PENGENALAN KEPADA OSILOSKOP Osiloskop adalah alat asas untuk mengkaji berbagai jenis bentuk gelombang .

Ia boleh digunakan untuk mengukur kuantiti seperti voltan puncak , frekuensi , beza fasa , lebar denyut,masa lengah , masa naik dan masa jatuh . Terdapat berbagai jenis osiloskop daripada alatan asas yang mudah kepada alatan boleh aturcara yang canggih dengan bacaan digit . Walau bagaimanapun,prinsip dan ciri-ciri asasnya tetap sama KEGUNAAN OSILOSKOP * Pengukuran Voltan Puncak-ke-puncak ✔ Amplitud puncak ke puncak bentuk gelombang yang terpapar pada osiloskop bolehdiukur dengan mudah . ✔ Pastikan bahawa tombol vernier pusat pada kawalan VOLT/DIV pada kedudukan tentukur (CAL) sebelum mengukur amplitud bentuk gelombang . Vpp = (jumlah bahagian p ke p ) x ( volt/div ) ✔ Voltan Puncak , Vp = Vpp / 2

* Penentuan Frekuensi ✔ Tempoh ialah masa yang dilalui oleh satu kitar gelombang . Tempoh masa T boleh ditentukan dengan mengukur masa bagi satu kitar mengikut bahagian mendatar dan mendarab nilai tersebut dengan nilai time/div yang disetkan pada osiloskop . T = ( jumlah bahagian mendatar/kitar ) ( time/div ) - Frekuensi dikira sebagai songsangan tempoh masa , T .

* Pengukuran Arus ✔ Osiloskop merupakan alatan bergalangan masukan tinggi . Oleh itu , ia tidak boleh digunakan secara langsung untuk mengukur arus . ✔ Arus diukur melalui jatuhan voltan pada satu perintang .

* Satu titik terbentuk di seluruh skrin dan kecerahannya ditentukan oleh banyaknya electron yang terkena pada lapisan fosfor . * Alur elektron terpesong pada arah menegak dan mengufuk oleh voltan yang dikenakan pada plat memesong . * Paksi-x dipesong dengan satu kadar malar yang dirujuk kepada masa ( time/div ) . elektron terjana oleh katod yang dipanaskan dibentukkan kepada alur halus dan dipecutkan ke arah skrin pendarflour . * Pengukuran Fasa * Pengukuran Denyut OPERASI OSILOSKOP * Alur elektron bergerak dan menghentam lapisan fosfor di skrin .R. BINAAN OSILOSKOP . PRINSIP KENDALIAN * Osiloskop terdiri daripada tabung sinar katod (C. * Skrin tersebut mengeluarkan cahaya pada tempat yang terkena elektron . * Paksi-y dipesong sebagai sambutan kepada masukan yang diberkan ( volt/div ).✔ Untuk tujuan itu .) dan litar-litar kawalan dan masukan yang berkaitan . * Dalam tabung sinar katod . * Alur elektron dipesong pada paksi-x dan paksi-y untuk mempamerkan bentuk 2 dimensi pada skrin . perlu berhati-hati dengan sambungan osiloskop kepada perintang kerana salah satu hujung perintang perlu berada pada keupayaan bumi kecuali jika penguat masukan kebezaan digunakan .T.

ALAT-ALAT KAWALAN PADA OSILOSKOP Litar Tegak * Volt/div .Jika skala Volt/div hendak digunakan ianya mesti dipusingkan ke kedudukan CAL .GND . membumikan isyarat supaya garis sifar dapat ditentukan di skrin . * Pembolehubah .DC . . memberikan gambaran isyarat ulang-alik . skala dinaikkan dan sebaliknya . sekiranya tidak dilakukan nilai yang ditunjukkan bukanlah nilai yang sebenar . .AC .Memberikan skala yang tertentu pada gambaran isyarat di paksi-Y . .membolehkan isyarat dinaikkan dan diturunkan di skrin . * Position . * AC-GND-DC . Litar Mendatar * Time/div . * INV .Kalau isyarat terlalu besar . memberikan isyarat terus .Menyongsangkan isyarat .

