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Contributions of Societal Modernity to Cognitive Development: A Comparison of Four Cultures
University of California, Riverside
Robert L. Munroe
This study examined how societal changes associated with modernization are related to cognitive development. Data were from 4 cultural communities that represented a broad range of traditional and modern elements: the Garifuna (Belize), Logoli (Kenya), Newars (Nepal), and Samoans (American Samoa). Naturalistic observations and the performances of 3-, 5-, 7-, and 9-year-old children (N = 192) on 7 cognitive measures were examined. Results replicated age-related improvement on all measures. Contributions of modernity were evident in children’s play behaviors and cognitive performances, especially in skills related to schooling. Modernization and schooling independently predicted differences on most of the measures. Results are discussed in relation to the Flynn effect, the worldwide increase in cognitive scores across generations, and the ways in which societal modernization may contribute to cognitive development.
Cultural contributions to cognitive development have been the focus of research in psychology and anthropology for over a century (Cole, 1996). This research has advanced understanding of how socially organized and ecological experiences affect what children think about, the mental abilities and skills that children develop, and the pace of intellectual growth. Cultural factors that are important in this process include social practices (Goodnow, Miller, & Kessel, 1995), schooling (Greenﬁeld & Bruner, 1966; Rogoff, 1981), and pressures associated with the physical ecology and subsistence patterns (Berry, 1976). Contributions can also stem from other societal changes such as those that align the activities of a more traditional culture with the activities, institutions, and tools of industrialized nations—a process referred to as modernization (Inkeles & Smith, 1974; Super & Harkness, 1997). Modernization typically includes shifts in the production and distribution of resources, increased engagement in commerce, and the availability of
The ﬁeldwork described in this article was supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation awarded to Robert L. and Ruth H. Munroe. We thank Pitzer College for support for the analysis, Peter Gowdy for his earlier work with the data, Nathaniel Light for research assistance, and Michael Kuehlwein, Ronald K. S. Macaulay, Daniel Ozer, Susan M. Perez, Robert Rosenthal, Susan Seymour, and Claudia Strauss for suggestions. We are also grateful to the children and local experimenters who participated in the project. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Mary Gauvain, Department of Psychology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521. Electronic mail may be sent to firstname.lastname@example.org.
various forms of technology that affect how people satisfy basic needs, regulate health and well-being, and communicate with and learn about the world outside the community. In recent years, the contributions of modernization to cognitive development have come to the fore in relation to the Flynn effect (Flynn, 1987, 1999, 2007), with its demonstration of worldwide secular IQ gains. Flynn suggests that resources associated with modernization, including exposure to certain forms of information stimuli (such as mass media like television), may be implicated in these gains. Although Flynn (1999) thought IQ to be related only weakly to intelligence, the rise in scores begs explanation, and we believe that Schooler (1998), in identifying environmental complexity as the source of the Flynn effect, was referring to the type of societal changes that many investigators have included under the heading of modernization. Efforts both to preserve and reorganize a culture undergoing modernization are manifested at the individual level and occur in the home, workplace, and other settings (Inkeles & Smith, 1974; LeVine, LeVine, & Schnell, 2001). These changes affect, on a daily basis, the work people do, the way children are cared for and educated, and the nature and strength of the links between the community and the world beyond the community. Thus, both
Ó 2009, Copyright the Author(s) Journal Compilation Ó 2009, Society for Research in Child Development, Inc. All rights reserved. 0009-3920/2009/8006-0005
H. Although research has examined the Flynn effect by studying cognitive development in non-Western settings over time. Sigman. Although historical data are rare in psychological research. To investigate this topic. Munroe & Munroe. & Neumann. 1998. and 9-year-old children from four cultural communities that differed in modernization at the time the data were collected. Additionally. 1990a. 1966. These childhood ages. academic achievement and motivation. 1998). Our goal was to examine societal modernization and cognitive development and.Societal Modernity and Cognitive Development 1629 inside and outside the home children are exposed to changing modes of acting and interacting. Wilkinson. & Lave. Munroe. we concentrate on cultural variation at the same time period. 1998). Kagitcibasi. Stevenson. wage-labor opportunities. Our analysis is unique relative to other studies on this topic. Greenﬁeld & Bruner. Inkeles & Smith. improved health care. Munroe. Daley. Because modernization is a continuing societal force that is likely to be related in signiﬁcant ways to psychological development. It is an open question whether the temporal changes in cognitive performance described by Flynn are evident when measured at the same point in time across communities that vary in ways that could underlie this effect (Neisser. Bonnevaux. 1997). 1991). LeVine ¸ et al. L. 1989. 1978. Espinosa. were derived from systematic naturalistic observations of the adults in the four sample communities (R. industrialization. 2005). In short. and attitudinal openness to new experiences (Greenﬁeld. Whaley. for example. Munroe in 1978–1979 in communities of Garifuna in Belize.. were chosen because research has shown change across these ages in the areas of cognitive development under study. Sharp. including cognitive growth. 1984). and as a result. others may be regressive or destabilizing. there are many unresolved questions about the relation of modernization to psychological experience. at the time of data collection. Shwayder. H. some topics. R. 1994). such as large-scale societal change. Munroe. Although these studies suggest factors that may contribute to the Flynn effect. ¸ 1998. The association of modernization. for example. in so doing. 1961). which ranged from early to middle childhood.. research is needed that recognizes the complexity of such change while at the same time avoiding untested assumptions of earlier eras.g. 1997. Such analyses can make unique contributions to the developmental literature. as predicted by Flynn (e. Shimmin. & Gonzalez. . Cole. entrepreneurship. 2003). Data Source The data were collected by R. The psychological causes and consequences of cultural changes associated with modernization have not been without controversy (Kagitcibasi. There is active and contentious debate regarding the implicit assumption that modernization is progressive. and Samoans in American Samoa (Gowdy. they had no contact with each other and represented a broad range in terms of traditional and modern elements. Commercialization. Newars in Nepal. 2001. Although ¸ some changes associated with modernization may be beneﬁcial or progressive. 1974. historical analyses may make researchers aware of critical yet missing pieces of theory or data (Goodnow. 1961. L. McClelland. shed light on societal contributions to the Flynn effect. as in Elder’s (1974 ⁄ 1999) study of psychological adjustment following the Great Depression. & Munroe. & Arias. The descriptions below pertain to the communities at the time the data were collected. including absorption of health care knowledge. 7-. Estimates of time use. R. 2007). Westernization. H. Munroe. and individualism has been challenged in research in collectivist cultures such as China (Yu & Yang. 1990b. Munroe and R. increased trade that exposes the population to economic disparity or new diseases. Parker. 1979. represented as proportions of daylight activities dedicated to subsistence work. 2002) and provide insight into the relation between developmental psychology and social change (Pillemer & White. and formal schooling have been linked to cognitive criteria. attending to how differences in experience with modernization were related to children’s cognitive performance. a view that underlay much of the research conducted in the mid-20th century and very likely reﬂected a Western bias of that era (Kagitcibasi. urbanization. & Munroe. 5-. McClelland. Logoli in western Kenya. The four cultures in the present study differ geographically and linguistically and. It is important to note that numerous environmental conditions stemming from modernization have been studied in relation to cognitive change. modernization has direct relevance to processes of human development. we compared the cognitive performances of 3-. Super & Harkness. may only be understood from an historical vantage point (Flynn. 1995. examining societal modernization directly may highlight the contributions of this widespread societal change to cognitive development.
