum;jcif;[k qdk&m0,f ]odrIe,fy,fESifh cHpm;rI
e,fy,f} ESpf&yfpvHk;twGuf jzpfygonf/ udk,f&nf
udk,faoG;qdkif&m zGHYNzdK; wdk;wufap&eftwGuf oifcef;pm
acgif;pOftvdkufESifh uav;\ touft&G,ft& oif
Mum;jcif; enf;pepfrsm;udk jyKjyifajymif;vJjcif; jzpfonf/
ausmif;ESifh pmoifcef;twGif;wGifomrubJ tdrf? &yf&Gm?
a'oywf0ef;usifüvnf; usifhoHk; vdkufemMuap&ef pH
wefzdk;rsm;? tjyKtrlrsm;udk od&Sdem;vnfapjcif;? oGefoif
qHk;rjcif;? yJhjyif xdef;ausmif;jcif;jzif jyKpk ysKd;axmif Ekdifyg
onf/ Nidrf;csrf;a&;twGufynma&;? vlY tcGifhta&;ESifh
wm0ef0wå&m;rsm;twGuf avhusifh oifMum;&m0,f oif
,ljcif;jzpfpOf (process of learning) twGif; ausmif;ol
ausmif;om;rsm; udk,fwdkif xJxJ0if0if yg0if aqmif&GufrI
&&Sdap&ef bufpHkrQwaom aygif;pnf; oif&dk; nTef;wrf;udk
wnfaqmuf&rnf jzpfygonf/
odef;Ekdif
(qufvufazmfjyygrnf/)

107

tufaq;

ynma&;&JU t"dyÜm,fu bmvJvdkY ar;cJhMuzl;
ovm;/ usaemfwdkY ausmif;udk bmaMumifh oGm;&ovJ/
bmom&yfcGJ trsKd;rsKd;udk bmvdkY oif&ovJ/ wpfwef;NyD;
wpfwef;? wpfqifhNyD; wpfqifhwufzdkY bmvdkY BudK;pm;Mu
ovJ/

'g[m ynma&;&JU yHkpHtppf jzpfovm;/

ynma&; qdkwm bmvJ/

'Dar;cGef;awG[m ausmif;om;awG twGufom
ta&;BuD;wm r[kwfygbl;/ rdbawG? q&mawGtwGuf?
vlom;tm;vHk;twGuf ta&;BuD;ygw,f/ ynmoifzdkY
ynmwwfawGjzpfzdkY b,ftaMumif;aMumifh usaemfwdkY BudK;
yrf;&ovJ/ pmar;yGJ tcsKdUudk ausmfjzwfNyD; vufrSwfpm&Guf
,l? tvkyfwpfck&SmzdkY twGufyJvm;/

b0qdkwm&JU jzpfpOfudk em;vnfEkdifzdkY i,f&G,f
vGef;aewJh uav;t&G,ftwGuf ynma&;qdkwmeJY rGrf;rH
ay;zdkY/ tJovdk &nf&G,fwm r[kwfvm;/ twwfynm
oifMum;NyD; toufarG;0rf;ausmif;rI jyKMuzdkYqdkwm vdktyf
ygw,f/ 'gayrJh ynma&;[m 'gyJvm;/ b0&JUJ tcsdef oHk;csKd;
wpfcsKd;? av;csKd;wpfcsKd;udk tukefcHNyD; ynmqdkwmudk 'Dt
wGufyJ wGef;ydkY vdkufMuwmvm;/

pifppf b0[m tvkyfwpfckoufouf r[kwf
bl;/ ydkifqdkifrItwGuf oufoufr[kwfbl;/ b0[m
av;eufNyD; xl;jcm;wJh wpfpHkwpfck jzpfygw,f/ eufeJw,f/

108

vlom;wpfckwnf; twGufrSmwif b0t"dyÜm,fu us,f
jyefYw,f/

toufarG;rItwGuf jyifqif&HkrQ oufoufyJ
qdk&if usaemfwdkY &nf&G,f&m[m vGJrSm;aeNyDvdkY ajym&r,f/

b0&JU t"dyÜm,f tjynfht0 em;rvnfawmhbJ
vGJaeNyDvdkY qdk&ygr,f/ b0udk em;vnfoabmaygufzdkYu
pmar;yGJajzzdkY jyifqifwmxufawmh ydkta&;BuD;r,f
r[kwfvm;/ ocsFm? ½lyaA' pojzifh bmom&yfawG oif
Mum;ae&Hkxufawmh ydkta&;BuD;w,f r[kwfvm;/

q&myJjzpfjzpf? ausmif;om;yJjzpfjzpf oifMum;
jcif;qdkwm bmvJ? ynma&;udk bmaMumifh jyKMu&ovJ
qdkwm ajcajcjrpfjrpf ar;cGef; &Sdoifhygw,f/ ynma&;[m
b0eJY qufEG,fr,fhtwGuf b0udkvnf; ar;cGef;xkwf
ygr,f/ b0&JU NyD;jynfhpHkaom? teuf½dIif;qHk;aom t"dyÜm,f
u bmvJ/

iSufaus;om&um? opfyif yef;ref? aumif;uif?
ajrjyif? Mu,fpif pwmawGuvnf; b0xJ tusKH;0if
aer,f/ qif;&Jjcif;? csrf;omjcif;[mvnf; b0rSm &Sdr,f/
vlwef;pm;csif;? tkyfpkcsif;? EkdifiHcsif; wdkufyGJawGvnf; yg
r,f/ bm0emvnf; &Sdr,f/ bmoma&;vdkY usaemfwdkY ac:
qdkMuwmvnf; b0rSm&Sdw,f/ El;nHhodrfarGYwJh pdwf? eufeJ
r,fh p&dkufawGvnf; b0rSm yg0ifygw,f/ arQmfrSef;csuf
awG? &nf&G,fcsufawG? cHpm;csufawG? aMumuf&GHU pdwfawG?

usaemfwdkY bmtwGuf ynmoif
Krishnamurti

tmom&r®ufeJY pdwfvIyf&Sm;rIawG pwmawGvnf; b0rSm
&Sdaew,f/ 'gawG tm;vHk;[m b0 jzpfw,f/ 'ghxufvnf;
ydkr,f/

'gudk usaemfwdkY trsm;pku toufarG; 0rf;
ausmif;qdkwJh ½Iaxmifh wpfckwnf;uae uav;awGudk
('grSr[kwf) usaemfwdkY uav;b0udk - q,fhig;ESpf? ESpfESpf
q,favmuf tcsdefukefcHcJhNyD; jyifqif oGm;cJhMu&w,f/
pmar;yGJawG 0ifajz? tvkyftudkif wpfckvkyf? tdrfaxmif?
om;arG;? puf&[wfBuD; vnfovdk vnfywf aeMuw,f/

tJ'DtcsdefawGxd usaemfwdkY b0xJrSm aMumuf&GHU
pdwfawG? arQmfvifhcsufawG? pdk;&GHUrIawGu usef&pf aewkef;yJ/
tJawmh ar;cGef;a[mif;yJ xyfar;ygr,f/ ynma&;[m
tvkyftudkif &SmazGzdkY twGufyJvm;? b0udk em;vnf
oabmaygufatmif ulnDaxmufyHhay;zdkY r[kwfbl;vm;/

usaemfwdkY vlBuD;b0 a&mufvmwJhtcg bm
awG jzpfukefrSmvJ/ omrmef orm;&dk;us twdkif;- cifAsm;
tdrfaxmifusoGm;r,f/ udk,fhudk,fudk,f rdbjzpfvdkY jzpf
rSef;rod jzpfoGm;Mur,f/ tvkyfwpfckrSm ('grSr[kwf) rD;zdk
acsmifrSm csnfaESmif cHae&r,f/ tJvdkeJYyJ usaemfwdkY BuD;jyif;
vm&if; aysmufqHk; oGm;Mur,f/ usaemfwdkY b0jzpfpOfu
'gtukefyJvm;/ 'Dar;cGef;u ar;oifhr,f xifyg w,f/

cifAsm;&JU rdom;pku csrf;om <u,f0ae&ifawmh
'Dar;cGef;udk pdwfcsvufcs ajzcsifajzaevdrfhr,f/ cifAsm;

tazu cifAsm;twGuf tvkyfaumif;aumif; ay;Ekdifr,f/
wifhawmifhwifhw,f vufxyfay;r,f/ 'DvdkeJY aemuf
awmh BuD;jyif; qkwf,kwf uG,fvGefoGm;r,f/ jrifEkdifyg&JU
vm;/

tJawmh aocsmwmu - usaemfwkdY[m b0&JU
t"dyÜm,fudk em;vnfEkdifpGrf;twGuf taxmuftyHh ray;
Ekdif&if? b0&JU qHk;½IH;rI? b0&JU aysmf&TifrI? b0&JU tvSty?
b0&JU tusnf;wefrI 'Davmufudk em;vnfEdkifpGrf; ray;
Ekdifbl;qdk&if usaemfwdkY ynma&;[m t"dyÜm,f r&Sdygbl;/
bGJYtvDvD ,lNyD;? udk,femrnfaemufrSm pmvHk;awG wpfvHk;
NyD; wpfvHk; wdk;r,f/ NyD;awmh tvkyf aumif;aumif; wpfck
,lr,f/ tJ'Daemufaum ----/

tJ'DaemufrSm cifAsm;u xHktaewkef;? awGa0
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109

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110

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aZ,s
J.Krishnamurti: This Matter of Culture udk zwf½I&if;
http://zayyablogger.blogspot.com/

111

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112

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113

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r[kwfonhf twGuf owif; aygufMum;rSm pkd;&drfp&m r&Sd
yg/ xkdYjyif igYpum;EGm;& ajymjcif;rsKd;vnf; r[kwfojzifh
acgif;Nidrfh acgif;cg oufoufyJ wkefYjyefp&m rvkdyg/

uGyfyspfpum;0kdif;odkY wufa&mufolrsm;onf
rdrdwkdY\ todÓPfwHcg;ukd zGifhxm;&efom vkdtyfonf/
pum;0kdif; twGif;okdY A[kokw wpkHw&m aqmif,lvm&ef
(okdYr[kwf) pum;0kdif;rS jyefoGm;onfhtcg A[kokw wpkH
w&m o,f,loGm;&efom t"du usygonf/

oufBuD;pum;onf oufi,ftwGuf tm;
wufzG,f&m jzpfEkdifovkd? oufi,fpum;onf oufBuD;
twGuf pOf;pm;okH;oyfzG,f&mvnf; jzpfapEkdifygonf/ xkd
tm;wuf Ekd;Mum;zG,f&meSifh qufvuf pOf;pm;qifjcif
zG,f&mrsm;onf aemufwaeY &Sifoef&rnfh vlrIb0 t
wGuf vGefpGm tzkd;wefaom &if;eSD;jr§KyfESHrIrsm;om jzpfonf/
wenf;qkd&vQif uGyfyspf pum;0kdif;wkdYrS xGufay:vmcJhonfh
tjyeftvSef oabmxm; tjrifzvS,frIESifh oif,lrIwkdY
onf uRefawmfwkdY bkd;bGm;rsm; Nidrf;csrf;pGm usifhokH;cJhonfh
edpö'l0 p&kdufvu©PmeSifh tarGtESpfrsm;om jzpf onf/

...
rnfokdYyifjzpfap
tcef;i,fwpfckxJrS pm;yGJ0kdif;
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tvkduf us,fjyefYpGm jzpfyGg;&aom
ppfyGJrsm;? y#dyu©rsm;xuf ykdNyD; MoZm
wduúdr BuD;rm;aMumif; orkdif;u
oifMum;ay;cJhNyD; jzpfonf/

uifnmvlrsKd;wkdY\ &kd;&m pum;ykHwpfckwGif
]aumif;rGefaom aqG;aEG;jcif;onf vmbfwpfyg;} [k
tqkd &Sdygonf/ xkdpum;ukd a*smhcsfbm;ewfa&Sm ajymcJh
aom pum;wpfckESifh qufpyf awG;Munfhcsifygonf/

olu t,ltq topfrsm;onf a&S;OD;pGm vl
&,fp&mtjzpf? pdwful;,Oftjzpf ay:xGuf vmwwfMu
onfwJh/ NyD;awmhrS rdpäm'd|d t,luJhokdYvnf;aumif;? tpOf
tvm azmufjyefrIuJhodkYvnf;aumif; ajymif;vJum yGifh
yGifhvif;vif;aqG;aEG;&ef ar;cGef;rsm; jzpfvmMuonfwJh/

aemufqkH;usrS tajcckdifrmaom trSefw&m;
tjzpf ay:aygufvmMuonf[k qkdygonf/ þae&mwGif
t,ltq topfwpfck ay:aygufvmzkdYtwGuf tcuftcJ
ESifh tqifhrsm; jzwfoef;cJh&ykHukd olu qkdvkdjcif; jzpfonf/

okdYaomf uRefawmfuawmh xkdtqifhrsm;xJwGif
yGifhvif;pGm aqG;aEG;jcif; qkdonfhtcsuf yg0ifaejcif;ESifh xkd
tajctaetm; rvGJraoG ausmfjzwfzkdY vkdtyfonfwdkYukd
tav;teuf xm;csifygonf/

uRefawmfwkdY b0wGif rSefuefaom qkH;jzwfcsuf
csrSwfEkdifa&; twGuf rSefuefaom owif;tcsuftvuf?
tjriftodeSifh ÓPfynmwkdY vkdtyfygonf/ wpfOD;ESifh
wpfOD; awGYqkH aqG;aEG;jcif;rsm;onf xkdtcsuftwGuf
ueOD; ajcvSrf;p vSrf;jcif;om jzpfonf/

okdYaomfvnf; aqG;aEG; ajymqkdjcif;rsm;ukd

119

aMumufvefY pkd;xdwfzG,f&mtjzpf ½Ijrifolrsm; &Sdaumif; &Sd
Ekdifygonf/ xkdolrsm;onf aqG;aEG;jcif;rS wqifh xGufay:
vmrnfh toD;tyGifhwkdYukd r,kHMunfolrsm;om jzpfonf/
wenf;tm;jzifh rvGJra&Smifom BuHKawGY&wwfonfh tjrif
uGJvGJEkdifrIukd vufcH&ef cufcJolrsm;[kvnf; qkdekdifyg
onf/ trSefawmh tjrif rwlnDjcif;onf tNrJwap
t[efYtwm;wpfck r[kwfyg/

vlom;tm;vkH;\ aeYpOfb0wGif &nf&G,fonf
jzpfap? r&nf&G,fonfjzpfap...? aqG;aEG; ajymqkdrIrsm; vkyf
aeMuonfom jzpfonf/ xkdtcsufu todynm zvS,f
jcif;ukd ukd,fpm;jyKygonf/

