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Kalen Braman, Rhys Ulerich

Predictive Engineering and Computational Science

Motivation DNS’ role in the turbulence model validation cycle

PECOS calibration and validation requirements: Prior on Parameters

Parameters become Priors
• UQ-driven approach requires significant amounts of calibration and validation data
• To succeed at QoI prediction, turbulence modeling effort needs high quality data for effective Parameters
calibration Process Validation

Impact of turbulent boundary layer physics on reentry problem QoI:

Math Model
• Turbulence enhances transport of heat and chemical species to thermal protection system surface Data from DNS
Experimental QoI QoI
data experimental
Data from DNS
• Location of turbulence onset significantly affects total heat load data

• Uncertainty in transition location causes large uncertainties in reentry problem QoI

• Injection of ablation products at surface can trigger or enhance turbulence in the boundary Inadequate Data Decision Invalid Model

layer [Par84]
• Enhanced diffusion due to turbulence carries radiation absorbing products away from the surface,
which reduces gas absorption of radiation, and thus increases radiation reaching the ablator Too Much
Not invalid

surface [MOSS05]

• DNS aids calibration and validation efforts by augmenting experimental data

Goals • DNS provides data with measurement uncertainties only limited by available compute resources
• DNS samples portions of the turbulence parameter space not explored in physical laboratories
• DNS supports turbulence model improvement efforts by being the highest fidelity “model”
• Support PECOS calibration and validation process
• Advance understanding of ablation product/turbulent boundary layer interaction
• Improve understanding of turbulence transition phenomena for transpired compressible flows,
especially characterization of what ablative conditions may sustain turbulence

Spectral code details Finite volume code details

Existing code base: • Compressible extension of a finite volume DNS code

• Legacy compressible DNS code using spectral methods in two homogeneous directions • MPI-based exhibiting favorable scalability
• Uses B-splines in the wall normal direction for their flexibility and resolution properties [KMJ01] • Formulated with approximately energy conserving convective terms to capture turbulent energy
• Reduces computational domain via compressible slow growth terms [Spa88] [Gua98] dynamics
• Proven transpired boundary layer capabilities [VMN08] • Uses hyperviscosity shock capturing method of Cook and Cabot [CC04]
• Temporal discretization done with explicit, low storage third-order Runge-Kutta [SMR91] • Suitable for problems on non-periodic domains
• Originally designed to simulate compressible shear flows without strong shocks • Able to handle wall blowing and jets (models for ablation product injection and reaction thruster
firing, respectively)
Near term plans: • Currently undergoing verification effort for compressible wall-bounded flows
• Increase scenario parameters capabilities (e.g. boundary conditions) to aid use as VV data source
• Improve scalability by incorporating petascale FFT techniques [Pek08]
• Update code base to comply with PECOS software standards
Density gradient growth in a M∞ = 2.5 boundary layer

Turbulent kinetic energy in a transpiration-driven channel [VMN08]

6 20
(a) (b)
4 10


0 δ
Simulated density gradient for a perfect gas flow over an adiabatic plate: M∞ = 2.5, T∞ = 273K.
0 0.1 0.2 0 0.1 0.2 Figure courtesy of Heeseok Koo.
y/δ y/δ
Terms in the turbulent kinetic energy equation for the (a) transpiration-driven and (b) non-transpired
channel, normalized by the average production of turbulent kinetic energy. Transpired data taken References
40 half channel widths (δ ) downstream from a closed channel head with  = 0.025.

Convection of turbulent kinetic energy ( ), production ( ), turbulent diffusion ( ), pressure

[CC04] Andrew Cook and William Cabot.
diffusion ( ), pressure dilatation ( ), viscous diffusion (  ), dissipation ( ♦ ), contribution from
A high-wavenumber viscosity for high-resolution numerical methods.
slow growth terms (×), compressibility terms due to Favre averaging (∗).
Journal of Computational Physics, 195:594–601, 2004.
Obtained from the Reynolds stress tensor’s time evolution, the turbulent kinetic energy equation is [Gua98] S. Guarini.
1 ∂ρu00i u00i 1 ∂ 1 ∂ ∂ Direct Numerical Simulation of Supersonic Turbulent Boundary Layers.
=− ũ2ρu00i u00i − 00 00 00 00 00
ρui ui u2 − ρui u2 ũi PhD thesis, Stanford University, 1998.
2 ∂t |2 ∂x2 {z } |2 ∂x2 {z } | {z∂x2 }
convection of turbulent diffusion production [KMJ01] Wai Y. Kwok, Robert D. Moser, and Javier Jiménez.
turbulent kinetic energy A critical evaluation of the resolution properties of b-spline and compact finite difference
∂ui ∂u0i 1 ∂ρu1 00 00 1 00 00 0 ∂ρ ∂u1 ∂ρ0 0
∂u1 methods.
− ρu1u00i + −  ui ui − ui ui u1 +ρ 0 + u1 +ρ Journal of Computational Physics, 174(2):510–551, December 2001.
∂xs ∂xs 2 ∂xs 2 ∂xs ∂xs ∂xs ∂xs
[MOSS05] Shingo Matsuyama, Naofumi Ohnishi, Akihiro Sasoh, and Keisuke Sawada.
| {z }
contribution from slow growth terms
00 0 u00 00 Numerical simulation of galileo probe entry flowfield with radiation and ablation.
∂p0u002 ∂u i 1 ∂τ i2 i 1 0 ∂u i 00 ∂p 00 ∂p 1 00 ∂τ i2
− + p 0 + − τik − u1 − u2 + ui . Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer, 19:28–35, 2005.
{z2} | {z∂x}i |Re {z
∂x2 } |Re {z∂xk} | ∂xs ∂x
{z2 Re ∂x2} [Par84] Chul Park.
pressure pressure viscous dissipation compressibility terms
diffusion dilation diffusion due to Favre averaging Injection-induced turbulence in stagnation point boundary layers.
The parameter  is the ratio of mass injection flux to the streamwise mass flux. The model problem is AIAA Journal, 36:219–225, 1984.
constructed so that  = 1/x. Additional assumptions are required to model the slow derivatives used [Pek08] Dmitry Pekurovsky.
in this study’s homogenized equations. Parallel Three-Dimensional Fast Fourier Transforms (P3DFFT).
San Diego Supercomputer Center, 2008.
[SMR91] Philippe R. Spalart, Robert D. Moser, and Michael M. Rogers.
Spectral methods for the navier-stokes equations with one infinite and two periodic
J. Comput. Phys., 96(2):297–324, 1991.
[Spa88] Philippe R. Spalart.
Direct simulation of a turbulent boundary layer up to re = 1410.
Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 187:61–98, 1988.
[VMN08] Prem Venugopal, Robert D. Moser, and Fady M. Najjar.
Direct numerical simulation of turbulence in injection-driven plane channel flows.
Physics of Fluids, 20(10), 2008.

Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences (ICES),