The Newars. The Arawak-speaking Garifuna lived in a town in southern Belize. In the late 1970s. medical facilities with a resident physician. In contrast. (Signiﬁcant numbers of Garifuna and Samoans lived then. large religious structures. A degree of monetization had occurred in all four communities. postal stations. the more . ‘‘The larger the number of methods. The presence of high schools meant not only that the children were expected to pursue education through secondary school but also that their parents in many cases had undergone such a process. only two thirds of the older sample children (7. The Logoli primary school was run by Kenyan administrators and taught by Kenyans. funding and included the presence of some American teachers. The per capita income of Kenya at the time was $380 per year. At the Garifuna site. development and employment programs. The availability of schooling also differed across the communities. the aim of this study was to examine how cultural changes associated with modernization were related to cognitive development.S. children of different ages. both primary and secondary schools were available. Samoans in America Samoa. Although recent governmental policy had instituted free primary education. food was bought in local stores. The educational system of the Newars was indigenous. are descendants of African slaves who settled in Central America in the 1800s following a period in the islands of the Caribbean. the per capita income of Belize was $1. All the households possessed and cultivated patrimonial land. we hoped to gain insight into features of environmental change that contribute to the Flynn effect. interviews. commuters. and this process was facilitated by the presence of local wage earners. In the American Samoa and Garifuna sites. Bantu-speaking group near Lake Victoria. the Garifuna sample had almost completely given up subsistence farming and ﬁshing. and only 6% of the adults’ daily activities was devoted to subsistence work. None of these amenities was available among the Logoli or the Newars. To summarize. As Bornstein (2002) has pointed out. and commercial accommodations for visitors. the main school was run by the Roman Catholic Church (there was also a small. schools in both communities were marked by the inﬂuence of American educational practices. or cultures studied. who are also referred to as the Black Carib. When the data were collected. The community members. At the time when the data were collected. Modernization elements across the four communities. few Logoli men (3%) were employed in wage-labor in the village. and live now. few Newar men (15%) participated in wage labor in the village and 26% of the adults’ daily activities were devoted to subsistence work. in the United States. most men (87%) participated in wage labor in the village. Newars in Nepal. At the time of data collection. lived on dispersed patrilocal. American-run Protestant school). and kept cattle.S. and multiple methods (cognitive assessments.1630 Gauvain and Munroe Garifuna in Belize. The villages of both the Samoans and Garifuna had airﬁelds with regularly scheduled ﬂights. who are members of an equatorial. In American Samoa. Logoli in western Kenya. patrilineally organized homesteads. By including several cultures. ages. Tibeto-Burmanspeaking members of a farming caste in the Kathmandu Valley. the Logoli. with an American clerical hierarchy and some American teachers.and 9-year-olds) attended the school. and naturalistic observation). and 19% of the adults’ daily activities was devoted to subsistence work. and 13% of the adults’ daily activities was devoted to subsistence work. The sample of American Samoans consisted of village-dwelling members of a Polynesian island culture. In addition. though the school still reﬂected its curricular origins in British colonial education. and remittees partially dependent on community members temporarily working in urban areas or even foreign countries. The per capita income in American Samoa at the time was $5.) Despite this homogenizing commer- cial activity. lived in a compact village surrounded by terraced rice ﬁelds.001 per year. multiple shops. the Samoans and Garifuna were experiencing in 1978–1979 a level of modernizing inﬂuences beyond those of the Logoli and Newars. At that time. half the men (50%) had taken up wage-labor employment in the town. In 1979.210 per year. neither the children in the study sample nor their parents had secondary-level schooling. only primary school was present in the Logoli and Newar sites and aside from rare cases. An examination at the end of primary school was structured so that just a small minority was allowed to pursue secondary education. the system was supported by U. and a local villager was the instructor in the government-supported primary school. Although the community continued traditional growing of taro and raising of domesticated pigs. the per capita income in Nepal was $130 per year. at the time of data collection it had become increasingly involved in U. farmed subsistence products such as maize and beans.