urÇmhtqifhrD tpnf;ta0; cef;rrsm;rSmom r
[kwf../ NrdKUay:u aumfzDqkdifrSm..? aps;xJu pm;aomuf
qkdifrSm..? vrf;ab;u yvufazmif;rSm..? aus;vufu
uGyfyspfay:rSm.. (ae&mrsm;om uGJcsifuGJoGm;rnf) uRef
awmfwkdY ajymqkd aqG;aEG;aeMuqJ jzpfonf/

uRefawmfwkdY\ oabmxm; tjrifrsm;onf
ukd,fhukd,fukd owd rxm;rdEkdifavmufatmif ta&mift
aoG; pkHvifvSrSef; tjcm;ol wpfOD;wpfa,muf\ xifjrif
,lqcsufrsm;ESifh wkd;xd aygif;pyfMunhfrS odvm&ygonf/

rMumao;rDu rdwfaqGwpfa,muf vuf
aqmifay;aom pmtkyfwpftkyfukd tenf;i,f ukd;um;
csifygonf/ pmtkyftrnfu pm;yGJ0kdif; aqG;aEG;yGJrsm;ESifh
uGefjrLepf0g' NydKvJjcif; (The Roundtable Talks and
The Breakdown of Communism by Jon Elster )../

tqkdyg pmtkyfwGif 1989 ESifh 1990 ckESpfrsm;
twGif; ta&SU Oa&my uGefjrLepf tpkd;&rsm;ESifh twkduftcH
tkyfpkwkdY\ rsm;pGmaom pm;yGJ0kdif; awGYqkH aqG;aEG;yGJrsm;
taMumif;ukd rSwfwrf;wif azmfjyxm;ygonf/

blvfa*;&D;,m;? ykdvef? [efa*&D? csufukdpvkd
AufuD;,m;ESifh *smref 'Drkdu&ufwpf &DyufAvpfEkdifiH 5
EkdifiHwkdYwGif Nidrf;csrf;pGm aqG;aEG; tajz&Smjcif;tm;jzifh
tmPm&Sif tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfukd NydKvJapjcif;? (ykdíta&;BuD;
onfu) 'Drkdua&pD tkyfcsKyfa&;qDokdY ul;ajymif;Ekdifjcif;
wkdYukd vufawGY jzpfay: apcJhygonf/

atmifjrifaom pm;yGJ0kdif; aqG;aEG;rIrsm;ESifh twl
oifcef;pm ,l&eftjzpf ratmifjrifcJhaom nd§EIdif;rI tajz
&SmrI wpfckudkvnf; tcef;wpfck cGJum wifjy xm;ygao;
onf/ xkdratmifjrifrIu tjcm;r[kwfyg/ 1989 ckESpfwGif
jzpfcJh&onfh w&kwf uGefjrLepftpkd;&ESifh jyKjyifajymif;vJa&;
vkdvm;olrsm; tMum;u &ifqkdifawGYrIyif jzpfonf/
120

rnfokdYyifjzpfap tcef;i,fwpfckxJrS pm;yGJ0kdif;
aqG;aEG;yGJrsm;onf vlrsKd;tvkduf? EdkifiHtvkduf us,fjyefY
pGm jzpfyGg;&aom ppfyGJrsm;? y#dyu©rsm;xuf ykdNyD; MoZm
wduúdr BuD;rm;aMumif; orkdif;u oifMum;ay;cJhNyD; jzpf
onf/

xkdtcsufonf pdwful;,Of oufouf r[kwf
rSef; ,cktcg 'Drkdua&pD\ tusKd;ukd cHpm;ae&NyDjzpfonfh
tqkdygEkdifiHrsm;u oufaojyvsuf &Sdygonf/ ta&;BuD;
onfu n§dEIdif; aqG;aEG;yGJrsm;onf ormorwf r&Sdaom
&v'f wpfckcktwGuf ausmhuGif; axmifxm;jcif;rsKd;
rjzpfap&efjzpfonf/

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orm;*kPfjy&rnfh ae&mrsKd; rjzpf&efvnf; vkdtyfygonf/
tjyeftvSef tjrif&Sif;vif;rIESifh em;vnfrIwkdYukd azmf
aqmifa&;twGuf &kd;om;pGm ESvkH;&nfcsif; aygif;qkHjcif;
rsKd;om jzpfoifhygonf/

uRefawmfuawmh &kd;&m tpOftvmrsm;\
aumif;arGukd qufcHaomtm;jzifh uGyfyspfpum;0kdif;rsm;
jyefvnf ay:xGef;apcsifonf/ uGyfyspf\ vGwfvyfaom
tcif;tusif;ukd jrwfEkd;pdwf oufoufaMumifh r[kwfyg/
wpfa,mufESifhwpfa,muf Nidrf;csrf;pGm rsufESmcsif;qkdifzkdY
tajccHusus vkdtyfaeaomaMumifh jzpfonf/

wpfa,muftm;ukd wpfa,muf,lzkdY tajct
ae t&yf&yfu awmif;qkdaeaomaMumifh[kvnf; qkdEdkif
onf/ tjrifuGJjcif;onf obm0 jzpfonf/ tjrifrSm;
aejcif;onfom obm0rS aoGzDjcif; jzpfygonf/

tb,fhaMumifh 21 &mpk acwfBuD;wGif opfom;
(okdYr[kwf) 0g;jzifh jyKvkyfxm;aom tqifwefqm
r&Sdonfh uGyfyspfukd uRefawmf yGJxkwfcsif&ygoenf;../
uRefawmf\ tajzonf uGyfyspf wpfvkH;uJhokdYyif &kd;pif;
aumif; &kd;pif;Ekdifygonf/

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yspfay:wGif ae&m tedrfhtjrifh r&SdaomaMumifh ae&mtqifh
twef; cGJjcm;rIvnf; r&Sdjyefyg/

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rnfh um,uH&Sif\ EIwfrS xGufaom pum;ay:wGifom
rlwnfaomaMumifh jzpfygonf/ /
ol&d,rsKd;

AdkvfcsKyfajymwJh .... EkdifiHa&;
EkdifiHa&;qdkwmu wcgw&HrS tpnf;ta0;vkyfNyD;awmh pifjrihfay:u ajymwJh vlu ajym?
em;axmifwJh vlu em;axmifwJh udpörsKd; r[kwfbl;..../
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tusKd;awGudk qkdifovdk zGJYpnf;NyD;awmhum? rdrdwdkY jyóemawGudk vkyfNyD;awmhum
ajz&Sif;&eftwGuf tNrJwrf; vkyfaewJh udpöjzpfw,f/

(1946 ckESpf? Zefe0g&Dv? 23 &ufaeYwGif zqyv jynfvHk;uRwf nDvmcHwGif
wifoGif;cJhaom nDnGwfa&; tqdkrS...)

121

ynma&; [mo
udkcrf;em;&JU tbd"mef

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u ]The Impossibility is not found in my dictionary} vdkY qdkcJhaMumif; rSwfom;zl;ygonf/ ​​]rjzpfEkdifbl;}
qdkwJh pum;vHk; olY tbd"mefrSm r&Sdbl;/ ol rvkyfEkdifwm
bmrS r&Sd bl;udk qdkvdkjcif; jzpfygw,f /

tJhwmudkrS ESif;qDwdkY oli,fcsif; udkcrf;em;
wjzpf vnf; bkef;a0 wpfa,muf rnfodkY rnfyHk tawG;
aygufav onf rod/ awG;yHku eydkvD,H&JU tbd"mefxJrSm
r&SdwJh pum;vHk; ol\ tbd"gefxJrSmrsm; &Sdvdk&Sdjim;
awGYavrvm;vdkY qE´jyif;jy odcsifaZmtm;aMumifh ...

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aps;ayg aygeJY 0,fxm;wJh ]OD;[kwfpdef trsm;okH; jrefrmt*Fvdyf-ygVd} tdwfaqmif tbd"gefxJrSm jyL;jyL;NyJNyJ
&SmMunfhrdw,f qdkyJ..../

bkef;a0&JU OD;[kwfpdef tbd"gef\ pmrsufESm wpf
ae&m&JU atmufajc em;wGif ..

"Impossibility = rjzpfEkdif " qdkwJh

pum;vHk;vnf; awGYa&m bkef;a0wpfa,muf
udkvHbwf ajrmuftar&duwdkuf &SmawGYovdk rsufESmrsKd;eJY
0rf;omtm;& xatmf vdkufwmuawmh.....

] atmf .... vufpowfawmh ] eydkvD,H } &JU
tbd"gefrSm pmtkyfcsLyfwJhol tem; wdvdkufwJh txJ ]rjzpf
Ekdif} qdkwJh pum;vHk; ygoGm;wmudk;wJh/ w,faygYwJh pmtkyf
csKyf olvdkY udkcrf;em;BuD;u qdkowJh &Sif....}

crf;em;vdkufyHkrsm; ...

yef;ESif;qD

122

bmom&yfwpfckudk uRrf;usifydkifEkdif&if
aemufbmom&yf wpfckudk prf;oGm;vdkY
&edkifw,f


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reufrSm pmar;yGJ ajz&rSmawmif pmusufcsifpdwf r&Sdao;
ojzifh tjyifwGif avQmufvnfaecJhw,f…

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awmh tdrfa&muf a&mufjcif;yJ ol&JU reufjzef pmar;yGJ t
wGufudk tJ'D tcsdefusrS tylp 0ifrdNyD; aZmacR;yg jyefoGm;
wmaygY…

atmf… reuf ig pmar;yGJ ajz&rSm b,fvdkrqdk
pmenf;enf;avmufawmh MunfhvdkufOD;rSyJqdkNyD; pmtkyf&JU
rd&m wpfae&mudk vSefvdkufygw,f…

ol vSefvdkufwJh taMumif;t&mu OD;acgif;tm;
oefY&Sif;pGm rxm;aom vlrsm;\ acgif;ay:wGif aygufzGm;
onfh ]oef;} taMumif; jzpfaeonf/

(pm~uGif;/ / tJ'D oef;u rdef;uav; trsm;pk
acgif;ay:wGif &Sdwwfonf/)

rxl;bl;qdkNyD; tJ'D ]oef;} taMumif;udkyJ ydkifydkif
EkdifEkdifMunfhNyD; tdyfvdkufawmhonf/

aemufwpfaeY pmar;yGJ ajzcsdefusawmh q&mr
u olYudk pmar;yGJajzzdkY rJvdyf wpfvdyf EIdufcdkif;onf/

olEIdufvdkufonf/ rJvdyfudk zGifhMunfhawmh
]aMumif} taMumif;tm; oifodoavmuf ajzqdkygwJh...

ol pOf;pm;vdkufonf/

]aMumif}

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udk,fay:wGif arT;n§if;rsm; &Sdygonf/ aMumifonf a&
aMumufonf/ tb,faMumifhqdkaomf wpfcgrS a&rcsKd;
acs/

(pm~uGif;/ / odkYaomf tJ'D a&rcsKd;aom aMumif
rsm;udk (tysKdBuD;rsm;) cspfMuygonf/ cspfp&m vlrS r&Sdwm/)

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rsm;wGif ]oef;} rsm;&Sdygonf/ wqufwnf;rSmyJ oef;
taMumif;udk quf&Sif;zdkY vkyfygava&m ……

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&^ r& pOf;pm;& Muyfaeygawmhonf/

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ausmif;om;vnf; aemuf rJvdyf wpfvdyfudk
EIdufNyD; zGifhvdkuf&m…

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jzpfygonf/

ausmif;om;onf acwårQ pOf;pm;NyD; ...

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&pämef wpfaumif jzpfonf/ 4if;acG;rsm;onf aMumifrsm;
uJhodkYyif arT;n§if;rsm; &Sdygonf/

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acG;arG;xm;aom tdrfrsm;onf tdrfvHkjcHKrI &Sdonf/odkYay
r,fh tJ'DacG;rsm;onf aMumifrsm;uJhodkYyif a&rcsKd;ay/

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]oef;} rsm;&Sdygonf/ wqufwnf;rSmyJ ]oef;} taMumif;
udk quf&Sif;zdkY vkyfygava&m...

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vdyf xyfEdIufcdkif;jyefonf...

wwd, rJvdyfudk EIdufvdkufonfh tcsdefwGif...

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rJvdyfudk ajzMunfhvdkufawmh ajz&rnfh taMumif;t&m
onf ]ig;} taMumif; jzpfaeonf/

ausmif;om;u wpfcPrQ pOf;pm;NyD;...

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4if;\ udk,fudk taMu;cGHrsm;jzifhom wnfaqmufxm;yg
onf/

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aomf aewmudku a&xJrSm jzpfonfh twGufaMumifhyif...

wu,fvdkY ig;rsm;\ udk,fcE¨mwGif acG;ESifh
aMumifrsm;uJhodkYaom arT;n§if;rsm; yg&Sdrnfqdkygu 4if;
ig;rsm;\ ukd,fay:wGifvnf; oef;rsm; &SdEdkifygonf/

]oef;....}

wqufwnf;rSmyJ ]oef;}taMumif; udk quf
&Sif;zdkY vkyfygava&m/

tJ'DrSmwif q&mru pdwfr&Snfaom avoHjzifh
]a[h ausmif;om; oGm;awmh &NyD } [k ajymavonf/
[efa0
xm0&oli,fcsif;rsm;qdk'frS

123

EkdifiHwum ynma&;

'kwd,ajrmuf
r[m
qHk;jzwfcsuf
jrwfyef;&Sif

124

uav;,lr,fvdkY r[m qHk;jzwfcsuf cscJhMu tNyD;rSmawmh
rdbawG&,fvkdY jzpfvmNyD; oumv 'kwd, ta&;tBuD;qHk;aom
qHk;jzwfcsufudk cs&ygOD;r,f/

b,f ausmif;rSm uav;udk tyf&rvJ qdkwmygyJ/

qHk;jzwfcsufom rSefuefcJhr,f qdk&ifawmh woufwm
ynma&; c&D;vrf; twGuf jyifqifay;wm jzpfovdk? *kPfajymif
vmr,fh wuúodkvf ausmif;awmfom; BuD; tjzpfvnf; tpysKd;ay;jcif;
rnfygw,f/ tvkyftudkifaumif;wdkY&JU jrpfzsm;vnf; qdkvdkY&w,f
r[kwfvm;/

tJ… qHk;jzwfcsufom rSm;oGm;cJhw,f qdk&ifawmh…/

odawmfrlMuwJh twkdif;ygyJ/ cHpm;aya&mh/

rdbrsm;twGuf &wuf at;zG,f&mav;udk wifjyyg&ap/
a,musfm;av; rsm;&JU jyóem ''The trouble with boys'' pmtkyfudk
a&;om;jyKpkcJholvnf;jzpf? Newsweek owif;r*¾Zif;&JU ynma&;
owif;axmufvnf; vkyfcJhzl;ol Peg Tyre &JU pmtkyftopf jzpfyg
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tuJjzwfwwfapNyD;? om;om;rD;rD;wdkYtwGuf oifhavsmf&m pmoif
ausmif;udk azG&Sm EkdifapzdkY&m tultnD jzpfr,fvdkY qdkygw,f/

pmtkyf acgif;pOfu 'Dvdkyg/

“The

Good

School: How Smart Parents Get Their Kids the

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jycJhygw,f/

oifh&JU uav;i,fav;[m tckrS rlBudKausmif;
pwif wufrSmyJ jzpfjzpf? pwkw¬wef; ta&mufrSm ausmif;
ajymif;&awmhrSmrdkYvdkYyJjzpfjzpf? ocsFmbmom&yf[m twef;
wkdif;twGuf ta&;BuD;vSw,fqdkwJh tcsufyJjzpfjzpf? rdb
awG odxm;oihfw,f r[kwfvm;/