. ' external ' dan ' line ' . * SYNC ( Penyegerakan ) .Boleh disambungkan kepada ' internal '.Selalu digunakan dalam keadaan biasa ( normal ) .Penguat datar menguatkan isyarat tadi sebelum dihantar ke plat pesongan datar pada CRT * Litar Picu .memberikan skala masa isyarat dari kiri ke kanan skrin osiloskop . * Bekalan Kuasa . * Intensity .Membolehkan isyarat dibawa ke kiri atau ke kanan skrin osiloskop . isyarat diambil dari talian atau frekuensi kuasa a.menjana gelombang mata gergaji yang diperlukan oleh plat pesongan datar jika mod ' Time ' digunakan ( asas masa ) .. . Skrin * Focus . isyarat diambil dari luar ( perlu masukan pada punca EXT TRIGGER ) .INT .Memfokuskan paparan kepada garisan yang lebih halus . . * Trigger Level ( aras picuan ) .EXT .Membekalkan voltan tinggi kepada CRT . Litar Picu * Trigger Source .Mengawal pergerakan antara isyarat mata gergaji dan isyarat masukan yang diberikan pada litar tegak .Kedudukan TV digunakan jika bentuk gelombang adalah kompleks . .Membekalkan voltan kendalian kepada lain-lain litar .LINE .u. isyarat diambil dari dalam ( salah satu bentuk gelombang atau isyarat masukan ) . . * Position .Memastikan pesongan tegak dan datar bermula pada masa yang sama .skala hanya boleh digunakan jika pembolehubah di bahagian tengah berada pada kedudukan CAL .

Untuk mendapatkan semula paparan yang teranjak keluar dari skrin .Mengawal kecerahan paparan .. . * Power On/Off .Menghidup atau mematikan osiloskop . * Beam Finder .

A benefit of graphically showing signals is that an oscilloscope will show what is actually happening. .MULTICHANNEL OCILOSCOPE All TiePie engineering measuring instruments can be used as a USB oscilloscope. plotted against time (Yt) or against another signal voltage (XY). An oscilloscope is an instrument to display signal voltages. The precise shape of the signal and time relations in the signal or between signals can be seen.

An instrument toolbar is created for each detected instrument. Choose which instrument settings may be changed by auto setup in Settings->Instruments->Auto setup. Auto setup button The Auto setup button can be used to let the software quickly change several instrument settings. in many different areas. When the CTRL key is pressed while starting the auto setup. An important application of the oscilloscope is to troubleshoot circuits that do not function properly. When the measurement is running. Both actions can also be executed by hotkey S. It shows the current settings of the instrument and allows to change all settings. It can be used start a single shot measurement (hotkey O). the instrument will stay in auto setup mode.WHEN TO USE THE OSCILOSCOPE A scope has many applications. Use it by clicking the button or pressing its hotkey Q (quick auto setup). The instrument toolbar is fully configurable through the program settings. the instrument toolbar contains the following items: Start/Stop button • • The Start button is used to start continuous measurements. This can be used to track changing signals. it will change into a Stop button to stop the running measurement. the One shot button is enabled. to acquire stable measurements. One shot button When no measurement is running. Another possible application is using the labscope as signal monitor when adjusting a circuit under test. USING THE INSTRUMENTS TOOLBAR In the default setup. .

and streaming mode. a hovering readout displays the current setting. Switching the measure mode requires the instrument to be stopped measuring. By using the serial numbers as the instrument ID. . Right clicking it shows a popup menu with predefined settings and a user defined setting. Time out + Trigger source When using an instrument that supports triggering. which is a unique number in your measuring instrument. By default. Settings can be adjusted through popup menus by clicking on the text labels. the trigger timeout and trigger source of the measuring instrument are also shown. Dragging it up and down adjusts the knob. Settings can be adjusted through popup menus by clicking on the text labels. it is clear which of the instruments you are controlling. no pre samples are used and it is set to 0%. Record length + Sample frequency + Resolution In this item. Instrument identification This item displays the instrument name as well as its serial number. record length and the resolution is shown.Measure mode button The measure mode button can be used to switch between block. Presamples knob The pre samples turning knob controls the pre and post samples ratio. information concerning the current sample frequency. Clicking the instrument ID will show a popup menu with all instrument settings.

. Clicking the readout shows a popup menu with available sample frequencies. each subsequent click on one of these buttons will double or halve the sample frequency. When a user defined sample frequency was selected. Increase/decrease sampling frequency Two buttons are available to increase or decrease the sample frequency: • • Decrease the sample frequency one step (hotkey F3).Other controls that can be placed on the instrument toolbar are: Sample frequency The sample frequency readout shows the current sampling frequency. The steps that are taken are the sample frequencies that are available in the sample frequency menu of the instrument. Increase the sample frequency one step (hotkey F4).

. each subsequent click on one of these buttons will double or half the record length. Clicking the readout shows a popup menu with available record lengths. Clicking the readout shows a popup menu with available resolutions. Increase the record length one step (hotkey F12). Resolution The resolution readout shows the current resolution.Record length The record length readout shows the current record length. When a user defined record length was selected. The steps that are taken are the resolutions that are available in the resolution menu of the instrument. The steps that are taken are the record lengths that are available in the record length menu of the instrument. Increase the resolution one step. Increase/decrease record length Two buttons are available to increase or decrease the record length: • • Decrease the record length one step (hotkey F11). Increase/decrease resolution Two buttons are available to increase or decrease the resolution: • • Decrease the resolution one step.

