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Acknowledgement Firstly I thank god for guiding me and making me health for all the time My thanks also

go to my supervisor Mr. Paul Gongo at university of Dar es salaam for his timeless counseling, reading and commenting on my project Lastly I would like to thank all those who participated and provided their support during the time I was conducting my project.

ABSTRACT The point load strength is intended as an index test for strength classification of rock materials. It may also be used to predict other strength parameters with which it is correlated for example uniaxial compressive strength and tensile strength. Rock engineers use the strength parameters to design surface and underground structures. Due to the strength parameters being very important to any rock engineers hence there is a need of training engineers on how to use the point load test machine. Hence the purpose of the study presented herein is to commission the point load test machine at chemical and mining department laboratory and use it to estimate the uniaxial compressive strength of granite from Lugoba and sandstone from kunduchi,


PROJECT TITLE Commissioning of the point load test machine at the chemical and mining and mining engineering department PROBLEM STATEMENT The department of CME bought a point load test machine for determining the rock strength indices. The equipment had not yet been commissioned. This project is aimed at commissioning the point load test machine by conducting point load tests so that it is made available for students laboratory experiments and other research works Project objectives yMain objectives The purpose of this project is to install the point load test machine, prepare the procedures to be used in order to determine the rock strength indexes of a given sample by using the machine and estimate the uniaxial compressive strength values of the samples.

Specific objectives yTo install the machine and make it ready for use yTo study the procedures for determining the rock strength indexes yTo determine the rock strength indexes of rock samples and estimate the uniaxial compressive strength of the rock samples, and compare with values measured by similar commissioned machines elsewhere. yTo prepare laboratory procedures for sample preparation and point load test in the CME department laboratory

METHODOLOGY i. Literature survey on point load test. Literature review is done by reading books, papers and manuals from different Sources regarding on how to carryout point load test of different rock samples. ii. Preparation of the equipment This include assembling, organizing and arranging all the apparatuses Necessary for carrying out the point load test of rock samples. iii. Sample collection. It involves going to the sites, and collecting the samples necessary for Carrying out the experiment iv. Processing the sample and analysis. The experiment is conducted, the data obtained are recorded, and the results obtained are discussed and analyzed and possible solutions are suggested.

v .Plan for data collection I will go to collect Samples from y Lugoba granite y Kunduchi sandstone vi. Consultation Consultation with my project supervisor and other University Lecturers from The Department of Chemical and Mining Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering and Laboratory Technicians, my fellow students, And other experts were done to accomplish my project. vi. Project writing and submission The project is going to be written based on how the project was conducted and the findings obtained from it.

LITERATURE RIVEW The UCS is undoubtedly the geotechnical property that is most often used in rock engineering practice. It is widely understood as an index which gives a first approximation of the range of issues that are likely to be encountered in a variety of engineering problems including roof support, pillar design, and excavation technique (Hoek, 1977). The UCS is not a property that is intrinsic to a particular rock, however. Numerous researchers have shown that the measured UCS can be affected by a variety of environmental factors, including age and moisture content Rock engineers widely use the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) of rocks in designing surface and underground structures. The procedure for measuring this rock strength has been standardized by both the International Society for Rock Mechanics and American Society for Testing and Materials. The method is time consuming and expensive. Indirect tests such as Point Load Index (Is(50)) are used to predict the UCS. These tests are easier to carry out because they necessitate less or no sample preparation and the testing equipment is less sophisticated. Also, they can be used easily in the field. Index to strength conversion factors have been proposed by a number of researchers and have been found to be rock dependent

The point load test has been reported as an indirect measure of the compressive or tensile strength of the rock. DAndrea et al. performed uniaxial compression and the point load tests on a variety of rocks. They found the following linear regression model to correlate the UCS and Is (50) . qu = 16.3 + 15.3 Is(50) Where qu = Uniaxial Compressive Strength of rock. Is (50) =Point Load Index for 50 mm diameter core. Broch and Franklin reported that for 50 mm diameter cores the uniaxial compressive strength is approximately equal to 24 times the point load index. They also developed a size correction chart so that core of various Diameters could be used for strength determination. UCS = 24 Is (50)

Bieniawski suggested the following approximate relation between UCS, Is and the core diameter (D). UCS = (14 + 0.175 D) Is(50) Pells showed that the index-to-strength conversion factor of 24 can lead to 20 % error in the prediction of compressive strength for rocks such as Dolerite, Norite and Pyroxenite. According to ISRM commission on Standardization of Laboratory and Field Test Report the compressive strength is 20-25 times Is. However, it is also reported that in tests on many different rock types the range varied between 15 and 50, especially for anisotropic rocks. So errors up to 100 % should be expected if an arbitrary ratio value is chosen to predict compressive strength from point load tests. Hassani et al. performed the point load test on large specimens and revised the size correlation chart commonly used to reference point load values from cores with differing diameters to the standard size of 50 mm. With this new correction, they found the ratio of UCS to Is(50) to be approximately 29. Brook emphasized the possible sources of error when using the point load test, and proposed an analytical method of Size Correction to a chosen standard size. The formula containing the Size Correction Factor , f, is: Is(50) = f. F/ De2 Where f=(De/50)0.45 And F = Applied Load. De = Equivalent Core Diameter. f = Size Correction Factor.

The dependence of the UCS versus Is (50) correlation on rock types was demonstrated by Cargill and Shakoor. They found the following correlation equation: qu = 13 + 23 Is(50) Chau and Wong proposed a simple analytical formula for the calculation of the UCS based on corrected Is to a specimen diameter of 50 mm Is(50). The index-tostrength conversion factor (k) relating UCS to Is(50) was reported to depend on the compressive to tensile strength ratio, the Poisson s ratio, the length and the diameter of the rock specimen. Their theoretical prediction for k=14.9 was reasonably close to the experimental observation k = 12.5 for Hong Kong rocks. Rusnak and Mark reported the following relations for different rocks: For coal measure rocks: qu= 23.62 Is(50) 2.69 For other rocks: qu= 8.41 Is(50) + 9.51 Fener et al reported the following relation between Point load index and UCS: qu= 9.08 Is + 39.32 Hence analytical method for determining standard equivalent diameter point load strength Is (50) of the rock sample from samples of different size diameter is given by:Is(50) = f. F/ De2

Where f= (De/50)0.4 F = Applied Load. De = Equivalent Core Diameter. f = Size Correction Factor.