(1) rlBudKausmif; t&G,frSmawmh q&meJY ausmif;om;&JU
qufqHa&;[m t"duygyJ/

uav;eJY q&m&JU qufEG,frI[m b,foif&dk;
nTef;wrf;xufrqdk ta&;tBuD;qHk;ygyJ/ wkdif,mu ajymjy
wmyg/ 'DvdkrsKd;av; pOf;pm; MunfhMuprf;ygwJh/ oifh&JU 3 - 4
ESpft&G,f cspfp&mav;[m tifrwefrS cspfjrwfEkd;MuwJh vl
awG 0ef;&HNyD; &SdaecJhwmyg/ rdbawG? nDtudk armifESrawG
u 24^7 jyKpk,k, MuifemMuw,fav/ tJ… ausmif;u
awmhjzihf&if tJ'Dvlrsm;&JU ta0;qHk;rSm tcsdef tMumBuD; ae
ae&wJh ae&m jzpfawmhw,f/ trSefwu,f pdwfygvufyg
&SdvSwJh rlBudK q&mq&mr wpfa,mufavmufudk &Smcsif
w,frdkYvm;/ wkdif,mu ajymjyygw,f/

tvm;tvm&SdwJh q&mq&mr wpfa,muf
avmufeJY pum;pjrnf ajymqdk Munhfygvm;/ vuf&Sd
pmoifcef; taMumif;udkaygY/ uav;i,fav; wpfOD;csif;
pD&JU tm;omcsuf? tm;enf;csufawGudk ajymjyEkdifygvdrfh
r,f/ olwdkYav;awG&JU aemufcH ZmpfjrpfawG? pdwfyg0ifpm;
rIawG? pdwfcHpm;rIawGeJY ynm&nf? atmifjrifrIawG yg0if
ygw,f/ ol? olr&JU ausmif;ol ausmif;om;rsm;&JU ynm&nf
wdk;wufatmifjrifrI tay:rSm *kPf,l 0ihf~uGm;ol q&m
q&mrrsKd;udkom tvdk&Sdw,f r[kwfvm;/ ydkNyD; wdk;wuf
atmifjrifEdkifwJh tcGifhtvrf; twGufvnf;yJ vrf;zGifh
xm;&SdwJholav/ ]wu,hf q&mq&mraumif;awGeJY awGY
wJh tcgrsKd;rSm olwdkYtwGuf aeYwkdif;[m aeYopfawGygyJ/}
wkdif,mu Time r*¾Zif;udk ajymjywmyg/

]tJ'DvdkrsKd; q&mq&mrrsm; olwdkY&JU ausmif;om;
awG ydkNyD;wdk;wufvmzdkY? ydkavhvmapzdkYtwGuf tqifoifh
Education They Deserve

&SdaeMuwJh olawGjzpfw,f/} wdkif,m&JU tqdkt& pdwfxm;
ykyfwJh q&mq&mrawG? a'gotdk;? tmPm&Sif q&m q&mr
awGudkawmh a&Smif&Sm;EkdifzdkYu ta&;tBuD;qHk; jzpfygw,f
wJh/ ]tNrJwrf;vdkvdkudk awGYae&wmyg/ uav;awGudk
nTefMum;csufawG rem;wrf; ay;aeNyD;awmh uav;awG
tay:rSmvnf; tifrwefudk Murf;Murf; wrf;wrf; qufqH
MuwJh olawGav/} olru qufajym jycJhygw,f/ ] tJ'Dvdk
rsKd;uawmh roifhawmfbl;vdkY usr xifygw,f/}

(2) b0&JU tp vdktyfcsuf - pum;vHk;awG? pum;vHk;awG?
pum;vHk;awG/

oifh&JU uav;i,fav;udk pum;vHk;rsm;eJY &Hxm;
&r,fwJh/ txl;ojzihfawmh b0&JU tpydkif; ESpfawGrSmyg/
wkdif,mu &Sif;jyygw,f/ pmoifcef;xJrSm pmtkyfawG &Sd
wmudk awGYcsifrSmyg/ aemufNyD;awmhvnf; twef;wkdif;[m
pmMunfhwkdufudk yHkrSef vnfywfcsdef xm;&SdwmrsKd;/ q&m
q&mrrsm;uvnf; pmoifcef;twGif;rSm pmzwfcsdef trsm;
BuD; ay;NyD;? pmawG? yHk0w¬KawG zwfjyMuwmrsKd;/

rlBudKeJY oli,fwef; t&G,frsm;rSmawmh pmzwf
EkdifzdkYtwGuf tajccHususudk avhusihf oifMum; ay;wmrsKd;
q&mrsm;[m vkyfudk vkyf&ygvdrhfr,f/ toHxGuf? pmvHk;
aygif;? owfyHkawGudk txl; *&kpdkufvSoihfygw,f/ B qdkwJh
pum;vHk;[m ‘bah’ toH&yHkrsKd;? aemufNyD;awmhvnf;
‘The boy had a big blue ball’ qdkNyD; pmaMumif;rSm
oHk;yHkrsKd;/ ]u} [m ]um;BuD;} toHrSm ygyHkrsKd;eJY ]u uav;
i,f cspfpzG,f} qdkwJh oHaygufvuFmrSm ygyHkrsKd;/
(3) ocsFm[m tpuwnf;u ta&;ygvSw,f/

ausmif;pNyDqdkwmeJY oihf&JU uav;i,fav;udk
ocsFm t,ltqrsm;eJY pwif rdwfqufoihfygw,f/ ]oihf&JU
uav;[m rlBudKt&G,frSm qdk&if 'gudk odxm;oihfygw,f/
ocsFm t,ltq? oabmw&m;udk pwif rdwfqufzdkY
twGuf ydkNyD;awmh toufBuD;vm? ]tawG;ygwJh? pdwåZ
qefwJh} pum;awG ajymEkdifvmwJh txd apmihfaep&m rvdk
bl; qdkwmyg/ olr&JU pmtkyfxJrSm xnhfaqG;aEG;xm;wmyg/

]usrwdkY tm;vHk;rSm ocsFmpGrf;&nf tenf;eJY
trsm; qdkovdk yg&SdNyD;om;yg/ arG;zGm;p uwnf;u tJ'D
oabmav;udk awGYjrif Mu&ygNyD/ ]qdkvdkwmuawmh oihf&JU
uav; rlBudK twef;xJrSm q&mq&mrrsm;[m tajccH
ocsFm t,ltqawGudk avhusihf jyoaewm awGYjrif
&ygvdrfhr,f/ -ydkNyD; t&yfjrihfaom? ydkBuD;aom? ao;i,f
125

yHkpHcs ppfaq;rIrsm;[m
oif&dk;nTef;wrf;&JU
oHk;yHk wpfyHkavmufudkom
ppfaq;Ekdifwmjzpfw,f/

aom? tBuD;BuD;? ao;ao;av;? … pwJh avhusihf
oifMum;rIrsm;[m ocsFm t,ltqudk pwifaqG;aEG;
aewmyg/ (oHk;ck b,favmufvJ)/ rdbtaeeJY oif[m
tJ'DoifMum; avhusihfrIudk aemufqufwGJ avhusihfay;
Ekdifygw,f/ reufcif; eHeufpmrSm ygwJh opfoD;awGudk
a&wGufMuwmrsKd;? pyg;vHk; b,fESpfaph aumufEkdifovJ
qdkwmrsKd;awGyg/ ocsFmudk rBudKufbl;/ awmfvnf; rawmf
cJhbl;vm;/… tJovdkrsKd;awmh uav;awG a&SUrSm oGm;rajym
vdkufygeJY/

ocsFm bmom&yfudk rBudKufwJh rdbawG&JU
tajymtqdkrsKd;[m uav;awGtwGuf temw& jzpfap
NyD; ocsFmbmom&yfrSm atmifjrifEkdifzdkY cufcJ apwwfyg
w,fvdkY wkdif,mu &Sif;jyxm;w,f/ tar&dum;rSmawmh
rdbawG? uav;awG? (q&mawGyg ygaew,f/) u]ocsFm
nHhwJhol} qdkNyD;awmh ajymqdkMuzdkY&m 0efrav; wwfMuyg
bl;/ 'gayrJh (ocsFm xl;cRefMuaom) tjcm;aom wkdif;jynf
rsm;rSmawmh uav;[m ocsFmrSm r&bl; jzpfaew,fqdk&if
q&mrsm;eJY tjcm; oli,fcsif;awGu ocsFmudk ydk BudK;pm;&
r,fvdkY tm;ay;pum; ajymwwfMuw,f/

]ocsFm[m (oDcsif;qdkwwfovdkrsKd;) yifudk,f
pGrf;&nf wpf&yfr[kwfbl;/ avhusihfay;&r,fh ~uGufom;
wrQifjzpfw,f/] wkdif,mu ajymjyygw,f/ ocsFmudk tm&Hk
pl;pdkufrI&SdwJh q&maumif;udk [kd[dk'D'DrSm &Smxm; Munfhay
awmhwJh/ ]ocsFmaMumufwJh q&mrsKd;udkawmh rvdkcsifbl;
r[kwfvm;/}
126

(4) ausmif;&JU tqihfeJY &rSwfawGcsnf;rSmyJ tm&Hk odyfrpdkuf
ygeJY/

wcgwavrSmawmh &v'faumif;? &rSwf
aumif;? atmifcsufaumif;awGaMumihf 'Dausmif;[m
uav;awG twGuf tifrwefrSudkyJ tqifajyvSw,fvdkY
xifjrif ,lqp&mjzpfr,f/ odkYayrJh tJ'Dvdk &rSwfaumif;zdkY
twGufom &nfpl;NyD; pmoifay;aewm jzpfEkdifao;w,f/

yHkpHcs ppfaq;rIrsm;[m oif&dk;nTef;wrf;&JU oHk;yHk
wpfyHkavmufudkom ppfaq;Ekdifwmjzpfw,f/ 'DtwGuf
ausmif; awG[m ppfaq;rI tay:rSmom tm&Hkpdkuf oif
Mum; Muawmhw,f/ 'Dawmhum uav;i,frsm;pGm[m
tjcm;aom ta&;BuD;wJh ynma&; &nfrSef;csufawGeJY vGJ
acsmf &ygawmhw,f/ ynm tjynfht0 r&bl;vdkY qkdvdk
w,f/ yHkrSef tm;jzihf qdk&if ausmif;[m bufpHk? axmifhpHk? ESHY ESYH
pyfpyf oif&dk;nTef;wrf;udk oifMum;&rSmyg/ owif;tcsuf
tvufawG? taMumif;t&mawG trsm;BuD;udk yg0ifae
w,f/ pmar;yGJawGrSm ppfaq;r,fh taMumif;t&mawG
vnf; yg0ifwmaygY/

]pmar;yGJ &rSwf wESpfavmuf aumif;aewmeJY
awmh ajymvdkY r&ao;bl;/ tJ'DtwGuf atmifcsufwdkY?
&rSwfwdkYudk xnhfrwGufygeJYOD;/} q&mr wkdif,mu
owday;xm;w,f/

bmom&yfrsm;tvdkuf uav;rsm;[m b,f
avmuftxd wwfuRrf;aeovJ qdkwmudk od&Sdxm;&
ygvdrhfr,f/ Oyrmtm;jzihf t*Fvdyfbmom avhvmaeol
ausmif;om;rsm;xJrS &rSwf tedrfhqHk; &Sdolrsm;udk avhvm
Munfhyg/ olwdkY &rSwfrsm; jrihfvmw,fqdkygu pOf;pm;p&m
jzpfEkdifw,f/ þae&mwGifvnf; &yfraeygESihfOD;/ tb,f
aMumihf &rSwfrsm; jrihfvm&onfudk qufvuf pHkprf;ygav/
awG;awm qifjcifp&m yg&Sdaom tajzudk vdktyfvSygw,f/
]tJ'D tpDtpOf topfudk xnhfxm;w,fav/ pmar;yGJ
twGuf jyifqifay;wmyg/} qdkwmrsKd; &dk;pif;aom tajz
rsKd;um; r[kwfao;yg/
(5) tm;vyfcsdefr&Sdygu ausmif; rrnfyg/

tifrwef rSm;wwfMuygw,f/ wkdif,mu
qkdygw,f/ ]odyfaumif;wJh pOf;pm;csufvdkYawmh b,fol
urS xifrSm r[kwfygbl;/} at&dk;Apf avhusihfcef;rsm;&JU
tusKd;aus;Zl;rsm; tjyif tm;vyfcsdefay;jcif;[m odrI
vkyfief;pOfrsm; twGufvnf; tusKd;rsm; vSw,fvdkY ynm

a&;okaw oeu axmufjyxm;wmyg/ tm;upm;uGif;
r&Sd&SmwJh rlvwef;ausmif;rsm; aqmufxm;yHkudk awGYzl;
w,f r[kwfvm;/ pmusufpcef;rsm;? ta&;tzwfESihf
ocsFmpuf&Hkrsm;ozG,f jzpfaeawmhonf/ q&mtcsKdUESihf
rdb tcsKdU uvnf; vGJrSm;pGm ,HkMunf xm;MuonfrdkYwrYkH/

pmrsm;rsm; oifavav pmydk wwfavav…
[lí/ ]tJ'DvdkrsKd; ausmif;awGudk a0gifa0gifa&S; - a0;a0;
a&SmifMuyg/} wkdif,mu &Sif;jyxm;w,f/ ]uav;awG[m
tm;vyfcsdef? at;at;vlvlaecsdef vdktyfw,f/ jyif;xef
wJh oif,l avhvmrIuae cPavmuf tem;,lcsdefrsKd;/}