These two measures allowed us to compare the contributions made by modernization to children’s performance at the community level and in relation to modernization elements in the child’s immediate home environment.M. each test or part of the test was assigned to either the female or male experimenter. for example. one boy and one girl. Yarbrough. Newar children began schooling at relatively late ages and the modal grade level for all those in attendance was ﬁrst grade. 3-. Children began attending the so-named ‘‘Samoan school’’ as early as the age of 3. the availability of electricity. 1974). sample members were chosen primarily on the basis of age.). The experimenters were given repeated instruction in the testing methods. both experimenters were present throughout the testing session. and they then conducted full practice sessions with children who were not included in the sample. After an initial village census. motor coordination. 7-. late relative to the usual age-graded system. 6 boys and 6 girls from four age groups. within each participating home in the sample communities. and a majority were below expected level for age. such as schooling. Measure of Modernity Modernity was measured by tallying. Although all 192 children were included in the observational portion of the research. the possession of communicative and literacybased appurtenances and other economically advantageous resources that are typically considered indices of societal modernization. were selected for testing and for naturalistic observations. who were ﬂuent both in English and local languages. Almost all parents volunteered to participate (one Garifuna family declined). The Samoans followed an age-graded system. 2005). a male and a female adult. we used these household scores to establish a rank ordering of the four sample cultures. In each location. & Wallace. or that reﬂect culturally speciﬁc practices of childhood. for example. Such experience-dependent skills include certain types of memory performance and pattern recognition. Training and supervision of the local experimenters was conducted by the same researcher (R. & Habicht. We expected to see weaker relations between modernization and cognitive skills that are largely inﬂuenced by maturational processes. One 3-year-old boy in Belize did not do the motor coordination task but took the other tests. with all the 7-yearolds being second graders and all 9-year-olds being fourth graders. In all locations.) and it was identical at all four sites. Schooling varied by community. 1987) and. Actual testing was not begun until the experimenters were adjudged to be fully competent in Method Participants Within each of the four communities. common across cultures. Garifuna children typically began school at age 5 but immediately began spreading over several grade levels. certain types of concept development such as gender constancy.H. that are experience expectant (Greenough. 5-. In addition.H. We expected to replicate age-related improvement on all the cognitive measures (Bjorklund. Roberts. were chosen for training by one of the researchers (R.to 9year-old children in the child’s native language in one session at a central location in each community by either a female or male local experimenter. One measure included the average score per household in each sample community. Two measures of modernity were derived from this information. 4 children did not participate in the testing: one 3-year-old boy in Kenya. both early and . parents of boys and girls in the four age categories whose birth dates most nearly matched each other within the communities were invited to participate.M. and 9-yearolds. and ownership of a motor vehicle. Black. Klein. The 3-year-olds were tested in or near their homes using the same procedure and under conditions that provided as much privacy as possible. Additional school-related skills were imparted during summer sessions as the village pastor gave lessons in arithmetic and in reading (through use of the Samoan alphabet).Societal Modernity and Cognitive Development 1631 compelling is the conclusion that observed ﬁndings can be validly attributed to the theoretical dimension of interest’’ (p. Logoli children had the largest spread in grade levels. a home-based water supply. radio and television sets. therefore. such as children’s participation in forms of work and play (Nerlove. These items included writing tablets and books. Testing Procedures and Measures Seven measures were administered to 5. and one 3-year-old boy and two 5-year-olds in Nepal. 262). We also expected that modernization would relate to areas of mental functioning that are important to the activities and institutions introduced by modernization.
some measures. was r = . Memory task: Recall memory of acted sequences. Also. The skits. Scoring was based on the number of patterns constructed correctly and ranged from 0 to 10. Twelve 1-min sequences of typical activities were portrayed by the male and female experimenter in turn. This measure assessed the child’s willingness to explore novel objects and activities. Raskin. 1971. the child was asked to ‘‘make one just like this. Wechsler. Children were asked to ﬁnd and trace with their ﬁngers the triangular form hidden in each ﬁgure. Because this was an objective measure. Munroe & Munroe. 1963). This task was based on prior work by Grusec and Brinker (1972). The experimenters then moved away from the table and did not speak further to the child. The two experimenters present in each test session shared in the procedure..g. The cognitive measures that were chosen were as language free as possible and children were given practice items to familiarize them with each task before they began the test phase. The child was instructed to watch and to try to remember the experimenter’s actions. L. 1963). using real-life objects. Twelve items modeled on the Group EFT (Oltman. so there were sufﬁcient reminders for the experimenters as to what to do. animals chasing one another) and were designed to attract the child’s interest. displayed high activity (e. p < . that is. Two simple practice items were administered before testing began. Testing was discontinued when a child made errors on two consecutive items. the child was told that he or she could play with any or all of the dolls and other objects left on the table. held. The scoring criteria involved recording how many of the 12 skits the child reenacted following the demonstrations. Block building. After the four skits were completed. that the child identiﬁed correctly. the skits were chosen to reﬂect common activities that children saw adults doing on a daily basis. . were presented in simpliﬁed form. for example. with all objects remaining in sight. the child did or did not enact a speciﬁc skit. Scoring was done on the prescribed scoring sheet. or was involved with any doll or toy was recorded. an experimenter recorded the child’s activity. Willingness to explore (exploration). After three practice items. the child was asked to recall as many of the activities as possible. one by one. which helped ensure the level of familiarity across the sites.’’ with the experimenter indicating by gesture that the child should copy the experimenter’s pattern using blocks laid on a table. 1975). At the conclusion of all 12 sequences. based on familiar cultural activities. Experimenters performed four short skits involving dolls and a variety of toy objects (e. and employed meaningful props. 1971) were shown to the children. which resulted in six skits per experimenter. Experimenters were interviewed regularly as to how the process was going and their recording sheets were checked daily to be sure that all skits were included in the assessments. The child’s block-building skills were assessed with a series of items modeled on the block design task in the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI. The task was presented and the child’s performance was scored exactly as described in the WPPSI manual. As discussed in the WPPSI manual. the experimenter compared the block design produced by the child with the model block design and then noted if the child’s design was a correct or incorrect reproduction of the model. the familiarity of the activities helped ensure that script knowledge guided the demonstrations. In the scoring. as this technique had proven useful in the researchers’ previous experience with non-Western samples (R. For a 5-min period.1632 Gauvain and Munroe the procedures. Each reenactment received a score of 1.. In each community. & Witkin. reliabilities were unnecessary. to the child.001. Unlimited time was allowed. Testing procedures were as similar as possible across the four sites. The measures were modeled on a series of standard Western developmental tests. with a total possible score of 12. loading bamboo on a shoulder carrier. a car) on a tabletop. of the 12 test items. For each pattern. each lasting approximately 30 s. This task was not administered to the 3-year-olds. and the design and training procedure followed their work closely.g.85. This task was not administered to 3-year-olds. Split-half reliability. the standard method for assessing reliability for this measure (Karp & Konstadt. The skits were simple. a dog. The skits were based on information from standard ethnographies on each culture group plus interviews with key informants at the sites. The number of seconds (of 300 possible) that a child touched. however. Scoring was based on the number of ﬁgures. scoring was objective and reliability estimates were not necessary. Embedded Figures Test (EFT). the experimenter presented 10 increasingly complex block patterns (built vertically and in depth). which depicted drawings of each of the block designs that the child was asked to construct.