5% (hotkey SHIFT + →) Oscilloscope time/div The oscilloscope time/div readout shows the current time/div setting as if the instrument is used as oscilloscope. Increase the time/div one step. Increase/decrease oscilloscope time/div Two buttons are available to increase or decrease the oscilloscope time/div: • • Decrease the time/div one step. Increase the time/div one step. The steps that are taken are the time/div settings that are available in the time/div menu. the record . This gives a total measuring time.Increase/decrease pre trigger percentage Two buttons are available to increase or decrease the pre trigger percentage: • • Decrease the pre trigger percentage with 2. Increase/decrease oscilloscope time resolution Two buttons are available to increase or decrease the oscilloscope time resolution: • • Decrease the time resolution one step.5% (hotkey SHIFT + ←) Increase the pre trigger percentage with 2. An oscilloscope measurement has a record length and a sample frequency. With each subsequent click on one of these buttons. Clicking the readout shows a popup menu with available time/div settings.

Graph dimensions can be adjusted to any required size. where each graph can display different parts of a signal. Predefined trigger time out settings Three buttons are available to set the trigger time out: • • • Set the trigger time out to zero (hotkey 0) Set the trigger time out to 1 second (hotkey 1) Set the trigger time out to infinite (hotkey w) OSCILLOSCOPE GRAPH The oscilloscope can have one or more graphs. Cursors are available to make on screen measurements. as well as a t=0 line to indicate the trigger moment. The total measuring time remains equal. Colors of all items in a graph can be set to any required value. Text labels can be placed to mark interesting parts of the signal(s). which can be located anywhere on the desktop. Graphs can display the signal(s) in Yt mode or in XY mode. . with or without interpolation.length and sample frequency are respectively halved or doubled. each displaying one or more signals. graphs can be located in one single window or in separate windows. Signals can be given descriptive names and a legend is available to simplify identifying the displayed signals. but the time resolution will decrease or increase. Trigger now! Force the instrument to trigger now (hotkey space bar).

A quick function toolbar is available for often used functions. STORAGE OSCILLOSCOPE Storage oscilloscope An instrument that is used to measure fast nonrepetitive signals. unlimited zooming is available in both vertical and horizontal direction. All zoom actions can be undone with an undo zoom function. stores these samples. This can be achieved in two ways: a digital storage oscilloscope samples the incoming signal. . the pattern then modulates the electron beam to give a picture of the captured signal. and displays them. through popup menus and by hotkeys.To reveal all details of the measured signals. It does this by capturing the signal on demand and continuing to display it until reset. other storage oscilloscopes use a special storage cathode-ray tube that retains the image by mapping it as a charge pattern on an electrode behind the screen. OSCILLOSCOPE CONTROL Controlling the oscilloscope is done through customizable toolbars.

An electrical circuit can then be deliberately activated to store and erase the trace on the screen. The electrons from the flood guns are more strongly drawn to the areas of the phosphor screen where the writing gun has left a net positive charge. in this way. small imbalances in the secondary emission ratio cause the entire screen to "fade . each impinging flood gun electron knocks out one secondary electron from the phosphor screen. If the energy of the flood gun electrons is properly balanced. When the ordinary writing electron beam passes a point on the phosphor surface. Eventually. not only does it momentarily cause the phosphor to illuminate. thus preserving the net positive charge in the illuminated areas of the phosphor screen. the image originally written by the writing gun can be maintained for a long time — many seconds to a few minutes. In this way. ideally uniformly. This can leave a net positive charge. The storage is accomplished using the principle of secondary emission. Flood guns cover the entire screen. Storage oscilloscopes then provide one or more secondary electron guns (called the "flood guns") that provide a steady flood of low-energy electrons traveling towards the phosphor screen. they used direct-view storage CRTs. but the kinetic energy of the electron beam knocks other electrons loose from the phosphor surface. Storage allows the trace pattern that normally decays in a fraction of a second to remain on the screen for several minutes or longer. the electrons from the flood guns re-illuminate the phosphor in these positively-charged areas of the phosphor screen.Trace storage is an extra feature available on some analog oscilloscopes.

with storage at the phosphor. were made by Tektronix. ATTACHMENT . (Fading positive or fading negative only occurs when the flood guns are "on". allowing the preservation (albeit invisibly) of the latent stored image for later viewing.positive" (light up) or cause the originally-written trace to "fade negative" (extinguish). incomplete erasure cycles which created the impression of a phosphor with "variable persistence". notably Hughes. Certain oscilloscopes also allowed the partial or complete shutdown of the flood guns. Others permitted a constant series of short. It is these imbalances that limit the ultimate storage time possible. Other companies. Storage oscilloscopes (and large-screen storage CRT displays) of this type. Some oscilloscopes used a strictly binary (on/off) form of storage known as "bistable storage". only leakage of the charges on the phosphor screen degrades the stored image. earlier made storage oscilloscopes with a more-elaborate and costly internal storage structure. with the flood guns off.

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