]ausmif;pmoifcsdef twGif;rSm rdepf 20 avmuf
pD aygY}/ tv,fwef;ESihf txufwef; tqihfrsm;rSmvnf;
tm;vyfcsdef vdktyfygao;w,f/
(6) q&mr&SdvdkYvnf; rjzpfjyefbl;/

plygausmif;q&m qdk&ifvnf; qif;&JrJGawrIudk
avsmhcs ypfzdkY&m vHk;vHk;vsm;vsm;BuD;awmh rwwfEkdifygbl;/
odkYaomfvnf;yJ q&maumif;rsm;[mjzifh&if ausmif;om;
rsm;&JU oif,lavhvmrI t&SdefEIef;udkawmh jr§ihfwifay; Ekdifyg
w,f/ aemufNyD;awmh ausmif;aumif;awG[m q&m
aumif;? q&mjrwfawGudk tav;xm;Muygw,f/ txl; w
vnf jyKpk xdef;odrf;xm;Mu&w,f/ q&maumif; wpfOD;
jzpfvmzdkY qdkwmu ESpfumv &SnfMumpGm ysKd;axmif xm;&
wm r[kwfvm;/ q&mtcsif;csif; &dkif;yif;ulnDwJh? oif,l
jcif;-oifMum;jcif;awGudk tjyeftvSef aqG;aEGG;MuwJh
ausmif;udk &SmazGygav/ q&mqdkwm (vdkovdk) vJvS,f
vdkY&w,f qdkwJh tjrif rxm;wJh ausmif;rsKd;udk a&G;cs,fyg/

]ausmif;udk a&mufwkef;tcdkuf av;wef; q&m
[m oli,fwef;rSm pm0ifoifaewmrsKd; qdk&ifawmh r[kwf
ao;bl;/ tajctae odyfraumif;bl;vdkY ajym&vdrfhr,f/}

]'DpmoifESpftwGuf q&mawGudk b,fvdk ysKd;
axmif? jyifqifxm;MuovJqdk ar;jref;MunfhygOD;/}

]aEG&moD ausmif;ydwf&ufawGrSm 'Dq&mrsm;
[m b,fvdk rGrf;rHoifwef;awGudk wufcJhMuovJ/}

aemufNyD;awmhvnf;yJ ausmif;tkyfcsKyfa&;rSL;
awGudk rdbrsm;u ar;jref;avh&Sdygw,f/ ]'Dq&mawGudk
b,fvdk tuJjzwfrSmvJ/} ] pmoifcef; oifcef;pmawGudk
b,favmufMumMumrSm wcg avhvmorI jyKMuovJ/}
qdkwmrsKd;/ 'Dausmif;q&mrsm;[m bGJY&xm;Mu&JUvm;? bm
awG avhvmxm;MuovJ/ ynma&;bGJY &Sd&JUvm;/ qdkwm
awGudkvnf; ar;jref;zdkY raES;ygeJYwJh... wdkif,mu tBuHjyK

... tm;upm;uGif; r&Sd&SmwJh
rlvwef;ausmif;rsm; aqmufxm;yHkudk
awGYzl;w,f r[kwfvm;/
pmusufpcef;rsm;? ta&;tzwfESihf
ocsFmpuf&Hkrsm;ozG,f jzpfaeawmhonf/
q&mtcsKdUESihf rdb tcsKdU uvnf;
vGJrSm;pGm ,HkMunf
xm;MuonfrdkYwrYkH/

xm;wmyg/ ]q&m&JU t&nftcsif;[m uav;rsm;twGuf
tifrwef ta&;BuD;vSw,f r[kwfvm;/}
(7) emrnfBuD;wkdif; tvkyfrjzpfyg/

t&nftaoG;eJY trnfemrudk xyfwljyKvdkY
r&bl;vdkY qdkxm;jyefw,f/ yk*¾vdu ausmif;jzpfjzpf? tpdk;&
ausmif;jzpfjzpf… b,fvdk emrnfyJ wyfxm;? wyfxm;? tJ'D
ausmif;[m atmifjrifrItwGuf jzpfw,fvdkY ajymvdkY r&ekdif
ygbl;/ oD;oefYausmif; 5 ausmif;rSm 1 ausmif;omvQif
tvkyf jzpfw,fwJh/ ]yk*¾vduausmif; taumif;pm;? oD;
oefYausmif; taumif;pm;? tpdk;&ausmif; taumif;pm;
qdkNyD;awmhvnf; yHkaoum;cs ajymvkdY r&jyefbl;/}

]qHk;jzwfcsuf csrSwfzdkY&m ausmif;&JU emrnfudk
om MunfhNyD;awmh ajymvdkY r&Ekdifbl;qdkwmyg/} tJ'Dawmh
rdbrsm;[m tdrfpmav; vkyfvdkufMuygOD;/ aemifESpf twef
MumvdkY ausmif;uxGufwJh tcgrSmvnf; aiGaMu;rsm;pGm
tukeftus cHNyD;awmh xm;&wJh yk*¾vdu ausmif;xGuf[m
vnf;yJ tpdk;& ausmif;xGuf omomygyJ qdkNyD; awGY&if
awGYaeygvdrfhr,f/
jrwfyef;&Sif
Ref: 7 Things You Need to Know About a School
(Before You Enroll Your Kid) by Kayla Webleyç
Time

127

2005 ckESpf ZGefv 12 &uf aeYwGif usif;ycJhaom
Stanford wuúodkvf bJGYESif;obif tcrf;tem;wGif Apple
Computer eSihf Pi_ar Animation Studio wkdYudk pwif
wnfaxmifcJhol Steve Jobs ajymMum;cJhonhf rdefYcGef;/

urÇmhtaumif;qkH; wuúodkvfBuD;wck&JU bGJY&
armifr,frsm;udk awGYqkH pum; ajymcGihf&wJh twGuf
aMumihf tifrwef *kPf,lrdaMumif; ajymyg&ap/ usaemf[m
wuúodkvfbGJY& wa,mufr[kwfyg/ trSeftwdkif; ajym& &if
bGJYESif;obif tcrf;tem;qdkwm 'DaeYrS wufzl;wmyg/
'DbJGYESif;obif tcrf;tem;rSm usaemfhb0 Zmwfvrf;av;
okH;yk'f ajymyg&ap/ rdefYcGef;t&SnfBuD; r[kwfyg/ BuD;BuD;
us,fus,f taMumif;t&mawG r[kwfyg/ Zmwfvrf;
okH;yk'fxJyg/

qmavmifrGwfodyfyg? &l;oGyfyg...
Steve Jobs ajymMum;cJhonhf rdefYcGef;

128

yxrqkH; Zmwfvrf;uawmh qufpyfykHazmfjcif;
taMumif;yg/

usaemf Reed College rSm ajcmufvyJ wufNyD;
ausmif;xGuf cJhygw,f/ 'gayr,fh ausmif;u rcGgEdkifao;yJ
aemuf 18 vavmuf twef;awG qufwuf cJhygw,f/
usaemf bmaMumihf ausmif;xGufcJh&w,f xifygovJ/

'DZmwfvrf;u usaemf rarG;cif tcsdefu pNyD;
ajymjy&rSmyg/ usaemfhudk udk,f0ef&SdwJh tcsdefrSm tar[m
tdrfaxmif r&Sdao;wJh bGJYvGefausmif;ol wa,mufyg/
tJ'gaMumihfvnf; usaemfhudk arG;pm;zdkY ay;vdkufr,fvdkY qkH;
jzwfcJhygw,f/ usaemfhudk arG;pm;r,fh rdbrsm;[m bGJY&
ynmwwfawGom jzpfoihfw,fvdkY tarh pdwfxJrSm tBuD;
tus,f pGJaecJhygw,f/

'gaMumihfvJ Oya'ynm&Sif wa,mufeJY olYZeD;
wdkYu usaemfhudk arG;NyD;NyD;csif; vTJ,lvdkufzdkY BudKwif pDpOf
xm;cJhygw,f/ jzpfcsifawmh usaemfudk ]tl0J} qdkNyD;arG;vdkuf
wJh tcsdefrSm olwdkYu rdef;uav;rS vdkcsifygw,fvdkY pdwf
ajymif; oGm;cJhygw,f/ 'gaMumihfrdkY tcsdefrawmf nBuD; oef;
acgifrSm arG;pm; rdbavmif; wef;pD pm&if;xJu usaemfh
rdbrsm;udk zkH;qufcJhygw,f/

]'DrSm rarQmfvihfbJ a,musfm;av; wa,muf &
xm;w,f/ ,lrvm;...} wJh/ rdbrsm;uvJ ]odyf,lwm
aygY...} wJh/ tJ'Dvdk ay;vdkufNyD;rS usaemfh&JU tar[m bGJY&
ynmwwfr[kwfwm? usaemf&JU taz[mvJ txufwef;
ausmif;awmifrS ratmifwmudk usaemfh arG;rdcifu odoGm;
wmyg/ arG;rdcif[m arG;pm; pmcsKyfrSm oabmwlaMumif;
vufrSwf xdk;ray;cJhygbl;/ aemifvaygif; tawmf MumNyD;
usaemfh&JU rdbawGu usaemfhudk ]wuúodkvf xm;ay; ygY
r,f...} vdkY uwday;rS arG;rdcifu pdwfavsmhNyD; vufrSwf
xdk;ay;cJhwmyg/

aemuf 17 eSpf tMumrSmawmh usaemf wuú
odkvfausmif;om; jzpfvmcJhygw,f/ 'gayrJh usaemf[m
tqiftjcif uif;rJhpGmeJY Stanford wuúodkvf eD;yg; pm;
&dwfBuD;wJh wuúodkvfudk a&G;cJhygw,f/ usaemfh&JU wuú
odkvfynma&;twGuf tajccH vlwef;pm; rdbrsm;&JU pkaiG
awGtm;vkH;udk usaemf okH;rd&ufom; jzpfoGm;ygw,f/

aemufajcmufv tMumrSmawmh 'Dynma&;[m
wu,fay;&wmeJY wefw,fvdkY usaemf rxifawmhygbl;/
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138

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139

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xm;ygonf/

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2. 1984 by George Orwell

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1. Siddhartha by Hermann Hesse
1934 ckESpfwGif emrnfausmf ]jrefrmjynf aeY&ufrsm;]

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rdrdukd,fudk tm;udk;a&;om y"me usaMumif; wifjyxm;wJh

140

3. To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee

1930 jynfhESpf tar&duef awmifydkif;jynfe,f
awGrSm vlrsKd;a&;eJY pD;yGm;a&; cGJjcm;qufqHcH&wJh tjiif;yGm;
zG,f jyóemrsm;udk wifjyxm;onf/ t"r®jyK usifhw,fvdkY
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4. A Clockwork Orange by Anthony Burgess

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pmzwfoludk tawG;csJUxGifrIrsm;pGm ay;edkifonf/
5. For Whom the Bell Tolls by Ernest Hemingway

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6. War and Peace by Leo Tolstoy

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onf/ urÇmhxdyfwef; pmtkyf (100) wGif xdyfqHk;rSm ae&m,l
xm;aom pmtkyf jzpfonf/
7. The Rights of Man by Tom Paine

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tkyftjzpf owfrSwfMuonf/ aomrpfydef;udk tar&duef

141

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wGif xkwfa0cJhNyD;? pmtkyfaumfyD 1 'or 7 oef;ausmf
8. The Social Contract by Jean-Jacques Rous- a&mif;cJh&onf/
seau

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jyxm;wJh pmtkyfjzpfonf/ 1762 ckESpfrSm a&;cJhwJh ½l;qdk;&JU
]vlrI y#dnmOf} pmtkyfu jyifopfeJY Oa&myrSm EkdifiHa&;jyK
jyifajymif;vJrIrsm;? awmfvSefa&;rsm;udk jzpfay:atmif
vIHYaqmfay;cJhonf/

9. One Hundred Years of Solitude by Gabriel
Garcia Marquez

13. The Wind in the Willows by Kenneth Graham

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wifjy xm;onf/

14. The Art of War by Sum Tzu

ppfa&; r[mAsL[meJY enf;AsL[mrsm; twGuf
a&S;tusqHk; pmtkyfwpftkyf jzpfonf/ ppfa&;omru?

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jcif;&JU ta&;BuD;yHkudk trsKd;rsKd;aom ZmwfaMumif;ajym yHkpH eJY
a&S;a[mif; w&kwf ppfa&;usrf; pmtkyf jzpfonf/
vSvSyy zGJYqdk wifjyxm;wJh 0w¬K jzpfonf/ udkvHbD,m
pma&;q&mu 1967 ckESpfrSm pydefbmomeJY yxrqHk; xkwf 15. The Lord of the Rings by J.R.R. Tolkien
a0cJhNyD;? aemufydkif; bmompum; 30 ausmfjzifh jyefqdkcJh
20 &mpk t*Fvdyfpmayorkdif;rSm ay: jyLvm
Muonf/
tjzpfqHk;eJY MoZmtBuD;qHk; 0w¬Kpmtkyf wpftkyf jzpfonf/
10. The Origin of Species by Charles Darwin

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atmif pGJaqmifEkdifwJh pmtkyfjzpfonf/

vlom;&JU rlvZmwfjrpfESifh obm0 avmuESifh
ywfoufNyD;? vlYtzGJYtpnf;rsm;&JU tawG;tjriftay: xl; 16. David Copperfield by Charles Dickens
xl;jcm;jcm; *,uf&dkufapcJhwJh pmtkyfjzpfonf/ 1859
t*Fvdyf pma&;q&mBuD; csm;vf'pfuif;pf&JU &Spf
ckESpfrSm a&;om;cJhNyD;? csm;vfpf 'g0ifu vlom;&JU jzpfpOfudk tkyfajrmuf pmtkyfjzpfNyD;? 1850 ckESpfrSm pwif xkwfcJh
ZD0 qifhuJwdk;wufrI vrf;aMumif;uae pOf;pm;jycJhonf/ onf/ 'pfuif;pf udk,fwdkifu "rdbtrsm;pkvdkyJ? om;orD;
trsm;BuD;xJu wpfa,mufudk tcspfqHk; jzpfwwfovkd?
11. The Wisdom of the Desert by Thomas Merton
usaemfvnf; a&;orQawGxJu a';Apfaumfyg;zD;vfudk

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atmif b,fvdk aexdkifrvJ? b0rSm BuD;rm;wJh pGrf;tm;awG
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&atmif b,fvdkvkyfrvJ qdkwmawGtay:? oHk;&mpkeJY
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pnf; xdef;odrf;EkdifpGrf; &SdzdkY wifjyxm;jcif; jzpfonf/
rsm;&JU tawG;tac: tqdktrdefYrsm;udk pkpnf;wifjy xm;wJh
tar&duef c&pf,mef bkef;awmfBuD; aomrwfpf rmwif&JU 17. Four Quartest by T.S Elliot
pmtkyfjzpfonf/