The proportion of time that a child was engaged in work-related activities was calculated to yield a child work score. The observations yielded two scores used in the present analyses: complex self-managed sequences involving play and child work. and ﬁve items were gender-consistency items (gender unaffected by situations. playing store with real materials). card games). 1989). reliability coding by two independent coders was conducted on approximately 15% of the observations and yielded 93% agreement as to the presence or absence of work by the child. Scoring was based on the number of questions answered correctly and scores ranged from 0 to 4. they were not engaged in supervised or directed work or in other directed activities. From this subset. Child work. complex action sequences (Gowdy et al.000 observational protocols.g.g. This was an objective measure. a child who answered the identity questions correctly but no other questions correctly was identiﬁed as Stage 2.. informal games (e. . and coparticipants. Using criteria adapted from Nerlove et al.e. Stages of gender understanding were determined by the same method as that developed by Slaby and Frey (1975) in the Gender Constancy Scale. e. 1971) was gathered for each sample child. deﬁned here as an activity entailing the autonomous following of an exacting series of behavioral sequences—that is.. holding the doll so that it was visible to the experimenter but blocked from the view of the child. Children were asked to move each of 35 marbles. and infant care. performed by trained local personnel in each community.g. role taking. activity.g. Children were assigned scores based on the proportion of all observational protocols during which they were engaged in SMSPlay. but not the consistency items was identiﬁed as Stage 3. and play with toys. using a predetermined observation schedule. Are you a girl or a boy? Is this a girl doll or a boy doll?).g. Munroe & Munroe. Self-managed sequences involving play (SMSPlay). When you grow up. the child. The number of seconds a child required to complete the task successfully was recorded. If you wore [opposite sex of child. planting and weeding. A child who answered no questions correctly was identiﬁed as Stage 1. the experimenter ﬁrst asked if the child could see it. household chores (e. then if the experimenter could see it. then if the experimenter could see it. e. would you be a girl or a boy?). the experimenter asked if the child could see it. The types of play included were formal games (e. housecleaning. Perspective taking. (1974).. from a table into egg-carton compartments as quickly as possible.. which measured complex SMS-Play. cooking. Gender understanding. (1974) in which the child was asked four questions involving the experimenter. This measure was objective and reliability assessments were unnecessary. Children’s responses to each of the questions were scored as correct or incorrect... Four items concerned gender stability (gender unaffected over time. H. making a mud motor car). The child’s perspective-taking skill was assessed with a task adapted from research by Masangkay et al.. Naturalistic Observations A total of 30 spot observations (R. and a doll. For play. a child who answered the identity and stability questions correctly. independent. For child work. reliability assessments were not necessary. i.g. or imaginative skills. Work was deﬁned as any activity contributing to subsistence such as food-related tasks (e. reliability coding by two independent coders was conducted on approximately 10% of the observations and yielded 94% agreement as to the presence or absence of complex self-managed sequences. protocols were analyzed to extract scores. Next. Holding the doll so that it was visible to the child but blocked from the view of the experimenter..g. dancing).. role playing (e. with 90% of all tested children achieving stage-type responses. were designed to obtain information on children’s activities. errands). these activities were deﬁned as involving mastery of a sequence of behaviors or rules of behavior requiring cognitive strategies. imaginary play (e.g. Six of the 15 items used in the present study pertained to gender identity (e. Gender understanding was assessed by means of a 15-item test modeled on the Slaby and Frey (1975) Gender Constancy Scale. children were engaged in free-play behavior. and a child who answered all questions correctly was identiﬁed as Stage 4. Spot observation is a time-sampling method in which the observer. that is.g. boys’ or girls’] clothes. washing dishes). and reliability assessments were therefore not necessary. Sample children attained varying levels of gender understanding. In approximately 80% of the more than 5. either homemade or manufactured. All other combinations of responses were classiﬁed as nonstage patterns. These observations. one by one..Societal Modernity and Cognitive Development 1633 Motor coordination.. As the measure was objective. scans the activity setting and at each sampling interval records the target child’s location. will you be a mother or a father?).
85 (2.25 (93.70) 15.21 (10. 1. and motor coordination.91. ns. Older children performed better on all the measures except for the variable willingness to explore.05. For SMS-Play.14) 191. all the remaining age contrasts differed (t values ranged from 0. understood the cognitive measures similarly and that the same age-related patterns evident in Western samples appeared in this cross-cultural sample.55) 13.61 (9. or in SMS-Play.54 (2.54 (9.72) 13.76) 7.97 (3.78.72 (117. SMS-Play = self-managed play sequence.00).42.89 (1. There were also no gender differences in years in school.39 to 81. p < .76) 189.52 (2. measures predicted to be important to the activities and institutions introduced by modernization were the EFT.70) 3.21) 9 11.42 (113. all comparisons that included the 3-year-olds differed (signiﬁcant t values ranged from 1.and 5-year-old children and 7. Modernity scores were established for the four community samples.16 to 0. .29 (7.10 to 2.80) 2. the remaining age group comparisons did not differ (t values ranged from 0. EFT. Preliminary inspection of the data showed no gender differences for the entire sample in cognitive performance (F values ranged from 0.02) 15.02 to 1. and willingness to explore novel objects. block building. None of the other age comparisons differed (t values ranged from 0. For the remaining variables.64 (42.25 (114.00) 136.70 (1.83.12) 12.1634 Gauvain and Munroe Results Plan of Analysis Preliminary analyses examined the interrelations of the measures and whether child age and gender were related to these measures.50 (24. p < . block building. They indicate that the children in this study. Preliminary Analyses Child age and gender.31 (20.92 to 4.13) 33.17. 185) = 0.32).69) 3. t = 5. ns). gender understanding and perspective taking.43 (1.89) 4. 0.71) 10.001).52) 1. cognitive skills based on experience-expectant processes (perspective taking and gender understanding).84) 8. Mean values by child age are in Table 1.25 (18. By and large. controlling for child age.57) 9.19. child age was used as a covariate in subsequent analyses.90) 7 10. all but one of the age comparisons was signiﬁcantly different (signiﬁcant t values ranged from 1. and these scores were used to derive modernity rankings of the communities.70) 9.25). and 14.and 9-year-olds did not differ (t values were 0. For child work.05) 10.85 (0.05).57.01. Child age (years) Measure EFT Recall memory Block building Exploration (s) Motor coordination (s) Perspective taking Gender understanding SMS-Play (%) Child work (%) 3 5 8. respectively). Post hoc comparisons of means using Tukey’s honestly signiﬁcant difference (HSD) statistic were used to test speciﬁc age comparisons for each of these variables.33.and 9-yearold children did not differ from each other (t values were 0.96) 6.11. p < . EFT = Embedded Figures Test. g2 ranged from . F(3. Because of these age-related results. recall memory. Table 1 Means (and Standard Deviations) for Dependent Measures by Child Age F values ranged from 3.61) 204.56 (0. the memory task for recall of acted sequences.46 (1. respectively).57. F(1.51) 76. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to investigate the contribution of societal modernity to children’s performance on the dependent measures. only the 7. Analysis of variance was used to examine age effects on the dependent measures.69.68) 3.52) 31.98 (2.87 (0.83) 12.02. 3.69 (8. these patterns reﬂect expected agerelated differences on the measures. 3-year-old children played less than 7-year-old children. 142) = 0.79 (2. To recapitulate. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the unique contributions of modernity and schooling to performance on the cognitive measures.57) 97. Relations of lower magnitude were expected between modernization and behaviors largely inﬂuenced by maturational processes (motor coordination).02 (1.07 and 0. regardless of cultural group.63 to 74. ns.001 to 1.21 (11. For two variables.60 (2.72) 62.89 (3.54) 7.44) 12.05 to . p < .59) 218.61 (2. For four of the variables.60 (18.03) Note.33 (25. or culturally speciﬁc practices of childhood (SMS-Play and child work).43 (2.04.
