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data is anything in a form suitable for use with a computer. Data is often distinguished from programs. A program is a set of instructions that detail a task for the computer to perform. In this sense, data is thus everything that is not program code. Data is represented/organized in a dbms in the form of Schemas, tables, rows and columns One DBMS may have multiple Schemas One Schema may have multiple tables One table may have multiple rows One row may have multiple columns If these tables are related to one another it forms a RDBMS - A Relational DBMS Field: data held on a person can be split into a number of fields; these could be: ± ID; first name; second name; address; town; post code; date-of-birth; etc. Record: a collection of all the fields above on one person. File: a collection of records; a payroll file will contain a record for each person on the payroll. Database: may contain many different files, structured in such a way that information can be obtained from one or all of them at once Data may be numerical data which may be integers or floating point numbers, and nonnumerical data such as characters, date and etc. 89 87 92 The above numbers may be anything: It may be distance in kms or amount in rupees or no of days or marks in each subject etc.,
The reality is that even though executives may not require this knowledge for their dayto-day tasks, understanding how data interrelate only increases their ability to link information, performance, and strategy more effectively. By identifying how business processes and operations link to data, organizations can turn that data into information that can be used for decision making purposes. For instance, many organizations use different sources of information for planning, trends analysis, and managing
a collection of sales leads in a notebook. and the information does not add up the blame for why these numbers are invalid lies at the point of entry of the information into the operational systems. The architecture for DBMSs is divided into three general levels: . C++. y y y y The three-level architecture forms the basis of modern database architectures.performance. there are three broad classes to consider: 1. responsible for writing programs in some high-level language such as COBOL. the application programmer. However.particularly with respect to the data that is used to drive decision making. the end-user. this is in agreement with the ANSI/SPARC study group on Database Management Systems. who controls all operations on the database Database Architecture DBMSs do not all conform to the same architecture. who accesses the database via a query language 3. Although seemingly inconsequential. This means that when decision makers across the organization are analyzing different numbers in order to make decisions that will affect the company. A general overview of how data integration works will provide an outline for decision makers who want a better understanding of how information is gathered to help with the decision making process. Without accurate information. the data being analyzed and reported on becomes meaningless. User Types When considering users of a Database system. Within business intelligence applications the idea of bringing in the right data at the right time becomes critical to reporting and analysis applications. 2. employee records in a filing cabinet. As an example. small discrepancies can make a significant difference to a company¶s bottom line. if data quality control initiatives exist Use of data A database is a collection of data that is related to a particular topic or purpose. the database administrator (DBA). Consequently. etc. the value of the information is only as good as its point of entry into the system. Data entry errors and processing inefficiencies are but a few causes of error-prone data that end up being used to drive an organization¶s decisions. ANSI/SPARC is the American National Standards Institute/Standard Planning and Requirement Committee). the picture changes as a broader and more correct view of the information becomes available. are examples of collections of data or databases.
the external level : concerned with the way individual users see the data 2. the internal level : concerned with the way in which the data is actually stored . independent of any storage considerations.y y y external conceptual internal Three level database architecture Figure 1: Three level architecture 1. 3. the conceptual level : can be regarded as a community user view a formal description of data of interest to the organisation.
COBOL) while the casual user will probably use a query language. It is in general a view of the data as it actually is.supports the manipulation or processing of database objects. They may range from application programmers to casual users with adhoc queries. that is. Each user has a language at his/her disposal. and also a definition of the mapping between the external schema and the underlying conceptual schema.provides for the definition or description of database objects a data manipulation language (DML) . it will include a data sublanguage DSL which is that subset of the language which is concerned with storage and retrieval of information in the database and may or may not be apparent to the user. consisting basically of descriptions of each of the various types of external record in that external view. The application programmer may use a high level language ( e.Figure : How the three level architecture works External View A user is anyone who needs to access some portion of the data. Each user sees the data in terms of an external view: Defined by an external schema. Conceptual View y y An abstract representation of the entire information content of the database.g. . Regardless of the language used. it is a `model' of the `realworld'. A DSL is a combination of two languages: y y a data definition language (DDL) .
so that the external schema may remain invariant. storage structure is ignored access strategy is ignored In addition to definitions. To achieve data independence. the definitions of conceptual records must involve information content only. so that the conceptual schema may remain invariant. . the conceptual schema contains authorisation and validation procedures. achieving logical data independence. achieving physical data independence. A change to the conceptual definition means that the conceptual/external mapping must be changed accordingly. Mappings y y y y The conceptual/internal mapping: o defines conceptual and internal view correspondence o specifies mapping from conceptual records to their stored counterparts An external/conceptual mapping: o defines a particular external and conceptual view correspondence A change to the storage structure definition means that the conceptual/internal mapping must be changed accordingly. It is however at one remove from the physical level since it does not deal in terms of physical records or blocks nor with any device specific constraints such as cylinder or track sizes. The internal view described by the internal schema: y y y y defines the various types of stored record what indices exist how stored fields are represented what physical sequence the stored records are in In effect the internal schema is the storage structure definition.y y y y y It consists of multiple occurrences of multiple types of conceptual record. Details of mapping to physical storage is highly implementation specific and are not expressed in the three-level architecture. Internal View The internal view is a low-level representation of the entire database consisting of multiple occurrences of multiple types of internal (stored) records. defined in the conceptual schema.