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12. The Tipping Point by Maclolm Gladwell

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142

pum;ajy av;yk'fudk pkaygif;xm;jcif;jzpfNyD;? armf'efacwf&JU
taumif;qHk; uAsmpum;ajy tjzpf owfrSwfcH&onf/

18. Catch-22 by Joseph Heller

1961 ckESpfrSm tar&duefoa&mf pma&;pma&;
q&m *sKd;Zuf[Jvfvm a&;cJhwJh 20 &mpk taumif;qHk; vuf
&m pm&if;0if pmtkyfjzpfonf/ AsL&dkua&pDpepfudk oa&mf
a0zefwJh pmtkyfjzpfNyD;? pmtkyfemrnf Catch-22 rSm
taemufEkdifiHrsm;wGif aeYpOfoHk; Aef;pum;wpfck txd jzpf
vmcJhonf/
19. The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald

1920 jynfhESpfrsm;rS *sufZf aw;*Dwacwfudk
aemufcHxm;NyD;? emrnfausmf ]tar&duef tdyfruf} udk wif
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20. The Catcher in the Rye by J.D Salinger

tar&duef pma&;q&m a*s'Dqvif;*smu 1951
ckESpf q,fausmfoufrsm; twGuf &nf&G,fa&;wJh pmtkyfjzpf
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21. Crime and Punishment by Fyodor Dostoyevsky

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pma&;q&m a'gYpwdk,AfpuD;u qmbD;,m;rSm jynfajy; 5
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22. The Prince by Niccolo Machiavelli

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qJyif jzpfonf/

143

23. Walden by Henry David Thorean

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24. The Republic by Plato

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25. Lolita by Vladimir Nabokov

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26. Getting Things Done by David Allen

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onf/
144

27. How to Win Friends and Influence People by
Dale Carnegie

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onf/ OD;EkESifh Ardk;wdkYu jrefrmjyefqdk cJhMuonf/

28. Lord of the Flies by William Golding

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xm;wJh pmtkyf jzpfonf/
29. The Grapes of Warth by John Steinbeck

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30. The Master and Margarita by Mikhail Bulgakov

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145

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rar
Source: CNN
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2007 ckeSpfwGif xkwfjyefcJhonfh rSwfwrf;wGif

Source:
Nature
Magazine
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147

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148

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149

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150

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151

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152

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wkef;ygyJ/ ykZGefarG;jrLa&;vkyfief; u ykZGefuef&JU ywf0ef;usif
tajctaetay:rSm wnfrSDygw,f/ NyD;awmh ykZGef a&m*g
'Pfudkvnf; cH&vG,fygw,f/ tJ'Dvdk tdrfaxmifpkrsKd;awG
tzdkYawmh a~uG;u wifNyD;&if;wif jzpfaeawmhwmygbJ/
tJ'DxJu wcsKdU tdrfaxmifpkawGuawmh 0ifaiG&SmzdkY wjcm;
ae&mawGudk ,m,D ajymif;a&TU oGm;Muygw,f/

rdrdwdkY aexdkif&m ywf0ef;usifrSm ajymif;vJvm
onfESifhtrQ þuJhodkYaom rwwfomvGef;í ajymif;a&TU
oGm;&rIrsKd;onf vmrnfhESpfrsm;wGif rJacgife,fajr a'o
ae vlrsm;xJrSm ydkí ydkí tjzpfrsm; vmayvdrfhrnf/

]ck xkwfvTwfaewJh "gwfaiGYawGudk txGuf &yf
oGm;atmif vkyfvdkuf r,fqdk&ifawmif yifv,fa&u
vmr,fh q,fpkESpf wpk? ESpfpk twGif;rSm pifwDrDwm 2030 jrifhwuf vmaetHk;rSmyg}[k ukvor*¾rS vdkifu qdkyg
onf/

]avmavmq,f cefYrSef; wGufcsufrIt&qdk&if
2050 ckESpf a&muf&if yifv,f a&rsufESmjyif[m 75 pifwD
rDwm jrifhwufNyD; jzpfygvdrfhr,f/ 'Da'ou vlawG[m
tvGef qif;&Jaeao;wmaMumifh 'Dvdk yifv,f a&rsufESm
jyif jrifhwufvmwJhtcg touf&Sif &yfwnf Ekdifa&;twGuf
EkdifiHwum&JU tultnD vdktyfygvdrfhr,f/}
armifarmifoef;
Source: Guardian newspaper

9^11 wdkufcdkufrI 10 ESpfjynfhwGif urÇmh vkHNcHKa&;ESifh ywfoufaom
okawoe pmwrf;ESifh aqmif;yg;rsm; a&;om; az: jy cJhMuaomfvnf; vuf&Sd
urÇmhvkHNcHKa&;udk t"du Ncdrf;ajcmufvmaeaom &moDOwk ajymif;vJrIudk rsuf
uG,f jyKcJhMuonf/

pufwifbm wdkufcdkufrI ESpfywfvnfaeY rwdkifrD wpf&uftvdkwGif
*smref odyÜHynm&Sif wpfOD;rS tmwdwf a'owGif a&cJ wnf&SdrIonf tedrfhqkH;
tqifhodkY rSwfwrf;opfwif a&muf&SdcJhaMumif; &moDOwk ajymif;vJrIESifh
ywfoufí owday; ajymMum;cJhonf/

urÇmBuD;\ ajrmufydkif; a&cJjyifonf wjznf;jznf;jcif; avsmhus
aeonf/

þuJhodkY avsmhusae&jcif;\ t"du taMumif;t&if;rSm urÇmh
ajrmuf0if&dk;pGef;wGif opfawmrsm; jyKef;wD;rIonf t"du t&if;cHjzpfaMumif;?
urÇmh&moDOwkrSmvnf; cefYrSef;í r&Ekdifaom enf;vrf;jzifh ajymif;vJae
aMumif; ajymMum;cJhonf/ pufwifbm 8 &ufaeYwGif *smreDEkdifiH Bremen
wuúodkvfwGif okawoe ynm&Sifrsm;rS 2007 ckESpfonf tmwdwfa'owGif
a&cJ t&nfaysmfrI trsm;qkH;jzpfaMumif;? 2011 a&cJ t&nfaysmfrIrSm 'kwd,
pHcsdefwif 'kwd, taetxm;wGif &SdaeaMumif; axmufjycJhonf/

2007 ckESpf pHcsdefwifxm;rIonf rMumrD usKd;ysufawmhrSm jzpf
aMumif; tar&duef aumfvdk&m'dk&Sd trsKd;om; qD;ESif;ESifh a&cJokawoeXme
odyÜHynm&Sif Mark Serreze u ajymqdkcJhonf/ ] 'DESpf&JU xl;jcm;rIuawmh

apmjynfhndK

urÇmhvkHNcHKa&;udk Ncdrf;ajcmufaeaom

tmwdwf a&cJjyif t&nfaysmfrI
153

xl;jcm;wJh &moDOwk tajctae r&SdcJhbl;? aEG&moD &moD
Owk tajctaeuvnf; ykHrSef tajctaerSm a&cJ
t&nfaysmfrIu 2007 ckESpf tqifhxd a&mufaew,f?
tmwdwfa&cJjyif[m yg;vTmaewJhtwGuf ykHrSef &moDOwk
tajctaerSmwif qufvuf t&nfaysmf aeOD;rSm jzpfyg
w,f} [k ajymqdkcJhonf/

2007 ckESpfrS pwifum tmwdwfa&cJjyif
t&nfaysmfrIaMumifh urÇmhtaemufajrmufESifh ajrmufyif
v,f a&vrf;aMumif;rSm waeYwjcm; us,fjyefYvsuf
&Sdaeonf/ rMumao;rDu a&eHwif oabFmwpD;onf
tar&duef? [lpwefNrdKUrS tmwdwf ork'´&mudk jzwfoef;
ckwfarmif;&m xdkif;EkdifiH arwmzk a&euf qdyfurf;odkY 8 &uf
c&D;jzifh a&muf&SdcJhonf/ ,cifu oabFmrsm; oGm;vmí
r&aom tmwdwf ork'´&monf ,cktcg &moDOwk
ajymif;vJrIaMumifh oabFmrsm;yif oGm;vmaeMuNyD jzpf
onf/

1979 ckESpfwGif arG;aom uav;onf touf
50 rjynfhrD tmwdwfa'owGif aEG&moDü a&cJ vkH;0r&Sd
onfudk awGY&rnf[l\/ þajymif;vJrI jzpfpOfonf urÇmh
ajymif;vJrI jzpfpOfwGif tvGef jrefqefjcif; jzpfonf/ urÇm
BuD; ylaEG; vm&jcif;\ tusKd;quftjzpf tmwdwfa'o\
taetxm;onf tjzLa&mifrS eufjyma&miftjzpf ajymif;
vJoGm;rnfjzpfNyD; ork'´&m a&jyifonf ae\ tylcsdefudk 24
em&D pkyf,l&rnf jzpfonf/ tjzLa&mifrS teufa&miftjzpf
ajymif;vJoGm;ygu urÇmha&jyif? ajrjyifü wpfpwk&ef;rDwm
ywfvnfwGif tylpGrf;tif 0 'or 3 0yf xyfwdk;vmrnf
jzpfaMumif;} aemfa0EdkifiH 0if&dk;pGef; okawoeXmerS
[wf'qifu wGufcsuf jycJhonf/ ol\ wGufcsufrIrsm;
onf tmwdwfa'oü a&cJ vkH;0r&Sdawmhonfh tajctae
udk tajccHxm;jcif; jzpfonf/

þtylcsdefonf urÇmajrjyif taetxm;ESifh
nDrQonfh pwk&ef;rDwm oef;aygif; 510 tus,ft0ef;udk
pGrf;tif ay;EdkifpGrf;&Sdonfh taetxm;jzpfonf/ urÇmh
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a'owGif yxrqkH; jzpfay: NyD;? tmwdwfa'o\ tylcsdefrSm
vGefcJhaomESpf 30-40 u &SdcJhaom tylcsdefxuf 3 - 5
pifwD*&dwfxuf ydkrdk jrifhrm;aeonf/ ,ck aqmif;&moDwGif
tmwdwf a'o\ tylcsdefrSm 21 pifwD*&dwf txufwGif
&Sdaernf jzpfonf/

urÇmBuD; ylaEG;vmrIonf urÇmw0Srf;&Sd vlom;
tm;vkH;udk xdcdkufaprnf jzpfonf/ (Global Governance Project) rS az: jycsuft& ouú&mZf 2050
ta&mufwGif &moDOwk ajymif;vJrIaMumifh urÇmw0Srf;ü
'ku©onfOD;a& oef; 200 &Sdrnf jzpfonf/

urÇmh&moDOwk ajymif;vJrIonf urÇmh tem
*wfudk pdefac:aeaomfvnf; tar&duef tygt0if zGHYNzdK;NyD;
EkdifiHrsm;rS pdwfyg0ifpm;jcif; r&SdbJ tMurf;zufrI wdkufzsuf
a&;twGuf a':vm x&DvD,HESifhcsDum okH;pGJcJhMuonf/
tD&wfESifh tmz*efwGif ppfa&;twGuf okH;cJhaom aiGaMu;
onf av? aea&mifjcnf? a&vIdif;ESifh ajratmuf tyl
avmifpmwkdYrS vQyfppfpGrf;tif xkwf,l okH;pGJygu tar&d
uefEkdifiH taejzifh 100 &mcdkifEIef;txd atmifjrifrI &&SdEkdif
rnf jzpfaMumif; u,fvDzdk;eD;,m; tajcpdkuf umAGef okaw
oeXmerS &pf&Spf [rf;bwfrS axmufjycJhonf/
apmjynfhndK
Source: IPS/ Record Arctic Ice Melt Threatens
Global Security

wdk;wufjzpfxGef;rI rSeforQ vlYtzGJYtpnf;eJY
wkdufcdkuf ppfcif;&wmcsnf;ygyJ/
George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950)
jyZmwfq&mESihf a0zefa&;ynm&Sif/
pmayEkdb,fqk (1925)? atmfpumqk (1938)
154

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tBuD;tuJ Kemira u ajymqdkvdkufonf/

tcsKdUaom uRrf;usifolrsm;rS ouú&mZf 2020
ta&mufwGif a&twGuf ukefusrnfh aiGrSm tar&duef
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ajymqdk aeMuonf/

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tcsdefwGif Kemira "mwkukrÜPD\ 75 &mcdkifEIef;aom
tjrwfaiGrSm a&oefYpifjcif;rS &&SdcJhonf/ vGefcJhaom ESpf
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onf/

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qm;iefa&rS a&csKd jyKvkyfjcif;xuf ukefusp&dwf ydkrdk ouf
omaMumif; axmufjycJhonf/

a&eH a&mif;csjcif;jzifh csrf;om ~uG,f0vmaom
aqmf'Dtma&AD;,m;EkdifiHonf ol\ tem*wf a&zlvkHrI
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urÇmhwOD;csif; a&okH;pGJrI\ ESpfpOf ESpfq wdk;vsuf&Sdonf/
aqmf'Dtma&AD;,m; EkdifiHonf vmrnfh q,fpkESpftwGif;
a&ESifh pGrf;tif&&Sda&; twGuf tar&duef a':vm 133
bDvD,H &if;ESD; jr§KyfESHrnf jzpfonf/
ckdif&r®m
Source: Reuter

155

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rdawzdk;

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t,f'DwmtzGJY
maukkha@gmail.com
editors@maukkha.org
www.maukkha.org

159

vlom; p ay:xGef;vmwJh ae&m

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160

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161

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162

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jrefrmwkdif;rfpf *sme,frSm azmfjychJzl;whJ tdE´d,u
skype okH;whJ q&mwpfa,muf taMumif; 'DrSm http://
www.myanmar.mmtimes.com/2011/tech/514/
tech01.html zwfyg/

bmaMumihf wkd;wuf

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jrefrmbmomeJY okH;vkdY &ovm;