62 (all signiﬁcant at the . p < .14). t(46) = 1.34. boys: M = 0. To establish internal consistency of the modernity score. Wilks’s Lambda F(12. results indicate that societal modernization was positively related to all the cognitive performance measures and to the behavior observations.001).23. SD = 0. p < . two observation variables). Overall.19.21. Follow-up univariate ANCOVAs indicated that performance on all four variables differed across the communities. with rs ranging from . Thus.33 (girls: M = 0. 132) = 10. with means indicating that girls (M = 0. reffect size = .09.33. electricity. recall memory. was used to examine the contribution of societal modernity in relation to the hypotheses.47. A signiﬁcant effect was found. across the four communities.14). 341. block building. F(3. g2 = . varied sharply by community and was scaled in terms of modernity as follows: American Samoans (82%). F(1.04. The percentage of households with each of these resources.22. t(46) = 2.Societal Modernity and Cognitive Development 1635 F(1.28.74. SD = 0. ns. Societal Modernity of the Four Sample Communities Each participating household in the four communities was identiﬁed as to whether it possessed the following resources: books and writing tablets. with the rank of 1 representing the fewest amenities and the rank of 4 representing the most amenities.001. This pattern indicates that although the measures were related to one another they were not redundant.001.23. A rank ordering of the communities based on the number of amenities present was created. 359. controlling for child age. SD = 0.002.87) = 12. ns (girls: M = 0. g2 = .23.001. reffect size = .11. a home-based water supply. g2 = . and the Newars. there was a gender difference in child work.50.001. SD = 0. Wilks’s Lambda F(27. the Garifuna were ranked third.03 to . g2 = . Within-culture analysis indicated that this difference occurred in the Logoli. recall memory. SD = 0. t(46) = . p < . g2 = . boys: M = 0. SD = 0.18.07). SD = 0. A one-way MANCOVA was used to compare the communities on the four dependent measures predicted to be strongly related to modernization: the EFT. F(3. with results as follows: EFT. Inter.16. block building.20.28.001.11). This rank ordering was used to examine the contribution. the community samples were ranked from 1 to 4 as follows: the Logoli had the fewest amenities associated with modernization.41. reffect size = .70. boys: M = 0.37.001 level or better).30 (girls: M = 0. There was a trend in the same direction for the Samoans.001. and ownership of a motor vehicle. 132) = 19. and the Samoans were ranked as fourth or as having the most amenities associated with modernization. However.07. SD = 0.26. correlations of the dependent measures indicated that for the nine dependent measures (seven cognitive performance variables. p < . F(3.19.13). the Newars had the second fewest.13.60) = 16.15 to . The mean values for the cognitive performance and observed variables for each of the four cultural communities are reported in Table 3. SD = 0. of societal modernity to children’s cognitive performance and observed behavior. 32 (89%) of the 36 intercorrelations were related.10 (girls: M = 0.80.25. p < . SD = 0. F(3.21. and Logoli (28%). Table 2 Percentage of Households in the Four Sample Communities With the Resources Used to Index Societal Modernity Cultural community Logoli (%) 63 66 0 15 51 0 0 28 Newars (%) 69 69 100 0 29 0 4 39 Garifuna (%) 84 93 84 8 87 0 0 51 Samoans (%) 100 100 100 89 87 76 23 82 Newars (39%). p < . t(46) = 2. There was no gender difference in child work among the Garifuna. Cognitive Performance and Observed Behavior in Relation to Societal Modernity Rankings Mulitvariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). and willingness to explore. radio and television sets.59.31. and willingness to explore. p < . coded as present–absent) of .02.61 (with p values ranging from . listed in Table 2. Garifuna (51%). boys: M = 0. Three sets of analyses were conducted to examine the speciﬁc hypotheses.46. A one-way MANCOVA was used to compare the communities on the three dependent measures Resource Writing tablets Books Electricity Water Radio Television Motor vehicle Mean score . 132) = 10. 132) = 63. g2 = . the presence of each of these items was related to the total modernity scores resulting in an average correlation (based on dummy variables. p < . Interrelations of the dependent measures. p < .22. 190) = 1. Examination of the means in Table 3 supported our hypothesis of a positive relation between societal modernity and performance on these measures. 190) = 9.18. p < .21) were observed working more than boys (M = 0.