2. Student(StudName. courses taken. name of degree. with standard text. of schema Create a new relation for instructors y y y y y y . using some particular DML.DBMS A database management system (DBMS) is a system that stores and retrieves information in a database. the conceptual internal mapping. The DBMS intercepts the request and interprets it. and you can store information about how different subjects are related. grades. It is used to help you organize your data according to a subject. e. etc. Class. prerequisite y Querying Which are the prerequisites of the Database course ? List students who got grade 14 or 16 for the Database course in 1993 Reporting: prepare diplomas. 4. Dept) Population: input data about speci¯c students. the conceptual schema. 3. The DBMS inspects in turn the external schema. The DBMS performs the necessary operations on the stored database Important Functions on a Database y Structure definition: declare 5 ¯les or relations + data types. Modification. so that it is easy to track and verify your data. and the storage structure definition. so that it makes it easy to bring related data together. interspersed with name of student. A user issues an access request. The database management system (DBMS) is the software that: y y handles all access to the database is responsible for applying the authorisation checks and validation procedures Conceptually what happens is: 1. the external/conceptual mapping. StudentNo. update of population Create a new session for the Database course Enter a grade 16 for Smith in the Database Session Modification of structure.g. courses.
personnel data. The data in the database can also be modified. based on the privileges assigned to users. etc. without even realizing.Add Address attribute to relation Stud Advantages of the database management systems Warehouse of Information The database management systems are warehouses of information. which have a secondary key in addition to the primary key. Therefore. It also checks for duplicates within the same table. that depend on that particular database. The tables consist of rows and columns. Systematic Storage The data is stored in the form of tables. The secondary key is also called 'foreign key'. Various users can retrieve the same data simultaneously. Therefore. digital diaries. This enables to reduce the size of the database and helps in easy retrieval of data. that it is being used. Multiple Simultaneous Usage The database can be used simultaneously by a number of users. enabling systematic storage of data. Table Joins The data in two or more tables can be integrated into a single table. No Language Dependence The database management systems are not language dependent. thereby reducing data redundancy. The common examples in commercial applications are inventory data. The primary key helps in the identification of data. Data Security . thus establishing a relationship between the two tables. The best examples for the same. Changes to Schema The table schema can be changed and it is not platform dependent. the tables in the system can be edited to add new columns and rows without hampering the applications. where large amount of data can be stored. There are tables. etc. The primary and secondary key help to eliminate data redundancy. they can be used with various languages and on various platforms. Defining Attributes The unique data field in a table is assigned a primary key. would be the address book of a cell phone. The secondary key refers to the primary key of another table. It often happens that a common man uses a database management system. Both these equipment store data in their internal database.
the particulars of an individual who may be a customer or client may be stored intwo or more files. y Program/Data Dependency: In the traditional approach if a data field is to be added to amaster file. validity and integrity of related data. Database management systems help to keep the data secured. Some of this information may be changing. The data fetched is in user-friendly format. etc. all such programs that access the master file would have to be changed to allowfor this new field which would have been added to the master record. there is a need for data security. It includes the accuracy. For example. mostinformation retrieval possibilities would be limited to well-anticipated and predetermined y . It may be not easy to even find out as to in how many files the repeating itemssuch as the name occur. but are not allowed to delete the contents of the database. The data in the database must satisfy certain consistency constraints. Therefore. When the database is updated. y y y y Lack of Flexibility: In view of the strong coupling between the program and the data. A database user can view only the abstract form of data. some users can edit the database. the age of a candidate appearing for an exam should be of number datatype and in the range of 20-25.Data is the most important asset. such as the address. thepayment maid. these constraints are checked by the database systems. Abstract View of Data and Easy Retrieval DBMS enables easy and convenient retrieval of data. for example. Disadvantages Database systems are complex. and time-consuming to design Substantial hardware and software start-up costs Damage to database affects virtually all applications programs Extensive conversion costs in moving form a file-based system to a database system y Initial training required for all programmers and users y Data Redundancy The same piece of information may be stored in two or more files. Data Consistency Data consistency ensures a consistent view of data to every user. Forexample. Privileges Different privileges can be given to different users. It is therefore quite possible that while the address in the master file forone application has been updated the address in the master file for another application mayhave not been. the complexities of the internal structure of the database are hidden from him. difficult.
Examples of Entities are: EMPLOYEE CUSTOMER ORGANIZATION PART INGREDIENT PURCHASE ORDER CUSTOMER ORDER PRODUCT An instance of an entity is like a specific example: Bill Gates is an Employee of Microsoft SPAM is a Product Greenpeace is an Organization Flour is an ingredient y y Attribute: A characteristic of an Entity. Properties used to distinguish one entity instance from another. Attributes of entity EMPLOYEE might include: EmployeeID Social Security Number First Name Last Name Street Address City State ZipCode Date Hired Health Benefits Plan .Entities and their Attributes y Entity: Some identifiable object relevant to the system being built.
Attributes of entity PRODUCT might include: ProductID Product_Description Weight Size Cost .
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