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vnf; rD;tm;rSm AdkY 40-50 rQom 0if
onf/ rD;tm;jr§ifhpuf&Sdaom tdrfeD;
csif; tcsKdUrSm rD;vif;Ekdifaomfvnf; rD;
tm;jr§ihfpuf r0,fEkdifaom uRefawmf
wkdY tdrfrSm rD;acsmif; wpfacsmif;yif zGifh
í r&yg/ rD;tm;enf;enf; aumif;aom
tcsKdU nrsm;rSty naygif;rsm;pGmrSm
za,mif;wdkif rD;a&mifav; atmuf
wGifom wpfnwm tvkyfrsm; NyD;pD;
Mu&\/

uRefawmfwkdY nDtpfudk ESpf
a,mufu ausmif;rS tdrfpmygvm
vQif za,mif;wdkif rD;a&mif atmuf
wGif acgif;csif;qdkifí tdrfpm vkyfMu
onf/ pmusufMuonf/ wpfcgwpf&H
ararrSm uRefawmfwdkYtm; pmppfay;
onfh *dkufq&mrBuD; jzpfaeonf/
pmusufNyD; ararhxHwGif pmjyef Mu
onf/ ocsFmwGufNyD; ararhxHwGif
trSm;trSef ppfcdkif;&onf/

n 8 em&Dausmf uRefawmf
wdkY tdyf&m0ifNyDqdkrS araru olY t
vkyfudk qufvkyfonf/ ararh tvkyf
rSm wjcm;r[kwf? &yfuGuf twGif;rS
vlBuD;vli,f tcsKdU\ tusÐ? abmif;
bD? vHkcsnf? *g0ef tp&Sdaom tyf
xnfav;rsm; vmtyfvQif pufcsKyf
atmf'g vufcHjcif; jzpfonf/ yifyef;
wBuD; csKyfí wxnfNyD;rS aiG ig;q,f?
wpf&mom &aomfvnf; txnfawG
trsm;BuD; aygif;vdkufvQif axmifcsD
í&onf? uRefawmfwdkY\ ausmif;
p&dwf tcsKdU umrdonf[k qdkum tm;
onfh tcsdefav;rsm;udk vkí xdkt
vkyfudk arar vkyfaejcif; jzpfonf/

arar tydk0ifaiG &zdkY tusÐ
csKyf&onf[k qdkaomf azaz bmvkyf

ygoenf;/ uRefawmfwdkY\ azazonf
q&m0efBuD; wpfa,muf r[kwfyg/
tif*sifeD,mBuD; wpfa,muf r[kwf
yg/ ukrÜPDydkif&Sif olaX;BuD; wpf
a,mufvnf; r[kwfcJhyg/ aemifwpf
csdef xdkxdkaom q&m0ef? tif*sifeD,m?
olaX;ol~uG,faygif; rsm;pGm jzpfvm
rnhf vl&nfcRefrsm;udk arG;xkwf ay;cJh
aom ausmif;q&m wpfOD;om jzpfyg
onf/

txufwef; ausmif;om;
BuD;rsm; jzpfMuonfh udk;wef; q,f
wef; ausmif;om;rsm;udk pmoif ay;&
aom? wynhfrsm; cspfonfh ocsFmESifh
½lyaA' q&mjzpfygonf/ ausmif;csdef
wGif pmoifay;&Hkomruausmif;qif;
csdef nydkif;rsm;wGifvnf; olY ausmif;
om;rsm; oif&dk; ausnufa&;twGuf
tcrJh tcsdefydk pmjy ay;ao;onf/

arar uRefawmfwkdYudk jyef
vnf ajymjycsuft& azazhudk olY w
ynfhrsm; awmfawmf cspfMuygonf/ ESpf
wdkif; ESpfwdkif; tv,fwef;rS udk;wef;
q,fwef;odkY wufvmaom ausmif;
om;rsm;onf olY pmoifcsdefqdkvQif
tvGefaysmfMuonf/ pmoif&if;ESifh
ausmif;om;rsm; NiD;aiGYvmonf[k
cHpm;&vQif ausmif;om;rsm;udk &,fp
&mrsm; ajymjywwfygao;onf/

ocsFmESifh ½lyaA' yHkao
enf;rsm; ajym&NyD qdkvQifvnf; BudK;
pm;yrf;pm; usufaezdkY rvdkbJ wpfcg
wnf; ao&myg pGJoGm;avmufonfh
Oyrmrsm;? um&Hav;rsm;ESifh ajymqdk
oifMum; wwfygao;onf/ (aemif
wpfcsdef uRefawmf txufwef;
a&mufí oifcef;pmopfrsm; oifMum;
&onfhtcg uRefawmf i,fpOfu az
az uRefawmhfukd acsmhjrL&if; uAsmvdk
EIwfwdkuf &GwfjycJhzl;aom ]reD reD
xx? xx eDr eDr} qdkonfrSm

uRefawmfoif&onhf ocsFmpmtkyf
xJrS BwD*dkEdkarx&D (Trigonometry)
ygvm;[k oabmayguf&if; aus;Zl;
rsm; wifrdygonf/)

azazonf BudrfvHk; udkif
aom q&mwpfa,muf r[kwfcJhyg/
azaz cPcP ajymzl;onf/

]BudrfvHk;udkifNyD; ausmif;
om;awGudk trdefYay;w,f qdkwm
Ncdrf;ajcmuf tmPmoHk;wmeJY twlwl
yJ? ausmif;om;awG[m pmBudK;pm; csif
pdwf wu,f&SdvdkY pmvkyfwmxuf
q&m q&mrawG&JU BudrfvHk;udk
aMumufvdkYom pmvkyf&wm jzpfae
w,f? tJ'Dvdkqdk ausmif;om;awG&JU
awG;ac:rI pGrf;&nf? tm;xkwfrI pGrf;
&nf awG[mvnf; yifudk,f &Sdo
avmuf yGifhxGuf rvmawmhbJ
aMumuf&GHUwJhpdwfeJY pnf;rsOf; atmuf
rSmyJ abmifcwf cHae&w,f/} [lí
jzpf onf/

tb,frQ wefzdk;&Sd vkduf
onhf pum;ygenf;/ tvm;wlyif
uRefawmfwkdYudk azaz qHk;rvQifvnf;
b,fawmhrS &dkufavh r&Sd? qlavh r&Sd/
tNrJwrf; em;0ifatmif ajymonf/
Oyrmrsm;ESifh csdefxkd; jyonf/ ]'g r
vkyfeJY} ]'grvkyf&bl;} [laom wpf
csufvTwf trdefYxuf ]'gvkyf&if

'gjzpfw,f} ]'Dvdk vkyfvdkY 'Dvdk jzpf
vmw,f} [laom vuffawGYqef
onfh Oyrmrsm; ay;onf/ arar
vnf; azazhqDrS tarGrsm; &cJhonf[k
qdk&rnf/ uRefawmfa&m udkBuD;a&m
vlysKd0ifMuonfh tcsdefrsm;ü uRef
awmfwdkYESifh &G,fwl vli,ftcsKdU aq;
vdyf cdk;aomuf? t&uf cdk;aomuf
aeMucsdefwGif arar uRefawmfwdkYudk
]aq;vdyf raomuf&bl;} ]t&uf
raomuf&bl;} [k taMumif; jycsuf
rygaom trdefYrsKd;udk rxkwfcJhyg/

ararh qHk;ryHkrSmvnf; pdwf
0ifpm;zG,f wpfrsKd;aumif;onf/ aqG
rsKd; r*FvmaqmifrS vufaqmif t
jzpf urf;aom aq;vdyfudk tdrfodkY
tjyef ,lvmonf/ uRefawmfh a&SUodkY
rD;jcpfESifh xdkaq;vdyf csay; onf/

]om;... rif; [dkaeYu ar
arhudk jyefajymjywmav? rif;oli,f
csif;awG ausmif;u tjyef aq;vdyf
cdk;aomufMuw,fqdk}

][kwfw,fav arar?
'DaumifawG wpfa,mufwpfvSnfh
aomufaevdkufMuwmrS awmfawmf
t&om &SdwJh twdkif;yJ}

]tif;... tJ'gqdk rif;
aomufMunhf}

]araruvnf; aq;vdyf

169

aomufwm raumif;bl;qdk}

]rif; aq;vdyf wpfcgrS
raomufzl;bl; r[kwfvm;}

][kwf? raomufzl;bl;
arar}

]at;... aq;vdyfwpfcgrS
raomufzl;bJeJY aq;vdyf raumif;
bl; qdkwm b,fvdkvkyf odvJ? aomuf
Munhf om;}

]Asm}

uRefawmf rSifwuf aerd
onf/ wpfqufwnf;rSmyJ ararh
vkyf&yf twGufvnf; em;rvnfEkdif
jzpfae&onf/ odkYaomf trSeftwkdif;
0efcH&vQif uRefawmf prf;í aomuf
MunhfcsifaeonfrSm trSefyif jzpf
onf/ aq;vdyfaomufwm raumif;
bl; qdkaom twef;xJrS q&mr qHk;r
oHaMumihfvnf; tenf;i,f wGefYae
rdonf/

odkYaomf arar cGifhay;wkef;
prf; aomufMunhfrnf[k qHk;jzwf
csufcsNyD; rD;jcpfESifh aq;vdyfudk qGJ,l
vkdufonf/ twef;xJrS oli,fcsif;
rsm; ausmif;u tjyef cdk;aomufovdk
pwdkifrsKd; twkcdk;NyD; aq;vdyfudk yg;
pyfrSm awhvdkufonf/ xdkYaemuf
rD;n§dNyD;onfESifh wpfNydKifeuf uRefwmf
pí touf½I rSm;awmhonf/ trSefrSm
touf½Iaeus twkdif; yHkrSef ½Ivdkuf
rdjcif;yif/ okdYaomf yg;pyfrS wqifh rD;cdk;
aiGYrsm; tqrwef uRefawmfh vnf
acsmif;xJodkY tvkt,uf wdk;0if
vmMuonf/

]t[Gwf}

acsmif;wpfcsuf pqdk; vdkuf
onf/ aemuf &yfí r&awmh? acsmif;u
r&yfrem; qdk;vmonf/ rSifwufrdí
aq;vdyfudk yg;pyfrS jyefxkwf&ef arh
avsmhaeonfh tavsmuf acsmif;qdk;
í toufjyif;jyif; ½Idufvdkufrdwdkif;
170

rD;cdk;aiGYrsm; qufwdkuf wdk;0ifí vm
onf/ aemufrS owd&NyD; aq;vdyfudk
yg;pyfrS qGJjzKwfrdonf/ odkYaomf
acsmif;u r&yfrem; qdk;í aeNyD/

]t[Gwf t[Gwf t[Gwf
[Gwf[Gwf t[Gwf[Gwf[Gwf}

uRefawmf\ yxrqHk;ESifh
aemufqHk;tBudrf aq;vdyf aomuf
jcif; tawGYtBuHK jzpfonf/ aemif
wGif uRefawmfhudk aq;vdyfaomuf
rvm;[k ar;vQif acgif;udk wGifwGif cg
&rf;rdavmufonf txd arar t&dk;pGJ
atmif oifMum;ay;vdkufaom aq;
vdyf rkef;enf;yif jzpfayonf/

xdkrQ t0ifqdk;aom rkef;p
&m aumif;aom aq;vdyfudk vltrsm;
tb,faMumifh pGJpGJNrJNrJ ESpfESpfNcdKuf
NcdKuf aomufoHk; aeMuygoenf;/

]Budrfzefrsm;pGm pGJNrJ vkyf
aom tvkyfonf tcsdef Mumvm
onfESifh trQ tavhtxozG,f jzpf
vmonf} [laom qdk&dk;twdkif;yif
jzpfrnf xifonf/ xdkpOfu tawmf
yif cH&cufvdkufonfh jzpfjcif;yif/
rsuf&nfrsm;0J? acsmif;qdk;&vGef;í &if
bwfwpfckvHk; atmifhonfh tjyif
rD;cdk; oD;onfh cHpm;rIBuD;udk ,aeYwdkif
tawmfyif rkef;rSef;rod rkef;ae rd
onf/

araray;aom t&uf
Oyrmvnf; xkdenf;twkdif;yif/ ab;
tdrfrS vlysKdBuD; OD;wif0if; aomuf
avh&Sdaom t&ufykvif;rS arar
t&uf 10 zdk;avmuf oGm;awmif;
0,fNyD; uRefawmfwdkY nDtpfudk ESpf
a,mufudk ac:onf/

]om;wkdYa& vmOD;}

ESpfa,mufvHk; a&mufvm
NyD; ararh a&SUrSm 0ifxdkifMuaom tcgrS

]a&mh... 'gudk wpfiHkpD
avmuf aomufMunhfprf;}

]bmvJ arar}

NydKifwl ar;vdkufrdMuonf/

]uJyg
ar;raeMuygeJY?
aomufrSmom aomufMuprf;yg} qdk
í cGufudk a&SUodkY xyfwdk;ay; vkduf
onf/

b,fawmhrqdk udkBuD; t
ay: tNrJ Adkvfuswwfaom uRef
awmfuyif cGufudk qGJ,lí wpfiHk
aomufvdkufonf/

]tm;... arar... ylw,f
ylw,f? t&ufysHawGvm;/ arar
bmvdkY wdkufwmvJ} [lí atmf&if;
uRefawmf twif; axG;xkwfrdonf/

udkBuD;vnf; odvdkaZmjzifh
,laomufonf/ olvnf; xdkenf;
vnf;aumif;yif? twif; axG;xkwf&
onfh tjzpfodkY a&muf\/ xkdYaemuf
ESpfa,mufvHk; tdrfaemufaz; a&u
jyifodkY tajy;oGm;MuNyD; yvkwfusif;
Muonf? a&tdk;pifodkY tajy;oGm;NyD;
yg;pyfxJrS ylavmif cg;oufaom
t&om raysmufrcsif; nDtpfudk ESpf
a,mufvHk; a&rsm; w0aomuf aerd
Muonf/ xkdpOfü uRefawmfwkdYudk
wdkufaom cGufuav; udkifNyD; arar
uRefawmfwdkY ab;em;odkY a&mufvm
onf/

]uJ .. b,fvdk aeMuvJ}

]arar? tJ'g bmawGvJ?
t&ufysHeHY BuD;/ ylvnf;yl cg;vnf;cg; ..
om;awmh vnfacsmif; avmifNyD;
aoNyD rSwfwm} [k uRefawmf ajym
awmh

udkBuD;u ]tif;av? bm
awGvJ arar} [k pum; 0ifaxmuf
onf/

]tJ'g t&uf qdkwmyJ
om;wdkY? vlawG ydkufqH tukefcH? t
csdefukefcHNyD; aomufaeMuwm/ uJ
aumif;vm;? t&om &SdMuvm;}

][ifhtif;}

NydKifwl ajzvdkufMuonf/

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rSm jzpfjzpf? BuD;rSyJ jzpfjzpf raumif;bl;
vkdY taMumif;jycsufr&Sd wm;jrpf xm;
&if pl;prf;csifMuw,f? ydkNyD; vkyfcsifMu
w,f? tJvdkeJY prf;&if; prf;&if;uae
t&SdefvGefNyD; tavhtx wpfck vdk
jzpfNyD; pGJoGm;MuwmyJ? aq;vdyf?
t&uf? aq;ajcmuf? bdef;? avmif;
upm;? tJ'gawG tukef twlwlyJ/

om;wdkY aq;vdyfvnf;
arar prf;aomufcdkif;Munfhzl;vdkY prf;
aomufzl;MuNyD r[kwfvm;? at; ..
bdef;wdkY aq;ajcmufwdkY qdkwm 'Dxuf
ydkqdk;w,f? tprf; rcHbl;? poHk;rdwmeJY
pGJNyD; ao&mygawmhwmyJ? aq;vdyf
awmif tJavmuf qkd;ae&if bdef;qdk
ydkqdk;NyD qdkwm odxm;Muawmh? tck
t&uf raumif;aMumif;vnf; odNyD
aemf}