69 (1. EFT = Embedded Figures Test. exploration. F(3.26 (5.05.81).30.001. block building. F(3. SMS-Play.01. To examine the relation of societal modernity to the dependent variables more closely.g2 = . 187) = 13. all p values < .17 (1.78 (10. Examination of the means in Table 3 indicates a generally positive relation between societal modernity and performance on these measures.001.05 to . 187) = 27. SMS-Play = self-managed play sequence.40) Note.73 (14. A signiﬁcant effect was found.45) = 7. which were moderate in magnitude. and gender understanding (F values ranged from 4.001. g2 ranged from .49 (0. g2 = .78) Observed behavior (%) EFT SMS-Play 9. blocks.11. the largest effects.58 (0.07 to 258.001. Follow-up univariate ANCOVA’s indicated that both variables differed across the communities.78) 290. The magnitude of the effect size for SMS-Play was medium and the effect size for child work was small. performing better than the Newars and the Logoli.67 (29. Newars worked less than children in the .85 (27.44. each dependent measure was examined for each of the six pairwise cultural comparisons.05) 169.06. g2 ranged from . recall memory.15) 92. The Garifuna performed better than the Newars on ﬁve of the measures (EFT. Samoan children outperformed Garifuna children on four of the measures (recall memory.99) 3. all p values < . Our hypotheses regarding the relative magnitude of the effect sizes were partially supported (Cohen.36) 12.52 (18. and the Newars outperformed the Logoli on three measures. However. 411. block building.15 (16.30 (3. Samoan children outperformed Logoli and Newar children (F values ranged from 5.38 (3.18. and gender understanding.44 to 32.81. p < . 93) = 6. p < . speciﬁcally the EFT. one-way ANCOVAs.32) 75. these patterns reﬂect the societal rankings of modernization. g2 = .28.70 (2. The results for SMS-Work.05.71 (47.76) 11. the EFT.43. a signiﬁcant effect was found. 372) = 23. p < . perspective taking.65) Samoans 11. Finally.27) 16.57 (1.15) 24.30) 6.1636 Gauvain and Munroe Table 3 Means (and Standard Deviations) for Dependent Measures by Cultural Community Cognitive measures Recall memory Block building Exploration (s) Motor Perspective Gender coordination (s) taking understanding 100. g2 = .41 (2. F(3.02. 171) = 3. all p values < .73 (0.21 (18.08 to . controlling for child age. F(1.85) 72. were obtained for the four measures hypothesized to be linked to institutions associated with modernization. gender understanding.26). the three measures predicted to be less affected by societal modernization.15) 13.18 to .96. are contrasted with the other two communities.23). recall memory. exploration.33) and the Garifuna outperformed the Logoli on four measures (EFT.39. F(6.73. g2 ranged from .77) 11. F values ranged from 8.34 (106. By and large. the Garifuna and the Samoans. As predicted.60) 12.41. the more modern communities.00) 4. 171) = 8. g2 = . g2 = . motor coordination.19. which are less clear.26 (1.001.06 to . SMS-Play and child work.80) 7. In these analyses. Finally. F values ranged from 9.95) 4.35 to 45.49) 9.52) Newars 10.74). p < . 1988). and willingness to explore. exploration. motor coordination.71 to 395. with results as follows: motor coordination. and gender understanding.18) 3. were conducted.19 (2.58 (2.01.38) 24. p < . g2 ranged from .81 (55. The Logoli outperformed the Newars on SMS-Play.58 (29.12 to .06 (2.74. Wilks’s Lambda F(9.32) 8. and gender understanding. We did not expect these measures to be related to modernization. On all the measures.001.05.76) 267. and child work.35 (0. F(3. Small effects were found for the three measures predicted to have weaker relations with modernity: motor coordination. with results as follows: SMS-Play. all p values < . perspective taking.04) 6. g2 = .05. SMS-Play.47.44) Garifuna 11. F values ranged from 21.75 (4.35) 104.49) 18. Examination of the means in Table 3 indicates a positive relation between societal modernity and SMS-Play especially when the two more modern societies.01. with the Samoans and Garifuna. perspective taking. p < . are further discussed in the following. perspective taking.01 to 27. Follow-up univariate ANCOVA’s indicated that performance on all three variables differed across the communities. 171) = 13.76 (4. g2 = .07 (6.69 (9.60) 11.001. The Garifuna did not differ from the Newars or the Logoli on motor coordination. all p values < . and gender understanding. p < . exploration.42 (2.00 (68. g2 ranged from .31.00) 3.36 (1.11) Work 28. F(3. p < .11.13.93) 3.99) Logoli 7.19 (34.50) 6.83 (3.06. predicted to be less strongly related to modernization: motor coordination. a one-way MANCOVA was used to compare the communities on the observational measures.
p < . t(70) = )2.08 for willingness to explore. However. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to investigate whether modernity contributed to children’s cognitive performance above and beyond experience with school. on the whole. z = 1. years of schooling predicted performance on all the cognitive measures.00 ). and were observed doing less work. p < . g2 ranged from .28). Thus. The Garifuna had more years of schooling than the Logoli. EFT = Embedded Figures Test. and z = 1. Samoans did not differ from either the Garifuna.76*** . p < .16** EFT Societal ranking Household score . ***p < . SMS-Play = self-managed play sequence.59*** SMS-Play . within each sample community.39*** Note. A similar pattern appeared when the correlations for the Samoans and Newars were compared. regardless of cultural community.32. 1. In Step 1. with an average of 2. 188) = 9. . the overall pattern of more household modernity being associated with higher cognitive and behavioral scores holds up across the different societies.01.61 years for the Garifuna.02.33*** . Schooling Experience Years of schooling for the 5-.08.10.17** Child work ).34*** Exploration .001. indicating that the relations between the rank orderings of the cultures on the dimension of modernity and the cognitive performance and observation measures were consistent when these relations were examined with household modernity scores. the amount of variance explained by these two factors differed across the measures. The contribution of schooling and modernity explained more variation for the measures predicted to be associated with modernization.08 for recall memory.10 for SMS-Play. performed better on all of the cognitive measures.43. g2 = . 7-.00 to 7. all ps < .41. As the correlations indicate. Thus. ns. two steps were entered in the regression model (see Table 6).26*** . Although we examined the contribution of modernization as a societal-level variable. engaged in more SMS-Play. respectively.Societal Modernity and Cognitive Development 1637 other three communities (F values ranged from 20. For each dependent measure. several trends emerged when we compared these correlations across the communities using one-tailed tests.25 to 36. 2.16. Table 4 shows the correlations between the dependent measures and the societal modernity rankings and the individual household modernity scores. a like trend appeared when we compared the correlations of the Samoans and the Garifuna for the variable willingness to explore. or the Logoli.17** .64 years for the Newars. z = 1. These correlations are commensurate for all the dependent measures. t(70) = )1. p < .42.23*** Perspective taking .20*** ). p < . with t values (df = 70) ranging from 4.46*** . p < .00 years for the Samoans.001. number of years in school was entered to assess the contribution of school to each measure. Pairwise comparisons indicated that Newar children had signiﬁcantly fewer years of schooling than children in the other three communities. Although none of the correlations was signiﬁcant.30.31. F(3.18 to . with z = 1.27*** Motor coordination ). societal modernity was added to the model. p < . Finally.19.64. and 0.49*** .64 years for the Logoli. z = 1.29*** . An exploratory inquiry was conducted to determine whether these patterns held at the intracultural level. **p < . that is. p < .001. and 9-year-old children differed by cultural community.34*** Block building . 24% of the variance in Table 4 Correlations Between Societal-Level Modernity Rankings and Individual Household Modernity Scores and Dependent Measures Recall memory .001. modernity predicted a signiﬁcant amount of variance in the dependent measures above and beyond schooling. The ﬁnal regression model explained 30% of the variance in performance on the EFT. p < . 190) = 0.42. Results indicate that. The bivariate correlations among the variables are presented in Table 5. The correlations for the Samoans between household modernity and the dependent variables recall memory and willingness to explore differed somewhat from these correlations for the Logoli. and z = 1. In Step 126.96.36.199. ns.18** Gender understanding . children who lived in households that had more amenities. There were no gender differences in years in school. we also investigated the relations between the individual household modernity scores and children’s performance on the cognitive and observational measures to determine whether the same patterns appeared.005. F(1. t(70) = 1. which probably reﬂected lack of statistical power. ns.08.
30** .04 for Step 2 (ps < .05.21** .06 b .44*** .30 for Step 1. Exploration 7.03 0.24** ). DR2 = .06 for Step 2 (ps < .99 0. Gender understanding: R2 = . Gender understanding 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 . EFT = Embedded Figures Test. Motor coordination: R2 = .43** .05 b . Table 6 Summary of Hierarchical Regression Analyses Predicting Cognitive Performance From Schooling and Societal Modernity Step 1 Schooling Dependent measure EFT Recall memory Block building Exploration Motor coordination Perspective taking Gender understanding B 0.15 0.001.72 0.44 )10. the model accounted for 36% of the variance in motor coordination.48** . the effect sizes provided .12 for Step 1.14 0.49** . Motor coordination 8. Discussion This research has replicated typical age-related patterns in children’s cognitive performance.35*** .74** ).01. This indicates that modernity is more predictive than schooling for willingness to explore. The model explained 55% of the variance for this variable.82 0.34** . Recall memory 5.23** ). the contribution of schooling was no longer signiﬁcant.34*** .71 0.94 4.19 0. and 41% of the variance in block building. *p < . Exploration: R2 = .51** .13 0.07 ). Recall memory: R2 = . Schooling signiﬁcantly predicted performance on this measure. recall memory.43** . performed better than Newar and Logoli children on most measures.13 0.25** B 0. **p < .03 0.43*** . DR2 = .67 0.25** .37 for Step 1.11 4.18 for Step 1.48** ). **p < .05 0.25*** . Societal modernity 3. EFT: R2 = . Block building: R2 = . ***p < . *p < . Societal Modernity Rankings.01.83 )8. EFT 4.03 for Step 2 (ps < .10 Schooling SE (B) 0.20* ).82 1. accounting for 15% of the variance in perspective taking and in gender understanding.17* . Children in the Samoan and Garifuna subsamples.15 0.37*** .32** ). Modernization contributed to children’s performance on all the cognitive measures and to more structured play in naturalistic settings. and 9-Year-Olds 1 1.40** . Overall.55** .16 1.34** Note.19* .11 5.44** .01).36** .48 0. An unexpected pattern also occurred for the variable willingness to explore.05.35** .48 68. modernity was entered into the equation. which was predicted to be consistent across cultures. and Cognitive Measures for 5-.02 16.05 b . 7-. DR2 = .61** .95 1. Perspective taking: R2 = . EFT = Embedded Figures Test.72*** ).45** .49*** .33** ).05 for Step 1. and it has done so in all four cultures.51** .23** .17 0. who were the beneﬁciaries of numerous modern resources.03 0. For the two measures associated with experience-expectant processes.49** .56*** .34** . DR2 = .18 for Step 2 (ps < .18* B 1. Schooling 2. Perspective taking 9.25*** .91 0.08 for Step 2 (ps < .55*** . Block building 6.41** ).06 for Step 1.24** .14 SE (B) 0.21* .23 Step 2 Modernity SE (B) 0.12 for Step 1.99 )6. the model explained less of the variance.17 0.15 9.05).29 0. when.61*** . however.01).34** .23** ).60 1.15 5.46** . that is.01).27 0.01).47** . these results are consistent with the hypothesis that societal modernization contributes to the types of cognitive skills implicated in the Flynn (2007).49 for Step 2 (ps < . DR2 = .06 for Step 2 (ps < .30*** Note.23 0.1638 Gauvain and Munroe Table 5 Zero-Order Correlations Among Schooling.24** . DR2 = .001).30*** .33** .48** .01). Although modernization was a signiﬁcant factor for all measures. those that are common across cultures. DR2 = . Unexpectedly.