][kwf} [k ESpfa,mufvHk;
NydKifwl ajzjzpf Mujyefonf/

]at; .. rl;,pfaq; qdkwm
uawmh b,fawmhrS aumif;w,fvdkY
r&Sdbl;? tukefvHk;u vludk qdk;usKd;
udk,fpD ay;Muwmcsnf;yJ? om;wdkY tJ'D
todudk wpfoufvHk; rSwfxm;NyD;
qifjcifMuayawmh}

ararh tqHk;tru w
u,f xda&mufonf/ udkBuD;a&m
uRefawmfa&m ,aeYtcsdefxd aq;
vdyf vHk;0 raomufMuyg/ rl;,pf
aq;qdk a0vma0;/ t&uf bD,m
udkawmh wpfcgwpfav rdwfqHk pm;
yGJrsKd;? ygwDrsKd;&Sdonhf tcg vlY ,Ofaus;
rI t& tenf;tyg; aomufMuonfh
tcgrsm; &Sdonf/

odkYaomf ]raumif;} [l
aom todudk arar oHrIdpGJ uyfay;
xm;onhf tavsmuf b,fawmhrS

rl;onf txd? pGJavmufonf txd
rjzpf&ef xdef;EkdifMuonf/ t&uf
rl;,pfaq;0g;aMumifh udk,fhb0udk,f
zsufqD;rnfh olrsm;xJwGif uRefawmf
wdkY ryg0ifawmhonfrSm ararh aus;Zl;
rsm; jzpfonf/

þodkYjzifh azazESifh arar
rSm uRefawmfwdkY\ tBuD;rm;qHk;aom
b0\ yJhudkif q&mESpfql jzpfMuonf/
azazonf uRefawmfwkdYudkomru
tem*wf\ &ifaoG;i,faygif;? vl&nf
cRefaygif; rsm;pGmudk arG;xkwfay;cJh zl;
aom rGefjrwfonfh apwem q&m
wpfOD; jzpfonhf tavsmuf arar
onfvnf; uRefawmfwdkY b0\ ae
enf; xdkifyHk toG,foG,fudk vuf
awGY yJhjyif qHk;ray;cJhaom aus;Zl;&Sif
rdcifwjzpfvJ jrwfq&myif jzpfonf/

uRefawmfwdkY rdom;pkav;
rcsrf;omyg/ i,fpOfwnf;u csKdUcsKdUwJh
wJhESifh BuD;jyif;vm&onf/ azaz &
&Sdaom ausmif;q&m vcESifh arar
&&Sdaom tyfcsKyfxnfav;rsm;rSm
uRef awmfwdkY aeYpOf toufquf&
aom xrif;eyfrsm; jzpfvmcJhzl;onf/

[if;raumif;aomfvnf;
uRefawmfwdkY twGuf yDwdrsm;jzifh Nrdef
apcJhonf/ 'Dtaz 'Dtar&JU om;
jzpfcGifh&onfhtwGuf uRefawmf *kPf
,lonf/ auseyfonf? yDwdjzpfonf?
wpfNydKufeufwnf; azazhudkvnf;
pl;pl;epfepf vGrf;rdonf/

azazrSm aeYpOf pmoif &
onhf twGuf ausmufoifykef;rS ajr
jzLrIefYrsm;\ xdk;ESufcsufaMumifh uRef
awmf txufwef; wufonfh ESpf
rSmyif tqkwfa&m*gjzifh uG,fvGef cJh
&onf/ xdktcsdefwGif uRefawmfh tpf
udkrSm tif*sifeD,mbGJYyif &vk&cif
tcsdef jzpfaeNyD/ rD;a&mif rSdefatmuf
wGif uyfaMu;'Pf&m A&yGESifh arar

tusÐcsKyfí auR;cJhaom xrif;udk pm;
í uRefawmfwkdY vlvm;ajrmuf cJh
onf/ uRefawmfwdkY nDtpfudk ESpf
a,mufvHk; za,mif;wdkif rD;a&mif
atmufwGifyif bGJY&&SdcJhMuonf/

arar csKyfay;aom ydwfp
tydkif;jywfav;rsm;ESifh csKyfxm;aom
tusÐudk 0wfqifcJh&onfh udkBuD;rSm
,aeYtcg cefYnm; vSyaom wdkuf
wm taqmuftODrsm;udk udk,fwdkif
wnfaqmuf&onfh tif*sifeD,mBuD;
wpfOD;jzpfaeNyD/

ajrjzLudkifí uav;rsm;udk
rNcdrf;rajcmuf? BudrfvHk;azsmufí pm
oifcJhaom azazhom; uRefawmf
onf ,aeYtcg xkdenf;wlpGmyif rql?
r&dkuf aqmhyifudkifí ausmif;om;
A[kdjyK oifMum;enf;jzifh pmoifMum;
aeaom ausmif;q&mBuD;wpfOD; jzpf
vmcJhNyD/

uRefawmfhpmoifcef;udk a0
zefydkif;jcm;pOf;pm;Ekdifaom? ausmif;
om;rsm;\ tawG; tac: aumif;rsm;
arG;zGm; ay;Ekdifaom Thinking
Classroom tjzpf zefwD;EdkifcJhNyD/
araroifay;cJhaom t&uf rkef;wD;
enf;? aq;vdyf rkef;wD;enf;rsm;udk
vnf; tcgtcGifhoifhvQif uRefawmfh
ausmif;om;rsm;udk wpfqifh jyefvnf
oifMum;&ayOD;rnf/

jrwfq&m rdbESpfyg; tyg
t0if oifq&m? jrifq&m? Mum;q&m
rsm; tm;vHk;udk &Sdcdk;vsuf/

atmufwdkbm (5) &uf
urÇmh q&mrsm;aeYudk *kPfjyKaom
tm;jzifh.....
armifaomfZif (csif;rdkif)

171

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w&kwfEkdifiH
taemuf
awmifbufu ,leef jynfe,f[m
wdkif;jynfuae xGufNyD; b0opf pvdk
wJh w&kwfawG twGuf tNrJwrf;
xGuf ayguf wpfck jzpfaecJhygw,f/

,leefjynfe,f&JU oufEk
opfawmawGudk jzwfNyD; ukef;vrf;
c&D;eJY w&kwfEdkifiHxJu cdk;aMumif
cdk;0Suf xGufoGm;Ekdifygw,f/ vefcsrf;
jrpftwdkif; pkefqif;NyD; rJacgifjrpfxJ
auGYaumuf pD;0ifoGm;wJh a&aMumif;
vrf;uvnf; jrefrm? vmtkd? uarÇm
'D;,m;? AD,uferftxd aygufatmif
oGm;Ekdifygw,f/

tJ'Dae&mawGudk wpfBudrf
pD usaemf jzwfoef; cJhygw,f/ aeylusJ
usJ teDa&mif oJajray:rSm rem;wrf;
172

avQmufvSrf;cJh&w,f/ tJ'DtcsdefrSm
usaemf pdwful; tawG;awGuvnf;
½l;oGyfvdkY aeygw,f/

1989 ckESpf ausmif;om;
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(29? 09? 2011)

179

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om;awG[m q&m q&mrawGudk cyf
pdrf;pdrf;yJ aeMuw,f/ &if;ESD;vdk[ef
rjywJhtjyif jyHK;jy EIwfqufjcif;yif

r&Sdwmudk awGY&ygw,f/

ausmif;u &Gm&JU ta&SUbuf
rSm &Sdygw,f/ &Gm&JU tjyifbufvdkY
awmif ajymvdkY &ygw,f/ tJ'DrSm "edrdk;?
0g;x&Hum? ajrpdkuf taqmifav;u
usr oif&r,fh pwkw¬wef;yg/

tJ'D acwfwkef;u pwkw¬
wef;ac:wJh 4 wef;u NrdKUe,fppf? bkwf
ppfvdkY ac:ygw,f? ta&;BuD;ygw,f/
wcsKdU tJ'D 4 wef;udk rausmfEkdifvdkY
ausmif;xGufoGm;&wmawG &Sdygw,f/
twef;xJ a&mufNyD; udk,fhudk,fudk
uav;awGeJY rdwfquf pum;ajym
&if; tuJcyfwJhtcg uav;awG[m
q&mrudk &if;ESD;vdk[ef rjy? cyfpdrf;
pdrf;yJ jzpfaewmudk awGY& jyefygw,f/

pmroifcif uav;awGeJY
&if;ESD;rI&rS jzpfr,fqdkwJh tawG;? u
av;awG tm;xm;rI? ,HkMunfrIudk &rS
jzpfr,f qdkwmudk awG;rd vdkufygw,f/
yxrqHk;aeYuawmh cyfwef;wef; pm
oif&if; NyD;qHk;cJh&ygw,f/
(3)

&efukefudk aeYcsif;jyefvdkY
r&wJhtwGuf ausmif;rSm wm0ef
xrf;aqmifwJh q&m q&mrrsm;[m
&GmxJrSmyJ tdrfiSm; aeMu&ygw,f/
usrwdkY q&mr 3 a,muf[m 'D&GmrSm
t&ifuwnf;u a&mufESifh aewJh
q&mr ESpfa,mufaewJh tdrfrSmyJ
tdrfvc a0pkxnfhNyD; pkaevdkufMu
ygw,f/

q&mrwpfa,mufu ]'D
&Gmu uav;awGu q&m q&mrawG
tay:rSm pdk;&drfpdwfawG &Sdaew,f/
aemufNyD; r,Hkovdk bmvdkvdk jzpfae
Muw,f/ pmoif&if bmrS tpGef;
rxGufapeJY} vdkY ajymygw,f/ usreJY
twl a&mufvmwJh q&mr ESpfa,muf
u tJ'DtwGuf bmrS xl;jcm;[ef rjy?

olwdkYu oli,fwef;ESifh yxrwef;
oif&olawGqdkawmh uav;awG u
vnf; b,fvdkrSrae? olwdkYuvnf;
bmrS rod/

usru 'D&Gm taMumif;
enf;enf; Mum;zl;em;0 &Sdxm;wm&,f?
'Da&mufrS ausmif;om;awG&JU tjyK t
rl&,f? ydkNyD; owdxm;rdwmu pmoif
ESpf0uf a&mufaeayr,fh ausmif;
om;awG ausmif;vmwufzdkY pkpnf;
ae&wmawG&,f tm;vHk;udk pdwf0if
pm; aerdygw,f/

'gaMumifh ausmif;tkyfq&m
BuD;u q&mrwdkY tqifajyMuvm;
ar;wm usr wpfa,mufyJ wckawmh
tqifrajybl;vdkY ajymvdkufygw,f/
q&mBuD;u usrudk aocsm MunfhNyD;
]q&mr tm;wJhtcsdef usaemfh &Hk;cef;
vmcJhyg} ajymygw,f/

ckrS ausmif;NyD;cgp bmoif
wef;rSvnf; rwufcJh &wJhtjyif
ausmif;rSmvnf; toufti,fqHk;
jzpfaewJh usrudk ta&;BuD;wJh twef;
ay;NyD; oifcdkif;wm q&m q&mrawG
0dkif;NyD; uefYuGufwmudk qefYusifNyD;
twef;ydkiftjzpf tyfwmawG Munfh
vdkuf&if q&mBuD;[m usrudk awmf
awmf tuJcyf xm;w,fqdkwm usr
&dyfrd xm;ygw,f/

]vlawG[m toufBuD;
vm&if a&vdkuf ig;vdkufyJ aecsifMu
awmhw,f/ 'ghaMumifh toufBuD;vm
wJh q&mq&mrwawG[m pmoifNyD;
&ifawmfNyD? usefwm pdwfr0ifpm;Mu
awmhbl;} qdkNyD; pum; pvmygw,f/

usrvnf; q&mBuD;udk
ai;Munfh&if; pma&;q&m &kyf&Sif'g
&dkufwm armif0PÖudk jrifa,mifrd yg
w,f/ aq;ayghvdyfuav; cJaerSjzifh
ydkawmif wlygao;w,f/ &Gmtjyef
armfawmfay: apmapm a&muf&if
181

acgifrdk;ay: wufxdkifNyD; aq;ayghvdyf
cJvdkY jrpfxJ [dkai; 'Dai; aeygw,f/
wjcm;&Gmu wcsKdU toufBuD;wJh vl
BuD;ydkif;u q&mBuD;udk rodawmh ][kd;
acgifrdk;ay:u oli,fBuD;awmf... t
xkyfuav; vSrf;qGJNyD; trdk;ay: wif
ay;prf;yg} qdkNyD; rMumcP tcdkif; cH&
wwfygw,f/

armfawmf tvkyform;u
tJ'DawmhrS tl,m; zm;,m; ajy;vmNyD;
txkyfudk o,fygw,f/ bmtaqmif
ta,mif? bm[efyefrS r&SdwJh ausmif;
q&m yDowJh ausmif;tkyfBuD; wpf
a,mufyg/ q&mBuD;u olYvuf
atmufu q&mrwpfa,mufudk
ajymwmxuf orD; wa,mufudk
ajymovdk usrudk ajymjyygw,f?

tvu zm;ul;rSm oli,f
wef;u tXrwef; (&Spfwef;) txd
&Sdygw,f/ &GmawGrSmu uav;
ausmif;xm;&if ajcEkdifvufEkdif &SdrS
xm;Muwmqdkawmh rsm;aomtm;jzifh
7 ESpf 8 ESpf avmufa&mufrS ausmif; p
xm;Muygw,f/ yHkrSef wpfESpfwpfwef;
atmif&ifawmif 8 wef; a&muf&if 16
ESpfavmuf jzpfaeMuygNyD/ tJ'D tcsdef

182

u 4 wef;rSm wpfçaejyef&if wcsKdU
touf ESpfq,favmufrS 8 wef;
a&mufygw,f/ tJ'Dawmh &Spfwef;
ausmif;om;awG[m rsm;aomtm;
jzifh 15 ESpfuae 20 ESpf ywf0ef;usif
awGygwJh/

88 umvrSm ausmif;om;
awG[m or*¾0ifawG jzpfcJhMuNyD; Ekdif
iHa&; tajymif;tvJeJY twl wcsKdUu
vnf; NLD vli,fawG jzpfygw,fwJh/
oefvsif AHk;aygufuGJtNyD; odrf;usKH;
&rf;orf; zrf;wJh tcg NLD vli,f 40
eD;yg; tzrf;cH&ygw,f/ zm;ul;rSm
Zlvdkif 12 &uf NLD tpnf;a0; vkyf
aecsdefrSm 0ifzrf;wm jzpfygw,f/

ausmif;u twef;BuD;
ausmif;om;awG tukefeD;yg; tzrf;
cH&ygw,f/ &GmxJu vli,f vl&G,f
wpfa,mufrS rcsef tm;vHk; ac:oGm;yg
w,f/ usef;rma&; raumif;wJh olu
vGJvdkYygwJh/ &GmrSm wpfOD;wnf;aom
q&m0efjzpfwJh NLD u a'gufwm
xGef;ol? &efukefu tvnfa&muf
aewJh olYwlyg rcsef tm;vHk;udk zrf;
oGm; ygw,fwJh/ aemufydkif; ppfcHk&Hk;rSm
trIppfawmh oefvsifAHk; azmufcGJrI

uae ,l*sD vkyfygw,fqdkwJh pGyfpGJcsuf
awGeJY axmif'PfawG usukefygawmh
w,f/

a'gufwmxGef;oleJY olYwl
u axmif'Pf tESpf 20 ausmf usyg
w,fwJh/ v,fxJ a&mufaewJh vli,f
wpfcsKdU olwdkYrsufaphatmuf rawGYwJh
olwcsKdUyJ vGwfygw,fwJh/ tJ'Dwkef;u
wpf&GmvHk; pdwfrcsrf;rom jzpfcJh&yg
w,fwJh/ ausmif;rSmvnf; &Spfwef;
ausmif;om; r&Sdawmhbl;/ tck&SdaewJh
ausmif;om; tenf;i,fu &GmeD;csKyf
pyfu olwdkY&GmrSm tv,fwef;
ausmif; r&SdvdkY 'D&GmrSm vmwufMuwJh
olawGygwJh/

'D&Gm[m tpGeftzsm;&Gm
jzpfwJhtwGuf awmf&Hk b,folrS rod
Edkif? 'D&GmrSm tpnf;a0; vkyfwm b,f
vdk odvJ qdkwJh tawG;awG 0ifvmMu
owJh/ tpdk;&zufu vlawGvnf;
t0iftxGuf r&SdygwJh/ tJ'Duwnf;
u tpdk;& 0efxrf;qdk tpdk;&vlqdkNyD; &GHU
MuygowJh/ q&m q&mrawGuvnf;
tpdk;&vcpm;qdkawmh tpdk;&bufu
yJqdkNyD; cyfpdrf;pdrf;awG jzpfukefMuyg
w,fwJh/

ausmif;olav;awGu carmufav;awG udk,fpD aemufrSm
odkif;vG,fxm;ygw,f/
]...wdkYb0&JU i,fpOf wavQmuf... &GmOD;ausmif;u tkef;armif;acguf...
a&mifeDvm rdk;OD;ayguf... ca&yif&Sd&m tajy;...} qdkwJh ae&m a&mufawmh
carmuf uav;awG cRwfNyD; yef;aumuf xnfhwJh trlt,m vkyfMuygw,f/

'DtaMumif;awG Mum;&wJh
tcg usr i,fpOfu Mum;zl;cJhwJh
qifpG,f&Gm vlowfyGJudkawmif owd
&rdygw,f/ wpf&GmvHk;&Sd a,mufsm;
awG tukefowf ypfvdkufwmyg/ ck
vnf; xl;rjcm;em;ygvm;vdkY awG;rdyg
w,f/
(4)

tJ'DaeYu pNyD; usr ordkif;
bmom&yfudk poifygw,f/ tJ'DrSm
ausmif;om;oydwf? AdkvfcsKyfatmif
qef;taMumif;? vGwfvyfa&;aeY?
yifvHkpmcsKyfeJY jynfaxmifpkaeY pwm
awG oif&if;? ajym&if; ordkif;aMumif;
udk ajc&maumuf&if; usr &yfwnfNyD;
ajymaewmudk olwdkY &dyfrd vmygw,f/
usr b,fbufrSm &Sdw,fqdkwmudk
olwdkY &dyfrdvmNyD; usrudk MunfwJh
rsufvHk;awG ta&mifajymif; vmyg
w,f/ cifrif&iffESD;vdk[ef q&mr qdk
wmxufydkNyD; &if;ESD;csif[efawG jy
vmygw,f/

xl;jcm;wmu &efukefu
q&mr topf a&mufNyD qdkuwnf;u
ausmif;rwufawmhwJh uav; wpf

a,muf ausmif;jyef vmwufMunfh
ygw,f/ wufMunfhw,fvdkY ajym&
wmu olYudk pma&;cdkif;wJh tcg pm tkyf
ygrvmbl;csnf;yJ ajymaewmygyJ/
usr olYudk pmtkyf topfwpftkyf
xkwfay;NyD; aemuf jyefrul;&atmif
'DrSm a&;qdkNyD; ay;vdkufygw,f/

tJ'Duav;[m vufa&;
tifrwefvSNyD; ÓPfvnf; aumif;yg
w,f/ usr olYudk csD;usL;vdkufw,f
qdk tJ'Duwnf;u ausmif; rysuf
awmhygbl;/ olYtudku axmifxJrSm?
tazuawmh tJ'Dwkef;u &GmvlBuD;?
ckawmh tjyKwfaygY/

uav;&JU pdwfxJrSm t&G,f
eJY rrQwJh pdwf'Pf&mawG &cJhzl;w,f/
olYtudkudk ac:oGm;wm? tar rcsdwif
uJ usefcJhwm/ tazudk vlBuD;olrrSef;
av;pm;rIr&Sd? aigufief; ajymqdkwm
awG ol rarhEkdifao;ygwJh/ aemifrSm
tJ'Duav;&JU tdrfa&SU a&mufwdkif;
tJ'Duav;&JU taz[m usr ausmif;
u tjyefudk aoaocsmcsm apmifhNyD;
EIwfquf &Smygw,f/

uav;awGudk usru
q&mreJY a&puf&SdvdkY qHk&wJh t

aMumif; ajymjyygw,f/ 88 ta&;
tcif; rwdkifcif usru bGJYvGefwuf
aeaMumif;? ausmif;awG rzGifhao;vdkY
apmifhaewm jzpfaMumif;/ 'gayrJh
ausmif;om;awG awmfawmfrsm;rsm;
awmxJ a&mufaevdkY (tJ'Dwkef;u
awmcdkw,fvdkY rajymMuygbl;) tJ'D
ausmif;om;awG jyefrvmrcsif; tpdk;
&u ausmif;awG jyefzGifhvnf; r
wufbJ oydwfarSmufzdkY qHk;jzwf xm;
w,fMum;&wJhtwGuf 'gudk axmufcH
wJh taeeJY q&mrvnf; ausmif;jyef
rwufawmhbl;
qHk;jzwfvdkufNyD;
q&mrjzpfvmwJh taMumif; ajymjyyg
w,f/

usreJY usrtwef;u u
av;awG[m wom;wnf; jzpfoGm;yg
w,f/ tJ'DpmoifESpfrSm tvu
zm;ul;u pwkw¬wef; &mEIef;jynfh
atmifygw,f/ wpfausmif;vHk;rSm
pwkw¬wef;u wpfcef;xJ &Sdwmqdk
awmh ausmif;vHk;uRwf atmifw,f
ajym&ifvnf; &ygw,f/

aEG&moD ausmif;ydwf&uf
rSm q&mrwawG &Gmudk wpfacguf jyef
cJh&jyefygw,f/ 1990 a&G;aumufyGJ

183

usif;yawmhrSm jzpfygw,f/ q&m
q&mrawG rJ&Hk apmifhMu&ygr,f/ rJ
a&wGufay;&ygr,f/ &Gmol &Gmom;
awG[m usrwdkY q&m q&mrawG
tay: oHo, &Sdaeygw,f/ vlxk
wpf&yfvHk;u axmufcHaewm NLD
yg/

'gayrJh NLD acgif;aqmif?
ygwD&JUtaxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;jzpfwJh
a':atmifqef;pkMunfudk a&G;aumuf
yGJ 0ifvdkY r&atmif vkyfxm;ygw,f/
'gayrJh tm;vHk;[m carmufyg/ rqv
wjzpfvJ wdkif;&if;om; pnf;vHk; nD
nGwfa&; ygwDuvnf; tiftm;
awmfawmf aumif;aewJh tcsdefyg/
olwdkYu pyg;ESH trSwftom;yg/

zm;ul; rJqE´e,fu c
armuf tEkdif&w,fvdkY odvdkufwJh
tcsdefrSm &Gmom;awG&JU oHo,[m
aysmufuG,foGm;ygw,f/ q&mq&m
rawG[m tpdk;&vljzpfvdkY tpdk;& cdkif;
ovdk vkyfrSm? tpdk;&buf vdkufr,fvdkY
ol wdkY xifxm;yHk &ygw,f/

a&G;aumufyGJBuD; NyD;vdkY c
armuf tEkdif &vdkufNyD;csdefrSmawmh
&Gmom;awGeJY ausmif;u q&mq&mr
awG wom;wnf; jyefjzpfoGm; Muyg
w,f/ tJ'Dwkef;u vlxk wpf&yfvHk;
u carmufudk tifeJY tm;eJY axmufcH
cJhMuayrJh tmPm rvTJao;bJ tajccH
Oya' qGJzdkYudkyJ jyifqifaeygw,f/
a&G;aumufyGJtEkdif& vTwfawmf udk,f
pm;vS,fawGudkvnf; taMumif;
trsKd;rsKd; jyNyD; zrf;qDd;aeygNyD/ ausmif;
tkyfq&mBuD;eJY
&Gmol&Gmom;awG
vnf; pum;0dkif;av;awG jzpfvdkYaeyg
w,f/

tcsdefrSm? rarQmfvifhbJ &mxl;wdk;
ajymif;a&TUrdefY xGufvmygw,f/ tm;
vHk; tHhMo 0rf;om0rf;enf; jzpfukef
ygw,f/ usrvnf; wpfywftwGif;
ajymif;zdkY jyifqif &ygw,f/

'DtcsdefrSmyJ ausmif;tkyf
q&mBuD;udkvnf; &efukefawmif Ouú
vmudk ajymif;a&TUrdefY xGufvmjyef yg
w,f/ q&mBuD;vnf; rdom;pkeJYtwl
ae&NyDrdkY 0rf;omayrJh ausmif;u cGJ&
awmhrSmrdkY tjynfht0 raysmfEdkifygbl;/
usefcJhwJh q&mq&mrawG tm;vHk;
pdwf raumif; jzpfMuygawmhw,f/

ausmif ; tk y f q &mBuD ; eJ Y
usrudk EIwfqufyGJ vkyfr,f? uav;
awGu yGJav; pDpOfMuygw,f/ usr
vnf; uav;awGtwGuf trSwfw&
av;wpfck vkyfay; cJhcsifygw,f/
'ghaMumifh tpnf;a0;rSm yef;aumuf
aw; oDcsif;udk aw;o&kyfazmfuzdkY
pDpOfMuygw,f/

tprf;wdkufwJh
aeYrSm
ausmif;tkyfq&mBuD;u vmMunfhNyD;
]Munfhvnf; vkyfMuygOD;? q&mrwdkY
&,f? usaemf awmifOuúvm ra&muf
bJ tif;pdef a&mufaeygOD;r,fvdkY}
&,farm ajymoGm;ygw,f/

ausmif ; ol a v;awG u
carmufav;awG udk,fpD aemufrSm
odkif;vG,fxm;ygw,f/ ]...wdkYb0&JU
i,fpOf wavQmuf... &GmOD;ausmif;u
tkef;armif;acguf... a&mifeDvm rdk;OD;
ayguf... ca&yif&Sd&m tajy;...} qdkwJh
ae&m a&mufawmh carmufuav;
awG cRwfNyD; yef;aumufxnfhwJh
trlt,m vkyfMuygw,f/

tJ'D oDcsif;rSm wdkYrSm udk,fpD
carmufqdkwJh ae&ma&mufawmh c
(5)
armufuav;awG acgif;ay: aqmif;

zm;ul;&Gmu usr ausmif; vdkufMuwmyg/ wpfyk'fvHk;rSm carmuf
om;awGeJY usr txm usvk uscif qdkvdkY 'Dwpfae&mxJ ygwmyg/ 'gayrJh
184

tm;vHk; carmufaqmif;NyD; u &
wmudk auseyfaeMuwmyg/ ausmif;
cef; tjyifrSm &Gmom;awG jynfhae
atmif vmMunfhwmudk awGY&ygw,f/

&Gmu xGufvmNyD; aemuf
ydkif; umvawGrSmawmh q&m q&mreJY
ausmif;ol ausmif;om;awG/ olwdkY&JU
rdb &Gmol&Gmom;awG wpfpdwfxJ
wpf0rf;xJ &SdvmMuwmudk Mum;od&
ygw,f/

ESpfaygif; ESpfq,fausmf
vmNyD; tcktcsdefrSm jyefawG;rdawmh
rif; raumif;awmh jynfolawG
pnf;vHk; nDnGwfrINydKuGJ? jynfolawG
twd'ku©a&muf&wmawG rsuf0g;
xifxif awGYae&ygw,f/

udknDnDOD; axmifuspOfrSm
olY rdb ESpfyg;pvHk; qHk;yg;oGm;cJhw,f/
rqHk;cifrSm b,favmuf udk,fpdwf
ESpfyg; qif;&JcJh& &SmrvJvdkY usr awG;
aerdygw,f/ tJ'D zm;ul;&Gmu vl
awG[m 'DtrIeJY ywfoufNyD; pGyfpGJcsuf
awG trsKd;rsKd; pGyfpGJ cHcJhMu&ygw,f/
aemufqHk;rSm ,l*sDawGyg qdkNyD; olwdkY&JU
cifyGef;? om;? ajr;? wlawGudk ESdyfpuf
n§if;yrf;vdkY ESpf&Snfaxmif'PfawG cs
cHcJh&ygw,f/

olwdkY&JU &ifxJrSm 'Pf&m
'PfcsufawGjynfhNyD; ,HkMunfrIawG
aysmufuG,fukef Mu&wJhtxd jzpfcJh
&ygw,f/ trSefw&m;qdkwm olwdkY
zufrSm r&Sdovdk jzpfcJh Mu&ygw,f/
ordkif;qdkwm azsmufzsufvdkYr&ygbl;/
vlxk&JU &dk;om;at;jrwJh pdwf"mwf
awG[m trSefw&m;awGygyJ/
cdkifcdkifapmvGif

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