are relevant to children’s performance in cultures that vary in terms of modernization. Although we know of no other cross-cultural comparison of this behavior. Children were tested individually. That is. Performances that were not expected to have strong relations to modernization. In certain spheres. and Kumpf (1998) point out that since the Stanford-Binet IQ tests were ﬁrst normed in 1932. the mean educational attainment in the United States has risen more than 4 years. namely. can now solve problems that were beyond what Isaac Newton could accomplish (part of that complexity. was largely explained by modernity and not by experience with school. cumulated evidence of worldwide secular IQ gains. Yet a concern with testing effects in cross-cultural analysis is what makes the observational variable in this study particularly interesting. was created by Newton himself). their children reaped the cognitive beneﬁts’’ (p. seemed to be referring to the same class of factors we have discussed under the heading of modernization. may have done better for these reasons. the result is consistent with prior research that found associations between modernization and attitudinal openness to new experiences among adults (Inkeles & Smith. Across the samples. 90). and gender understanding. The other two measures in this prediction. Correa-Chavez. Today’s chess masters play games at levels beyond those of the grand masters . the regression analysis also made clear that one dependent variable. the EFT and willingness to explore novel objects. We know from the literature that. recall memory and block building. Along similar lines. This pattern suggests that even though experiential effects of schooling. Schooler (1998). 300). Rosenbaum. to which adults had been exposed for more than a generation. willingness to explore. such as testing effects. an interpretation borne out in the regression analyses. ‘‘[S]chooled mothers. This advantage of experience with known-answer questions was present in Western Samoa among families with schooled mothers (Duranti & Ochs. Responding to known-answer questions is the most basic convention on an intelligence test’’ (p. two of them. As we have noted. the contribution of modernization to development does not boil down to schooling or testing effects. formal education. Greenﬁeld (1984. Ceci. which imply literacy. & Cotuc. 1974). A graduate student in physics. and especially electronic games and other interactive forms. and urbanization as factors in the Flynn effect and posited that all of these are components of modernization. . ‘‘As the parents of the 1950s and 1960s became more educated. and these two features were more highly intercorrelated than any of the other modernity criteria. like teachers. it almost always possessed writing tablets as well. The Flynn effect (Flynn. 1987. but only part. 1988). and it may have contributed to the better responses of the Samoan and Garifuna children in our testing. meant that on a daily basis the children came into contact with parents and others who had been more highly educated than adults in the Newar and Logoli samples. and they conclude. Structured play was signiﬁcantly related to modernization and the effect size was moderate. Thus. . were medium in magnitude. The presence of both of these factors (see Table 2). In the Samoan and Garifuna villages. 2005). have effected similarly improved cognitive outcomes. 2007) refers to robust. . Perhaps the relation between children’s performances on these measures and modernization was indirect and reﬂected a third factor such as testing effects. child behavior appears to differ in these societies in ways other than those revealed in cognitive tests. Of the four cognitive performances that we expected to be closely aligned with modernization. in proposing environmental complexity to be the source of the Flynn effect. 1999. The fact that these measures had as strong a relation as they did suggest that there was some contribution of modernization. were strongly related to modernity. with the aid of new concepts and formulae in the ﬁeld of physics. Greenﬁeld (1998) identiﬁed technology. but the effect size was small. children with more experience with schooling and who live in cultures with more amenities associated with modernization may be more familiar or more comfortable with the type of testing used in the study. motor coordination. perspective taking.Societal Modernity and Cognitive Development 1639 additional information about the magnitude of this contribution to the speciﬁc measures. improvement over time is obvious. Structured play was also related to schooling. However. if a home had books. and the formality of the language and the presentation of the materials relative to children’s everyday experiences were school-like. as Greenﬁeld (1998) has phrased it. who primarily resided in the cultures ranked as more modern. increased from the Logoli to the Newars to the Garifuna to the Samoans. the presence of higher educational systems. 1996) and Johnson (2005) have made the counterintuitive argument that popular media (including television). children with more school experience. In other words. ask their children [‘known-answer questions’]. All of the cognitive measures were administered in a manner resembling school ´ activities (Rogoff. had a medium effect size.
Maynard. Because modernization includes communication with the world beyond the community. Greenﬁeld. Nevertheless. Our stance is that although modernization is not wholly systematic in its effects. 2007). massive shifts in economic. there was a gender difference in child work. 2002. In today’s world.. and social conditions. 1998) has pointed to some of these issues in relation to her own research in Turkey. The ecology of childhood is changing rapidly around the world. there were no gender differences on any of the cognitive measures tested or in the observations of SMS-Play. & Pica. or that aspects of ethno science in some traditional groups may rival modern societies’ canons of logic and experiment. we focused on a complex. How child development is shaped and directed by these changes. however. We expected there would be gender differences in schooling. political. Yet participation in modernity is seldom total and usually a matter of degree. However. none of this is to deny that speciﬁc niches may spur the emergence of specialized cognitive skills (as with spatial ability in apparently adaptive response to a near-featureless environment. we have the example of the erstwhile College All-Star football game. mathematical operations over simple number systems (Dehaene. and can be a source of very undesirable side effects (Bodley. mothers talk more to their children. as they develop. location. modern societies do not lift all children (Huston et al. Izard. 1999. large-scale social process and its relation to cognitive development and child behavior. such changes tend to be piecemeal and the pace and pervasiveness of change can vary immensely across cultures. Societal modernization appears to contribute to the intellectual changes described by Flynn (1987. in turn. & Childs. Kagitcibasi ¸ (1995. Moreover. 2003. helps prepare young children for school entry. analysis of this process evokes another pressing issue in relation to psychological development: globalization (Cole. adjustments in cognitive activity associated with modernization register in a range of human activities. 2002). 1982). 2008). These changes are not only temporal. surely carry notes of efﬁciency and advancement over some prior state—reading and writing over only spoken language. 1991). they are also evident at the same point in time when cultures are compared on dimensions of modernization. In the present study. but technological skills and scientiﬁc knowledge. and other apparent advantages. despite formal education. In addition. Of course. Rather. for example. it brings with it a complexity that tends to enhance cognitive functioning. Berry. As such. including factors speciﬁc to the time. many of which result . which were increasingly better organized and more skilled. LeVine. that is. Kagitcibasi. We do not claim that modernization implies progress. Kaufman & ¸ Rizzini. 1988). Spelke. high technology. She found that middle-class practices and values have many of the same effects in Turkey as they do in the United States. we did not ﬁnd such differences. both for individuals and communities. Modernity. is part of a world system of change that involves increased understanding and sometimes manipulation of the natural and physical world. however. even explosives over hurled objects. 1966). it is not modernization per se that explains the differences reported here. In sports. including the everyday transactions that mature cultural members have with one another and in formal and informal socialization efforts directed toward children. 2006. and history of the cultural community undergoing change. and changes in the communicative environment have signiﬁcant impact on children’s everyday lives (Chawla. 2002). such as youth leaving village communities for long or indeﬁnite periods of time to attend school and to ﬁnd work in urban areas. Finally. Moreover. the effect size was small. these practices also may introduce behaviors that are less welcome. 1998. or levels of exact knowledge (Ascher. there remain profound questions that cannot now be answered deﬁnitively. 2006). 2002. rather than ‘‘free-standing individual characteristics’’ within populations. in short. 1995. Greenﬁeld. At another level. and avoid mistakes made by those earlier expert players (Ross. motorization over movement on foot. with girls working more than boys—a pattern that replicates the consistent crosscultural ﬁnding that girls work more than boys (Whiting & Edwards. 2004. at least cognitive functioning as conceptualized and assessed in Western science. which. Kaufman & Rizzini. measurable over time. 2003). this research is consistent with Rogoff and Angelillo’s (2002) call for cross-cultural research that focuses on patterns and regularities in cultural processes and practices.1640 Gauvain and Munroe of the 19th century. Although modernization was associated with child work. the psychological and developmental processes and consequences associated with societal modernization are complex and intertwined with many factors. This gender difference was evident in three of the four communities and the direction was the same in all cases. Increased urbanization. a popular annual event (1930s–1970s) that was eventually terminated when collegiate stars could no longer play competitively against the championship professional teams.
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